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steady-state enzyme kinetics of the pancreatic ribonucleases from five mannalian species.the kinetic parameters km, k+2 and k+2/km of the pancreatic ribonucleases (ec 3.1.4.22) from cow, giraffe, horse, rat and lesser rorqual have been determined, using 2',3'-cyclic cytidine monophosphate and 2',3'-cuclic uridine monophosphate as substrates. no large differences were found between the activities of the five enzymes. the relative differences between the activities of the five enzymes are mainly due to differences in the rates of hydrolysis and not to differences in the affinities for ...19765144
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
the fine structure of the urinary bladder epithelium in the hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus cokii and the masai giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi.the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the urinary bladder epithelium are described in the giraffe and the hartebeest. differences between the epithelial cell layers of the urinary bladder are described. cells belonging to different layers show variations in their cell organelles and inclusions. the surface cells contain relatively few fusiform and spherical vesicles.1975171975
skin papillomas in an impala (aepyceros melampus) and a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).viral particles, typical of the papovavirus family, were demonstrated by electronmicroscopy in small papillomas found on the feet of an impala (aepyceros melampus) and on the face of a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in kenya. histologically the tissues proved to be typical papillomas. the viral particles measured 38 nm and 40 nm in diameter in all tissue sections from the impala and giraffe respectively.1978211271
nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large mammals.the respiratory air of the giraffe is exhaled at temperatures substantially below body core temperature. as a consequence, the water content of the exhaled air is reduced to levels below that in pulmonary air, resulting in substantial reductions in respiratory water loss. measurements under outdoor conditions showed that at an ambient air temperature of 24 degrees c, the exhaled air was 7 degrees c below body core temperature, and at ambient air temperature of 17 degrees c, the exhaled air was 1 ...1979493753
metabolism of progesterone by placentas from several mammalian species in vitro.20-alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (20-alpha-hsdh) activity and 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone concentration (20-alpha-dhp) reach peak values in the human placenta after vaginal delivery. to determine if these findings are unique to the human, we measured 20-alpha-hsdh activity as well as endogenous progesterone (p) and 20-alpha-dhp concentration in the soluble supernatant fraction of placental tissues obtained from rodents (rat, rabbit, guinea pig), ungulates (horse, zebra, giraffe, cow), and ...1979495682
primary structure of pronghorn pancreatic ribonuclease: close relationship between giraffe and pronghorn.pancreatic ribonuclease from pronghorn (antilocapra americana) was isolated and its amino acid sequence was determined from a tryptic digest of the performic acid-oxidized protein. peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases. only peptides that differed in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox or goat ribonucleases were sequenced. in a most parsimonius tree of pancreatic ribonucleases, pronghorn and giraffe were placed together and these two were placed w ...1979513141
comparative aspects of muscle fibre size and succinic dehydrogenase distribution in the longissimus dorsi muscle of several species of east african mammals.the distribution of succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated in frozen sections of longissimus dorsi muscle taken from several species of east african game animal (giraffe, hartebeest, wildebeest, oryx, gerenuk and dik-dik) as well as local zebu cattle. muscle fibres were classified as red (high succinic dehydrogenase activity), white (low activity) or intermediate. the mean diameter and percentage distribution of each fibre type were noted as well as the overall mean muscle fibre ...1979552778
[electron miscroscopy studies of the chorion epithelium of giraffe placenta]. 1977611746
the development of the reproductive organs of the male giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis.the reproductive organs of the male giraffe differ little in morphology and histology from those of other ungulates. there is some indication that gonadal hypertrophy occurs in late fetal life. spermatogenesis begins at 3-4 years of age and coincides with a rapid increase of testicular weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. in the fetal testis the main hormone is androsteredione (2.73 microgram/g) but in adult testes testosterone is predominant (less than 10.08 microgram/g) and delta' testoste ...1978621681
[delivery and breeding problems in the cape giraffes of the cologne zoo]. 1978644581
dead space and tidal volume of the giraffe compared with some other mammals.the ventilation, tidal volume and anatomical dead-space were measured in a living giraffe and compared with similar measurements in a camel, red deer, llama and man. the giraffe had a resting tidal volume of about 3.3 litres with a dead-space/tidal-volume ratio of 0.34. the giraffe breathes slowly, apparently because of the unusually small diameter of its trachea relative to its length, compared with known measurement in other mammals.1978734250
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
immobilization of giraffes with xylazine and etorphine hydrochloride. 1976977453
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
on two filarioid worms, setaria labiatopapillosa and pseudofilaria giraffae n. sp., from the east african giraffe.a single, however gravid, female filarioid worm collected from the peritoneal cavity of a giraffe in east africa was identified as setaria labiatopapillosa. further filarioid worms recovered from the subcutaneous tissue and the ligamentum nuchae of the same giraffe were recognized a new species and were described as pseudofilaria giraffae.19751216335
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
carbohydrate in pancreatic ribonucleases.a survey of the presence and compositions of carbohydrate chains attached to pancreatic ribonucleases is given. carbohydrate chains may occur at asparagine residues in asn-x-ser/thr sequences at four exposed sites of the molecule (positions 21, 34, 62 and 76). these sites form part of highly variant sequences in pancreatic ribonucleases with the consequence that the enzymes from very closely related species may differ in the presence or absence of carbohydrate. in a number of ribonucleases asn-x ...19761261555
the skin of the giraffe.the skin of the giraffe has the same general histological structure as that of other mammals, but there are notable features. the skin is heavily pigmented with the epidermis, pilary canals, and the outer cell layer of the apocrine duct richly melanized. furthermore, melanotic dendritic cells are frequently found in the sebaceous glands, the entire length of the external root sheath, and the secretory tubules of the apocrine glands. the thick skin has a papillary dermis that extends to just bene ...19761267197
arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and burchell's and hartmann's zebras in the etosha and hardap nature reserves, namibia.a total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 burchell's zebras and 6 hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the etosha national park in the north and the hardap nature reserve in the south of namibia. all the other animals were shot in the etosha national park. a total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. the springbok carried few ticks. the adults of a rhipi ...19921297955
hemodynamics of vascular 'waterfall': is the analogy justified?the concept of 'vascular waterfall' has been used for collapsible vessels in different hemodynamic states which have little similarity to each other from a dynamic standpoint. examples include (a) flow through large systemic veins entering the thorax, (b) flow through microvessels, such as pulmonary, cardiac, hepatic, cerebral, and (c) flow through the jugular vein of the giraffe. the dynamics of freely falling liquids (waterfall) as compared with flow through collapsible blood vessels (in vivo ...19921565893
prevalence of ruminant pestivirus infections in namibia.following several clinical cases of suspected bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd) on three namibian cattle farms, a serological survey was conducted on bovine, ovine, caprine and wild ruminant sera originating from different regions of the country. neutralizing antibodies to bvd virus (bvdv) were detected in 58% of 1,014 cattle sera, 14% of 618 sheep sera and 4.6% of 1,118 goat sera. sera from seven of ten wildlife species were positive with kudu, eland and giraffe having prevalence rates greater than ...19911652725
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency-like syndrome in giraffe.studies were conducted on four giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) with diarrhea and three clinically healthy ones. the feces from both healthy and sick animals were examined to determine amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. in the feces of the giraffe with diarrhea a significant decrease of amylase and lipase activity was noted. the trypsin activity remained unchanged. pancreatic exocrine insufficiency-like syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of laboratory investigations and histopathological exa ...19911721936
human serum sensitivities of trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the luangwa valley, zambia.of 235 trypanozoon stocks isolated from naturally infected hosts in northeastern zambia and tested by the blood incubation infectivity test (biit), 176 came from man, 37 from wild-caught tsetse, 11 from wild animals and 11 from domestic livestock. of those from man, 2 gave unexpected, human-serum-sensitive (hss) reactions on first testing; all 15 stocks from tsetse in the northern area (kampumbu) were strongly serum-resistant (hsr) while 22 other infections, from tsetse in the southern area (kak ...19911800082
the structural organization and adrenergic innervation of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the sympathetic innervation of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) carotid arterial system is described in this study using the sucrose-potassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid (spg) method. the brachiocephalic and bicarotid trunks showed a paucity of sympathetic innervation. smooth muscle nests observed in the outer layers of the tunica media in these arteries revealed a rich network of sympathetic nerve fibres. the common carotid artery showed numerous sympathetic nerve fibres particularly in the o ...19911867411
evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals.with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochrome b gene (approximately 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). the fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochrome b dna and amino acid sequences. the relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons a ...19911901092
"giraffe fetus". 19911917827
structure and sympathetic innervation of the intracranial arteries in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).fluorescence histochemistry discloses that the carotid rete mirabile in the giraffe has a poor sympathetic innervation. in contrast, the efferent artery of the rete (internal carotid artery) and the cerebral arteries show moderate sympathetic innervation. a certain degree of regional variability was noted in which the rostral arteries (anterior and middle cerebral) receive more sympathetic nerves than the caudal (posterior communicating and basilar) arteries. the sympathetic nerves on the giraff ...19911942073
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
sympathetic innervation of the hindlimb arterial system in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).we report the distribution of sympathetic nerves in the hindlimb arterial system of the giraffe based on the histochemical demonstration of monoamines by the sucrose-potassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid method. it is noted that the hindlimb arterial system shows regional variations in its sympathetic innervation with regard to the density and the penetration of the nerves into the tunica media not hitherto described. the femoral and popliteal arteries showed a paucity of sympathetic innervation. d ...19911996775
giraffes, rats and man--what is the importance of the 'structural factor' in normo- and hypertensive states?1. the normal structural adaptation of heart and vessels to regional changes in load or/and tissue demands is surveyed with respect to its importance for cardiovascular function in normotension as well as in physiological (giraffes) and pathophysiological (e.g. human and rat primary hypertension) variants of high pressure states. 2. at the local level it implies an entirely appropriate adjustment of cardiovascular geometric design according to principles inherent in the laplace and poiseuille la ...19912032387
the nutritional contribution to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.evidence that changes in feeding style alter the membrane fatty acid composition of ruminant tissue is presented here by comparing zoo giraffe with the same species from their natural habitat. the membrane changes seen are similar to those used experimentally to make animals susceptible to basic brain protein and encephalomalacia. similar membrane responses have been noted in cattle. use of animal protein and increased nitrogen in cattle feeds would lead to a relative deficiency of essential fat ...19912038456
internal parasites of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from etosha national park, namibia.during three seasonal periods, parasitological samples were collected from six giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the etosha national park, namibia. the helminths recovered included parabronema skrjabini, skrjabinema spp., haemonchus mitchelli and echinococcus sp. larvae; cytauxzoon sp. was the only hematozoan found. the low mean abundances of all helminths which ranged from 18 to 531 may be attributed to the low rainfall of this region or because the giraffe is not a preferred host ...19902388363
development of the giraffe horn and its blood supply.the giraffe horn is an unusual cranial exostosis that lacks clear delineation and categorization as either horn or antler. the distinction between the two is made by contrasting their methods of development and basic composition. this process of development has not been detailed in the giraffe, a factor contributing to the difficulty in distinguishing the classification of these horns. in a chronological series of giraffe horns from prenatal and postnatal animals, we have observed unique morphol ...19902393101
[the sistrunk median cervical cyst operation using a cecal foramen pointer].the cecal foramen pointer was invented for a sistrunk median cervical cyst operation. the instrument consists of three elements, namely: the cecal foramen holder, the giraffe shaped connector and the pointer needle. first of all, the cecal foramen is held by the holder which is reconstructed from hemostatic forceps. the one end of the connector is joined to the holder's handle. then the other end of the connector comes along the patient's chin, in front of the neck. the cyst and mid-portion of t ...19902398862
application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species.a monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. the binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. the order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. the order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea ...19892501365
kappa delta award paper. tissue fluid pressures: from basic research tools to clinical applications.the two basic research tools developed to measure tissue fluid pressure (wick catheter) and osmotic pressure (colloid osmometer) have undergone extensive validation and refinement over the past 20 years. using these techniques, basic science investigations were undertaken of edema in amazon reptiles, pressure-volume relations in animals and plants, adaptive physiology of antarctic penguins and fishes, edema in spawning salmon, tissue fluid balance in humans under normal conditions and during sim ...19892677287
[the immobilization of giraffes].the anatomical and physiological conditions of blood circulation in the giraffe are pointed out. 16 immobilizations in the giraffe of either sex are reported, of which 10 were immobilized according to the following scheme. 1. premedication: 30 mg xylazine 150 mg hyaluronidase 2. 15 minutes later a halter with two long ropes is put on to hold up the animals' heads after they lay down. 3. 20 minutes after premedication the injection of 5.6-6.0 mg etorphine (2.5-2.7 ml immobilon) together with 150 ...19892718168
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy in aged domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species--a light and selected electron microscopic study.lumbar polyradiculopathy, characterized by ballooning myelin sheaths and axonal distortion, was documented in multiple, aged, domestic, laboratory, and exotic mammalian species. animals studied that exhibited this nerve rootlet change included the goat, sheep, pig, white-tailed deer, gerbil, vole, ferret, beaver, hedgehog, chinchilla, north chinese leopard, lion, cheetah, mountain lion, llama, east african eland, uganda giraffe, polar bear, and drill. ultrastructurally, lumbar nerve rootlets fro ...19892766747
does gravitational pressure of blood hinder flow to the brain of the giraffe?vascular pressure consists of the sum of two pressures: (a) pressure developed by the pumping of the ventricles against the resistance of vessels, designated as viscous flow pressure, and (b) pressure caused by gravity, traditionally called hydrostatic, better described as gravitational pressure. in a conduit, both of these pressures must be overcome when a liquid is discharged to a higher level of gravitational potential energy. if a liquid is returned to its original level, gravity neither hel ...19862869860
blood flow uphill and downhill: does a siphon facilitate circulation above the heart?1. despite the continuity of the circulatory system, blood flowing down the veins of the neck does not assist blood flowing up the arteries. because of collapsible veins, gravitational pressure gradients are not matched in arterial and venous sides of circulatory loops above the heart as would be necessary for a siphon to operate. 2. all animals have arterial blood pressures capable of lifting the blood to the head without the assistance from a siphon. in cases of longer vertical distances, such ...19872890463
fiber type composition of the plantarflexors of giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) at different postnatal stages of development.1. a sample of fibers from deep (close to the bone) and superficial (away from the bone) regions of the plantaris (plt) and medial (mg) and lateral (lg) gastrocnemius muscles of a neonatal, a 17-day-old and an adult giraffe were typed qualitatively as dark or light based on alkaline preincubation myosin atpase staining properties and then sized. 2. each muscle at all ages showed a higher percentage and a larger cross-sectional area (csa) or light atpase fibers in the deep than the superficial re ...19882904346
siphon mechanism in collapsible tubes: application to circulation of the giraffe head.controversy exists over the principles involved in determining blood flow to the head of a giraffe, specifically over the role of gravity pressure (pgh) in the collapsible jugular vein in facilitating uphill flow in arteries. this study investigated the pressures within vertically oriented models containing both rigid and collapsible tubes. an inverted u tube was constructed (height = 103 cm) of thick rubber tubing in the ascending limb and collapsible dialysis tubing in the descending limb. wat ...19892916707
[fetlock joint flexion as the cause of a labor complication in a giraffe]. 19883053098
antibody to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern africa. in order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in south africa and zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to cchf virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) and by indirect immunofluorescence (if). antibody was fou ...19873101526
sympathetic innervation of the cardiovascular system in the giraffe.the extreme blood pressure gradients in the giraffe, produced by gravity and behaviour, present a special challenge to blood flow and vascular capacity regulation, e.g. via sympathetic nerves. we report the distribution of nerves in vascular tissue from giraffe extremities and neck based on immunofluorescence against specific antisera to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, neuropeptide y, neurofilament, and synapsin i. sympathetic innervation of gravitation-dependent arteries in the limbs was restricted ...19883203141
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
haemodynamics of the jugular vein in the giraffe. 19883357547
volvulus of the ileum in a reticulated giraffe. 20123505974
polyarthritis and polyosteomyelitis in a juvenile giraffe. 19863505975
variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen.prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a l ...19863519707
gravitational cardiovascular adaptation in the giraffe. 19873562614
structural organization of the vertebral artery in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).vertebral arteries in the giraffe were removed and their structural organization was studied with light microscopy. it has been shown that the caudal segment of the vertebral artery extending to the level of the seventh cervical vertebra has a largely elastic structure, while the cranial segment has a muscular structure. the transition of the arterial wall normally occurs between the seventh and fifth cervical vertebral levels, and involves diminution of elastic tissue in the luminal portion of ...19873578841
haemodynamics: how giraffes prevent oedema. 20073627232
gravitational haemodynamics and oedema prevention in the giraffe.because it is so tall, the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis, provides an important animal model for investigating adaptive mechanisms to orthostatic (gravitational) pressure changes. previous physiological studies of the giraffe have concentrated on arterial blood pressures in the heart and neck. briefly, these investigations revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. another important que ...20073627240
vascular system of the giraffe. 20033657985
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
listeriosis in angolan giraffes. 19854077652
regional variations in the width of the basement membrane of muscle capillaries in man and giraffe. 19714253667
investigations of allerton-type herpes virus infection in east african game animals and cattle.neutralization tests with a strain (ba) of allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of e. african game animals and on cattle sera from tanzania (2001), kenya (792) and uganda (410).buffalo populations throughout e. africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, ela ...19714326248
[incidence of parenchymal cell fragments in the sinoid system, subendothelial and interstitial space of the adrenal cortex in masai giraffes (giraffa camelopardialis trippelskirchii)]. 19744409814
ovarian progestines in masai giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). 19744414961
the physiology of the giraffe. 20154432061
nutrition and reproduction of grant's and thomson's gazelles, coke's hartebeest and giraffe in kenya. 19734522381
the ovary of the giraffe. 19724648137
[fracture of the pedal bone in a giraffe. a casuistic report]. 19724666487
margaropus wileyi sp. nov. (ixodoidea, ixodidae), a new species of tick from the reticulated giraffe. 19734717634
the ovary of the giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis. 19734741696
degenerative myopathy in a giraffe. 19734742074
biometry of the genitalia and the spermatozoa of a male giraffe. 19734803519
the primary structure of giraffe pancreatic ribonuclease. 19744855009
[the facultative bipedy of the giraffe gazelle litocranius walleri sclateri neumann 1899 (mam. bovidae), a contribution to the functional morphology]. 19704920488
[development and morphology of the brain of giraffidae (okapi and giraffe)]. 19684974924
cytauxzoonosis in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis (linnaeus, 1758)) in zululand. 19705005092
an electrocardiographic study of the giraffe. 19725010966
occurrence of a cattle eyeworm, thelazia gulosa (nematoda: thelaziidae), in an imported giraffe in california and t. lacrymalis in a native horse in maryland. 19715157171
mammalian cytogenetics. v. the chromosomes of a female giraffe. 19715163287
cardiorespiratory dynamics in the ox and giraffe, with comparative observations on man and other mammals. 19655217272
cerebral hemodynamics in the giraffe. 19695375153
electrocardiographic and phonocardiographic findings in a reticulated giraffe. 19715571827
blood flow and pressure in the giraffe carotid artery. 19685650478
report on death of a giraffe. 19685689756
m.99-induced recumbency and analgesia in a giraffe. 19685692915
fertile hydatid cysts in the giraffe. 19685749412
on pattern formation mechanisms for lepidopteran wing patterns and mammalian coat markings.the patterns on wings of lepidoptera can be generated with a few pattern elements, but no mechanism has been suggested for producing them. i consider two of the basic patterns, namely, central symmetry and dependent patterns. a biochemically plausible model mechanism is proposed for generating major aspects of these patterns, based on a diffusing morphogen that activates a gene or colour-specific enzyme in a threshold manner to generate a stable heterogeneous spatial pattern. the model is applie ...19816117906
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2 in african wildlife.a total of 3,470 sera, collected between 1963 and 1980 from 45 different species of wildlife in nine african countries, was examined for virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2. antibodies were demonstrated in 20 species including 15 bovidae, two suidae, hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops); 11 of these species had not been previously recorded as sero-positive. although the significance of neutralizi ...19826296471
["giraffe women" of the high plateaus of burma]. 19806448562
dystocia and fatal hyperthermic episode in a giraffe. 19846511615
phylogenetical and ontogenetical studies on the molecular weight heterogeneity of bovine serum transferrin.antitransferrin (tf) rabbit serum was highly specific: it reacted with tfs of ruminants, such as european breeds and zebu breeds of cattle, bali cattle, banteng, swamp and river types of water buffalo, anoa, goat, sheep, deer, antelope, camel, and giraffe, but did not react with serum of other non-ruminant species, such as pig, wild boar, hippopotamus, horse, rabbit, rat, chicken, etc. electrophoresis of tf and immunoglobulin g (igg) complexes was carried out using sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyac ...19846529442
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
the bronchial ramification and lobular division of the giraffe lung.the right lung of the giraffe consists of bilobed upper, middle, accessory and lower lobes. the middle and lower lobes are united to form one lobe. the left lung consists of bilobed upper, middle and lower lobes. the middle and lower lobes are adhered.19836660545
observations on the structure and innervation of the presumptive carotid sinus area in the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).the tunica media of the giraffe carotid artery is characterised by a predominantly muscular structure, except for a small area at the origins of the occipital and the vestigal internal carotid arteries. the latter has a preponderantly elastic structure and corresponds in extent to the parts of the carotid arterial wall innervated by a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. sensory nerve terminals, characterised by an abundance of mitochondria, are found in the deeper parts of the adventitia borde ...19836682278
giant verrucous carcinoma in a giraffe.an 18-year-old male giraffe developed a verrucous lesion, 50 cm in diameter, on a flank. some areas of the lesion were histologically typical of a viral verruca with papillomatosis, prominent hypergranulosis, and inclusion bodies. the bulk of the mass was a well-differentiated verrucous type of squamous cell carcinoma. it may be that the virus of the verruca also caused the verrucous carcinoma.19846703261
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
diameter of coronary arteries in 36 species of mammalian from mouse to giraffe.systematic quantitative investigations were performed in the coronary arteries of 102 hearts of 36 mammal species with an overall more than tenthousandfold difference of their heart weight. after postmortem coronary angiography with a filling pressure of 100 mm hg x-rays were taken, and the widest diameters of the coronary artery stems were determined. we found a nearly linear correlation between diameter of a standardized coronary artery and virtual diameter of heart, but the increase in diamet ...19846743189
fibre size frequency in the recurrent laryngeal nerves of man and giraffe. 19817023176
isolation of acholeplasma laidlawii from a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) and a mouflon (ovis musimon). 19827064318
respiration and metabolism in the giraffe.measurements have been made on respiration of three resting unstressed adult giraffe under normal conditions. tracheal dimensions and body dimensions have also been measured in a large number of giraffe and other mammals. the results indicate that contrary to statements in the literature the giraffe does not have an abnormally large dead space, though the trachea is abnormally long and narrow. the respiratory measurements indicate that the giraffe breathes as predicted by published scaling equat ...19827156526
structural evidence for insertion of collagen fibres to smooth muscle cells in the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis).previous anatomical studies have failed to resolve the question relating to whether or not collagen fibers, like elastic fibres, are attached to smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. the current ultrastructural study demonstrates the insertion of collagen fibres to the sarcolemmal dark areas in the smooth muscle cells of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe. it is concluded, therefore, that this morphological linkage between collagen and smooth muscle cells may facilitate transmission ...19817193524
prepositional marking of source-goal structure and children's comprehension of english passives.maratsos and abramovitch (1975) argued that the presence of a preposition is the major cue for the passive interpretation of sentences by children. experiment 1 of the present study demonstrates that the semantics of the preposition are more important than the syntactic form-class: in an otherwise passive frame (the giraffe is tickled ... the camel), from elicits as many passive interpretations from preschoolers as the usual by, whereas to elicits primarily active interpretations. the results of ...19817265931
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