TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
parturition of the nubian giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis. 194918135681
evolution of the giraffe. 194918153292
[studies on the development of brain of giraffe; giraffa camelopardalis l]. 195213039763
[morphology and position of the pituitary gland of lion and giraffe]. 195413158884
preliminary observations on the circulation in the giraffe. 195513274413
scientific safari; the circulation of the giraffe. 195513256017
[origin and insertion of essential muscles of the foreleg of the massai giraffe, giraffa camelopardis tippelskirchi mtsch. 1898]. 195514376909
some aspects of the cardiovascular system in the giraffe. 195713498403
cardiovascular anatomy of a foetal giraffe. 195713507901
[some structural characteristics of the aorta and pulmonary artery of the giraffe, a mammal with high arterial pressure]. 195813558389
ovaries of some foetal and prepubertal giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis linnaeus). 195813517180
rhipicephalus camelopardalis n.sp. (ixodoidea, ixodidae), a new species of tick from east african giraffes. 195913842517
john hunter's giraffe. 195919310177
circulation of the giraffe. 196013706291
the respiratory dead space of the giraffe. 196014437898
[study on the structure of the giraffe placenta]. 196214467200
[on information on monodontella giraffae yorke and maplestone 1926 (nematoda,ancylostomatidae), a parasite of the biliary tract of giraffes and okapis (mammalia, giraffidae). 2. description of the ova, larvae and adults]. 196314047086
chemical restraint of exotic animals in a disease regulatory program.the african red tick (rhipicephalus evertsi neuman) is widely distributed in africa but had never been identified in north america until september 1960 when it was found in a wild animal compound in florida. the red tick is a vector of cattle fever (piroplasmosis) and several other exotic diseases including the highly fatal east coast fever. the 130 acre compound contained more than 300 african and asian animals, including giraffes, camels, zebras, elands, nilghais, blackbuck, aoudads, ostriches ...196317649416
cardiorespiratory dynamics in the ox and giraffe, with comparative observations on man and other mammals. 19655217272
[on the gallbladder of the giraffe]. 196514333004
blood pressure responses of wild giraffes studied by radio telemetry.blood pressure was telemetered from transducers chronically implanted in the carotid arteries of two adult, wild, male giraffes captured and released near kiboko, kenya. cerebral perfusion pressure ranged from 280/180 mm-hg while the animal was lying with its head on the ground to 125/75 mm-hg when it was standing erect; it varied between these levels during spontaneous activity such as walking, grazing, and running.196617775177
fertile hydatid cysts in the giraffe. 19685749412
m.99-induced recumbency and analgesia in a giraffe. 19685692915
[development and morphology of the brain of giraffidae (okapi and giraffe)]. 19684974924
report on death of a giraffe. 19685689756
blood flow and pressure in the giraffe carotid artery. 19685650478
cerebral hemodynamics in the giraffe. 19695375153
[the facultative bipedy of the giraffe gazelle litocranius walleri sclateri neumann 1899 (mam. bovidae), a contribution to the functional morphology]. 19704920488
cytauxzoonosis in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis (linnaeus, 1758)) in zululand. 19705005092
occurrence of a cattle eyeworm, thelazia gulosa (nematoda: thelaziidae), in an imported giraffe in california and t. lacrymalis in a native horse in maryland. 19715157171
regional variations in the width of the basement membrane of muscle capillaries in man and giraffe. 19714253667
investigations of allerton-type herpes virus infection in east african game animals and cattle.neutralization tests with a strain (ba) of allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of e. african game animals and on cattle sera from tanzania (2001), kenya (792) and uganda (410).buffalo populations throughout e. africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, ela ...19714326248
electrocardiographic and phonocardiographic findings in a reticulated giraffe. 19715571827
mammalian cytogenetics. v. the chromosomes of a female giraffe. 19715163287
the ovary of the giraffe. 19724648137
[fracture of the pedal bone in a giraffe. a casuistic report]. 19724666487
an electrocardiographic study of the giraffe. 19725010966
degenerative myopathy in a giraffe. 19734742074
biometry of the genitalia and the spermatozoa of a male giraffe. 19734803519
nutrition and reproduction of grant's and thomson's gazelles, coke's hartebeest and giraffe in kenya. 19734522381
the ovary of the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis. 19734741696
margaropus wileyi sp. nov. (ixodoidea, ixodidae), a new species of tick from the reticulated giraffe. 19734717634
ovarian progestines in masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). 19744414961
the primary structure of giraffe pancreatic ribonuclease. 19744855009
[incidence of parenchymal cell fragments in the sinoid system, subendothelial and interstitial space of the adrenal cortex in masai giraffes (giraffa camelopardialis trippelskirchii)]. 19744409814
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
on two filarioid worms, setaria labiatopapillosa and pseudofilaria giraffae n. sp., from the east african giraffe.a single, however gravid, female filarioid worm collected from the peritoneal cavity of a giraffe in east africa was identified as setaria labiatopapillosa. further filarioid worms recovered from the subcutaneous tissue and the ligamentum nuchae of the same giraffe were recognized a new species and were described as pseudofilaria giraffae.19751216335
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
the fine structure of the urinary bladder epithelium in the hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus cokii and the masai giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi.the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the urinary bladder epithelium are described in the giraffe and the hartebeest. differences between the epithelial cell layers of the urinary bladder are described. cells belonging to different layers show variations in their cell organelles and inclusions. the surface cells contain relatively few fusiform and spherical vesicles.1975171975
giraffa camelopardalis. 197617748550
carbohydrate in pancreatic ribonucleases.a survey of the presence and compositions of carbohydrate chains attached to pancreatic ribonucleases is given. carbohydrate chains may occur at asparagine residues in asn-x-ser/thr sequences at four exposed sites of the molecule (positions 21, 34, 62 and 76). these sites form part of highly variant sequences in pancreatic ribonucleases with the consequence that the enzymes from very closely related species may differ in the presence or absence of carbohydrate. in a number of ribonucleases asn-x ...19761261555
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
steady-state enzyme kinetics of the pancreatic ribonucleases from five mannalian species.the kinetic parameters km, k+2 and k+2/km of the pancreatic ribonucleases (ec from cow, giraffe, horse, rat and lesser rorqual have been determined, using 2',3'-cyclic cytidine monophosphate and 2',3'-cuclic uridine monophosphate as substrates. no large differences were found between the activities of the five enzymes. the relative differences between the activities of the five enzymes are mainly due to differences in the rates of hydrolysis and not to differences in the affinities for ...19765144
immobilization of giraffes with xylazine and etorphine hydrochloride. 1976977453
the skin of the giraffe.the skin of the giraffe has the same general histological structure as that of other mammals, but there are notable features. the skin is heavily pigmented with the epidermis, pilary canals, and the outer cell layer of the apocrine duct richly melanized. furthermore, melanotic dendritic cells are frequently found in the sebaceous glands, the entire length of the external root sheath, and the secretory tubules of the apocrine glands. the thick skin has a papillary dermis that extends to just bene ...19761267197
[electron miscroscopy studies of the chorion epithelium of giraffe placenta]. 1977611746
[delivery and breeding problems in the cape giraffes of the cologne zoo]. 1978644581
ecological separation among browsing ungulates in tsavo east national park, on food habits and habitat preferences of four browsing herbivores (black rhinoceros, giraffe, gerenuk and lesser kudu) were analyzed to assess niche width for each species and niche overlap between pairs of species. all four species depended heavily on woody plants as food, and overlap in the utilization of different plant types (trees and shrubs, herbs, grasses, etc.) was very great in three of six species paris. when individual plant species were considered, markedly less overlap was app ...197828309736
skin papillomas in an impala (aepyceros melampus) and a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).viral particles, typical of the papovavirus family, were demonstrated by electronmicroscopy in small papillomas found on the feet of an impala (aepyceros melampus) and on the face of a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in kenya. histologically the tissues proved to be typical papillomas. the viral particles measured 38 nm and 40 nm in diameter in all tissue sections from the impala and giraffe respectively.1978211271
dead space and tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals.the ventilation, tidal volume and anatomical dead-space were measured in a living giraffe and compared with similar measurements in a camel, red deer, llama and man. the giraffe had a resting tidal volume of about 3.3 litres with a dead-space/tidal-volume ratio of 0.34. the giraffe breathes slowly, apparently because of the unusually small diameter of its trachea relative to its length, compared with known measurement in other mammals.1978734250
the development of the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis.the reproductive organs of the male giraffe differ little in morphology and histology from those of other ungulates. there is some indication that gonadal hypertrophy occurs in late fetal life. spermatogenesis begins at 3-4 years of age and coincides with a rapid increase of testicular weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. in the fetal testis the main hormone is androsteredione (2.73 microgram/g) but in adult testes testosterone is predominant (less than 10.08 microgram/g) and delta' testoste ...1978621681
nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large mammals.the respiratory air of the giraffe is exhaled at temperatures substantially below body core temperature. as a consequence, the water content of the exhaled air is reduced to levels below that in pulmonary air, resulting in substantial reductions in respiratory water loss. measurements under outdoor conditions showed that at an ambient air temperature of 24 degrees c, the exhaled air was 7 degrees c below body core temperature, and at ambient air temperature of 17 degrees c, the exhaled air was 1 ...1979493753
metabolism of progesterone by placentas from several mammalian species in vitro.20-alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (20-alpha-hsdh) activity and 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone concentration (20-alpha-dhp) reach peak values in the human placenta after vaginal delivery. to determine if these findings are unique to the human, we measured 20-alpha-hsdh activity as well as endogenous progesterone (p) and 20-alpha-dhp concentration in the soluble supernatant fraction of placental tissues obtained from rodents (rat, rabbit, guinea pig), ungulates (horse, zebra, giraffe, cow), and ...1979495682
primary structure of pronghorn pancreatic ribonuclease: close relationship between giraffe and pronghorn.pancreatic ribonuclease from pronghorn (antilocapra americana) was isolated and its amino acid sequence was determined from a tryptic digest of the performic acid-oxidized protein. peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases. only peptides that differed in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox or goat ribonucleases were sequenced. in a most parsimonius tree of pancreatic ribonucleases, pronghorn and giraffe were placed together and these two were placed w ...1979513141
comparative aspects of muscle fibre size and succinic dehydrogenase distribution in the longissimus dorsi muscle of several species of east african mammals.the distribution of succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated in frozen sections of longissimus dorsi muscle taken from several species of east african game animal (giraffe, hartebeest, wildebeest, oryx, gerenuk and dik-dik) as well as local zebu cattle. muscle fibres were classified as red (high succinic dehydrogenase activity), white (low activity) or intermediate. the mean diameter and percentage distribution of each fibre type were noted as well as the overall mean muscle fibre ...1979552778
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
["giraffe women" of the high plateaus of burma]. 19806448562
on pattern formation mechanisms for lepidopteran wing patterns and mammalian coat markings.the patterns on wings of lepidoptera can be generated with a few pattern elements, but no mechanism has been suggested for producing them. i consider two of the basic patterns, namely, central symmetry and dependent patterns. a biochemically plausible model mechanism is proposed for generating major aspects of these patterns, based on a diffusing morphogen that activates a gene or colour-specific enzyme in a threshold manner to generate a stable heterogeneous spatial pattern. the model is applie ...19816117906
prepositional marking of source-goal structure and children's comprehension of english passives.maratsos and abramovitch (1975) argued that the presence of a preposition is the major cue for the passive interpretation of sentences by children. experiment 1 of the present study demonstrates that the semantics of the preposition are more important than the syntactic form-class: in an otherwise passive frame (the giraffe is tickled ... the camel), from elicits as many passive interpretations from preschoolers as the usual by, whereas to elicits primarily active interpretations. the results of ...19817265931
fibre size frequency in the recurrent laryngeal nerves of man and giraffe. 19817023176
subendothelial fibrillar laminae in the carotid arteries of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the endothelium in the carotid arteries of the giraffe lies on an extensive basement membrane complex that has a distinctly fibrillar component. small electron-dense areas occur in the basal portion of the endothelium and normally in apposition to the fibrillar laminae of the basement membrane. these zones are believed here to constitute hemi-desmosomes where endothelial attachment may be most tenacious.19817273109
structural evidence for insertion of collagen fibres to smooth muscle cells in the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).previous anatomical studies have failed to resolve the question relating to whether or not collagen fibers, like elastic fibres, are attached to smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. the current ultrastructural study demonstrates the insertion of collagen fibres to the sarcolemmal dark areas in the smooth muscle cells of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe. it is concluded, therefore, that this morphological linkage between collagen and smooth muscle cells may facilitate transmission ...19817193524
isolation of acholeplasma laidlawii from a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) and a mouflon (ovis musimon). 19827064318
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2 in african wildlife.a total of 3,470 sera, collected between 1963 and 1980 from 45 different species of wildlife in nine african countries, was examined for virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2. antibodies were demonstrated in 20 species including 15 bovidae, two suidae, hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops); 11 of these species had not been previously recorded as sero-positive. although the significance of neutralizi ...19826296471
respiration and metabolism in the giraffe.measurements have been made on respiration of three resting unstressed adult giraffe under normal conditions. tracheal dimensions and body dimensions have also been measured in a large number of giraffe and other mammals. the results indicate that contrary to statements in the literature the giraffe does not have an abnormally large dead space, though the trachea is abnormally long and narrow. the respiratory measurements indicate that the giraffe breathes as predicted by published scaling equat ...19827156526
some uterine parameters in antelopes and a giraffe.uteri of 69 african antelopes and a giraffe were morphologically examined and numbers of caruncles and their rows in each horn were recorded. antelopes of subfamilies taurotraginae, aepycerotinae, antilopinae, and alcelaphinae had about 50 to 100 caruncles arranged in four rows in each uterine horn. hippotraginae had about 100 to 200 caruncles in six to eight rows in each horn, and reduncinae had about 10 to 20 caruncles in two rows in each uterine horn. the giraffe had about 70 caruncles arrang ...198316725864
the bronchial ramification and lobular division of the giraffe lung.the right lung of the giraffe consists of bilobed upper, middle, accessory and lower lobes. the middle and lower lobes are united to form one lobe. the left lung consists of bilobed upper, middle and lower lobes. the middle and lower lobes are adhered.19836660545
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
observations on the structure and innervation of the presumptive carotid sinus area in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the tunica media of the giraffe carotid artery is characterised by a predominantly muscular structure, except for a small area at the origins of the occipital and the vestigal internal carotid arteries. the latter has a preponderantly elastic structure and corresponds in extent to the parts of the carotid arterial wall innervated by a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. sensory nerve terminals, characterised by an abundance of mitochondria, are found in the deeper parts of the adventitia borde ...19836682278
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
diameter of coronary arteries in 36 species of mammalian from mouse to giraffe.systematic quantitative investigations were performed in the coronary arteries of 102 hearts of 36 mammal species with an overall more than tenthousandfold difference of their heart weight. after postmortem coronary angiography with a filling pressure of 100 mm hg x-rays were taken, and the widest diameters of the coronary artery stems were determined. we found a nearly linear correlation between diameter of a standardized coronary artery and virtual diameter of heart, but the increase in diamet ...19846743189
phylogenetical and ontogenetical studies on the molecular weight heterogeneity of bovine serum transferrin.antitransferrin (tf) rabbit serum was highly specific: it reacted with tfs of ruminants, such as european breeds and zebu breeds of cattle, bali cattle, banteng, swamp and river types of water buffalo, anoa, goat, sheep, deer, antelope, camel, and giraffe, but did not react with serum of other non-ruminant species, such as pig, wild boar, hippopotamus, horse, rabbit, rat, chicken, etc. electrophoresis of tf and immunoglobulin g (igg) complexes was carried out using sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyac ...19846529442
dystocia and fatal hyperthermic episode in a giraffe. 19846511615
giant verrucous carcinoma in a 18-year-old male giraffe developed a verrucous lesion, 50 cm in diameter, on a flank. some areas of the lesion were histologically typical of a viral verruca with papillomatosis, prominent hypergranulosis, and inclusion bodies. the bulk of the mass was a well-differentiated verrucous type of squamous cell carcinoma. it may be that the virus of the verruca also caused the verrucous carcinoma.19846703261
listeriosis in angolan giraffes. 19854077652
does gravitational pressure of blood hinder flow to the brain of the giraffe?vascular pressure consists of the sum of two pressures: (a) pressure developed by the pumping of the ventricles against the resistance of vessels, designated as viscous flow pressure, and (b) pressure caused by gravity, traditionally called hydrostatic, better described as gravitational pressure. in a conduit, both of these pressures must be overcome when a liquid is discharged to a higher level of gravitational potential energy. if a liquid is returned to its original level, gravity neither hel ...19862869860
polyarthritis and polyosteomyelitis in a juvenile giraffe. 19863505975
variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen.prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a l ...19863519707
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
antibody to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern africa. in order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in south africa and zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to cchf virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) and by indirect immunofluorescence (if). antibody was fou ...19873101526
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
structural organization of the vertebral artery in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).vertebral arteries in the giraffe were removed and their structural organization was studied with light microscopy. it has been shown that the caudal segment of the vertebral artery extending to the level of the seventh cervical vertebra has a largely elastic structure, while the cranial segment has a muscular structure. the transition of the arterial wall normally occurs between the seventh and fifth cervical vertebral levels, and involves diminution of elastic tissue in the luminal portion of ...19873578841
implications of the placental structure compatibility for interspecies embryo transfer.comparative histological features of the chorionic villi in placental cotyledons of the common eland (taurotragus oryx ) and bongo (boocercus euryceros ) antelopes and okapi (okapia johnstoni ) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis ) were examined. the chorionic villi in both antelope species showed only moderate branching and/or surface corrugation and their cross-sections were polygonal to oval. the close similarity in the structure of cotyledons has been apparently a contributing factor for suc ...198716726356
gravitational cardiovascular adaptation in the giraffe. 19873562614
blood flow uphill and downhill: does a siphon facilitate circulation above the heart?1. despite the continuity of the circulatory system, blood flowing down the veins of the neck does not assist blood flowing up the arteries. because of collapsible veins, gravitational pressure gradients are not matched in arterial and venous sides of circulatory loops above the heart as would be necessary for a siphon to operate. 2. all animals have arterial blood pressures capable of lifting the blood to the head without the assistance from a siphon. in cases of longer vertical distances, such ...19872890463
[fetlock joint flexion as the cause of a labor complication in a giraffe]. 19883053098
haemodynamics of the jugular vein in the giraffe. 19883357547
sympathetic innervation of the cardiovascular system in the giraffe.the extreme blood pressure gradients in the giraffe, produced by gravity and behaviour, present a special challenge to blood flow and vascular capacity regulation, e.g. via sympathetic nerves. we report the distribution of nerves in vascular tissue from giraffe extremities and neck based on immunofluorescence against specific antisera to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, neuropeptide y, neurofilament, and synapsin i. sympathetic innervation of gravitation-dependent arteries in the limbs was restricted ...19883203141
fiber type composition of the plantarflexors of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal stages of development.1. a sample of fibers from deep (close to the bone) and superficial (away from the bone) regions of the plantaris (plt) and medial (mg) and lateral (lg) gastrocnemius muscles of a neonatal, a 17-day-old and an adult giraffe were typed qualitatively as dark or light based on alkaline preincubation myosin atpase staining properties and then sized. 2. each muscle at all ages showed a higher percentage and a larger cross-sectional area (csa) or light atpase fibers in the deep than the superficial re ...19882904346
application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species.a monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. the binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. the order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. the order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea ...19892501365
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