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bovine virus diarrhea and mucosal disease in free-ranging and captive deer (cervidae) in germany.from 1990 until 1992, 355 blood samples of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (n = 123), red deer (cervus elaphus) (n = 60), fallow deer (dama dama) (n = 87) and other cervid species (n = 85) from three different habitats (n = 180) and 11 wildlife parks or zoos (n = 175) in germany were tested for prevalence of pestivirus antibodies. seventeen samples were seropositive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv); only one animal had antibodies for border disease virus. microneutralization test titers ran ...19958583646
immobilization of rocky mountain elk with telazol and xylazine hydrochloride, and antagonism by yohimbine hydrochloride.ten trapped rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were successfully immobilized with a combination of 500 mg telazol and 60 mg xylazine hydrochloride (hcl) from 9 july to 25 august 1993 in custer state park, south dakota (usa). mean (sd) dosages of 2.5 (0.6) mg/kg telazol and 0.3 (0.1) mg/kg xylazine hcl, respectively, were administered, resulting in a mean (sd) induction time of 4.6 (0.8) min. induction time varied with weight and dosage. respiratory rate (breaths/min) increased following ...19958583649
neither erk nor jnk/sapk map kinase subtypes are essential for histone h3/hmg-14 phosphorylation or c-fos and c-jun induction.the effects of egf, tpa, uv radiation, okadaic acid and anisomycin on erk and jnk/sapk map kinase cascades have been compared with their ability to elicit histone h3/hmg-14 phosphorylation and induce c-fos and c-jun in c3h 10t1/2 cells. egf and uv radiation activate both erks and jnk/sapks but to markedly different extents; egf activates erks more strongly than jnk/sapks, whereas uv radiation activates jnk/sapks much more strongly than erks. anisomycin and okadaic acid activate jnk/sapks but not ...19958586671
simultaneous comparison between transtympanic and extratympanic electrocochleography.electrocochleography (ecog) has become a mainstay in the diagnostic armamentarium used by otolaryngologists and audiologists in the evaluation of patients suffering auditory and vestibular symptoms. controversy exists, however, regarding the relative accuracy of ecog when recorded with a non-invasive external auditory canal (eac) electrode as compared to that recorded using a transtympanic electrode. in an effort to resolve this controversy, 19 healthy volunteers (37 ears) with no history of oto ...19958588643
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
experimental infections of sarcocystis spp. in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four 4-mo-old elk calves (cervus elaphus) obtained from northeastern oregon (usa) each were inoculated orally with 250,000 sporocysts of sarcocystis spp., including s. sybillensis and s. wapiti. three similar elk calves of comparable ages and weights served as uninoculated controls maintained with the inoculated elk during the experimental period between september and december 1993. body weights were evaluated at 0 and 90 days postinoculation (pi); packed cell volumes of whole blood were evaluat ...19958592375
studies on the hypodermosis affecting red deer in central and southern spain.from november 1992 to february 1993, 455 red deer (cervus elaphus) were surveyed in order to estimate the prevalence of warble fly (hypoderma actaeon) larvae under the skin of this ungulate species. material came from montes de toledo, sierra morena, sierra de alcaraz, and sierras de cazorla, segura y las villas natural park (central and southern spain). we observed a prevalence of 92%, with a mean +/- sd intensity of 35.7 +/- 41.3 grubs per parasitized host; there was a maximum of 317 larvae pe ...19958592379
diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging elk using fecal steroid metabolites.we validated fecal metabolite analysis as a noninvasive means of diagnosing pregnancy in uncaptured, free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). during november 1991, we collected blood samples from 21 radiocollared, 1- to 10-year-old female elk in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa), and determined their pregnancy status by radioimmunoassay of serum pregnancy specific protein b and serum progesterone concentrations. from december 1991 through april 1992, we collected three to ...19958592383
[serologic investigations on the occurrence of maedi-visna antibodies in game ruminants].the lentiviruses of small domestic ruminants (maedi-visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) have been shown to be infective for each other. there are only few investigations of virus susceptibility of other species of animals. the aim of our study reported here was to evaluate sera of wild animal species for lentivirus antibodies. 344 sera of capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus and dama dama from a territory with known sheep populations prevalence were tested in the agar gel immunodiffus ...19958593775
effects of season and nutrition on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-i in male red deer.gh and insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i are important components of the growth axis. we undertook to determine how plasma levels of these hormones altered with different seasonal and nutritional states in young male red deer to provide an insight into how the growth axis changes under these conditions. growth rate alters dramatically with season in male red deer, providing an opportunity to sample the same animals at two different growth rates within a short period of time. gh was measured eve ...19968593820
radionuclide uptake by red deer (cervus elaphus) on mountain grazing.forty-two red deer (cervus elaphus) were shot during the 1992 annual cull in glenveagh national park, ireland. samples of rumen, kidney and faeces were removed from each animal. kidney samples were used to estimate flesh radiocaesium (137cs) concentrations and the 95% confidence interval for the mean was 203 +/- 12 bq kg-1. the maximum recorded 137cs concentration in kidney was 367 bq kg-1 (fresh weight). the altitude of the cull, the age and sex of each animal were recorded. neither age nor sex ...19958605580
transcriptional regulation by map kinases.tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate map kinase by a complex mechanism involving the sh2/3 protein grb2, the exchange protein sos, and ras. the gtp-bound ras protein binds to the raf kinase and initiates a protein kinase cascade that leads to map kinase activation. three map kinase kinase kinases have been described--c-raf, c-mos, and mekk--that phosphorylate and activate mek, the map kinase kinase. activated mek phosphorylates and activates map kinase. subsequently, the activated ma ...19958607977
elk-1 can recruit srf to form a ternary complex upon the serum response element.the initial genomic response to serum growth factors is the transcriptional activation of a set of immediate-early genes. serum-induced transcriptional activation of several of these genes involves the formation of a ternary complex that includes the serum response factor (srf), a 62 kda ternary complex factor (tcf) and a serum response element (sre). tcf alone does not bind the sre of the protooncogene c-fos, but requires the prior assembly of the srf-sre binary complex for it to be recruited i ...19968614640
the conserved elk-homeodomain of knotted-1 contains two regions that signal nuclear localization.nuclear localization serves as a regulatory mechanism in the activity of several transcription factors. knotted-1 (kn1) is a homeodomain protein likely to regulate vegetative development in maize. at least twelve genes related to kn1 are known in maize and six in arabidopsis. ectopic expression of the maize, rice and arabidopsis kn1-related genes have been shown to alter cell fate determination. in this paper, we study the nuclear localization capabilities of the kn1 homeodomain and the proximal ...19968616227
signal transduction pathways regulated by mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase kinase induce cell death.mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase (mek) kinase (mekk) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates sequential protein phosphorylation pathways, leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk), including members of the jun kinase (jnk)/stress-activated protein kinase (sapk) family. in swiss 3t3 and ref52 fibroblasts, activated mekk induces cell death involving cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and dna fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. ...19968621725
phosphorylation-dependent formation of a quaternary complex at the c-fos sre.the rapid and transient induction of the human proto-oncogene c-fos in response to a variety of stimuli depends on the serum responses element (sre). in vivo footprinting experiments show that this promoter element is bound by a multicomponent complex including the serum response factor (srf) and a ternary complex factor such as elk-1. srf is thought to recruit a ternary complex factor monomer into an asymmetric complex. in this report, we describe a quaternary complex over the sre which, in add ...19968622654
multiple requirements for shptp2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined shptp2's function in growth factor signaling. overexpression of catalytically inactive shptp2 (ptp2cs) but not catalytically inactive shptp1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase activation and elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (egf) stimulation of 293 cells. an shptp2 mutant with both c-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (ptp2yf) was also without effect; mor ...19968622663
mkk3- and mkk6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway.the p38 mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. the detection of p38 map kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 map kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. to test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated mkk3 and mkk6, two map kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 map kinase. expression of activated mkk3 and mkk6 in cultured cells caused a ...19968622669
leptospira interrogans exposure in free-ranging elk in washington.exposure to one or more serovars of leptospira interrogans was observed in five of six sampled elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) killed in november 1993, from an isolated herd in southwest washington, usa (46 degrees 45'n, 123 degrees 6'w). in april 1994, exposure to l. interrogans serovars was documented in nine of 11 captured cow elk from the same herd. leptospires were not isolated from any of the exposed elk, and 10 of the 11 cows were pregnant. the high seroprevalence is evidence that exposur ...19968627923
seroprevalence of psoroptes sp. mites in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) as determined by kinetic elisa.western blots and a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used to characterize and quantify the prevalence of antibodies to psoroptes sp. mites in elk (cervus elaphus) from nine herds in north america. sera from infested (n = 18) and non-infested (n = 22) elk were used to optimize test methodology and to define cut-off values for negative, suspect, and positive samples. among 357 samples, 35 (9.8%) of the animals were seropositive, 259 (73%) were negative, and 63 (18%) were susp ...19968627936
susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus) to experimental infection with anaplasma marginale and a. ovis.anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from domestic sheep to elk (cervus elaphus) and back to splenectomized sheep. no rickettsemias were detected but serum from three of seven experimentally inoculated elk developed anaplasma spp.-reactive antibody as measured by indirect immunofluorescence (iif) or by the rapid card agglutination and complement fixation assays. three elk were experimentally infected with a. marginale. the rickettsiae were detected in blood of these elk and caused disea ...19968627938
occupational asthma due to deer dander.the literature on allergy to deer is limited. the allergenic component remains to be identified.19968630715
selective interaction of jnk protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors.the jnk protein kinase is a member of the map kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. ten jnk isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. these protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the jnk1, jnk2 and jnk3 genes. the protein kinase activity of these jnk isoforms was measured using the transcription factors atf2, elk-1 and members of the jun family as substrates. treatment of cells with int ...19968654373
structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.a macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (north bohemia, czech republic). as was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. in all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently les ...19968655406
serum copper concentrations and clinical signs in red deer (cervus elaphus) during drought in central victoria. 19968660242
the genes encoding the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinase ligands lerk-1 (eplg1, epl1), lerk-3 (eplg3, epl3), and lerk-4 (eplg4, epl4) are clustered on human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 3.hek and elk are members of the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently, we isolated five cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands to hek and elk. because of the promiscuous nature of their binding, we have termed these proteins ligands of the eph-related kinases or lerks. the lerks can be divided into two subgroups by virtue of their sequence identity, binding properties, and mode of cell membrane attachment. for example, lerk-2 (eplg2, epl2) and lerk-5 (eplg5, epl5) are type 1 tr ...19968660976
the gene encoding lerk-7 (eplg7, epl7), a ligand for the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, maps to human chromosome 5 at band q21 and to mouse chromosome 17.the eph-related receptors are the largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently, we and others have identified seven different, but related, cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands for this family of receptors. one member, lerk-7, is attached to the cell membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage and has been found to be a ligand for the eph-family receptors hek, elk, eck, and rek. using pcr-based screening of human x rodent somatic cell hybrid dnas, we have assigned the gene th ...19968661153
forest planning in an oregon case study: defining the problem and attempting to meet goals with a spatial-analysis techniquefive major management goals were identified for the upper grande ronde river basin on the wallowa-whitman national forest in northeastern oregon: to produce high-quality fish habitat, to maintain elk habitat, to restore and maintain forest conditions within the natural range of viability, and to contribute to community economic stability. from the broad goals, specific goals for stream temperature, habitat effectiveness index (hei), habitat corridors, maintenance of land in late or old seral sta ...19968661622
studies on migration and orientation of elk (alces alces l. mammalia) 19968664839
primary care physicians' use of office resources in the provision of preventive care.to assess (1) the extent to which office resources (eg, chart aids, educational materials, office staff) are used by primary care physicians in the provision of preventive care; (2) the characteristics of physicians associated with this use; and (3) the relationship of office resource use to reported preventive service provision.19968664998
cdna cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal localization of net(epht2), a human eph-related receptor protein-tyrosine kinase gene preferentially expressed in brain.by screening a human fetal brain cdna expression library using a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we have isolated a cdna clone encoding a receptor type protein-tyrosine kinase belonging to the eph family, net (neuronally expressed eph-related tyrosine kinase). net shows 87% homology in nucleotide sequence and 99% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence to rat elk, suggesting that net is the human homologue of elk. the net gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q21-q23 by pcr screening ...19958666391
determinants of dna-binding specificity of ets-domain transcription factors.several mechanisms are employed by members of transcription factor families to achieve sequence-specific dna recognition. in this study, we have investigated how members of the ets-domain transcription factor family achieve such specificity. we have used the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily as an example. erk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulates serum response factor-dependent and autonomous dna binding by the tcfs elk-1 and sap-la. phosphorylated elk-1 and sap-la exhibit specifici ...19968668149
multiple p21ras effector pathways regulate nuclear factor of activated t cells.the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated t cells (nfat) is a major target for p21ras and calcium signalling pathways in the il-2 gene and is induced by p21ras signals acting in synergy with calcium/calcineurin signals. one p21ras effector pathway involves the map kinase erk-2, and we have examined its role in nfat regulation. expression of dominant negative mapkk-1 prevents nfat induction. constitutively active mapkk-1 fully activates erk-2 and the transcription factor elk-1, but do ...19968670897
macrophage function in deer.macrophage inflammatory and immune functions were characterised in red deer (cervus elaphus), for use as a model for natural infection with bovine tuberculosis. highly enriched populations of deer macrophages were obtained from 14 day cultures of plastic-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells. cervine macrophages produced superoxide anion in response to respiratory burst stimuli (serum-opsonised zymosan and phorbol myristic acetate), but nitric oxide production could not be detected under t ...19968677637
oxidized low density lipoprotein inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced binding of nuclear factor-kappab to dna and the subsequent expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta in macrophages.a large body of evidence suggests that oxidized ldl (oxldl) has a role in atherogenesis. one effect is the impact on macrophage function. we have studied the effects of oxldl and oxysterols on the binding of the transcription factors nuclear factor (nf)-kappab and ap-1 to dna. these transcription factors are involved in the regulation of several genes and expressed during activation of macrophages, for example by endotoxin (lps). oxldl did not induce binding of nf-kappab. however, the lps-induce ...19968690807
the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in small island populations: large mammals in the hebrides.conventionally, small populations living on islands are expected to lose genetic variation by drift. fluctuations in population size, combined with polygynous mating systems, are expected to contribute to the process by increasing sampling effects on genetic variation. however, in individually monitored populations of red deer on rum and soay sheep on st. kilda, which experience fluctuations in population size, two processes have been identified which mitigate loss of genetic variation. first, i ...19968693018
regulation of reproductive seasonality in the red deer hind: oestradiol-dependent and -independent influences on the patterns of lh concentrations.the control of reproductive seasonality was studied in farmed adult red deer hinds that had been either ovariectomized or ovariectomized and oestradiol-treated (s.c. implants). the breeding season, delineated by progesterone secretion in intact hind herdmates, was characterized by high (mean 0.6, range 0.1-2.5 ng ml-1 plasma) lh concentrations in ovariectomized oestradiol-treated hinds. in contrast, during the non-breeding season plasma lh concentrations in these animals were significantly lower ...19968699404
[human spongiform encephalopathies. diseases caused by prions].spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are common denominators for a group of diseases, all fatal, which show characteristic neuropathological changes. in man the group includes four diseases: kuru, creutzfeldt-jakob's disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker's disease (gss) and fatal familial insomnia (ffi). in animals it comprises the following six: scrapie (sheep and goats), transmissible mink encephalopathy (mink), chronic wasting disease (mule/elk), exotic ungulate encephalopath ...19968701521
simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western washingtonmodern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. we incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii, psme)-western hemlock (tsuga heterophylla, tshe) forest in we ...19968703108
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. i. residue levels.mandibular fluorine concentrations were determined in 1,425 red deer (cervus elaphus), 240 moose (alces alces), and 424 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) collected in norway from 1990 to 1993 in seven municipalities in which aluminum smelters are located, in eight neighboring municipalities, and in eight reference areas representing background levels. background fluorine concentration was significantly correlated with age in all three species. roe deer had the highest mean background fluorine level ...19968722253
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. ii. fluorosis.mandibles from 1104 red deer (cervus elaphus), 147 moose (alces alces), and 453 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), collected between 1990 and 1993 in the vicinity of seven norwegian aluminum smelters, were examined for dental fluorotic and osteofluorotic lesions. the metacarpal or metatarsal bones from 214 of these cervids also were evaluated. dental fluorotic lesions occurred in all three cervid species. prevalence of dental fluorosis was generally low at the various locations, with the exception ...19968722254
efficacy and safety of naltrexone hydrochloride for antagonizing carfentanil citrate immobilization in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).we evaluated efficacy and safety of naltrexone for antagonizing carfentanil immobilization in 12 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using a randomized incomplete block experiment. in three replicate trials, elk were hand-injected with 10 micrograms carfentanil citrate/kg body weight intramuscularly. fifteen min after each elk became recumbent, we administered naltrexone hcl (25% of dose intravenously, 75% subcutaneously) dosed at 0 (control), 25, 50, or 100 mg/mg carfentanil; af ...19968722260
[the craniometric characteristics of the elk (alces alces l.) of eurasia].comparative craniometric investigation was done on the elk in eurasia. four morphological forms are distinguished, thus favoring the subdivision of alces alces l. into four subspecies: a. a. alces, a. a. cameloides, a. a. pfizenmayeri, and a. a. buturlini.19968723622
protection of balb/c mice against homologous and heterologous species of brucella by rough strain vaccines derived from brucella melitensis and brucella suis biovar 4.to evaluate stable rough mutants derived from brucella melitensis 16m and b suis 2579 (biovar 4) as vaccines against homologous and heterologous brucella spp in the balb/c mouse model. design, animals, and procedure: rough mutants vtrm1 and vtrs1 were obtained from b melitensis 16m and b suis 2579, respectively, by allelic exchange of rfbu gene encoding mannosyltransferase with a tn5-disrupted rfbu gene. mice were vaccinated with vtrm1 or vtrs1 and challenge exposed 8 weeks later.19968723881
integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.a transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (srf) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (tcf), mediates the response of the c-fos serum response element to growth factors and mitogens. in nih3t3 fibroblasts, tcf binding is required for transcriptional activation by the sre in response to activation of the ras-raf-erk pathway. we compared the properties of three members of the tcf family, elk-1, sap-1 and sap-2 (erp/net). although all the proteins contain sequen ...19968735278
calcium influx via the nmda receptor induces immediate early gene transcription by a map kinase/erk-dependent mechanism.the regulation of gene expression by neurotransmitters is likely to play a key role in neuroplasticity both during development and in the adult animal. therefore, it is important to determine the mechanisms of neuronal gene regulation to understand fully the mechanisms of learning, memory, and other long-term adaptive changes in neurons. the neurotransmitter glutamate stimulates rapid and transient induction of many genes, including the c-fos proto-oncogene. the c-fos promoter contains several c ...19968757255
transfer of bovine microsatellites to the cervine (cervus elaphus).bovine microsatellites were used to amplify dna of red deer (cervus elaphus). fourteen of 27 bovine systems (52%) displayed polymorphism, while no (ca)n-repeat was detected in seven systems and six systems gave no amplificates in red deer. the allele number ranged from 2 to 7, the polymorphism information content between 0.24 and 0.76. the results demonstrate that transfer of microsatellite systems between families of the same order (artiodactyla) is possible. molecular genetic research will hel ...19968759122
analysis of srf, sap-1 and elk-1 transcripts and proteins in human cell lines.we have analysed the expression of the genes encoding transcription factors involved in c-fos transcriptional regulation, i.e. the serum response factor (srf) and the ets-related proteins elk-1 and sap-1, in a variety of human cell lines. rna was determined by northern blot analysis, and proteins were detected on western blots: the two analyses gave essentially identical results. srf was expressed at similar levels in all cell lines tested. in contrast, sap-1 and elk-1 expression varied from one ...19968764983
swayback in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and a black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).ataxia associated with myelopathy and low liver copper concentrations is described in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) from the karoo nature reserve, graaff-reinet. this syndrome, which occurs in neonatal and delayed forms, has been described in sheep, goats, pigs and domesticated red deer, but reports in other ungulates, including antelope, are very rare and generally unconfirmed by histopathological examination. the 2 animals examined exhibited a ...19968765071
a comparison of gross pathology, histopathology, and mycobacterial culture for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elk (cervus elaphus).using the isolation of mycobacterium bovis as the reference standard, this study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistic of gross pathology (abattoir postmortem inspection), histopathology, and parallel or series combinations of the two for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 430 elk and red deer. two histopathology interpretations were evaluated: histopathology i, where the presence of lesions compatible with tuberculosis was considered positive, and histopathology ii, where les ...19968785715
role of estrogen and prostaglandin f2 alpha in premature luteal regression in monovulatory and superovulated red deer (cervus elaphus).the superovulation of red deer hinds with ecg is commonly associated with premature luteal regression. this study was an investigation of the endocrine mechanisms regulating luteal function after superovulation. four groups of hinds (n = 7-8 per group) were treated with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal controlled internal drug-releasing (cidr) devices for 12 days to synchronize estrus (cidr device withdrawal = day 0). group 1 served as controls; group 2 received an i.m. injection of 0.25 mg ...19968788185
the transcription factor tcf/elk-1: a nuclear sensor of changes in the cellular redox status. 19968794197
ability to culture dermal papilla cells from red deer (cervus elaphus) hair follicles with differing hormonal responses in vivo offers a new model for studying the control of hair follicle biology.red deer stags annually grow two distinct seasonal coats, a winter coat and a summer coat; in addition, they produce a mane during the breeding season when plasma testosterone levels are high, which is replaced by the short neck hairs of the summer coat when testosterone levels are low. as two very different hair types are produced from the same follicle under hormonal regulation, they offer an interesting model for studying the effects of hormones, particularly androgens, on mammalian hair grow ...19968795289
ligand activation of elk receptor tyrosine kinase promotes its association with grb10 and grb2 in vascular endothelial cells.elk is a member of the eph-related tyrosine kinase family that includes receptors signaling axonal guidance, neuronal bundling, and angiogenesis. we recently identified elk expression in human renal microvascular endothelial cells and sought to identify intracellular proteins through which it signals responses. the cytoplasmic domain of elk was used as "bait" in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify interactive proteins expressed from a randomly primed embryonic murine library (e9.5-10.5). among ...19968798570
glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signals through the ret receptor and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase.glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (gdnf), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth factors, was first identified by its ability to promote the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in culture. we demonstrate that gdnf treatment of several neuroblastoma cell lines leads to dose-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the ret receptor and that other transforming growth factor-beta family members are not able to activate the ret receptor. gdnf treatment of neurob ...19968798576
ghf-1/pit-1 functions as a cell-specific integrator of ras signaling by targeting the ras pathway to a composite ets-1/ghf-1 response element.activation of the rat prolactin (rprl) promoter by ras is a prototypical example of tissue-specific transcriptional regulation in a highly differentiated cell type. using a series of site-specific mutations and deletions of the proximal rprl promoter we have mapped the major ras/raf response element (rre) to a composite ets-1/ghf-1 binding site located between positions -217 and -190. mutation of either the ets-1 or ghf-1 binding sites inhibits ras and raf activation of the rprl promoter, and in ...19968798730
dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (dlk) activates p46sapk and p38mapk but not erk2.because the catalytic domain of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (dlk) bears sequence similarity to members of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase kinase kinase subfamily, this protein kinase was investigated for its ability to activate map kinase pathways. when transiently transfected and overexpressed in either cos 7 cells or nih3t3 cells, wild type dlk potently activated p46(sapk) (sapk/jnk) but had no detectable effect in activating p42/44(mapk). dlk also activated p38(mapk) when ov ...19968798750
pax-5 (bsap) recruits ets proto-oncogene family proteins to form functional ternary complexes on a b-cell-specific promoter.the paired box transcription factor pax-5 (b-cell-specific activator protein) is a key regulator of lineage-specific gene expression and differentiation in b-lymphocytes. we show that pax-5 functions as a cell type-specific docking protein that facilitates binding of the early b-cell-specific mb-1 promoter by proteins of the ets proto-oncogene family. transcriptional activity of the mb-1 promoter in pre-b-cells is critically dependent on binding sites for pax-5:ets complexes. ternary complex ass ...19968804314
molecular cloning of two novel transmembrane ligands for eph-related kinases (lerks) that are related to lerk-2.a search of the nucleic acid database of expressed sequence tags (ests) revealed several partial cdna sequences that could encode proteins homologous to the ligands for eph-related kinases (lerks). oligonucleotides designed from the ests were used to probe a human brain cdna library and obtain overlapping clones that encoded two different novel lerks (nlerk-1 and nlerk-2). nlerk-1 and nlerk-2 are most closely related to human lerk-2/elk-ligand and they form a subclass of lerks that contain a tra ...19968804996
signalling pathways: jack of all cascades.the transcription factors that bind the c-fos promoter element sre are targeted by multiple, independent signalling cascades; the identities of these signalling pathways and their modes of activation are being elucidated.19968805215
modification of the mycobacterium bovis extracellular protein mpb70 with fluorescein for rapid detection of specific serum antibodies by fluorescence polarization.the principle of fluorescence polarization described by perrin (f. perrin, j. phys. radium 7:390-401, 1926) was applied to the development of a novel assay that used fluorescein-labeled mycobacterium bovis secretory protein mpb70 for rapid detection of anti-mpb70 antibodies in selected sera from three m. bovis-infected species (elk, ilama, and bison). labeling of purified mpb70 with fluorescein isothiocyanate resulted in the incorporation of 0.96 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 3) flu ...19968807210
elk-l3, a novel transmembrane ligand for the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, expressed in embryonic floor plate, roof plate and hindbrain segments.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases has 13 distinct members and seven ligands for these receptors have been described to date. these receptors and their ligands have been implicated in regulating neuronal axon guidance and in patterning of the developing nervous system and may also serve a patterning and compartmentalization role outside of the nervous system as well. the ligands are all membrane-attached, and this attachment appears to be crucial for their normal function; five of the k ...19968808709
effects of glucose or insulin infusions on growth hormone secretion in male red deer.the growth hormone (gh) secretory pattern in male red deer is associated with the seasonal growth cycle. during this cycle metabolic state changes from weight gain in spring to weight loss in winter. however, short-term metabolic changes due to feeding could also alter the gh pattern. to investigate the effect of such changes on gh secretion, the acute feedback of blood glucose level on the gh secretory pattern was examined. six yearling male red deer were infused iv with glucose (g; 150 mg/kg/h ...19968812391
experimental and theoretical quantification of the development of damage in fatigue tests of bone and antler.this study concerns the development of damage (as measured by a reduction in elastic modulus) in two kinds of bones differing considerably in their degrees of mineralisation: laminar bone from bovine femur and osteonal bone from red deer antler. antler bone is much tougher than 'ordinary' bone and its failure properties have been investigated in: (i) monotonic tensile tests and (ii) creep rupture experiments. tensile fatigue is another way of examining how damage develops in bone. the developmen ...19968817365
flying scapula in a red deer (cervus elaphus). 19968819292
dose rate and mode of exposure are key factors in jnk activation by uv irradiation.single exposure of cells to uvc (254 nm for 30 s) or to uvb (300 nm for 10 min) was shown to activate jun-nh2 kinases which, in turn, phosphorylate their substrates elk-1, c-jun and atf-2. while uvc (40-80 j/m2) activates jnk up to 4 h, with maximal induction after 30 min, uvb (150-300 j/m2) activates jnk over a prolonged period, up to 24 h, with maximal induction after 6 h. uv-mediated activation of src-related tyrosine kinases and mapk revealed different kinetics, with maximal induction after ...19968824537
triplets in red deer (cervus elaphus). 19958825315
reduction and repair of colonic intussusception in a wapiti/red hybrid hind (cervus elaphus). 19958825316
prevalence of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever virus in wild and domestic ruminants by competitive-inhibition elisa.a competitive-inhibition elisa (ci-elisa), based on a monoclonal antibody to an epitope conserved among malignant catarrhal fever virus (mcfv) strains of both wildebeest and sheep origin, was used to determine the prevalence of antibody to mcfv in selected domestic and wild ruminants, both free-ranging and captive, from the usa. we evaluated 2528 sera from 14 species between 1990 and 1995, including 80 pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), 339 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), 103 biston (b ...19968827669
induction of c-fos expression through jnk-mediated tcf/elk-1 phosphorylation.growth factors induce c-fos transcription by stimulating phosphorylation of transcription factor tcf/elk-1, which binds to the serum response element (sre). under such conditions elk-1 could be phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) erk1 and erk2. however, c-fos transcription and sre activity are also induced by stimuli, such as uv irradiation and activation of the protein kinase mekk1, that cause only an insignificant increase in erk1/2 activity. however, both of these ...19958846788
chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types i, iia, iib, and x demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry.the annual regrowth of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration occurring in an adult animal. growth is initiated at the distal antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in some respects. however, there is some debate as to whether this process represents "true" endochondral ossification. as part of the characterization of the developmental process in pre-osseus antler tissue, we have studied, by in situ hybridization, the spatial expression of mrn ...19968850568
innervation and anesthesia of the antler pedicle in wapiti and fallow deer.the heads from 6 mature male wapiti and 8 mature male fallow deer were dissected to provide a description of the nerves supplying the antler pedicles. innervation in both species was found to resemble that of the red deer, with major contributions coming from the infratrochlear and zygomaticotemporal nerves. all heads displayed a dorsal branch from the auriculopalpebral nerve, but in only 2 wapiti and 3 fallow deer heads was this branch observed travelling to the pedicle. the dorsal branches of ...19968853883
regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.membrane depolarization of ng108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase iv (cam-kiv), as well as activation of c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk). to investigate whether the ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (erk, jnk, and p38) might be mediated by the cam kinase cascade, we have transfected pc12 cells, which lack cam-kiv, with constitutively active mutants of cam kinase kinase and/or cam-kiv (cam-kkc and cam-kivc, respectively) ...19968855261
urea-inducible egr-1 transcription in renal inner medullary collecting duct (mimcd3) cells is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.urea (200-400 milliosmolar) activates transcription, translation of, and trans-activation by the immediate-early gene transcription factor egr-1 in a renal epithelial cell-specific fashion. the effect at the transcriptional level has been attributed to multiple serum response elements and their adjacent ets motifs located within the egr-1 promoter. elk-1, a principal ternary complex factor and ets domain-containing protein, is a substrate of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) mitoge ...19968855340
a parentage evaluation test in north american elk (wapiti) using microsatellites of ovine and bovine origin.dna microsatellites originally detected in sheep and cattle are also detectable in north american elk (wapiti) using polymerase chain reactions. we have developed a parentage test in elk using eleven microsatellite markers that are highly polymorphic and informative.19968856904
structure and organization of the mouse elk1 gene.in the ets gene family of transcription factors, elk1 belongs to the subfamily of ternary complex factors (tcfs) which bind to the serum response element (sre) in conjunction with a dimer of serum response factors (srfs). in this communication we report the isolation of cdnas from the mouse elk1 gene, containing the full coding sequence homologous (87% identical) to the human gene, and the structure and organization of 22 kb of the mouse elk1 locus. the coding sequence is spread through 5 exons ...19968863747
contribution of both stat and srf/tcf to c-fos promoter activation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) is a hematopoietic growth factor that has been shown to support call proliferation in murine fibroblasts engineered to stably express both chains of the human gm-csf receptor (nih-gmr). because the proto-oncogene c-fos is believed to provide a link between short-term signals elicited at the membrane and long-term cellular response, we chose to study the mechanism of gm-csf-dependent cell regulation using c-fos promoter activity as a molec ...19968874187
selective response of ternary complex factor sap1a to different mitogen-activated protein kinase subgroups.mitogenic and stres signals results in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erks) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun n-terminal kinases (sapk/jnks), respectively, which are two subgroups of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. a nuclear target of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases is the ternary complex factor elk-1, which underlies its involvement in the regulation of c-fos gene expression by mitogenic and stress signals. a second ternary complex factor, sap1a ...19968876175
bidirectional signalling through the eph-family receptor nuk and its transmembrane ligands.receptor tyrosine kinases of the eph class have been implicated in the control of axon guidance and fasciculation, in regulating cell migration, and in defining compartments in the developing embryo. efficient activation of eph receptors generally requires that their ligands be anchored to the cell surface, either through a transmembrane (tm) region or a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (gpi) group. these observations have suggested that eph receptors can transduce signals initiated by direct cell- ...19968878483
exogenous interferon delays luteal regression in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) by suppressing steroid-induced endometrial oxytocin sensitivity.three groups of intact hinds (n = 10-18) and one group of ovariectomized hinds were treated with progesterone by mean, of controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices for 13 days (device removal = day 0). group 1 served as controls; group 2 received injections of 4 mg recombinant bovine interferon-alpha,1 twice daily from days 13 to 21; group 3 was run with a stag from days 0 to 3, and all hinds were subsequently diagnosed pregnant; group 4 (ovariectomized) was treated with cidr devices and ...19968879504
the value of immunodiagnostic tests in detecting tuberculosis in an infected red deer herd and in eradication of the disease by selection.the sensitivity and specificity of intradermal tuberculin test (tb test) were studied in an infected red deer (cervus elaphus) herd (n = 109) in comparison to the results of other examinations including gross pathology, histopathology, mycobacterium bovis culture, and the lymphocyte-stimulation test (lst). in our case, relative sensitivity was 79.5% and relative specificity was 45.7%. the predictive value in negative and positive cases was 80.0% and 44.9%, respectively. on the basis of the resul ...19958882737
observations on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed red deer in central southern england.the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed red deer was followed over three years on two farms in north hertfordshire. worm counts on 10 animals (four months to 10 years old) between november and march showed that mixed ostertagid infections were dominant with very small numbers of trichostrongylus axei, cooperia punctata and oesophagostomum species also present in some individuals. an increase in the faecal nematode egg count of the hinds in summer was followed by an increase ...19968883346
conservation of a 31-bp bovine subrepeat in centromeric satellite dna monomers of cervus elaphus and other cervid species.a centromeric satellite dna clone was isolated from the genome of the european red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and designated ce-pst1. this clone was localized to the centromeric region of all red deer chromosomes with the exception of a single pair of metacentric autosomes and the y chromosome. dna sequence analysis of the 806-bp ce-pst1 clone showed 73.0-78.9% sequence homology to four previously isolated cervid centromeric satellite dna clones, suggesting that the ce-pst1 clone is yet a ...19968889241
molecular cloning of elk-3, a new member of the ets family expressed during mouse embryogenesis and analysis of its transcriptional repression activity.we isolated a cdna clone, elk-3, that encodes a novel ets transcription factor from 16-day mouse embryos. the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein was homologous to human elk-1 and sap-1. this protein, elk-1, and sap-1 shared some unique structural properties such as an ets dna-binding site in the amino-terminal region, a serum response factor interacting domain and phosphorylation sites of serine or threonine residues in the carboxy-terminal region. northern blotting weakly revealed that ...19968892757
k-casein gene phylogeny of higher ruminants (pecora, artiodactyla).to assess phylogenetic relationships among the higher ruminants (infraorder pecora, order artiodactyla), we analyzed k-casein dna sequences, including 434 nucleotides of the fourth exon. the higher ruminant families bovidae, cervidae, giraffidae, and antilocapridae each have monophyletic k-casein sequences. maximum parsimony and distance analyses identify giraffidae as a sister group to either cervidae or a bovidae-cervidae clade and antilocapridae as a sister group to a bovidae-cervidae-giraffi ...19968899730
distinct and overlapping expression patterns of ligands for eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases during mouse embryogenesis.recent studies have implicated eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands in restricting or stimulating the movement of cells and axons. members of these large families of receptors and ligands fall into two major binding specificity classes, in which the gpi-anchored subgroup of ligands can each bind to all members of a subgroup of receptors, whereas the transmembrane ligands interact with a distinct subgroup of receptors. analysis of expression patterns is therefore ...19968903354
determination of stability of brucella abortus rb51 by use of genomic fingerprint, oxidative metabolism, and colonial morphology and differentiation of strain rb51 from b. abortus isolates from bison and elk.brucella abortus rb51 and isolates from cattle, bison, and elk were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and standard techniques for biotyping brucella species, which included biochemical, morphological, and antigenic techniques, phage susceptibility, and antibiotic resistance. the objectives were to ascertain the stability of rb51 and to differentiate rb51 from other brucellae. genomic restriction endonuclease patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a uni ...19968904427
cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of a truncated cdna encoding red deer prolactin receptor: an alternative tyrosine residue mediates beta-casein promoter activation.this study reports the isolation and in vitro characterisation of a truncated cdna encoding the red deer long form prolactin receptor. the cdna sequence predicts a protein of 557 amino acids which differs from the rat sequence by a 3' truncation of the cytoplasmic domain located 34 residues before the stop codon. the deer sequence shares the regions of homology which are important for maintenance of structural and functional integrity, high affinity binding and signal transduction. however, the ...19968912807
net (erp/sap2) one of the ras-inducible tcfs, has a novel inhibitory domain with resemblance to the helix-loop-helix motif.the three ternary complex factors (tcfs), net (erp/ sap-2), elk-1 and sap-1, are highly related ets oncogene family members that participate in the response of the cell to ras and growth signals. understanding the different roles of these factors will provide insights into how the signals result in coordinate regulation of the cell. we show that net inhibits transcription under basal conditions, in which sap-1a is inactive and elk-1 stimulates. repression is mediated by the nid, the net inhibito ...19968918463
similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the elk subclass of eph receptors.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell surface bound ligands have been implicated in a number of developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and fasciculation, as well as patterning in the central nervous system. to better understand the complex signaling events taking place, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions between a subset of ligands, those that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of eph ...19968918835
central melatonin receptors in red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer display characteristic seasonal changes in appetite, growth, and reproduction which are mediated by the pineal hormone, melatonin, which provides a direct neuroendocrine transduction of the ambient photoperiod. to identify potential central sites of action for this hormone, [2(-125)i]iodomelatonin binding sites were localized and characterized within the cervine brain and pituitary by in vitro autoradiography. specific binding was distributed over a number of discrete regions of the bra ...19968921349
accumulation of cadmium and lead in red deer and wild boar at the veluwe, the netherlands. 19968933695
t cell responses to mycobacterium bovis in red deer, a large animal model for tuberculosis.red deer (cervus elaphus) represent an appropriate large animal model to study the immunology of tuberculosis, being naturally susceptible to mycobacterium bovis infection. cell-mediated immune responses were investigated in deer displaying protective- or disease-type reactions, following immunization with m. bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) or infection with virulent m. bovis, respectively. t cell responses were measured as antigen-dependent cell proliferation and production of t cell growth ...19968934651
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activate a selective subset of rac/rho-dependent effector pathways.phosphatidylinositol 3'-hydroxyl kinase (pi 3-kinase) is activated by many growth factor receptors and is thought to exert its cellular functions through the elevation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate levels in the cell. pi 3-kinase is required for growth-factor induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton which are mediated by the gtpases rac and rho. recently, a role for rac and rho in regulating gene transcription has become evident.19968939609
map kinase-dependent transcriptional coactivation by elk-1 and its cofactor cbp.a plethora of signals induce the c-fos proto-oncogene via phosphorylation of the transcription factor elk-1 by map kinase. we show that the coactivator cbp cooperates with elk-1 to stimulate c-fos. elk-1 physically interacts with cbp, which is dependent on the transactivation domain of elk-1 but is independent of map kinase phosphorylation. however, functional cooperation between elk-1 and cbp requires phosphorylation of elk-1. importantly, a carboxy-terminal transactivation domain of cbp itself ...19968941362
elk and lerk-2 in developing kidney and microvascular endothelial assembly.eph family receptor tyrosine kinases direct neuronal cell targeting, bundling and intercellular aggregation activity, yet their role in mammalian kidney development has been unexplored to date. we recently identified expression of elk (eph-like kinase) receptors in cultured human renal microvascular endothelial cells (hrmec), and showed that elk mediates their in vitro assembly into capillary-like structures in response to the exogenous ligand, lerk-2. here we identify expression of the elk liga ...19968941926
biosynthesis, processing, and targeting of sphingolipid activator protein (sap )precursor in cultured human fibroblasts. mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent endocytosis of sap precursor.sphingolipid activator proteins (saps) are essential cofactors for the lysosomal degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains by acidic exohydrolases. sap-a, -b, -c, and -d derive from proteolysis of a 73-kda glycoprotein, the sap precursor. in the present publication, we studied the intracellular transport and the endocytosis of sap precursor in human skin fibroblasts. our data indicate that sap precursor bears phosphate residues on noncomplex carbohydrate chains linked t ...19968943309
similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the elk subclass of eph receptorsthe eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell surface bound ligands have been implicated in a number of developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and fasciculation, as well as patterning in the central nervous system. to better understand the complex signaling events taking place, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions between a subset of ligands, those that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of eph ...19968954633
eph family receptors and their ligands distribute in opposing gradients in the developing mouse retina.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands can be divided into two specificity subclasses: the eck-related receptors and their gpi-anchored ligands, and the elk-related receptors and their transmembrane ligands. previous reports demonstrated that eck- and elk-related receptors in the retina distribute in high temporal-low nasal and high ventral-low dorsal gradients, respectively. while others have focused on complementary ligand gradients in the retinal axon target, the tectum ...19968954746
[detection of herpesvirus serum antibodies in red deer (cervus elaphus) imported into the czech republic].antibodies reacting in the virus-neutralisation test with bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), were demonstrated in a herd of red deer (cervus elaphus) imported into the czech republic. sera from the same collection were later tested against a homologous virus, termed herpesvirus cervidae 1 (hvc-1), isolated from red deer in scotland. out of 165 imported animals, antibodies to bhv-1 were found in 68% and to hvc-1 in 71% of the animals. titre ...19968966967
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