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a 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in belgium.faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. the ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the royal zoological society of antwerp, the antwerp zoo and the animal park planckendael. artiodactylids involved were arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), bongos (tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (trage ...200415710531
outbreak of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among captive asian elephants in a swedish zoo.between 2001 and 2003, there was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a swedish zoo which involved elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses and buffaloes. cultures of trunk lavages were used to detect infected elephants, tuberculin testing was used in the giraffes and buffaloes, and tracheal lavage and tuberculin testing were used in the rhinoceroses. the bacteria isolated were investigated by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. five elephants and one giraffe were found to have been i ...200515736698
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from zimbabwe.one hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
the art and design of genetic screens: mouse.humans are mammals, not bacteria or plants, yeast or nematodes, insects or fish. mice are also mammals, but unlike gorilla and goat, fox and ferret, giraffe and jackal, they are suited perfectly to the laboratory environment and genetic experimentation. in this review, we will summarize the tools, tricks and techniques for executing forward genetic screens in the mouse and argue that this approach is now accessible to most biologists, rather than being the sole domain of large national facilitie ...200515951745
polymorphism of the growth hormone gene of red deer (cervus elaphus).in mammals, pituitary growth hormone (gh) is usually encoded by a single gene, but in some caprine ruminants there are two gh genes, and higher primates have a cluster of at least 5 gh-like genes. we have previously shown that in several artiodactyls (chevrotain, giraffe, and hippopotamus) there are two gh gene sequences, differing by 5-21 nucleotides (nt), but whether these arise from two distinct gene loci is unclear. we report here that in the red deer (cervus elaphus) also there are two main ...200616356499
hypertension and counter-hypertension mechanisms in giraffes.the giraffe is unique as its head is 2500-3000 millimeters above its heart, thus the giraffe's heart must pump hard enough to overcome the huge hydrostatic pressure generated by the tall column of blood in its neck in order to provide its head with sufficient nutrients and oxygen. giraffes therefore have exceptionally high blood pressure (hypertension) by human standards. interestingly, the "unnaturally" high blood pressure in giraffes does not culminate in severe vascular lesions, nor does it l ...200616724937
pestiviruses in wild animals.pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. the most important pestivirus, csfv, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful csfv eradication programmes. mainly bvdv specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since bvdv can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of bvdv isola ...200616839713
fatal herpesvirus encephalitis in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).fatal meningoencephalitis caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was diagnosed in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulate). the giraffe died following a history of stumbling, incoordination, and abdominal pain. gross examination of the brain revealed asymmetric edema and red-brown discoloration, predominantly within the telencephalon. microscopically, there was perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing, multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the cerebrum. necrotic neurons con ...200616966458
the host status of african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, for rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus. to this end the r. (b.) decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern kwazulu-natal province (kzn) nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern kruger national park (knp), mpumalanga province. the r. (b.) decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes w ...200617058441
biologic, antigenic, and full-length genomic characterization of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from a giraffe.coronaviruses (covs) possess large rna genomes and exist as quasispecies, which increases the possibility of adaptive mutations and interspecies transmission. recently, covs were recognized as important pathogens in captive wild ruminants. this is the first report of the isolation and detailed genetic, biologic, and antigenic characterization of a bovine-like cov from a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in a wild-animal park in the united states. cov particles were detected by immune electron mic ...200717344285
genomic expansion of the bov-a2 retroposon relating to phylogeny and breed management.bov-a2 is a retroposon that is widely distributed among the genomes of ruminants (e.g., cow, deer, giraffe, pronghorn, musk deer, and chevrotain). this retroposon is composed of two monomers, called bov-a units, which are joined by a linker sequence. the structure and origin of bov-a2 has been well characterized but a genome-level exploration of this retroposon has not been implemented. in this study we performed an extensive search for bov-a2 using all available genome sequence data on bos taur ...200717436038
flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (struthio camelus) and consequences for the reconstruction of dinosaurs with extreme neck length.the gross morphology and the flexibility along the neck of the ostrich (struthio camelus) were examined using fresh tissue as well as neck skeletons. the results of the morphologic studies were compared with results from observations of living ostriches. the investigation was focused on differences in the morphology and the function between different sections of the neck. additionally, the function of major dorsal neck ligaments was examined, including measurements of force-strain-relations. com ...200717514722
chemical restraint of exotic animals in a disease regulatory program.the african red tick (rhipicephalus evertsi neuman) is widely distributed in africa but had never been identified in north america until september 1960 when it was found in a wild animal compound in florida. the red tick is a vector of cattle fever (piroplasmosis) and several other exotic diseases including the highly fatal east coast fever. the 130 acre compound contained more than 300 african and asian animals, including giraffes, camels, zebras, elands, nilghais, blackbuck, aoudads, ostriches ...196317649416
observations on the giraffe central nervous system related to the corticospinal tract, motor cortex and spinal cord: what difference does a long neck make?the mammalian corticospinal tract is known to contain axons that travel from the cerebral cortex to various levels of the spinal cord and its main function is thought to be the mediation of voluntary movement. the current study describes neuroanatomy related to the corticospinal tract of the giraffe. this animal presents a specific morphology that may present challenges to this neural pathway in terms of the metabolism required for correct functioning and maintenance of potentially very long axo ...200717664045
numerical taxonomy of the genus pestivirus based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5' untranslated region.the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (pns) at the three variable loci (v1, v2 and v3) in the 5' untranslated region (utr) of pestivirus rna have been considered for taxonomical segregation of species, through the evaluation of 430 genomic sequences. on the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, six species have been identified: bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (bvdv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (bvdv-2), classical swine fever virus (csfv), border disease ...200717719098
ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern africa.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern african wild ruminants, namely giraffes, giraffa camelopardalis, african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, and eland, taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. to this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. twenty-eigh ...200717933365
prevalence of antibodies against rift valley fever virus in kenyan wildlife.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arbovirus associated with periodic outbreaks, mostly on the african continent, of febrile disease accompanied by abortion in livestock, and a severe, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in humans. however, the maintenance of the virus during the inter-epidemic period (iep) when there is low or no disease activity detected in livestock or humans has not been determined. this study report prevalence of rvfv-neutralizing antibodies in sera (n=896) collected from 16 keny ...200817988425
predator-prey size relationships in an african large-mammal food web.1. size relationships are central in structuring trophic linkages within food webs, leading to suggestions that the dietary niche of smaller carnivores is nested within that of larger species. however, past analyses have not taken into account the differing selection shown by carnivores for specific size ranges of prey, nor the extent to which the greater carcass mass of larger prey outweighs the greater numerical representation of smaller prey species in the predator diet. furthermore, the top- ...200818177336
retinal cone topography of artiodactyl mammals: influence of body height and habitat.this study addresses the correlation of retinal topography with factors such as the visual environment, life style, and behavior for a major mammalian group, the artiodactyls. to provide a broader basis for semiquantitative comparison, short-wavelength-sensitive (s)- and middle-to-long-wavelength-sensitive (m)-opsin cone receptor populations from 25 species from five artiodactyl families and of the african elephant were labeled and sampled. the resulting topographic maps were analyzed with respe ...200818189305
impacts of large herbivorous mammals on bird diversity and abundance in an african savanna.large native mammals are declining dramatically in abundance across africa, with strong impacts on both plant and animal community dynamics. however, the net effects of this large-scale loss in megafauna are poorly understood because responses by several ecologically important groups have not been assessed. we used a large-scale, replicated exclusion experiment in kenya to investigate the impacts of different guilds of native and domestic large herbivores on the diversity and abundance of birds ...200818288493
rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the mara-serengeti ecosystem.1. rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of african savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. we report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the maasai mara national reserve, kenya. 3. abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with cur ...200818422558
shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web.shifting prey selection has been identified as a mechanism potentially regulating predator-prey interactions, but it may also lead to different outcomes, especially in more complex systems with multiple prey species available. we assessed changing prey selection by lions, the major predator for 12 large herbivore species in south africa's kruger national park. the database was provided by records of found carcasses ascribed to kills by lions assembled over 70 years, coupled with counts of changi ...200818481536
osteophagia provide giraffes with phosphorus and calcium?the daily requirement for calcium and phosphorus by giraffes to sustain the growth and maintenance of their skeletons is large. the source of sufficient calcium is browse. the source of necessary phosphorus is obscure, but it could be osteophagia, a frequently observed behaviour in giraffes. we have assessed whether bone ingested as a result of osteophagia can be digested in the rumen. bone samples from cancellous (cervical vertebrae) and dense bones (metacarpal shaft) were immersed in the rumen ...200818575058
harvey cushing and the regulation of blood pressure in giraffe, rat and man: introducing 'cushing's mechanism'.the fundamental mechanism that underlies essential hypertension is a high total peripheral resistance. we review here possible origins of high total peripheral resistance in physiologically hypertensive giraffes, spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans with essential hypertension. we propose that a common link could be reduced brainstem perfusion, as first suggested by cushing in 1901. any tendency towards reduction of cerebral blood flow to the cardiovascular control centres in rest and slee ...200918820004
bovine-like coronaviruses isolated from four species of captive wild ruminants are homologous to bovine coronaviruses, based on complete genomic sequences.we sequenced and analyzed the full-length genomes of four coronaviruses (covs), each from a distinct wild-ruminant species in ohio: sambar deer (cervus unicolor), a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus), a sable antelope (hippotragus niger), and a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). the fecal samples from the sambar deer, the waterbuck, and the white-tailed deer were collected during winter dysentery outbreaks and sporadic diarrhea cases in 1993 and 1994 (h. tsunemitsu, z. r. el-kanawati, d. ...200818842722
molecular characterisation of a bovine-like rotavirus detected from a giraffe.rotavirus (rv), is a member of the reoviridae family and an important etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in the young. rotaviruses have a wide host range infecting a broad range of animal species, however little is known about rotavirus infection in exotic animals. in this paper we report the first characterisation of a rv strain from a giraffe calf.200819014526
detection of anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the seroprevalence of anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, thomson's gazelle, grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife/livestock interface areas of kenya. serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa), using a recombinant antigen (msp-5) from anaplasma marginale surface membrane. a monoclonal antibody, fc-16, was used as the ...200819040134
equine herpesvirus type 9 in giraffe with encephalitis. 200819046530
karyotype evolution of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting with chinese muntjac (muntiacus reevesi) and human (homo sapiens) paints.considering the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis, gca, 2n = 30) as a primitive species, its comparative genomic data are critical for our understanding of the karyotype evolution of pecorans. here, we have established genome-wide chromosomal homologies between giraffe, chinese muntjac (muntiacus reevesi, mre, 2n = 46) and human (homo sapiens, hsa, 2n = 46) with whole sets of chromosome-specific paints from chinese muntjac and human, in addition to providing a high-resolution g-banding karyotype o ...200819096208
phylogeny, classification and evolutionary insights into pestiviruses.the genus pestivirus comprises four established species: bovine viral diarrhoea viruses 1 (bvdv-1) and 2 (bvdv-2), border disease virus (bdv), and classical swine fever virus (csfv); and a tentative species, pestivirus of giraffe. additional pestiviruses have been identified and suggested for recognition as novel subgroups/species. to achieve a reliable phylogeny as the basis for classification of pestiviruses, a molecular dataset of 56 pestiviruses and 2089 characters, comprising the 5'utr, com ...200919167739
differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species.data from captive animals indicated that browsing (br) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (gr). to answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (mps) in a gr and a br ruminant (aurox bos primigenius taurus, giraffe giraffa camelopardalis) and a gr and a br hindgut fermenter (przewalski's ho ...200819360605
anthelmintic resistant haemonchus contortus in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in florida.a young male giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) recently acquired by the lion country safari in loxahatchee, florida, was diagnosed and successfully treated for haemonchus infection while in quarantine. seven weeks after introduction into a group of resident giraffes, this giraffe presented with diarrhea. fecal evaluation revealed an extremely high count of 16,700 eggs/g, with larval identification of the parasite as haemonchus. a larval development assay showed resistance to the three classes of ...200919368252
identification of novel babesia and theileria species in south african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis, linnaeus, 1758) and roan antelope (hippotragus equinus, desmarest 1804).blood specimens were received from five cases in which young adult giraffe, from different geographic origins in south africa, showed sudden onset of disease and subsequently died. additional specimens from two translocated giraffe, as well as one specimen from a roan antelope, were also included in the study. blood slides from some of these animals showed the presence of piroplasms. dna was extracted; the v4 hypervariable region of the 18s rrna gene amplified and analyzed using the reverse line ...200919410370
gross anatomy of the intestine in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).we describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). the small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. the caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. the ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. the proximal ...200919681830
cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. a total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 artiodactyla, 33 rodentia, 3 perissodactyla, and 2 paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the czech republic was examined. only in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. the partial small subunit rrna sequence obtained from the isolate was iden ...201019685941
uncovering mental representations with markov chain monte carlo.a key challenge for cognitive psychology is the investigation of mental representations, such as object categories, subjective probabilities, choice utilities, and memory traces. in many cases, these representations can be expressed as a non-negative function defined over a set of objects. we present a behavioral method for estimating these functions. our approach uses people as components of a markov chain monte carlo (mcmc) algorithm, a sophisticated sampling method originally developed in sta ...201019703686
large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.1. savanna ecosystems are defined largely by tree-grass mixtures, and tree establishment is a key driver of community structure and ecosystem function in these systems. the factors controlling savanna tree establishment are understudied, but likely involve some combination of seed, microsite and predator/fire limitation. in african savannas, suppression and killing of adult trees by large mammals like elephants (loxodonta africana blumenbach, 1797) and giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis linnaeus, ...201020039982
molecular characterization of blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers.blastocystis is an enteric protist and one of the most frequently reported parasitic infections in humans and a variety of animal hosts. it has also been reported in numerous parasite surveys of animals in zoological gardens and in particular in non-human primate species. pcr-based methods capable of the direct detection of blastocystis in faeces were used to detect blastocystis from various hosts, including non-human primates, australian native fauna, elephants and giraffes, as well as their ke ...201020089360
blocking of pseudomonas aeruginosa and chromobacterium violaceum lectins by diverse mammalian milks.pseudomonas aeruginosa and chromobacterium violaceum morbid and mortal infections are initiated by bacterial adherence to host-cell receptors via their adhesins, including lectins (which also contribute to bacterial biofilm formation). pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a galactophilic lectin, pa-il (leca), and a fucophilic (lewis-specific) lectin, pa-iil (lecb), and c. violaceum produces a fucophilic (h-specific) lectin, cv-iil. the antibiotic resistance of these bacteria prompted the search for g ...201020105519
predicting the buoyancy, equilibrium and potential swimming ability of giraffes by computational analysis.giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) are often stated to be unable to swim, and while few observations supporting this have ever been offered, we sought to test the hypothesis that giraffes exhibited a body shape or density unsuited for locomotion in water. we assessed the floating capability of giraffes by simulating their buoyancy with a three-dimensional mathematical/computational model. a similar model of a horse (equus caballus) was used as a control, and its floating behaviour replicates the ...201020385144
forensic species identification of elephant (elephantidae) and giraffe (giraffidae) tail hair using light microscopy.here we present methods for distinguishing tail hairs of african elephants (loxodonta africana), asian elephants (elephas maximus), and giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) from forensic contexts. such hairs are commonly used to manufacture jewelry artifacts that are often sold illegally in the international wildlife trade. tail hairs from these three species are easily confused macroscopically, and morphological methods for distinguishing african and asian tail hairs have not been published. we us ...201020549391
complete genomic sequence of a border disease virus isolated from pyrenean chamois.this report describes the full-length genome sequence of the pestivirus strain h2121 which was recently isolated from pyrenean chamois and typed as border disease virus (bdv) genotype 4. comparison with full-length genomic sequences of the approved pestivirus species bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (bvdv-1), bvdv-2, bdv, and classical swine fever virus, the tentative species represented by strain giraffe-1, as well as the atypical pestivirus strain th/04_khonkaen confirmed that the chamois pestivi ...201020638945
variations in the thickness and composition of the skin of the giraffe.this study examined the skin of two 1- to 2-year-old male giraffes and one adult male, determining skin thickness and histological structure with reference to it functioning as a component of the features required for the maintenance of blood pressure, dermal armor, or thermoregulation. it has been argued that a tight skin surrounding the extremities of the giraffe aids in the movement of fluid against gravity, hence preventing pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema), but the skin has also bee ...201020648574
the pleural curtain of the camel (camelus dromedarius).the visceral pleura of the camel (camelus dromedarius) possesses a fibrous curtain of pleural threads or extensions along its basal margins, which extends into the pleural cavity of the costophrenic recesses. these threads are lined by mesothelium and have a core or stroma, which is largely collagenous. small threads are avascular and nearly acellular. in larger proximal threads, blood vessels in the stroma are often arranged in a branching network, with irregular endothelia surrounded by severa ...201020652936
mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the alpaca (lama pacos) brainstem and colocalization with cgrp.the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (th) in the brainstem of alpaca (lama pacos) has been analysed using immunohistochemical methods. the following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: a1, c1, a2, c2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; a5, a6d, a7sc and a7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: a8, a9l, a9m, a9v, a9pc, a10, a10c, a10d and a10dc. this nuclear parcellation differs from that found in rodents, but agrees with the results reported in other membe ...201021050884
the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda.to study the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 african buffalos, 21 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major national parks in uganda between 2005 and 2008. serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201021143994
tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. it is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. this knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. the objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding ...201121386971
comparisons of salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. the former observation is relegated to salmonella bearing the sgi1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient salmonella. our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only ...201121481550
species characterization in the genus pestivirus according to palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5'-untranslated region.the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (pns) at the three variable loci (v1, v2 and v3) in the 5'-untranslated region (utr) of the pestivirus genome have been considered for taxonomical segregation of the species, through the evaluation of 534 strains. on the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, species have been identified within the genus, determining genetic distances between species isolates, clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences, and charac ...201121514324
minimizing predation risk in a landscape of multiple predators: effects on the spatial distribution of african ungulates.studies that focus on single predator-prey interactions can be inadequate for understanding antipredator responses in multi-predator systems. yet there is still a general lack of information about the strategies of prey to minimize predation risk from multiple predators at the landscape level. here we examined the distribution of seven african ungulate species in the fenced karongwe game reserve (kgr), south africa, as a function of predation risk from all large carnivore species (lion, leopard, ...201121618919
survey of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface on the zimbabwean side of the great limpopo transfrontier conservation area.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in communal cattle and wildlife at a wildlife-livestock interface in the southeast lowveld of zimbabwe, part of the great limpopo transfrontier conservation area. rbt and c-elisa were used in serial for detection of antibodies against brucella spp. between july 2007 and october 2009, a total of 1,158 cattle were tested and the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 9.9%. a total of 97 wild animals (afr ...201121643664
teasing apart tangrams: testing hippocampal pattern separation with a collaborative referencing paradigm.the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe cortex [medial temporal lobe cortices (mtlc)] both contribute to long-term memory. although their contributions are thought to be dissociable, the nature of the representations that each region supports remains unclear. the complementary learning systems (cls) modeling approach suggests that hippocampus represents overlapping information in a sparser and therefore more separated fashion than mtlc. we tested this prediction using a collaborative refere ...201121830250
Common functional correlates of head-strike behavior in the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and combative artiodactyls.Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics.201121738658
a long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special cases.in order to investigate differences in the relative maximum longevity and other life history parameter between ruminant species, we collated data on mean body mass, maximum longevity, gestation period and newborn mass in wild ruminant and camelid species. among ruminants, giraffids (giraffe giraffa camelopardalis and okapi okapia johnstoni) have particularly high longevities, long gestation periods, and low intrauterine growth rates. a particularly high absolute and relative longevity is also ac ...201122045457
The opportunistic Sarcoptes scabiei: A new episode from giraffe in the drought-suffering Kenya.The ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite is unexplainable emerging and re-emerging parasite, threatening biodiversity and human health. When a new outbreak occurs, it is not clear if it is a genuine emergence resulting from a new incidence or apparent emergence resulting from increased detection. In this paper we report, for the first time to our knowledge, an outbreak of sarcoptic mange in giraffes in the wild. Three decaying carcasses and five free-ranging subadult reticulated giraffes were observed to h ...201122137348
detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in south africa.papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a sable antelope (hippotragus niger). the virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detected bovine papillomavirus (bpv) dna. bovine papillomavirus ...201122135920
pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and african buffalo in south africa.skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. bovine papillomavirus (bvp) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with bvp types 1 and 2. this publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of bpv-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in cape mountain zebra (equus zebra ...201122135923
insights into biomedicine from animal adaptations.evolution represents a natural experimental process for testing animal design features. driven by environmental pressures, animals have evolved adaptations which can give valuable insights into human biomedical conditions. the giraffe by virtue of its extremely long neck has a mean arterial pressure much higher than other mammals. however, the giraffe does not develop vascular damage or heart failure despite its high mean arterial pressure. the giraffe's cardiovascular physiology challenges a nu ...201123733697
the physiology of the giraffe. 20154432061
volvulus of the ileum in a reticulated giraffe. 20123505974
co-infection with anaplasma platys, bartonella henselae and candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian.during a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in grenada and ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in south af ...201323587235
phenotypical and genotypical properties of an arcanobacterium pluranimalium strain isolated from a juvenile giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).the present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an arcanobacterium pluranimalium strain (a. pluranimalium 4868) following necropsy from a juvenile giraffe. the species identity could be confirmed by phenotypical investigations and by maldi-tof ms analysis, by sequencing the 16s rdna, pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap with sequence similarities to a. pluranimalium reference strain dsm 13483(t) of 99 ...201426464930
isolation and characterization of babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).the diversity of babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in cádiz and ciudad real. the number of babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in cádiz and 1/35 in ciudad real. hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candida ...201425155988
distinct and diverse: range-wide phylogeography reveals ancient lineages and high genetic variation in the endangered okapi (okapia johnstoni).the okapi is an endangered, evolutionarily distinctive even-toed ungulate classified within the giraffidae family that is endemic to the democratic republic of congo. the okapi is currently under major anthropogenic threat, yet to date nothing is known about its genetic structure and evolutionary history, information important for conservation management given the species' current plight. the distribution of the okapi, being confined to the congo basin and yet spanning the congo river, also make ...201425007188
where is the game? wild meat products authentication in south africa: a case study.wild animals' meat is extensively consumed in south africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. to test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained dna sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit i and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. the reliability of species assignments were evaluated using blast searches in genbank, maximum likelihood phylog ...201323452350
a comparison of postnatal arterial patterns in a growth series of giraffe (artiodactyla: giraffa camelopardalis).nearly all living artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) possess a derived cranial arterial pattern that is highly distinctive from most other mammals. foremost among a suite of atypical arterial configurations is the functional and anatomical replacement of the internal carotid artery with an extensive, subdural arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. this interdigitating network branches from the maxillary artery and is housed within the cavernous venous sinus. as the cavernous sinus receives c ...201626925324
nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.recent research reveals that giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. in other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. but is this true for giraffes? giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it dif ...201526353836
the cervical anatomy of samotherium, an intermediate-necked giraffid.giraffidae are represented by many extinct species. the only two extant taxa possess diametrically contrasting cervical morphology, as the okapi is short-necked and the giraffe is exceptionally long-necked. samotherium major, known from the late miocene of samos in greece and other eurasian localities, is a key extinct giraffid; it possesses cervical vertebrae that are intermediate in the evolutionary elongation of the neck. we describe detailed anatomical features of the cervicals of s. major, ...201526716010
giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology.the origins of giraffe's imposing stature and associated cardiovascular adaptations are unknown. okapi, which lacks these unique features, is giraffe's closest relative and provides a useful comparison, to identify genetic variation underlying giraffe's long neck and cardiovascular system. the genomes of giraffe and okapi were sequenced, and through comparative analyses genes and pathways were identified that exhibit unique genetic changes and likely contribute to giraffe's unique features. some ...201627187213
the first report of anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel theileria spp. co-infection in a south african giraffe.organisms of the genera anaplasma and theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. in the present study, a 12-month-old male wild south african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from south africa, and living in zhengzhou zoo (located in the urban district of zhengzhou in the provincial capital of henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and die ...201627109775
are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in tanzania during the last five decades.this paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). a comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of tanzania. overall, the majority of disea ...201126591993
ligand-responsive rna mechanical switches.ligand-responsive rna mechanical switches represent a new class of simple switching modules that adopt well-defined ligand-free and bound conformational states, distinguishing them from metabolite-sensing riboswitches. initially discovered in the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of hepatitis c virus (hcv), these rna switch motifs were found in the genome of diverse other viruses. although large variations are seen in sequence and local secondary structure of the switches, their function in vi ...201526158858
emerging pestiviruses infecting domestic and wildlife hosts.until the early 1990 s there were just three recognized species in the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), border disease virus (bdv) and classical swine fever virus (csfv). subsequently bvdv were divided into two different species, bvdv1 and bvdv2 and four additional putative pestivirus species have been identified, based on phylogenetic analysis. the four putative pestivirus specices, listed in chronological order of published reports, are giraffe (isolated from one of severa ...201526050572
numerical taxonomy of the genus pestivirus: new software for genotyping based on the palindromic nucleotide substitutions method.the genus pestivirus from the family flaviviridae is represented by four established species; bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (bvdv-1); bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (bvdv-2); border disease virus (bdv); and classical swine fever virus (csfv); as well a tentative species from a giraffe. the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (pns) in the 5' untranslated region (utr) of pestivirus rna has been described as a new, simple and practical method for genotyping. new software is described, also named pn ...201323684846
whole genome sequence analyses of three african bovine rotaviruses reveal that they emerged through multiple reassortment events between rotaviruses from different mammalian species.animal-to-human interspecies transmission is one of the evolutionary mechanisms driving rotavirus strain diversity in humans. although quite a few studies emanating from africa revealed evidence of bovine-to-human rotavirus interspecies transmission, whole genome data of african bovine rotavirus strains are not yet available. to gain insight into the complete genome constellation of african bovine rotaviruses, the full genomes of three bovine rotavirus strains were extracted from stool samples c ...201222541163
construction of chimeric bovine viral diarrhea viruses containing glycoprotein e rns of heterologous pestiviruses and evaluation of the chimeras as potential marker vaccines against bvdv.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infections are enzootic in the cattle population and continue to cause significant economic losses to the beef and dairy industries worldwide. extent of the damages has stimulated increasing interest in control programs directed at eradicating bvdv infections. use of a bvdv marker vaccine would facilitate eradication efforts as a negatively marked vaccine would enable differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (diva). we describe here the construction ...201222521286
coxiella burnetii dna detected in domestic ruminants and wildlife from portugal.coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of q fever or coxiellosis, a zoonosis mainly affecting domestic ruminants. information on the population structure and epidemiology of c. burnetii in animals is scarce in portugal. evidence of c. burnetti infection was sought in domestic, wild and captive animals based on the detection of bacterial dna. tissue samples from 152 domestic animals (cattle=24, goats=51, sheep=76 and swine=1), 55 wild carnivores (egyptian mongoose=45, red fox=4, common genet= ...201526345258
identification of a novel species of papillomavirus in giraffe lesions using nanopore sequencing.papillomaviridae form a large family of viruses that are known to infect a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. infections usually give rise to minor skin lesions but can in some cases lead to the development of malignant neoplasia. in this study, we identified a novel species of papillomavirus (pv), isolated from warts of four giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis). the sequence of the l1 gene was determined and found to be identical for all isolates. using nanopore s ...201728284619
complete genome sequence of equine herpesvirus type 9.equine herpesvirus type 9 (ehv-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. our previous report indicated that ehv-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. we determined the genome sequ ...201223166237
linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (giraffe came ...201424117416
experimental infection of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with sat-1 and sat-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.the potential role of giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) sat types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. in two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a sat-1 or sat-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-i ...201126353052
[foot-and-mouth disease and its differential diagnoses].foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to the formation of vesicles, erosions und ulcerations in the mouth and hairless parts of the skin, in particular on the feet. due to its dramatic economic consequences, fmd is considered to be one of the most important diseases of animals. there is a permanent risk of introduction of the virus into europe due to travel and illegal importation of agricultural products. cloven-hoofed animals (c ...201222911230
complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group a giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the artiodactyla.group a rotaviruses (rva) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. in 2008, we described the first rva strain detected in a giraffe calf (rva/giraffe-wt/irl/girrv/2008/g10p[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. molecular characterisation of the vp7 and vp4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes g10 and p[11], respectively. to further investigate the origin of this giraffe rva strain, the 9 remaining gene segme ...201424582453
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of salmonella enterica in captive wildlife and exotic animal species in ohio, usa.the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance patterns, phenotypic and genotypic relatedness of salmonella enterica recovered from captive wildlife host species and in the environment in ohio, usa. a total of 319 samples including faecal (n = 225), feed (n = 38) and environmental (n = 56) were collected from 32 different wild and exotic animal species in captivity and their environment in ohio. salmonellae were isolated using conventional culture methods a ...201525388917
protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in south africa.a total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 south african provinces (free state, mpumalanga, and limpopo). the geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for haemaphysalis silacea. from each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the saliva ...201424378080
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in jiangxi province, china.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. in the present study, antibodies to t. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (iha) test in wild animals in a zoo. three of 11 giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. no a ...201728224883
quantifying heterogeneity in host-vector contact: tsetse (glossina swynnertoni and g. pallidipes) host choice in serengeti national park, tanzania.identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. rhodesian human african trypanosomiasis (rhat), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. the disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern africa. such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. the relative importance of different ...201627706167
trypanosome diversity in wildlife species from the serengeti and luangwa valley ecosystems.the importance of wildlife as reservoirs of african trypanosomes pathogenic to man and livestock is well recognised. while new species of trypanosomes and their variants have been identified in tsetse populations, our knowledge of trypanosome species that are circulating in wildlife populations and their genetic diversity is limited.201223094115
impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central kenya.the impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an east african savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. the dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. eight other small mammal species, including arvicanthis sp., mus sp., mastomys sp., dendromus sp., crocidura sp., and, rarely, tatera sp., aethomys sp., and ...199828308070
home range - body mass relations: a field study on african browsing ruminants.home range data were collected concurrently from four syntopic browsing ruminant species in a conserved savanna ecosystem. mean home range areas were: giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) 282 km(2); kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) 21.9 km(2); impala (aepyceros melampus) 5.82 km(2); steenbok (raphicerus campestris) 0.62 km(2). home range area (a hr) scaled on body mass (m) as: a hr=0.024 m (1.38) (r (2)=0.99).199028312570
the fine structure of the urinary bladder epithelium in the hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus cokii and the masai giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi.the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the urinary bladder epithelium are described in the giraffe and the hartebeest. differences between the epithelial cell layers of the urinary bladder are described. cells belonging to different layers show variations in their cell organelles and inclusions. the surface cells contain relatively few fusiform and spherical vesicles.1975171975
uncertain links in host-parasite networks: lessons for parasite transmission in a multi-host system.for many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. we used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in botswana. bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. we used a bayesian hierarchical model to predict the fu ...201728289262
milk composition of free-ranging red hartebeest, giraffe, southern reedbuck and warthog and a phylogenetic comparison of the milk of african artiodactyla.the composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. unique properties of milk composition have been observed. southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. milk compositio ...201727880889
rumen content stratification in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. the feeding ecology, as well as the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), suggest that it is a 'moose-type' ruminant. correspondingly, the giraffe should have an unstratified rumen content and an even rumen papillation patte ...201727593451
molecular cytogenetic insights to the phylogenetic affinities of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and pronghorn (antilocapra americana).five families are traditionally recognized within higher ruminants (pecora): bovidae, moschidae, cervidae, giraffidae and antilocapridae. the phylogenetic relationships of antilocapridae and giraffidae within pecora are, however, uncertain. while numerous fusions (mostly robertsonian) have accumulated in the giraffe's karyotype (giraffa camelopardalis, giraffidae, 2n = 30), that of the pronghorn (antilocapra americana, antilocapridae, 2n = 58) is very similar to the hypothesised pecoran ancestra ...201323896647
retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme cyp26a1 is essential for determining territories of hindbrain and spinal cord in zebrafish.retinoic acid (ra) plays a critical role in neural patterning and organogenesis in the vertebrate embryo. here we characterize a mutant of the zebrafish named giraffe (gir) in which the gene for the ra-degrading enzyme cyp26a1 is mutated. the gir mutant displayed patterning defects in multiple organs including the common cardinal vein, pectoral fin, tail, hindbrain, and spinal cord. analyses of molecular markers suggested that the lateral plate mesoderm is posteriorized in the gir mutant, which ...200515680360
the arteries of brain base in species of the cervid family.the aim of the article was to describe the pattern of main arteries at the encephalon base, their connections, and varieties. this study included 106 specimens of the head and cerebral arteries of the following eight species of the cervid family: reindeer, chital, eld's deer, wapiti, sika deer, fallow deer, pere david's deer or milu, and reeve's or chinese muntjac. the arteries of the animals under study were filled with acetone-dissolved stained vinyl superchloride or stained latex lbs3060. the ...201525399744
evolution of toll-like receptors in the context of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans diversification.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. the recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected tlrs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. through direct sequence comparisons and ...201728209121
quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract.quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. the majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. when compared to other ruminants, th ...201627593556
evaluation of wild herbivore faeces from south africa as a potential source of hydrolytically active microorganisms.this study assessed faecal matter from three indigenous south african herbivores-zebra, giraffe and impala-as a potential source for hydrolytically active aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. herbivore droppings were collected freshly in a local nature reserve in pietermaritzburg, south africa. soil samples adjacent to faecal collection sites and faeces from a domestic herbivore, the nguni cow, were included as controls. hydrolase and dehydrogenase activity in faecal matter and soil sam ...201626900540
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