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immunocytochemistry of the placentas of giraffe (giraffa cameleopardalis giraffa) and okapi (okapi johnstoni): comparison with other ruminants.the trophoblast binucleate cell [bnc] is central to the structure and function of all ruminant placentas so far investigated. the giraffidae are considered to form a separate family within the ruminant suborder.201525465705
quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract.quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. the majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. when compared to other ruminants, th ...201627593556
complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group a giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the artiodactyla.group a rotaviruses (rva) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. in 2008, we described the first rva strain detected in a giraffe calf (rva/giraffe-wt/irl/girrv/2008/g10p[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. molecular characterisation of the vp7 and vp4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes g10 and p[11], respectively. to further investigate the origin of this giraffe rva strain, the 9 remaining gene segme ...201424582453
effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central kenya.in african savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in east africa are often treated with acaricides. while acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. it is also not known how well tick populati ...201324147412
ovarian and placental morphology and endocrine functions in the pregnant giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).gross, histological and immunocytochemical examinations carried out on maternal and fetal reproductive tissues from two pregnant giraffes at an estimated 8 and 13.5 months of gestation (term=15 months) revealed a typically ruminant macrocotyledonary placenta with binucleate trophoblast cells scattered sparsely in the placentome where they stained intensely with a prolactin antiserum. binucleate cells were present in greater numbers in the intercotyledonary allantochorion where they did not stain ...201323550169
behavioural inventory of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. in order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (hwange ...201223173954
subependymal glioneuronal hamartoma in the mesencephalic aqueduct of a giraffe.a 1-day-old male giraffe calf (giraffa camelopardalis) was submitted for necropsy examination after sustaining postnatal head trauma from the cow. in addition to the expected findings of severe cerebral edema and epidural and subarachnoid hemorrhage, there also was present an incidental finding of a subependymal glioneuronal aqueductal hamartoma. reports of this type of congenital lesion are rare in the human literature, and the lesion has not, to the authors' knowledge, previously been reported ...201223082530
comparative molecular cytogenetics in cetartiodactyla.cetartiodactyla comprises artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises). artiodactyla is a large taxon represented by about 200 living species ranked in 10 families. cetacea are classified into 13 families with almost 80 species. many publications concerning karyotypic relationships in cetartiodactyla have been published in previous decades. formerly, the karyotypes of closely related species were compared by chromosome banding. introduction of molecular cytogen ...201222627059
trypanosome diversity in wildlife species from the serengeti and luangwa valley ecosystems.the importance of wildlife as reservoirs of african trypanosomes pathogenic to man and livestock is well recognised. while new species of trypanosomes and their variants have been identified in tsetse populations, our knowledge of trypanosome species that are circulating in wildlife populations and their genetic diversity is limited.201223094115
serum chemistry comparisons between captive and free-ranging giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be related to zoo nutrition and management issues. serum samples were collected from 20 captive giraffes at 10 united states institutions. thirteen of the c ...201122946367
sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe giraffa camelopardalis.female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. we conducted a 2-year study of female rothschild's giraffe (g. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female endocrine and behavioral cues influence mating activity. we used non-invasive fecal steroid methods to determine reproductiv ...200616765955
relaxation of an induced defense after exclusion of herbivores: spines on acacia drepanolobium.descriptive and experimental evidence suggests that spine length is an inducible defense, with longer spines being produced by branches experiencing greater levels of herbivory. here we present results from a replicated, controlled herbivore exclusion experiment in which cattle, wildlife (large mammalian herbivores), and megaherbivores (elephants and giraffes) were independently manipulated. experimental wildlife barriers virtually eliminated herbivory on acacia drepanolobium branches at all hei ...199828308271
severe laminitis in multiple zoo species.a 10-year record review from a zoological institution in the western usa identified four cases of severe laminitis resulting in rotation and protrusion of the third phalanx through the sole. laminitis is reported in a masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), a sichuan takin (budorcas taxicolor tibetana), a greater malayan chevrotain (tragulus napu) and a giant eland (taurotragus derbianus). this is the first report of severe laminitis with pedal bone rotation and protrusion in multi ...201424730432
dynamic imbalance analysis and stability control of galloping gait for a passive quadruped robot.some imbalance and balance postures of a passive quadruped robot with a simplified mathematical model are studied. through analyzing the influence of the touchdown angle of the rear leg on the posture of the trunk during the flight phase, the stability criterion is concluded: the closer are the two moments which are the zero time of the pitching angle and the peak time of the center of mass, the better is the stability of the trunk posture during the flight phase. additionally, the validity of t ...201527110095
physical and computational fluid dynamics models for the hemodynamics of the artiodactyl carotid rete.in the mammalian order artiodactyla, the majority of arterial blood entering the intracranial cavity is supplied by a large arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. this vascular structure functionally replaces the internal carotid artery. extensive experimentation has demonstrated that the artiodactyl carotid rete drives one of the most effective selective brain cooling mechanisms among terrestrial vertebrates. less well understood is the impact that the unique morphology of the carotid rete ...201526403501
impact of two types of complete pelleted, wild ungulate feeds and two pelleted feed to hay ratios on the development of urolithogenic compounds in meat goats as a model for giraffes.urolith formation has been documented in giraffes and goats. as research in giraffes poses logistical challenges, 16 buck goats were used as a model. the impact of two commercially available, pelleted feeds used for giraffes, adf-16 and wild herbivore (wh), as well as the impact of alfalfa hay and pellet proportions (20% hay:80% pellets, 80p or 80% hay:20% pellet, 20p) on the formation of urolithogenic precursors in goat urine was accomplished in a 2 × 2 factorial balance study. complete diets c ...201322497558
thorns as induced defenses: experimental evidence.we report evidence from controlled experiments that long straight thorns deter herbivory by browsers. cut branches of three woody species that had their thorns removed suffered significantly greater herbivory by a tethered goat than did paired intact branches. branches on living acacia seyal plants that had their thorns removed suffered significantly greater herbivory by a wild population of free-ranging giraffes than did intact branches on the same plants. these differences in herbivory resulte ...199128313160
migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.in long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.we utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relatin ...201628031792
testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a kenyan wildlife conservancy.the use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. a twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. there are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros ( ...201626893967
a new species of rhipicephalus (acari: ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in kenya.a new tick species belonging to the genus rhipicephalus koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae), namely, rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. the male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male ...201323926765
margaropus wileyi sp. nov. (ixodoidea, ixodidae), a new species of tick from the reticulated giraffe. 19734717634
the brain of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis): surface configuration, encephalization quotient, and analysis of the existing literature.the anatomy of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. in particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. in this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system o ...201728346748
how many species of giraffe are there?in a recent paper in current biology, fennessy and colleagues [1] conclude that there are four species of giraffe and that their numbers are declining in africa. giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are presently classified as one species, with nine subspecies, which are considered 'vulnerable' on the iucn red list [2]. the present consensus of one species divided into nine subspecies has previously been questioned (supplemental information), and fennessy and colleagues [1] provide another viewpoin ...201728222287
histological features of the vomeronasal organ in the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis.the vomeronasal organ (vno) that preferentially detects species-specific substances is diverse among animal species, and its morphological properties seem to reflect the ecological features of animals. this histological study of two female reticulated giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) found that the vno is developed in giraffes. the lateral and medial regions of the vomeronasal lumen were covered with sensory and nonsensory epithelia, respectively. the vomeronasal glands were positive ...201728094892
results of the megaverebrate analgesia survey: giraffe and hippopotamus.results of an online survey posted on the american association of zoo veterinarians listserv examined the patterns of analgesic medication and pain management modalities used for captive giraffe and hippopotami. compiled data included signalment, drugs administered, dosing regimens, subjective efficacy scores, ease of administration, and adverse events. nineteen institutions exhibiting hippopotami ( hippopotamus amphibious ) and pygmy hippopotami (choeropsis liberiensis) and 45 exhibiting giraff ...201628080917
lateralization of splay posture in reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulate).motor laterality is quite often studied in non-human primates, but rarely has been investigated within ungulates. the aim of the study was to use the naturally occurring splay behavior in giraffe as a method to look for the presence of laterality. four male giraffes housed at zoo atlanta were watched for three months, recording their first leg moved to begin the splay posture and the total number of leg movements to achieve a secure stance. all four giraffe significantly moved their left leg fir ...201727864065
interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. this may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. we tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale ...201627495127
non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical activity as a measure of stress in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).numbers of giraffes are declining rapidly in their native habitat. as giraffe research and conservation efforts increase, the demand for more complete measures of the impact of conservation interventions and the effects of captive environments on animal health and welfare have risen. we compared the ability of six different enzyme immunoassays to quantify changes in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fgm) resulting from three sources: adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, transport, and t ...201627756312
giraffe stature and neck elongation: vigilance as an evolutionary mechanism.giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. how these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. the two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. while both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. the extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of i ...201627626454
multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one.traditionally, one giraffe species and up to eleven subspecies have been recognized [1]; however, nine subspecies are commonly accepted [2]. even after a century of research, the distinctness of each giraffe subspecies remains unclear, and the genetic variation across their distribution range has been incompletely explored. recent genetic studies on mtdna have shown reciprocal monophyly of the matrilines among seven of the nine assumed subspecies [3, 4]. moreover, until now, genetic analyses hav ...201627618261
soil correlates and mortality from giraffe skin disease in tanzania.giraffe skin disease (gsd) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of masai giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in tanzania, east africa. we examined soil correlates of prevalence of gsd from 951 giraffe in 14 sites in tanzania, and estimated mortality using 3 yr of longitudinal mark-recapture data from 382 giraffe with and without gsd lesions, in tarangire national park (tnp). spatial variation in gsd prevalence was best explained by soil fertilit ...201627529292
the weight of rothschild giraffe-is it really well known?despite being regularly bred in zoos, giraffes remain a challenge, especially in terms of feeding. assessment of factors influencing growth and weight changes during ontogeny, as well as analysis of weight fluctuations in adult individuals, may become a critical point in captive diet evaluation. knowledge about weight is a crucial husbandry tool; however, such data are rarely acquired. using a unique dataset from regularly weighed rothschild giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) from pra ...201627332702
the occurrence and prevalence of giraffe skin disease in protected areas of northern tanzania.giraffe skin disease (gsd) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of masai giraffe ( giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi). we estimated occurrence and prevalence of gsd in six wildlife conservation areas of tanzania. the disjunct spatial pattern of occurrence implies that environmental factors may influence gsd.201627310168
osteochondrosis in the distal femurs of an adult reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic findings.an adult male reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented for postmortem examination. during radiologic examination of the hindlimbs, osseous cyst-like lesions were detected in both medial femoral condyles. these lesions were subsequently examined macroscopically and histologically. the gross appearance suggested a diagnosis of bilateral osteochondrosis that was confirmed with histopathologic examination. this finding has not previously been reported in giraffes. macros ...201627010303
training giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) for front foot radiographs and hoof care.for a large herd of reticulated giraffes, a mainly operant-based training program was created for front foot radiographs and hoof trims in an effort to diagnose and better manage lameness. behaviors were shaped in a restricted contact set-up, using a positive reinforcement procedure to teach a series of mastered cued behaviors. this training was used to obtain lateral and lateral oblique front foot radiographs for the entire herd. radiographs were diagnostic for multiple possible causes of lamen ...201626991999
a comparison of zoo animal behavior in the presence of familiar and unfamiliar people.as recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [har]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. har formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. this ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "keeper f ...201626960022
effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. this behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feedi ...201626910772
management of omphalophlebitis and umbilical hernia in three neonatal giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).umbilical disorders, including omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, external umbilical abscesses, urachal abscesses, patent urachus, and umbilical hernias, represent a significant challenge to the health and well-being of a neonate. the three neonatal giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in this report were evaluated for umbilical swellings. two developed omphalophlebitis, and one had an uncomplicated umbilical hernia. omphalophlebitis is an inflammation and/or infection of the umbilical vein. giraff ...201526667556
fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the giraffa camelopardalis neck.several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. we incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. we establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slend ...201526587249
analysis of the distal gut bacterial community by 454-pyrosequencing in captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).the objective of this study was to characterize the structure of the fecal bacterial community of five giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) at disney's animal kingdom, fl. fecal genomic dna was extracted and variable regions 1-3 of the 16s rrna gene was pcr-amplified and then sequenced. the mothur software-program was used for sequence processing, diversity analysis, and classification. a total of 181,689 non-chimeric bacterial sequences were obtained, and average number of sequences per sample was ...201626584008
nocturnal behavior in captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis)--a pilot study.captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are known to perform oral and locomotor stereotypies. however, many studies do not consider the behavioral repertoire of these animals during the time when animals are confined to night quarters. at two zoological institutions, a total of six captive giraffes were observed via camera trap technology throughout six diurnal and nocturnal periods to record feeding, ruminating, and stereotypic behaviors. the effect of browse enrichment was assessed on altern ...201626479272
complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain pg-2, a second member of the tentative pestivirus species giraffe.we report the complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain pg-2. the sequence data from this virus showed that pg-2 is closely related to the giraffe pestivirus strain h138. pg-2 and h138 belong to one pestivirus species that should be considered an approved member of the genus pestivirus.201424831142
insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at nogeyama zoological gardens, because the dam had agalactia. six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. however, the cause of the disorder was unclear. the present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. the disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. ...201424758869
buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in botswana.brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in southern africa, particularly in botswana.201222412932
the cervical osteology of okapia johnstoni and giraffa camelopardalis.giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; okapia johnstoni and giraffa camelopardalis. of these taxa, o. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and g. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. we utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. in addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical ver ...201526302156
neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and african elephant (loxodonta africana).although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and african elephant (loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. to this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. after cortical neurons were stained with a modified golgi technique (n = 153), dendritic branching and spine distributions w ...201626104263
the giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate.the tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (map) twice that of other mammals. the kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. we hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (gfr) despite a map double that of other mammals.201526010805
the first description of dominance hierarchy in captive giraffe: not loose and egalitarian, but clear and linear.wild giraffes live in extensive groups in the fission fusion system, maintaining long social distances and loose social bonds. within these groups, resources are widely distributed, agonistic encounters are scarce and the dominance hierarchy was reported in males only, while never deeply analysed. in captivity, the possibility to maintain inter-individual distances is limited and part of the resources is not evenly distributed. consequently, we suggest that agonistic encounters should be more fr ...201525970483
scaling of the appendicular skeleton of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).giraffes have remarkably long and slender limb bones, but it is unknown how they grow with regard to body mass, sex, and neck length. in this study, we measured the length, mediolateral (ml) diameter, craniocaudal (cc) diameter and circumference of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia, and metatarsus in 10 fetuses, 21 females, and 23 males of known body masses. allometric exponents were determined and compared. we found the average bone length increased from 340 ± 50 mm at birth to 700  ...201525503961
the use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).a 22-yr-old bull giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. to better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (mri) system was used to obtain images of these structures. the ...201425314840
the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome.recent studies have shown that wild ruminants are sources of previously undescribed microorganisms, knowledge of which can improve our understanding of the complex microbial interactions in the foregut. here, we investigated the microbial community of seven wild-caught giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis), three of which were fed natural browse and four were fed boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay, and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16s rrna gene diversity using 454 flx high-throughput seq ...201425087453
the neocortex of cetartiodactyls. ii. neuronal morphology of the visual and motor cortices in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the present quantitative study extends our investigation of cetartiodactyls by exploring the neuronal morphology in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) neocortex. here, we investigate giraffe primary visual and motor cortices from perfusion-fixed brains of three subadults stained with a modified rapid golgi technique. neurons (n = 244) were quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system. qualitatively, the giraffe neocortex contained an array of complex spiny neurons that included both "ty ...201525048683
mitochondrial sequences reveal a clear separation between angolan and south african giraffe along a cryptic rift valley.the current taxonomy of the african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is primarily based on pelage pattern and geographic distribution, and nine subspecies are currently recognized. although genetic studies have been conducted, their resolution is low, mainly due to limited sampling. detailed knowledge about the genetic variation and phylogeography of the south african giraffe (g. c. giraffa) and the angolan giraffe (g. c. angolensis) is lacking. we investigate genetic variation among giraffe mat ...201425927851
androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes.the social organization of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a 'roving male' tactic. our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. we found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. this so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated wit ...201323925833
genotypic variations in field isolates of theileria species infecting giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi and giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) in kenya.recently, mortalities among giraffes, attributed to infection with unique species of piroplasms were reported in south africa. although haemoparasites are known to occur in giraffes of kenya, the prevalence, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of these parasites have not been investigated. in this study, blood samples from 13 giraffes in kenya were investigated microscopically and genomic dna extracted. pcr amplicons of the hyper-variable region 4 (v4) of theileria spp. small subunit ribosomal r ...201323792245
morphology of the lingual papillae in the giraffe.we examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) by scanning electron microscopy. the filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of slender and thick conical papillae. the connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was flower-bud-like in shape. the filiform papillae on the lingual body consisted of large conical papillae and the fungiform papillae were round in shape. the connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was rose-like in shape. the fili ...201323614981
scene from above: retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. as the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides panoramic surveillance of the environment. these aspects of the giraffe's ecology and phenotype suggest that vision is of prime importance. using nissl-stained retinal wholemounts and stereological methods, we quantitatively assessed the retinal specializations in the ganglion cell layer of the ...201323595815
successful management of acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).a 2-yr-old male reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) presented with severe midcervical segmental torticollis upon arrival as an incoming shipment. despite initial medical management, the giraffe developed marked neck sensitivity, focal muscle spasms, and decreased cervical range of motion. using operant conditioning to assist patient positioning and tolerance to cervical manipulation, a series of manually applied chiropractic treatments were applied to the affected cervical ve ...201323505724
organization and number of orexinergic neurons in the hypothalamus of two species of cetartiodactyla: a comparison of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena).the present study describes the organization of the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) neurons in the hypothalamus of the giraffe and harbour porpoise--two members of the mammalian order cetartiodactyla which is comprised of the even-toed ungulates and the cetaceans as they share a monophyletic ancestry. diencephalons from two sub-adult male giraffes and two adult male harbour porpoises were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained for orexin-a. the staining revealed that the orexinergic ...201222683547
surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).a 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. an avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle ...201122946420
a comparative assessment of the size of the frontal air sinus in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the current study examines the frontal air sinus of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) cranium with the aim of evaluating previously offered hypotheses as to why they have such an atypically voluminous frontal sinus relative to other artiodactyls. to date, no quantification of the frontal sinus in the adult or developing giraffe has been undertaken or compared to other artiodactyl species. crania from eight species of adult artiodactyls, and giraffes varying in age from newborn to adult, were ...201121542141
embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a rothschild's giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).abstract: a 3-yr-old male rothschild's giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) presented for acute swelling caudomedial to the left parietal horn. following initial diagnostics and supportive treatment, the mass was surgically resected and intralesional chemotherapy was administered. despite treatment, the giraffe's condition worsened and euthanasia was performed. gross necropsy revealed neoplastic invasion and destruction of underlying parietal bone, adjacent horn base, and sinuses, and me ...201021370656
influence of diet transition on serum calcium and phosphorus and fatty acids in zoo giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).in response to new recommendations for feeding giraffe in zoos, giraffe (n = 6) were transitioned from a typical hoofstock diet to diets containing reduced starch, protein, ca and p and added n3 fatty acids. this diet was fed as a 50:50 mix with alfalfa and grass hay. over the next 4 years, serum ca, p, and fatty acids were measured every 6 months (summer and winter). serum ca was not affected by season (p = 0.67) or by diet (p = 0.12). serum p was not affected season (p = 0.14), but was reduced ...201320954252
changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.a combination of low serum calcium (ca), high serum phosphorus (p), and low serum magnesium (mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (taurotragus oryx), nyala (tragelaphus angasii), bongo (tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). these mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable ca ...201020945636
lung volumes in giraffes, giraffa camelopardalis.we have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. we found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of body mass which is significantly less than it is in other mammals (1.1±0.1%). total lung volume is significantly smaller (46.2±5.9 ml kg⁻¹) than in similar sized mammals (75.0±2.1 ml kg⁻¹). the lung volume:bo ...201120837156
from fetus to adult--an allometric analysis of the giraffe vertebral column.as mammalian cervical vertebral count is almost always limited to seven, the vertebral column of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) provides an interesting study on scaling and adaptation to shape in light of these constraints. we have defined and described the growth rates of the lengths, widths, and heights of the vertebrae from fetal through neonatal life to maturity. we found that the disproportionate elongation of the cervical vertebrae is not a fetal process but occurs after birth, and t ...201020700891
postmortem evaluation of left flank laparoscopic access in an adult female giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).there are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. an 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (visiport plus, tyco healthcare uk ltd) without prior abdominal insu ...201020445792
surgical castration of subadult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).surgical castration of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) has not been commonly performed. large domestic animal castration has a significant complication rate that includes postoperative mortality. documentation of castration techniques and complications in large domestic animals occurs regularly. however, literature describing castration experiences with large zoo mammals is sparse. in addition, a suitable anesthetic regimen for surgical castration of giraffe has not been confirmed. open castrat ...200920063827
monodontella giraffae infection in wild-caught southern giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa).postmortem examination of seven wild-caught southern giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) from namibia demonstrated focal discoloration, biliary thickening, and peribiliary fibrosis affecting mainly the left liver lobe. the giraffes were infected with monodontella giraffae, previously associated with lethal infections in captive okapis (okapia johnstoni) and giraffes. contrary to this, all seven giraffes investigated in the present study were clinically healthy. based on these findings, it ...200919901403
ovarian ultrasonography correlated with fecal progestins and estradiol during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).fecal and urinary progestin analyses have shown that giraffes express a short reproductive cycle, averaging 15 days, compared with other large ruminants. however, actual ovarian events have not been correlated with the hormonal pattern. in this study, mature cycling female rothschild giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) were repeatedly examined by transrectal ultrasonography to correlate ovarian function with changes in fecal progestin (fp4 [n(c) = 6]) and estradiol (fe2 [n(c) = 6]) and ...200919587331
colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus ...200919368259
serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins a and e, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis).serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins a and e, and minerals in zoo giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. dietary r ...200919368238
sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female rothschild's giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi).the application of real-time-b-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. this study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of reproductively healthy male and female giraffes. through the use of a restrainer, repeated rectal ultr ...200919297015
extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe.a central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispersal. all extant giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are currently considered to represent a single species classified into multiple subspecies. however, geographic variation in traits such as pelage pattern is clearly evident across the range in sub-saharan africa and abrupt transition zones ...200718154651
tooth wear in captive giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers.captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) mostly do not attain the longevity possible for this species and frequently have problems associated with low energy intake and fat storage mobilization. abnormal tooth wear has been among the causes suggested as an underlying problem. this study utilizes a tooth wear scoring method ("mesowear") primarily used in paleobiology. this scoring method was applied to museum specimens of free-ranging (n=20) and captive (n=41) giraffes. the scoring system allows ...200717939353
distribution and morphology of putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the medulla oblongata of a sub-adult giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis.the current study details the nuclear parcellation and appearance of putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons within the medulla oblongata of a sub-adult giraffe, using immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin. we hypothesized that the unusual phenotype of the giraffe, this being the long neck and potential axonal lengthening of these neurons, may pose specific problems in terms of the efficient functioning of these systems, as several groups of catecholaminergic an ...200717544256
dystocia in a rothschild giraffe leading to a caesarean section.a 9-year-old female rothschild giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), weighing approximately 900 kg, at longleat safari park, wiltshire, uk was presented with dystocia in september 2005. this paper details the surgical and anaesthetic procedures carried out performing a caesarean section to remove a dead male calf and the successful recovery of the giraffe.200717493166
mitochondrial dna variability in giraffa camelopardalis: consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in west and central africa.the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) still survives in four countries of west and central africa. the populations of niger and cameroon are generally assigned to the subspecies peralta, but those of chad and the central african republic are taxonomically problematic, as they are referred to as either peralta, or antiquorum, or congoensis. in this study, a mitochondrial fragment of 1765 nucleotide sites, covering the complete cytochrome b gene, three transfer rnas and a large part of the control ...200717434121
the structure of social relationships among captive female giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).giraffe herds have been characterized as random associations of individuals, but recent evidence suggests giraffe have a more complex social structure. the authors formulated 3 hypotheses designed to evaluate whether a herd of captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) associated randomly or patterned their behavior and proximity in a manner indicative of social relationships. affiliative interaction, proximity, and nearest neighbors for 6 captive female giraffe living in a large outdoor enclosure ...200717324074
mortality of captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) associated with serous fat atrophy: a review of five cases at auckland zoo.five giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) died peracutely within an 8-yr period. the giraffe were maintained in an outside enclosure during the day and moved under shelter at night. all the deaths occurred in winter. all the dead giraffe had serous fat atrophy at postmortem. the giraffe were fed good quantities of browse, together with alfalfa hay and commercial supplements. retrospective analysis of the dietary ingredients showed that the diets were energy deficient. subsequent additional high-ener ...200517323573
evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).fresh fecal samples were collected from seven adult female reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). samples were collected for several weeks before, during, and for a few weeks after gestation. fecal samples were analyzed for progesterone levels by radioimmunoassay. there were significant differences in progesterone levels between pregestational and gestational samples and between gestational and postgestational samples. these results demonstrate that fecal progesterone levels ar ...200617319123
teratoma of the umbilical cord in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).a 12-year-old pregnant female giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) died approximately 2 months prior to her anticipated parturition date. at necropsy, a mass measuring approximately 20 x 36 x 20 cm was observed, attached to the umbilical cord, the latter being otherwise normal in appearance. histologically, the mass contained 3 germinal tissue components with areas of squamous epithelium, respiratory epithelium, primitive neural tissues, glial tissue, peripheral nerve, adipose tissue, car ...200717317797
serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins a and e, and minerals in apparently healthy, free-ranging southern giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffe).this pilot project began establishing a nutritional profile for free-ranging giraffe. the results will be used as a tool to begin assessing the nutritional status of captive giraffe. in october 2004 serum samples were collected opportunistically from seven adult and 17 sub-adult giraffe being anesthetized for different studies. seventeen animals were from double drift game reserve and seven animals were from kariega private game reserve. the serum samples were analyzed for circulating concentrat ...200719360558
energy and fibre intake in a group of captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) offered increasing amounts of browse.we investigated the effect of diet on intake of energy and fibre in a group of three captive adult giraffe by weighing offered diet items and leftovers for 7 days after an adaptation period of 7 days. digestion coefficients were calculated using, as internal marker, the acid detergent lignin content of a faecal sample pooled from subsamples taken during the last 5 days of intake measurement. two lucerne hay-only diets of differing quality (l1, l2) were fed, as well as the regular diet of lucerne ...200516300655
fecal steroid analysis of female giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) reproductive condition and the impact of endocrine status on daily time budgets.gestation and lactation can impose substantial energetic costs on female mammals. we developed a non-invasive means to determine reproductive condition in female giraffe using fecal steroid analysis. giraffe may be especially challenged during their reproductive cycle because of two characteristics: they are impregnated while lactating and they do not breed seasonally. we studied the social behavior and endocrinology of seven female giraffe in a large naturalistic outdoor enclosure in order to c ...200515804514
vertical zonation of browse quality in tree canopies exposed to a size-structured guild of african browsing ungulates.we investigated whether the food quality of tree foliage for african savanna browsers varies across the feeding height range of the guild. this was to address the question of why giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) generally feed at a higher level in the canopy than is accessible to all other browsers. we defined a giraffe browse unit (gbu) as the length of twig corresponding to the average "bite" taken by giraffes from two staple browse plants: acacia nigrescens and boscia albitrunca. we sampled ...200124577699
obstructive urolithiasis in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). 200010737299
arthroscopic surgery in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).an 8-mo-old captive male reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) developed an acute lameness (grade iv/v) of the right forelimb, with swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joint. a traumatic injury was suspected based on clinical, radiographic, and arthroscopic evaluation. several abnormalities were identified arthroscopically, including synovitis, cartilage damage, and an osteochondral fragment. medial collateral ligament damage was also suspected based on radiographic evaluation. ...199910572867
comparison of in vitro tests for evaluation of passive transfer of immunoglobulins in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).serum samples from captive giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) were tested to assess passive transfer of immunoglobulins using in vitro methods developed for domestic ruminants. estimated immunoglobulin levels were compared using five tests (protein electrophoresis, total protein refractometry, zinc sulfate turbidity, glutaraldehyde coagulation, and sodium sulfite turbidity). a linear relationship was observed among total protein, gamma globulin (electrophoretic measurement), and immunoglobulin lev ...199910367649
modified neck muscular system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the muscular and skeletal systems of the long neck were morphologically examined in order to clarify their modification and their functional significance in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). the longissimus, the thoracic and cervical, spinalis and semispinalis, the cranial and caudal head oblique, and the multifidus muscles, and the nuchal ligament were observed at their origin and insertion. the atlas, axis, and the third cervical vertebra were measured and examined. the modified spinous pr ...19979341956
serial tranquilization of a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using xylazine.a 5-yr-old captive-born reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was tranquilized with i.m. xylazine 34 times in a 39-day period to allow nursing by her calf. xylazine administered at approximately 0.16 mg/kg i.m. provided adequate sedation of the dam without detrimental side effects to the dam or the calf. while the dam was sedated, the calf was able to ingest adequate amounts of milk to produce acceptable weight gains until he was consistently eating solid foods.19979279408
sex differences in giraffe foraging behavior at two spatial scales.we test predictions about differences in the foraging behaviors of male and female giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi matchie) that derive from a hypothesis linking sexual size dimorphism to foraging behavior. this body-size hypothesis predicts that males will exhibit specific behaviors that increase their dry-matter intake rate relative to females. foraging behavior was examined at two hierarchical levels corresponding to two spatial and temporal scales, within patches and within ha ...199728307437
chemical immobilisation of giraffe to facilitate short procedures.to describe the chemical immobilisation of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) for short procedures at taronga zoo.19979088507
behavioural sleep in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in a zoological garden.behavioural sleep was assessed for 152 nights in 5 adult, 2 immature and 1 juvenile giraffes at a zoological garden, using continuous time-lapse video recording. sleep occurred while the giraffes were standing (ss) and in recumbency (rs). paradoxical sleep (ps) was recognized by the peculiar positioning of the head on the croup and by phasic events. the 24-h sleep profile had a main bimodal nocturnal sleep period between 20.00 and 07.00 hours, with a trough between 02.00 and 04.00 hours, and sev ...19968795798
differences in the distribution and nature of the interstitial telomeric (ttaggg)n sequences in the chromosomes of the giraffidae, okapai (okapia johnstoni), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis): evidence for ancestral telomeres at the okapi polymorphic rob(5;26) fusion site.intrachromosomal telomeric sequences (ttaggg)n were analyzed in the two members of the family giraffidae, the giraffe and the okapi. the giraffe has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 30, whereas the okapi chromosome number varies from 2n = 46 to 2n = 45 and 2n = 44 due to a "recent" robertsonian fusion event. the interstitial telomeres that we detected in these species are of two types: (1) in the okapi, a long interstitial telomeric element is present at the fusion site of the rob(4;26). the ...19968641137
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency-like syndrome in giraffe.studies were conducted on four giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with diarrhea and three clinically healthy ones. the feces from both healthy and sick animals were examined to determine amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. in the feces of the giraffe with diarrhea a significant decrease of amylase and lipase activity was noted. the trypsin activity remained unchanged. pancreatic exocrine insufficiency-like syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of laboratory investigations and histopathological exa ...19911721936
the structural organization and adrenergic innervation of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the sympathetic innervation of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) carotid arterial system is described in this study using the sucrose-potassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid (spg) method. the brachiocephalic and bicarotid trunks showed a paucity of sympathetic innervation. smooth muscle nests observed in the outer layers of the tunica media in these arteries revealed a rich network of sympathetic nerve fibres. the common carotid artery showed numerous sympathetic nerve fibres particularly in the o ...19911867411
structure and sympathetic innervation of the intracranial arteries in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).fluorescence histochemistry discloses that the carotid rete mirabile in the giraffe has a poor sympathetic innervation. in contrast, the efferent artery of the rete (internal carotid artery) and the cerebral arteries show moderate sympathetic innervation. a certain degree of regional variability was noted in which the rostral arteries (anterior and middle cerebral) receive more sympathetic nerves than the caudal (posterior communicating and basilar) arteries. the sympathetic nerves on the giraff ...19911942073
sympathetic innervation of the hindlimb arterial system in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).we report the distribution of sympathetic nerves in the hindlimb arterial system of the giraffe based on the histochemical demonstration of monoamines by the sucrose-potassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid method. it is noted that the hindlimb arterial system shows regional variations in its sympathetic innervation with regard to the density and the penetration of the nerves into the tunica media not hitherto described. the femoral and popliteal arteries showed a paucity of sympathetic innervation. d ...19911996775
fiber type composition of the plantarflexors of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal stages of development.1. a sample of fibers from deep (close to the bone) and superficial (away from the bone) regions of the plantaris (plt) and medial (mg) and lateral (lg) gastrocnemius muscles of a neonatal, a 17-day-old and an adult giraffe were typed qualitatively as dark or light based on alkaline preincubation myosin atpase staining properties and then sized. 2. each muscle at all ages showed a higher percentage and a larger cross-sectional area (csa) or light atpase fibers in the deep than the superficial re ...19882904346
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