common drivers of seasonal movements on the migration - residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore.this study aimed to (1) identify the scale of environmental drivers of seasonal movements on the migration - residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore species and to (2) test the hypothesis that the same environmental drivers and spatio-temporal scaling should influence spatial processes in both migrants (long distance migration) and residents (short distance range shifts). we performed a comparative analysis of the influence of plant phenology and snow cover duration on seasonal movemen ...201829769562
sika deer (cervus nippon)-specific real-time pcr method to detect fraudulent labelling of meat and meat products.since game meat is more valuable and expensive than meat from domesticated animal species it is a potential target for adulteration. analytical methods must allow the identification and quantification of meat species to be applicable for the detection of fraudulent labelling. we developed a real-time pcr assay for the authentication of sika deer (cervus nippon) and products thereof. the primer/probe system amplifies a 71 bp fragment of the kappa-casein precursor gene. since the target sequence c ...201829739996
genome sequences of two novel papillomaviruses isolated from healthy skin of pudu puda and cervus elaphus deer.we report the complete genome sequences of pudu puda papillomavirus1 (ppudpv1) and cervus elaphus papillomavirus2 (celapv2), isolated from healthy skin hair follicles of a southern pudu and a red deer, respectively. ppudpv1 is basal to the dyokappapvs, whereas celapv2 is basal to the xipvs (beta-xipv crown group).201829724829
long-term occurrence of trichuris species in wild ruminants in the czech republic.the aim of this study was to identify trichuris species in wild ruminants from 32 localities in the czech republic using morphological and molecular methods (its1-5.8s rna-its2 region polymorphisms). trichurids were obtained from 176 wild ruminants (roe deer, sika deer, red deer, fallow deer and mouflons) that were culled between 2009 and 2017. trichuris discolor is the predominant trichurid of all of the above-mentioned wild ruminants, whereas trichuris ovis was identified less frequently in ro ...201829721657
a novel application of an anthelmintic mixture for use against gastrointestinal parasites of red deer (cervus elaphus).a mixture of proprietary anthelmintics delivering 0.5 mg/kg moxidectin, 9.06 mg/kg oxfendazole, 15 mg/kg levamisole, and 0.08 mg/kg selenium on bodyweight basis per os to red deer is investigated. on a deer farm with a history of parasite problems, six weaner red deer were treated orally with a 50/50 mixture of exodus pour-on and oxfen c plus (ex/ox) at a dose rate of 1 ml/5 kg bodyweight. six herd mates were untreated. eleven days later abomasal worm counts for the untreated deer revealed an ar ...201829692928
pregnancy and mid-term abortion rates in farmed red deer in new zealand.this paper describes pregnancy and mid-term abortion rate data from an investigation of sub-optimal reproductive performance in new zealand farmed red deer. for 2 years, 87 yearling (yl) and 71 mixed-age adult (ma) herds from 85 farms were observed with 15 yl and seven ma herds observed both years. hinds were pregnancy diagnosed using ultrasonography in the late autumn-early winter (pd1) and again late winter-early spring (pd2) and mid-term daily abortion rates (dar) were calculated. overall, 85 ...201829685706
draft whole-genome sequences of three diarrheagenic escherichia coli strains isolated from farmed deer in new zealand.escherichia coli bacteria commonly colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of farmed ruminants. cattle are a well-recognized reservoir of zoonotic e. coli; we report here, however, the draft genome sequences of three diarrheagenic e. coli strains isolated from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in the manawatu region of new zealand.201829674551
transmission of helminths between species of ruminants in austria appears more likely to occur than generally assumed.helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. in austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and tran ...201829662884
declining home range area predicts reduced late-life survival in two wild ungulate populations.demographic senescence is increasingly recognised as an important force shaping the dynamics of wild vertebrate populations. however, our understanding of the processes that underpin these declines in survival and fertility in old age remains limited. evidence for age-related changes in foraging behaviour and habitat use is emerging from wild vertebrate studies, but the extent to which these are driven by within-individual changes, and the consequences for fitness, remain unclear. using longitud ...201829656580
evaluation of factors affecting the efficacy of treatment against fascioloides magna in wild red deer population.deer fascioloidosis is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by the non-native trematode fascioloides magna. infections of red deer with f. magna in croatia have been reported for the first time in 2000 in the baranja region. subsequently, the disease spread throughout the eastern parts of the country, involving all 3 deer species (red, roe, and fallow) and mouflons. within the disease control programme (dcp), livers from all shot deer were thoroughly analysed and all detected trematode ...201829631313
enamel apatite crystallinity significantly contributes to mammalian dental adaptations.the monophyodont molar teeth, prismatic enamel and the complexity of enamel microarchitecture are regarded as essential dental apomorphies of mammals. as prominent background factors of feeding efficiency and individual longevity these characters are crucial components of mammalian adaptive dynamics. little is known, however, to which degree these adaptations are influenced by the crystallographic properties of elementary hydroxyapatite crystallites, the only inorganic component of enamel. in a ...201829615748
mycobacterium aviumsubsp. paratuberculosis isolated from wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in northern italy.paratuberculosis (or johne's disease) is an infectious disease which affects mainly ruminants and it is caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). during a culling program (years 2011-2015) aimed at controlling the red deer (cervus elaphus) population in stelvio national park (italian alps), where paratuberculosis was already described in this species, 382 tissue samples from the lombardy region and 102 fecal specimens from the autonomous province of bolzano were analyzed by pc ...201829615250
identification of first-stage dorsal-spined lungworm larvae of tunisian barbary red deer: first report of varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi in africa.barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) is a protected rare subspecies of red deer. the study of its protostrongylidae fauna based only on sporadic necropsy of naturally dead animals is difficult. therefore diagnosis of lungworms rely mainly on the identification of the first stage larvae (l1). the l1 of the different species are not readily diagnosed on morphological basis since much variation is recorded within and among dorsal-spined larvae belonging to various species. the aim of this stu ...201829581029
lower dietary concentrate level increases bacterial diversity in the rumen of cervus elaphus yarkandensis.the ruminal microbiota plays major roles in feed digestion. the composition and fermentation of the bacterial communities in 3 important ruminant species have been studied previously. here, we extended this research to the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratios on ruminal bacterial communities in tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis). different concentrate-to-forage ratios (2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5) were fed to tarim red deer for 20 days. ruminal bacterial communities were elucidated by 16s ...201829562140
carcass and meat characteristics from farm-raised and wild fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus): a review.deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). the production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. it is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. overall, the world ...201829558697
influence of insemination time on the fertility of sex sorted frozen-thawed y-sperm in red deer.the aim of this study was to assess the effect of insemination timing on pregnancy rates in red deer (cervus elaphus) when using sex-sorted sperm samples. semen was collected by electroejaculation from 8 mature stags and processed to obtain: conventional samples, following standard freezing procedures for commercial purposes; control sorted samples, diluted and handled as per sorted samples but without being submitted to the sorter passage; and y sex sorted (yss) samples. hinds were synchronized ...201829547733
seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. however, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (cervus elaphus) on the isle of rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. we collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from ...201829519265
effects of mn supplementation in late-gestating and lactating red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) on milk production, milk composition, and calf growth.this study describes the effects of mn supplementation of 20 late-gestating and lactating iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) females (hinds) fed a balanced diet on milk production and milk composition over the lactation period. body weight of their calves at birth and at weaning was also evaluated. in addition, the effect of lactation stage was studied. for these purposes, 2 groups of hinds, one composed by 12 individuals (experimental) and the other by 8 individuals (control) were com ...201829518225
preventive effects of velvet antler (cervus elaphus) against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting mapk/nf-κb activation and inducing ampk/nrf2 pathways.velvet antler (cervus elaphus) is a typical traditional animal medicine. it is considered to have various pharmacological effects including stimulation of the immune system, increase in the physical strength, and enhancement of sexual function. this paper aims to investigate the aqueous extract of velvet antler (ava) in the mouse models of lps-induced ali. inhibition of no, tnf-α, il-1β, il-6, and il-10 productions contributes to the attenuation of lps-induced lung inflammation by ava. a 5-day p ...201829483931
lack of association between leptospira spp. serovars hardjobovis and pomona and pregnancy and mid-term abortion in new zealand farmed red deer.this paper investigates leptospira borgpeterseni serovar hardjobovis and l. interrogans serovar pomona as potential causes of sub-optimum pregnancy rates and mid-term abortion in farmed red deer. rising two-year-old (r2, n = 22,130) and mixed-age (ma, n = 36,223) hinds from 87 and 71 herds, respectively, throughout new zealand were ultrasound scanned early in gestation (scan-1) and a sub-sample re-scanned (scan-2) 55-89 days later and mid-term daily abortion rate calculated. a sub-sample of sera ...201829426411
estimating abundance of an open population with an n-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements.accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. the mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. aeria ...201829405475
scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (ii).the european commission asked efsa for a scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease in two parts. part one, on surveillance, animal health risk-based measures and public health risks, was published in january 2017. this opinion (part two) addresses the remaining terms of reference, namely, 'are the conclusions and recommendations in the efsa opinion of june 2004 on diagnostic methods for chronic wasting disease still valid? if not, an update should be provided', and 'update the conclusions of ...201832625679
assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the animal health law (regulation (eu) no 2016/429): bluetongue.a specific concept of strain was developed in order to classify the btv serotypes ever reported in europe based on their properties of animal health impact: the genotype, morbidity, mortality, speed of spread, period and geographical area of occurrence were considered as classification parameters. according to this methodology the strain groups identified were (i) the btv strains belonging to serotypes btv-1-24, (ii) some strains of serotypes btv-16 and (iii) small ruminant-adapted strains belon ...201732625623
[structural–functional condition of the thyroid gland of red deer at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis].the histological structure and morphometric and some histochemical indices of thyroid gland ofmaral as a subspecies of red deer at the postnatal stage of ontogenesis were studied. it was established that thegland was structurally formed by the time of the birth. c-cells are detected at 6 months of age. with age, theratio of follicles of different sizes changed: smaller forms predominate in newborns and those 6 months old,medium and large predominate in adults and in old deer. histological, morph ...201830272886
spavin in red deer: a case study from the early neolithic blagotin, serbia.pathological modifications are rarely observed in the remains of wild animals from archaeological sites. we present one such specific, pathological change - a case of spavin in a red deer specimen from the early neolithic site of blagotin, in central serbia. the left tarsal joint presented proliferative new bone formation, which was analyzed macroscopically, then subjected to x-ray and computed tomography (ct) imaging. we assume that the initial degenerative changes in this red deer tarsal joint ...201629539526
cementoblastoma in a red deer (cervus elaphus) from the late pleistocene of rochedane, france.only relatively few cases of dental abnormalities in wild ruminants have thus far been described in the paleopathological literature. this study reports a case of cementoblastoma, a benign odontogenic tumor of ectomesenchymal origin, in a red deer (cervus elaphus) from the late pleistocene of rochedane, a prehistoric site in the french jura. the tumor was attached to the root of a heavily worn loose left maxillary third molar. ct imaging revealed several radiolucent (former soft tissue) spaces o ...201529539480
extrinsic modification of vertebrate sex ratios by climatic variation.evidence for the influences of climate on early development, maternal condition, and offspring viability in terrestrial vertebrates suggests that climatic change has the potential to induce variation in offspring sex ratios in such organisms. using long-term data at individual and population levels, we investigated the influence of global climatic variation, as a result of the north atlantic oscillation (nao), on offspring sex ratios of red deer in norway. the state of the nao during the fetal d ...199929578787
packaging venison for extended chilled storage: comparison of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging containing 100% carbon dioxide.thirty red deer ( cervus elaphus ) stags were slaughtered at three deer slaughter premises (plants a, b, and c) to determine the effects of initial microbial flora on the quality of chilled venison loins stored using three packaging methods: vacuum packaging (vp), modified atmosphere packaging using an ultra-high barrier outer barrier film (co2-uhb), and modified atmosphere packaging using a dual aluminized polyethylene outer barrier film (co2-mpet), all of which were stored for 6, 12, and 18 we ...198931003357
lead poisoning of red deer in the lower harz. 194818910512
the european bison (bison bonasus) as an indicatory species for the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) in natural foci in poland.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in europe transmitted by ixodidae vectors. while small mammals such as bank voles and ticks constitute the main reservoirs for virus transmission, large sylvatic species act as a food source for ticks. cervids such as roe deer and red deer are considered sentinel species for tbe in natural foci. in addition, an increase of the population size and density of large wild mammals in an area corresponds to an increase in the ti ...202134358779
detection of tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus), united kingdom.deer represent a major vertebrate host for all feeding stages of the hard tick ixodes ricinus in the united kingdom (uk), and could play a role in the persistence of tick-borne pathogens. however, there have been few studies reporting the presence of babesia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum in deer in the uk, and those that detected babesia were unable to confirm the species. to address this, we have investigated blood samples from red deer (cervus elaphus) for the presence of tick-borne patho ...202134070977
a survey of shared pathogens at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface in doñana national park (spain).a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate shared pathogens that can be transmitted by close or non-close contact at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface. during summer-autumn 2015, a total of 138 cattle and 203 wild ruminants (red deer, cervus elaphus, and fallow deer, dama dama) were sampled in doñana national park (dnp, south-western spain), a mediterranean ecosystem well known for the interaction network occurring in the ungulate host community. pestiviruses, bovine respiratory sy ...202133900033
schmallenberg virus, cyclical reemergence in the core region: a seroepidemiologic study in wild cervids, belgium, 2012-2017.schmallenberg virus emerged in 2011 in europe. the epicentre of primordial spreading was the region straddling germany, the netherlands and belgium. one of the key questions is whether the newcomer would establish a lasting presence on the continent. the apparent seroprevalence in southern belgium wild deer populations was followed for 6 years. two years of intense circulation were revealed, 2012 and 2016, characterized by a peak seroprevalence in the two studied populations (capreolus capreolus ...202133949132
long-term determinants of the seroprevalence of the bluetongue virus in deer species in southern spain.bluetongue is a vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, with a major socioeconomic impact. endemic circulation of the bluetongue virus serotype 4 (btv-4) and btv-1 have occurred in spain since 2004 and 2007, respectively. however, epidemiological studies have seldom been approached from a long-term perspective in wild ruminants. a total of 881 deer (red deer and fallow deer) were necropsied from 2005 to 2018 as part of the dnp health-monitoring program. serum samples were tes ...202134280654
mammalian orthoreovirus (mrv) is widespread in wild ungulates of northern italy.mammalian orthoreoviruses (mrvs) are emerging infectious agents that may affect wild animals. mrvs are usually associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory and enteric infections. however, severe clinical manifestations have been occasionally reported in human and animal hosts. an insight into their circulation is essential to minimize the risk of diffusion to farmed animals and possibly to humans. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of likely zoonotic mrvs in wild ungulate ...202133546342
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