effect of changing daylength on the diurnal pattern of intake and feeding behaviour in penned red deer (cervus elaphus).voluntary food intakes by 12 housed red deer hinds were recorded during six 2-week periods between april and november. diurnal patterns of intake and feeding activity were measured by weighing food at either 5-min (april, may and june) or 1-min intervals (july, september and november). at each time of the year, mean rates of food intake, amount of feeding activity and frequency of feeding bouts were significantly greater during periods of daylight than during darkness. food intake rate and feedi ...19947979338
electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease.we report here the electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease (cdw), a progressive and fatal neurological disorder of wild ruminants characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ultrastructural findings included membrane-bound vacuoles in neuronal elements, increased number of glial filaments, dystrophic neurites, numerous neuritic plaques, hirano bodies ...19947982031
regional distribution of estradiol receptors in growing antlers.this study of estrogen receptors (er) was carried out to confirm their presence and to determine their localisation in antler bones. partially grown antlers were amputated from red deer (cervus elaphus) stags, the skin removed, and samples taken of periosteum, cartilaginous tissue including perichondrium, and bone. capacity and binding of free er in the samples were calculated by scatchard analysis of data obtained from a radioreceptor assay which utilised [3h]estradiol as tracer. high affinity ...19947985211
lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the raf-1/map kinase pathway. a putative role for raf-1 in the induction of the il-1 beta and the tnf-alpha genes.bacterial lps is a potent macrophage activator. the early steps in lps signal transduction involve the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a number of kinases of the src family, and inhibition of this pathway causes a severe impairment in the production of the cytokines tnf-alpha and il-1 beta. we find that lps-induced macrophages activation also involves the raf-1 kinase, a key component in mitogenic signal transduction. treatment of bac-1.2f5 macrophages with lps causes phosphorylation ...19947989771
thyroid hormones are required for the expression of seasonal changes in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.experiment 1, from 6 july 1990 (winter) to 8 november 1990 (spring), examined the effect of an early elevation of plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the expression of seasonal changes in 20-month-old stags. four stags were injected subcutaneously with 1 mg thyroxine (t4) daily, and four with vehicle only. plasma t4 concentration was elevated by injection of t4; the mean concentration 24 h after injection was 192 +/- 31 nmol l-1 compared with 58 +/- 5 nmol l-1 in controls on 21 september. h ...19947991787
oxytocin stimulates uterine prostaglandin f2 alpha secretion in red deer cervus elaphus.the prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue cloprostenol stimulates ovarian secretion of oxytocin in red deer hinds and père david's deer hinds, as in cattle and sheep, but the response of the uterus to administered oxytocin has not been studied in deer. in the present experiment, oxytocin administered intravenously caused an increase in circulating concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin f2 alpha from 186 +/- 35 to 404 +/- 34 pmol l-1 within 5 min; concentrations in saline-treated hinds w ...19947991799
inhibition of v-raf-dependent c-fos expression and transformation by a kinase-defective mutant of the mitogen-activated protein kinase erk2.receptor-bound growth factors elicit intracellular signals that lead to the phosphorylation and activation of numerous intracellular kinases and transcription factors with consequent changes in patterns of gene expression. several oncogene products are able to mimic these signals, resulting in cell transformation and proliferation. for example, the introduction of oncogenic forms of raf-1 kinase into fibroblasts induces transformation and leads to the constitutive expression of, among others, th ...19948007980
sedation of wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) with medetomidine and the influence on some haematological and serum biochemical variables.medetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist, was tested for the sedation of wild boar (sus scrofa) (n = 6) and red deer (cervus elaphus) (n = 7). the effectivity of this drug and the dose required for handling, blood sampling, and minor surgery were established for both species. in addition the effect of medetomidine sedation on haematological and serum biochemical variables was studied. all animals used were clinically normal females aged approximately 1.5 years. the minimal dose required to sedate a wild ...19948009823
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish estimate the prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in the most common species of danish deer, blood samples were collected from roe deer (capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (dama dama), and red deer (cervus elaphus). a total of 156 blood samples were collected primarily from hunts in three areas of denmark from november 1990 to december 1991. presence of deer igg antibodies to the borrelia burgdorferi strain dk ecm 1 were shown by an indirect immunofluorescence assay at serum titre ...19948011306
seasonality in digestion and rumen metabolism in red deer (cervus elaphus) fed on a forage diet.six adult castrated male red deer (cervus elaphus), fitted with rumen cannulas, were offered chaffed lucerne hay ad lib. during winter and summer, with voluntary food intake (vfi) being respectively 59 and 89 g dry matter intake (dmi)/kg bodyweight 0.75 per d. the same animals were also offered the same feed during summer, with intake restricted to that of winter vfi. the apparent digestibility of gross energy (0.60) or fibre (0.41) and the total capacity (volume) of the rumen were unaffected by ...19948011605
functional divergence of the map kinase pathway. erk1 and erk2 activate specific transcription factors.growth factor-receptor interactions at the cell surface eventually leading to the transcriptional activation of immediate early genes is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (map kinase/mapk) cascade. here we show that overexpression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (erk1) cdna, encoding p44mapk, results in the activation of elk-1, the serum response factor accessory protein. we also show that overexpression of erk2, encoding p42mapk, activates myc, but not elk-1. therefore ...19948013639
effect of exogenous gonadotrophins on oestrus, the lh surge and the timing and rate of ovulation in red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer hinds (n = 38) were treated in the breeding season with five different gonadotrophin regimens to investigate the temporal relationship between oestrus, ovulation and the lh surge. all hinds were treated with progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release (cidr) devices to synchronize oestrus. the five treatments were as follows: treatment 1, controls; treatments 2, 3 and 4, 1200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) was administered i.m. 72 h before cidr device withdr ...19948021874
influence of prenatal photoperiod on postnatal reproductive development in male red deer (cervus elaphus).male red deer calves, whose mothers had been kept for the last 14 weeks of gestation in long days (18 h light:6 h dark) (group l, n = 7) or short days (6 h light:18 h dark) (group s, n = 5), were kept in constant intermediate daylength (12 h light:12 h dark) from birth to 75 weeks of age. both groups showed the same live-weight gain. mean plasma lh concentrations were higher in group l than in group s from birth to 20 weeks of age (averaging 1.55 versus 0.48 ng ml-1, p < 0.001), from 21 to 45 we ...19948021883
superovulation in red deer (cervus elaphus) and père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), and fertilization rates following artificial insemination with père david's deer semen.two comparative studies were undertaken using adult, female red and père david's deer to examine the ovulatory response of these animals to a superovulation regimen and fertilization rates following inter- and intraspecific laparoscopic insemination. in expt 1 six père david's deer and 12 red deer hinds were treated during the breeding season with an intravaginal progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release device (cidr) for 14 days, with 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin ( ...19948021886
[parasitic arthropods from some species of wild mammals from middle pomerania].a total of 109 mammals belonging to 3 wild species: cervus elaphus, capreolus capreolus and sus scrofa were examined post mortem after delivery by hunters to the warehouses of the "jägerprodukt" company in sławno and osowo, and of the "las" company in sławsko (middle pomerania, poland). three species of ectoparasites were collected: ixodes ricinus, lipoptena cervi and haematopinus apri. the highest frequency and the highest index of infestation with ectoparasites were observed in cause of c. ela ...19948023500
cloning and expression of the cervine interleukin 4 gene.interleukin 4 (il-4), a cytokine produced by the t helper 2 subset of t lymphocytes is involved in up regulating antibody responses. a source of recombinant cervine il-4 would be useful for studying the immune response of deer to tuberculosis. we report here the cloning, sequencing and expression of recombinant cervine il-4. to achieve this mrna was isolated from red deer (cervus elaphus) mononuclear leucocytes. first strand cdna was synthesized from the mrna and the il-4 cdna was amplified, clo ...19948029646
the edmonton and red deer nursing program: collaborative model an update on implementation. 19948030390
the caax peptidomimetic compound b581 specifically blocks farnesylated, but not geranylgeranylated or myristylated, oncogenic ras signaling and transformation.recently developed caax peptidomimetic compounds have been shown to be potent and specific inhibitors of farnesyl protein transferase activity and to block the growth of ras-transformed cells. however, whether this growth inhibitory action is specifically a consequence of blocking oncogenic ras signaling has not been determined. to address this question, we have utilized mutants of the normally farnesylated oncogenic ras protein (ras-f) that are modified by alternative lipids, a geranylgeranyl i ...19948034681
deer-herd health and production profiling in new zealand. i. study design.a 2-year observational study was conducted on 15 commercial red-deer farms in the north island of new zealand, to provide health and production data, and identify risk factors for outcomes including health, reproduction, venison and velvet antler production. about 2,700 hinds, 2,400 weaner deer and 1,500 stags were monitored. daily management practices, deer performance and health problems were recorded. at 3-monthly visits, samples were collected from deer, pastures and soils. data were process ...19948038772
deer herd health and production profiling in new zealand. 2. preliminary results.a 2 yr observational study of 15 commercial red deer farms is being conducted in new zealand and statistical analysis initiated. preliminary results for weaner deer growth, reproduction and deer mortality data are presented. multivariable statistical analyses are used to identify risk factors for these various outcomes. factors associated with yearling hind conception status were included in a putative path diagram and logistic regression was used to identify important factors.19948038796
light microscopic studies of pedicle and early first antler development in red deer (cervus elaphus).although it is known that deer antlerogenic potential resides in the periosteum of an antlerogenic region and antler forms through modified endochondral ossification, how a deciduous antler forms histologically through a permanent pedicle from the periosteum has not been reported.19948059982
bonding soft reline materials to base the past it has been difficult to treat soft tissue changes occurring beneath metal frameworks of removable partial dentures or complete dentures using soft reline materials. the main difficulty has been in getting the resilient materials to adhere to the metal. this research investigates the use of microabrading with and without a universal resin bonding system in achieving a clinically useful bond between two soft reline materials and a commonly used base-metal alloy.19948061785
transient activation of raf-1, mek, and erk2 coincides kinetically with ternary complex factor phosphorylation and immediate-early gene promoter activity in vivo.we have investigated the early in vivo signaling events triggered by serum that lead to activation of the c-fos proto-oncogene in hela cells. both raf-1 and mek kinase activities are fully induced within 3 min of serum treatment and quickly decrease thereafter, slightly preceding the activation and inactivation of p42mapk/erk2. erk2 activity correlates tightly with a transient phosphatase-sensitive modification of ternary complex factor (tcf), manifested by the slower electrophoretic mobility of ...19948065354
antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda, metastrongyloidea).we studied the antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis, in an attempt to identify potential serodiagnostic molecules for this important infection of wild ungulates. soluble extracts of p. tenuis adult worms and third-stage larvae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and two-dimensional (2d) electrophoresis and analyzed by immunoblotting using purified rabbit anti-p. tenuis immunoglobulin g (igg) ...19948068755
molecular characterization of a family of ligands for eph-related tyrosine kinase receptors.a family of tyrosine kinase receptors related to the product of the eph gene has been described recently. one of these receptors, elk, has been shown to be expressed only in brain and testes. using a direct expression cloning technique, a ligand for the elk receptor has been isolated by screening a human placenta cdna library with a fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of the receptor. this isolated cdna encodes a transmembrane protein. while the sequence of the ligand cdna is uniq ...19948070404
c-fos transcriptional activity stimulated by h-ras-activated protein kinase distinct from jnk and erk.ras proteins exert their mitogenic and oncogenic effects through activation of downstream protein kinases. an important question is how ras-generated signals reach the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. ap-1, a heterodimeric complex of jun and fos proteins, which activates mitogen-inducible genes, is a major nuclear target of ras. ras can stimulate ap-1 activity by inducing c-fos transcription, a process which is probably mediated by the erk1 and -2 mitogen-activated protein (map) kina ...19948072547
diagnosis of elaphostrongylus cervi infection in new zealand red deer (cervus elaphus) quarantined in canada, and experimental determination of a new extended prepatent period.a modified baermann assay was used to recover dorsal-spined, first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi from feces and lungs of red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) from three of four herds imported from new zealand into canadian quarantine facilities. tests done on a series of fecal collections showed that larval output from infected red deer was low and sporadic, casting doubt on the efficacy of the baermann assay to detect all infected individuals in the herds. the animals had passed repeated ...19948076289
transcriptional activation of the immediate early gene pip92 by serum growth factors requires both ets and carg-like elements.pip92 is an immediate early gene that is transcriptionally activated in mouse 3t3 fibroblasts upon treatment with serum growth factors or the tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. here we show that a 73-base pair pip92 promoter fragment located between base pairs 1231 and 1158 upstream of the transcription start site is sufficient to mediate transcriptional activation. this promoter fragment contains two binding sites for transcription factors of the ets family and a low affinity ...19948083220
heterogeneity of ternary complex factors in hela cell nuclear extracts.ternary complex factors (tcfs) interact with the serum response factor and dna containing the c-fos serum response element to form a ternary complex that mediates induction of c-fos. tcf activities were partially purified from hela cell nuclear extracts by dna-cellulose and anion-exchange chromatography followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. four different protein spots (p60tcf, p62tcf, p62.5tcf, and p64tcf) show renaturable tcf activity. one, p62tcf, was indistinguishable from the ets ...19948083237
clustered organization of krüppel zinc-finger genes at xp11.23, flanking a translocation breakpoint at oatl1: a physical map with locus assignments for znf21, znf41, znf81, and elk1.the znf21, znf41, and znf81 genes encode krüppel-type zinc-finger proteins (zfps) and have previously been mapped to chromosome xp. published data describing the clustering of zfp genes on human autosomes led us to investigate the organization of znf21, znf41, and znf81 on the x chromosome. rodent-human hybrid analysis sublocalized all three genes to xp22.11-p11.23. znf21, znf41, and znf81 were then shown to segregate within a series of yacs (95 to 730 kb) containing known markers at xp11.23, su ...19948088786
a 1.8-mb yac contig in xp11.23: identification of cpg islands and physical mapping of ca repeats in a region of high gene density.the genes araf1, syn1, timp, and pfc are clustered within 70 kb of one another, and, as reported in the accompanying paper (j. knight et al., 1994, genomics 21: 180-187), at least four more genes map within 400 kb: a cluster of krüppel-type zinc finger genes (including znf21, znf41, and znf81) and elk-1, a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. this gene-rich region is of particular interest because of the large number of disease genes mapping to xp11.23: at least three eye diseases (retinitis ...19948088827
isolation and characterization of srf accessory proteins.many genes which are regulated by growth factors contain a common regulatory element, the serum response element (sre). activation of transcription by the sre involves a ternary complex formed between a ubiquitous factor, serum response factor (srf), and a second protein, p62/tcf. we used a yeast genetic screen to isolate cdnas encoding a protein, sap-1, with the dna binding properties of p62/tcf. the sap-1 sequence contains three regions of homology to the previously uncharacterized elk-1 prote ...19938103935
genetic differentiation in populations of red deer, cervus elaphus, in denmark.samples from 282 specimens of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) representing eleven localities, were collected during two hunting seasons, 1986-87 and 1987-88. four polymorphic isozymes are investigated, and allelic distributions among the populations within an area or among areas are heterogeneous. the differentiation among the populations may be explained as a result of random genetic drift. a dendrogram reveals that seven of the nine populations from the peninsula of jutland are closely related.19938106262
the incidence of heavy metals and other toxic elements in big game tissues.the contents of heavy metals and non-metal elements (pb, cd, cu, zn, fe, mn, rb, ti, cr, se, sr) were analysed in red deer and wild boar tissues: kidneys, liver, muscles, bone. samples were collected in three sites during hunting seasons 1986/87 and 1987/88. the lead concentrations ranged from 0.8 microgram.g-1 (muscles) to 1.8 microgram.g-1 (kidneys), while cd levels ranged from 1.0 to 27.0 micrograms.g-1. the average levels of cu and zn in wild boar muscles were about 7.0 and 128 micrograms.g- ...19938108705
immunolocalization of the nuk receptor tyrosine kinase suggests roles in segmental patterning of the brain and axonogenesis.neural kinase (nuk) encodes a murine receptor-like tyrosine kinase belonging to the eph/elk/eck family. protein localization studies indicate that during early embryogenesis nuk is confined to the developing nervous system, where it marks segments along the axis of the neural tube in the hindbrain (rhombomeres r2, r3 and r5) and specific morphological bulges of the midbrain and forebrain. subcellular localization of nuk indicates that this receptor is concentrated at sites of cell-cell contact, ...19948134103
functional dissection of the transcription factor elk-1.the ternary complex factor elk-1 belongs to the ets oncoprotein family. we demonstrate that this transcription factor is localized predominantly in the nucleus, for which at least two regions of elk-1 are required. one of these regions is part of the n-terminal ets-domain, while the other encompasses amino acids 137-157. in conjunction with the ets-domain, which mediates autonomous binding of elk-1 to some dna target sequences, the conserved b-region is both necessary and sufficient for ternary ...19948134131
isolation and characterization of bsk, a growth factor receptor-like tyrosine kinase associated with the limbic system.neuronal degeneration has been shown to be involved in various neurological disorders. growth/trophic factors and their receptors are known to be important for the regeneration and survival of neurons. we report here the molecular cloning of a receptor-like protein tyrosine kinase, bsk, (for brain specific kinase). bsk is highly related to the eph/elk receptor-like kinase family members. northern blot analysis shows that it is expressed specifically in the brain, with no expression detected in a ...19948145300
concurrent sick building syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome: epidemic neuromyasthenia revisited.sick building syndrome (sbs) is usually characterized by upper respiratory complaints, headache, and mild fatigue. chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) is an illness with defined criteria including extreme fatigue, sore throat, headache, and neurological symptoms. we investigated three apparent outbreaks of sbs and observed another more serious illness (or illnesses), characterized predominantly by severe fatigue, that was noted by 9 (90%) of the 10 teachers who frequently used a single conference roo ...19948148452
the transcription factors elk-1 and serum response factor interact by direct protein-protein contacts mediated by a short region of elk-1.transcriptional induction of the c-fos gene in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation is mediated in part by a ternary nucleoprotein complex within the promoter consisting of serum response factor (srf), p62tcf/elk-1 and the serum response element (sre). both srf and p62tcf/elk-1 contact the dna and bind in a cooperative manner to the sre. in this study, we demonstrate that srf and elk-1 interact directly in the absence of the sre. a 30-amino-acid peptide from elk-1 (b-box) is both nece ...19948164681
some toxic and trace metals in big game hunted in the northern part of poland in animal meats (muscle, liver and kidneys) collected from different regions in northern part of poland in 1987-1991 were analysed for mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, zinc and iron. toxic mercury, cadmium and lead occurred in relatively low concentrations in muscle and organ meats, with the exception of lead in muscle and cadmium in kidneys, which were relatively more contaminated. the concentrations of essential trace metals in samples examined seemed to be natural. roe-deer contai ...19948178124
effects of exogenous melatonin on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality of adult female red deer (cervus elaphus).the effects of administration of exogenous melatonin to pregnant red deer hinds on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality were studied. mature hinds (n = 23) were allocated to one of four treatments. hinds in treatment 1 (n = 6) each received two subcutaneous melatonin implants (regulin) at monthly intervals starting on 2 october, about 80 days before expected parturition. hinds in treatment 2 (n = 6) received similar treatment starting on 2 november, about 40 days before ...19948182577
ternary complex factors: growth factor regulated transcriptional activators.members of a family of ets domain proteins, the ternary complex factors (tcfs), are recruited to the c-fos serum response element by interaction with the serum response factor. recent findings indicate that phosphorylation of tcfs occurs in response to activation of the map kinase pathway, and that regulation of tcf activity is an important mechanism by which the serum response element responds to growth factor signals.19948193547
study on the partial purification of gonadotropins and thyrotropin from deer (cervus elaphus) pituitaries.deer pituitaries were extracted with tris-cl buffer and the extract was fractionated on concanavalin a-sepharose into an unadsorbed cona i fraction and an adsorbed cona ii fraction. the cona ii fraction was chromatographed on cm-cellulose to yield an unadsorbed cm i fraction and an adsorbed cm ii fraction. the cm i and cm ii fractions were then respectively subjected to ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose to give the resultant unadsorbed deae i and adsorbed deae ii fractions. the cona ...19938193586
pedicle and antler regeneration following antlerogenic tissue removal in red deer (cervus elaphus).the physiological control mechanisms underlying the histogenesis of the pedicle, which precedes antler growth, from the frontal bones of male deer are poorly understood. the aim of this study was to investigate the extent of pedicle/antler regeneration after removal (for histological evaluation) of the antlerogenic region or pedicle tissue during pedicle development to determine whether the subsequent pattern of regeneration could contribute to the understanding of pedicle histogenesis and the m ...19948207380
elk-1 proteins interact with map kinases.mitogen activated protein kinases (map) or extracellular signal regulated protein kinases (erk) are a family of protein serine/threonine kinases that are activated very rapidly in response to many extracellular stimuli. elk-1, an ets related gene codes for two transcriptional factors elk-1, which regulates c-fos transcription and delta elk-1, both of which are substrates for map kinases. a part of the c-terminal transcriptional activation domain (eta-2) which is common to both the proteins was p ...19948208531
heavy metal contamination in organs of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) and the effect on some trace order to determine the contamination level for cadmium (cd) and lead (pb) in free ranging red deer (n = 50) and wild boar (n = 118) in 'the veluwe', a nature reserve in the central part of the netherlands, concentrations of these metals were measured in liver and kidney. in addition relations between cd and pb concentrations and iron (fe), copper (cu) and zinc (zn) concentrations in these organs were studied. the levels of cd and pb in wild animals were higher than in farmed animals of the sa ...19948209228
the biology and molecular biology of scrapie-like diseases.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse's) are degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which naturally affect man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease [cjd], gerstmann-sträussler syndrome [gss], kuru), sheep and goats (scrapie), cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse]), mink (transmissible mink encephalopathy), mule deer, elk and antelope (chronic wasting disease). spongiform encephalopathies have also been diagnosed in captive species of zoo antelope and in domestic cats. mu ...19938219804
receptors for insulin-like growth factor-ii in the growing tip of the deer antler.insulin-like growth factor-ii (igf-ii) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays and affinity cross-linking studies. antler tips from red deer stags were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and cryogenically cut into sections. sections were incubated with radiolabelled igf-ii, with or without an excess of competing unlabelled igf-ii and analysed autoradiographically. radiolabelled igf-ii showed high specific bi ...19938228732
[long term survival of first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea) in a frozen state].faeces of red deer from białowieza forest containing first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi have been stored during five years in -20 degrees c. after this time 52% of the larvae survived. these larvae were fully alive and in experimentally infected snails helix pomatia developed to the infectious stage.19938237006
prevalence of bluetongue virus expression in leukocytes from experimentally infected ruminants.replication of bluetongue virus (btv) in leukocytes from the blood of sheep, cattle, elk, and mule deer inoculated with btv serotype 10 or 17 was assessed by immunocytochemical staining and dot blot northern hybridization to determine if differences in the prevalence of infection in this blood fraction might account for the differences in clinical disease among these species. viremia was confirmed by virus isolation in all inoculated animals. analysis of leukocytes with monoclonal antibodies spe ...19938239132
transcriptional activation domains of elk-1, delta elk-1 and sap-1 proteins.elk-1, an ets related gene codes for a sequence specific dna binding transcriptional activator which in association with serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). recently the c-terminal region of both elk-1 and delta elk-1 proteins was shown to undergo phosphorylation by map kinases and function as an activator of map kinases. here we show that delta elk-1 and two other elk-1 related proteins sap-1a and sap-1b, like elk-1, can function as tra ...19938247551
real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and foetal ageing in fallow deer.three groups of 15 to 17 adult fallow does with some additional yearling does in 2 of the groups were treated to synchronize oestrous cycles, and mated. all does were scanned by ultrasound at 4 weeks of gestation and at weekly intervals from week 7 to week 14 of gestation. growth rates of 13 foetal and uterine characters, which have been used for ageing foetuses of red deer, were similar for adult and yearling does and among the 3 groups. transrectal ultrasound scanning was a reliable and accura ...19938257315
enzootic ataxia in red deer, cervus elaphus. 19938257325
a serologic survey for some bacterial and viral zoonoses in game animals in the czech republic.between 1986 and 1991, sera were collected from 33 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 24 red deer (cervus elaphus), four fallow deer (dama dama), two mouflon (ovis musimon), 34 wild boars (sus scrofa), and 48 hares (lepus europaeus) shot in two areas of the czech republic. collectively, the sera contained antibodies to coxiella burnetii (prevalence of 12%), francisella tularensis (4%), brucella spp. (2%), central european tick-borne encephalitis virus (8%), tahyna (california serogroup) virus (36%) ...19938258864
activation of ternary complex factor elk-1 by map kinases.ternary complex factors (tcfs), one of which is elk-1, have been implicated in mediation of c-fos induction. they have been shown to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) in vitro. we demonstrate that recombinant elk-1 is hyperphosphorylated in vivo upon joint overexpression of mapks and constitutively activated raf-1 kinase, the latter serving as an indirect in vivo activator of mapks. this phosphorylation is accompanied by a conformational change and results in an elev ...19938262053
characterization of sap-1, a protein recruited by serum response factor to the c-fos serum response element. 19948293474
the nosology of wegener's granulomatosis utilizing the elk format augmented by c-anca. 19938296609
noninvasive electrodes for electrocochleography in the chinchilla.this study compares noninvasive vs invasive electrodes for electrocochleography in chinchillas. summating potential (sp) amplitude, action potential (ap) amplitude, and ap threshold, recorded with five types of noninvasive electrodes, were compared with simultaneous bulla recordings. noninvasive electrodes included a needle electrode over the bulla, gold tiptrode (etymotic research, elk grove village, ill), enhancer i (nicolet instrument corp, madison, wis), coats (lifetech inc, austin, tex) ele ...19938318207
hormones and hair growth: variations in androgen receptor content of dermal papilla cells cultured from human and red deer (cervus elaphus) hair follicles.many hair follicles produce different types of hair in response to environmental changes or the mammals age, that are translated to the follicle by hormones. androgens cause many changes, such as transforming vellus follicles producing insignificant hairs on the face to terminal beard ones at puberty or the reverse on the scalp. in male red deer the breeding season rise in androgens causes the annual production of a mane on the neck that is lost during the spring. because the dermal papilla situ ...19938326143
pharyngeal bot flies (oestridae) from sympatric wild cervids in southern spain.the prevalence of 2 species of pharyngeal bot flies parasitizing sympatric wild ungulates from southern spain is given. pharyngomyia picta was found in all red deer and fallow deer whereas cephenemyia auribarbis was found in 59% of fallow deer and 81% of red deer examined. the mean number of p. picta larvae was 3-6 times more than that of c. auribarbis larvae. these data suggest that red deer are more heavily parasitized than fallow deer and that they are predominantly infested with p. picta lar ...19938331487
analysis of the dna-binding and transcriptional activation functions of human fli-1 protein.three of the ets oncogene superfamily members v-ets, spi-1/pu.1 and fli-1, have been shown to be directly involved in retroviral-mediated acute erythroleukemias. the fli-1 gene was found to be rearranged in 75% of the erythroleukemias induced by friend murine leukemia virus (f-mulv), suggesting that it could play a key role in cellular transformation. we have previously isolated and characterized the human fli-1 gene and have found it to be highly homologous (80%) to the human erg-2 gene. human ...19938336942
elk-1 proteins are phosphoproteins and activators of mitogen-activated protein kinase.mitogen-activated protein kinases (map kinases) or meiosis-activated myelin basic protein kinase (p44mpk) are known to be activated by a mechanism involving dual phosphorylation at both tyrosine and serine/threonine in response to many extracellular stimuli. there has been considerable speculation as to whether map kinases are autophosphorylated and activated by an upstream protein kinase (map kinase kinase) or an activator of autophosphorylation or both. here we report that the ets-related prot ...19938339245
genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily cervinae).the evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily cervinae (cervus, elaphurus, axis, and dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. we analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the cervinae were not monophyletic. the genus cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (c. elaphus ssp.), and sika (c. nippon) in one clade and sambar (c. unicolor) and ru ...19938340615
spiculopteragia spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) from red deer (cervus elaphus) in texas.specimens of spiculopteragia spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica were recovered from the abomasa of five of ten naturally infected red deer (cervus elaphus) in texas (usa). female specimens of spiculopteragia were present in all five animals. male specimens of s. spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica were present in one of five and three of five red deer, respectively. spiculopteragia spiculoptera has not previously been recognized in the united states and the present report constitutes the first records ...19938355362
characterization of megatrypanum trypanosomes from european cervidae.megatrypanum trypanosomes have been isolated from a number of different european cervidae, but on the basis of morphology it has not been possible to define the species to which these isolates belong. we isolated trypanosoma (megatrypanum) theileri from 10 cattle, and megatrypanum trypanosomes from 11 fallow deer (cervus dama), 9 red deer (cervus elaphus), and 4 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) by blood culture on a biphasic medium (nnn agar slopes). trypanosomes were propagated in schneider's dro ...19938355998
fibrils in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demonstrated in brain tissues of cwd-affected captive mule deer, rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. we now report on the presence of abno ...19938372644
the srf accessory protein elk-1 contains a growth factor-regulated transcriptional activation domain.the elk-1 and srf transcription factors form a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). growth factor stimulation rapidly induces a reversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of the ternary complex, accompanied by increased phosphorylation of the elk-1 c-terminal region and by the activation of a 42 kd cellular elk-1 kinase. phosphorylation of elk-1 in vitro by partially purified p42/p44 map kinase induces a similar reduction in ternary complex mobility but has little ef ...19938386592
pcr mediated detection of a new human receptor-tyrosine-kinase, hek 2.we have previously amplified cdna subfragments of protein-tyrosine-kinases (ptks) by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and specific sets of oligonucleotide primers derived from nucleotide sequences of their kinase domain. in this study we have used a more directed approach to identify new members of the eph/elk-family by pcr of human embryonic cdna: we utilized oligonucleotide primers specifically designed to a highly conserved n-terminal motif and the kinase region of eph/elk-ptks in rn ...19938397371
the 'individualization' of large north american mammals.the enforcement of wildlife laws and the captive breeding of threatened/endangered species requires the ability to identify individual animals. dna profiles of a variety of large north american mammals, birds, and fish were generated using ten different oligonucleotide probes. the probes tested were four multilocus probes [33.6, 33.15, je46, and (tgtc)5] and six 'human unilocus' probes [ms1 (d1s7), cmm101 (d14s13), ynh24 (d2s44), efd52 (d17s26), tbq7 (d10s28), and ms43 (d12s11). each of the prob ...19938400711
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
pedicle and antler development following sectioning of the sensory nerves to the antlerogenic region of red deer (cervus elaphus).sensory nerves supplying the deer antlerogenic region were sectioned about 60 days prior to pedicle initiation to determine the extent of neural influence on pedicle and first antler growth. our results from a combination of histological examination and immunohistochemical localization showed that all 12 antlerogenic regions were successfully deprived of sensory nerve supply, but in 10 of 12 cases there was partial regeneration during the experimental period. in the two cases where no sensory re ...19938409900
biological and biochemical activities of a chimeric epidermal growth factor-elk receptor tyrosine kinase.eph, elk, and eck are prototypes of a large family of transmembrane protein-tyrosine kinases, which are characterized by a highly conserved cysteine-rich domain and two fibronectin type iii repeats in their extracellular regions. despite the extent of the eph family, no extracellular ligands for any family member have been identified, and hence, little is known about the biological and biochemical properties of these receptor-like tyrosine kinases. in the absence of a physiological ligand for th ...19938413296
delta elk-1, a variant of elk-1, fails to interact with the serum response factor and binds to dna with modulated specificity.the ets oncogene superfamily codes for a family of transcriptional factors that are involved in gene regulation not only by autonomous dna binding but also by indirect dna binding through interaction with cellular factors. we have previously shown that a member of this superfamily, elk-1, is a sequence specific transcriptional activator, which forms a serum response factor (srf) dependent ternary complex with serum response element (sre) similar to p62tcf. we describe here an alternatively splic ...19938417810
disbudding of red deer stag calves to prevent antler deer stag calves aged five to seven months were disbudded with a standard cattle disbudding iron as a means of preventing antler growth and development. two sizes of iron, one 2.2 cm in diameter and one 1.5 cm in diameter, were compared at disbudding in november or january. disbudding in november and january with the 2.2 cm iron had success rates of 97 per cent and 92 per cent, respectively. treatment with the 1.5 cm iron was less effective at both times. there was no significant difference ...19938430483
[thiocyanate blood levels in roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and wild boar].the following serum levels of thiocyanate (scn-) were found in game: roe 6.6 +/- 4 mg/l, red deer 5.5 +/- 3.2 mg/l, fallow-deer 5.1 +/- 2.8 mg/l, and wild boar 4.8 +/- 4.5 mg/l (variation 0.6-32.6 mg scn-/l). these levels are distinctly higher than in domestic animals under stall-feeding with exception of mast calves which were fed milk-substitutes. the scn- serum level of calves, sheep and horses reach at pasturing nearly the level of game. the higher scn- serum level of cloven-hoof game resp. ...19938431200
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
a 27-mer oligonucleotide probe for the detection and measurement of the mrna for uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue of different species.1. data from rats, cattle, mice, rabbits and humans indicate considerable species heterogeneity in the sequence of the gene coding for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (ucp) in brown adipose tissue. a 27-base sequence of an exon region of the gene is, however, identical in rats and cattle; in mice, rabbits, and humans this same region shows only a single base difference from the sequence in rats and cattle. 2. a 27-mer oligonucleotide (3'-tggaagggcgacctgtggcggtttcag-5') complementary to the ...19938448986
paratuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in ireland.paratuberculosis was diagnosed in one 18-month-old and two 30-month-old hinds in a herd of 70 red deer (cervus elaphus) in ireland. loss of condition and intermittent diarrhoea were the main clinical findings. clumps of acid-fast organisms were found in the faeces of the three deer. post mortem examination of one deer showed a slight swelling and pallor of the intestinal tract and associated lymph nodes. histopathology showed a severe, granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, with extensive ce ...19938451813
nematode egg output and plasma concentration of ivermectin after its administration to red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).blood and faecal samples were analysed in a study to evaluate the use of ivermectin in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus elaphus). it was demonstrated that ivermectin, when used at 400 micrograms/kg bodyweight, proved to be more efficient than 200 micrograms/kg bodyweight although positive worm egg counts together with the isolation of lungworm (dictyocaulus species) larvae were recorded from hinds having received the anthelmintic at the higher dose.19938456547
functional analysis of a growth factor-responsive transcription factor complex.serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre) with an accessory factor, elk-1. we constructed altered-binding specificity derivatives of srf and elk-1 that form a ternary complex at a mutated, inactive sre; like elk-1, the elk-1 variant only binds its target as part of a ternary complex with srf. simultaneous expression of these srf and elk-1 derivatives restores serum-regulated activity to the mutated sre in transfected cells. efficient transcript ...19938477450
[occurrence of leptospira antibodies in the blood of game animals].the blood serum of game was examined for the presence of antibodies to leptospiras in 1987-1989. a total of 792 blood sera from animals belonging to 14 zoo-species were examined (tab. i). the blood serum of red deer (cervus elephus) was examined the most often within the group of animals, in 398 cases, i.e. 50.2%, followed by 165 blood sera of wild boar (sus scrofa), representing 20.8%, and by 136 blood sera of roedeer (capreolus capreolus), representing 18.6%. small numbers of blood sera of the ...19938488630
[microstructure of fossil mammalian bones from the rixdorfer horizon of weichsel-kaltzeit at niederlehme near königs wusterhausen (brandengurg)].the structure is reported of bones of glacial-period mammals, which were found in 1973 to 1989 in gravel-sandy soil of the fossiliferous layer "rixdorfer horizont" at niederlehme near königs wusterhausen. the findings, probably, date from one of the interstages of the glacial period "weichsel-kaltzeit" before the stage "brandenburger stadium". their embedding took place more than 20,000 years ago. changes of the deposit of bones and teeth from older sediments are not to exclude in the finding pl ...19938489038
occurrence and overlapping of pharyngeal bot flies pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis (oestridae) in red deer of southern spain.from 1985 to 1990, 372 red deer (cervus elaphus) from southern spain were examined for larvae of pharyngeal bot flies pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis. the infestation was related to age, sex and intensity of infection. fawns and adult deer (more than 5 years old) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence and intensity of infection than younger deer. conversely, no significant difference has been noted between sexes. ninety percent of deer were found to be infested. a simulta ...19938493758
heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from finnish elk in 1980-81 and 1990. 19938495060
diversionary role of hoofed game in the transmission of lyme disease determine whether the presence of ungulates may inhibit transmission of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) while promoting the abundance of its european vector tick (ixodes ricinus), we compared the feeding density of subadult ticks on roe deer (capreolus capreolus), red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and wild sheep (ovis ammon) near berlin and in brandenburg state, germany. the prevalence of spirochetal infection in these ticks was compared with that in ticks s ...19938517488
red deer antlers as biomonitors for lead contamination. 19958520137
forensic identification of ungulate species using restriction digests of pcr-amplified mitochondrial dna.a survey of mitochondrial d-loop variation in 15 species of ungulates was conducted via amplification by the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this survey included moose (alces alces), caribou (rangifer tarandus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (o. h. columbianus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), waipiti (cervus elaphus), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), stone's she ...19958522926
the ets-domain transcription factors elk-1 and sap-1 exhibit differential dna binding specificities.the ets dna-binding domain is conserved amongst many eukaryotic transcription factors. ets-domains bind differentially to specific dna sites containing a central gga trinucleotide motif. the nucleotides flanking this motif define the binding specificity of individual proteins. in this study we have investigated binding specificity of the ets-domains from two members of the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily, elk-1 and sap-1. the ets dna-binding domains of elk-1 (elk-93) and sap-1 (sap-92) se ...19958524663
one known sarcocystis species and two found for the first time in red deer and wapiti (cervus elaphus) in europe.three species of sarcocysts from indigenous red deer and captive wapiti (cervus elaphus, cervidae) were characterized by means of light and electron microscopy. two of them were found in this intermediate host species for the first time. comparison of the literature and our results led to the conclusion that the three sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) should be provisionally designated as s. cf. grueneri, s. cf. capreolicanis and s. cf. hofmanni.19958528304
one known sarcocystis species and one found for the first time in fallow deer (dama dama).sarcocysts of free-ranging indigenous fallow deer (dama d. dama) from northeast germany and captive persian fallow deer (dama dama mesopotamica) from the zoo berlin-friedrichsfelde were described using the transmission electron microscope. two sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) were found in d. d. dama, one of them already known, the other new for this host. the known species was also found in d. dama mesopotamica. comparing the literature, former own findings in roe deer, red deer or ...19958528305
biochemical analysis of sh2 domain-mediated protein interactions. 19958531711
embryo brain kinase: a novel gene of the eph/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family.a new gene belonging to the eph/eck/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family has been cloned from mouse brain. the gene maps to mouse chromosome 4. in the adult brain it is expressed exclusively and abundantly in the hippocampus. we propose to name it ebk (embryo brain kinase), as in situ hybridisation shows expression in many parts of the developing mouse brain. the most abundant expression is in the subcommissural organ, and the earliest expression is in the forebrain neural folds, in rhombomeres 2 ...19958541219
serum response element and flanking sequences mediate the synergistic transcriptional activation of c-fos by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and cholera toxin in akr-2b cells.12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa) and cholera toxin have been shown previously to act synergistically to stimulate traverse of g0-g1 and entry into s phase in quiescent mouse fibroblasts. these agents also have a synergistic effect on the induction of the endogenous c-fos gene, as well as a transfected reporter construct containing the mouse fos promoter/enhancer region from -397 to +1 cloned upstream of luciferase. a detailed mutational analysis of the c-fos-regulatory region revealed ...19958547224
activation of ternary complex factor elk-1 by stress-activated protein kinases.the mammalian response to stress results in the activation of stress-activated protein kinases (also known as cjun n-terminal kinases; sapks or jnks), which are a sub-group of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase family. the sapks are involved in the upregulation of activity of the transcription factor ap-1 by post-translational modification of two of its components, cjun and atf2. ap-1 activity can also be elevated by increased expression of the fos protein, a further ap-1 component. elk- ...19958548291
isolation of lerk-5: a ligand of the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases.hek and elk are members of the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently we isolated four cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands to hek and elk [beckman et al. (1994) embo j. 13, 3757-3762; kozlosky et al. (1995) oncogene 10, 299-306]. because of the promiscuous nature of their binding, we have termed these proteins ligands of the eph-related kinases or lerks. a search of genbank revealed an expressed sequence tag (est) with homology to the lerks. using this est as a probe, we hav ...19958559144
pasteurellosis in elk (cervus elaphus): dna fingerprinting of isolates. 19958560727
plant compositional constituents affecting between-plant and animal species prediction of forage intake.the purpose of the study was to identify plant compositional constituents that influence forage intake. emphasis was put on the ratio in vitro digestibility of organic matter (ivdom):ndf because preliminary work with cattle and a limited number of forages showed the ratio to account for more variation in intake than either ivdom or ndf alone. the compositional constituents were tested in intake prediction models using local and published data (n = 302) on grass pastures, silages, hays, straws, l ...19958567482
ligands for eph-related tyrosine kinase receptors are developmentally regulated in the cns.elk is a member of the eph family of receptor-like tyrosine kinases. although its function is unknown, elk is postulated to play a role in nervous system development. using northern analysis, we examined the developmental regulation of rnas encoding elk, and several ligands for the eph family of rtks, the lerks. expression of elk, lerk-1, and lerk-2 rnas is high in all regions examined in the embryonic and postnatal rat brain and decreases to low levels with age. one exception is the adult olfac ...19958568920
locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (elk3, elk1, and elk4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human, elk1, and sap1 are related members of the ets oncoprotein family. we show by in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes with specific cdna probes that their map positions on mouse and human chromosomes (respectively) are net, 10c-d1 and 12q22-q23 (now called elk3), sap1, 1e3-g and 1q32 (elk4), and elk1, xa1-a3 and xp11.2-p11.1 (elk1), as well as a second locus 14q32 (elk2) unique to the human genome. the results for the mouse net, sap1, and elk1 and human elk3 genes are new. the human elk1 ...19958575773
[evaluation of the meat quality of game].the carcasses of 140 roe deer, 129 wild boars, 81 red deer and 55 fallow deer were examined to determine meat quality with respect to the influence of typical hunting situations. after hunting, many carcasses had not been cooled, which significantly influenced meat-quality parameters. the ph-value, detected electrochemically, gave the most reliable results out of all the meat-quality parameters investigated. determination of the ph-value with regard to the ph indexes ascertained for different po ...19958578914
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