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freemartinism in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).several mixed-sex twins were produced by red deer treated with progesterone and pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin. of seven females karyotyped, two were 68,xx/68,xy chimeras. one male had the same chimeric karyotype as its female co-twin. these are the first reported cases of freemartinism in deer.19902249475
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in white-tailed deer from michigan.dorsal-spined larvae in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan and pennsylvania were used as a source of larvae to infect a hand-raised white-tailed deer fawn. the fawn receive 200 third-stage larvae and passed dorsal-spined larvae in feces 66 days later. muscleworm (parelaphostrongylus andersoni), and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recovered at necropsy. two white-tailed deer and seven wapiti (cervus elaphus) exposed to larvae of ...19902250330
variation of some serum proteins in red deer, cervus elaphus l.various electrophoretic techniques, immunoblotting and inhibitions of trypsin and chymotrypsin were used to study the variability of serum proteins in farmed red deer, cervus elaphus l., of czechoslovakian origin. easily interpretable polymorphisms were observed in transferrin (variants a, b1, b2, c) and vitamin d binding protein, gc (variants d, f, i, s). great variability was observed in the protease inhibitors pi2, pi3, pi4, pi5, and pi8 and in unidentified zones in the vicinity of albumin, b ...19902268075
mammalian sex ratios and variation in costs of rearing sons and daughters.in red deer, the sex ratio of calves at birth (calculated as the proportion of calves born that are male) increases with the dominance rank of the mother, whereas opposite trends exist in several populations of macaques and baboons. here we show that the subsequent survival and reproductive success of subordinate female red deer is depressed more by rearing sons than by rearing daughters, whereas the subsequent fitness of dominant females is unaffected by the sex of their present offspring. by c ...19902300169
[dictyocaulus species, lungworms in cattle and deer in the netherlands].using recent descriptions of dictyocaulus species, all samples of lungworms in cattle were identified as d. viviparus, and all samples from roe deer, red deer and reindeer being identified as d. eckerti by the present authors. although cross infections between cattle and cervids are reported in the literature, these are not readily established. because of the different species and the small likelihood of cross infections cattle and cervids are not regarded as serious sources of lungworm infectio ...19902305391
effect of preslaughter experience on behaviour, plasma cortisol and muscle ph in farmed red deer.three groups of farmed red deer were shot in the field, three groups were slaughtered on the farm and three groups were transported to commercial slaughterhouses. the behaviour of the animals was observed and peripheral plasma cortisol concentrations were measured immediately after slaughter and neck muscle ph was measured 24 hours after slaughter. the deer could be handled and herded without agitation when only one unhindered direction was open to them and nothing in the environment caused alar ...19902309417
localization of cloned, repetitive dna sequences in deer species and its implications for maintenance of gene territory.the deer family shows the largest variation in chromosome number known in mammals (2n = 6 to 2n = 70). the drastic rearrangement of the chromosomes allows to test the prediction, based on the chromosome field theory, according to which dna sequences tend to occupy specific territories within the eukaryotic chromosome. nuclear dnas were isolated from eight deer and two bovidae species. these dnas were cleaved with the restriction enzymes eco ri and alu i. following eco ri digestion highly repetit ...19902361878
effects of melatonin and a dopamine agonist and antagonist on seasonal changes in voluntary intake, reproductive activity and plasma concentrations of prolactin and tri-iodothyronine in red deer hinds.three experiments were conducted in the period between july and november with non-lactating red deer hinds to describe the effects of treatment with melatonin during this period on voluntary food intake (vfi), the onset of the breeding season, coat changes and plasma concentrations of prolactin and triiodothyronine (t3), and to examine whether prolactin mediated the observed effects. in experiment 1, eight animals were treated orally each day with either 10 mg melatonin at 16.00 h or 10 mg melat ...19902373977
[the elk--the intermediate host of echinococcus granulosus in yakutia].the yakut elk is an obligatory intermediate host of e. granulosus (batsch, 1786). in this region, a mixed focus of hydatid echinococcosi causative agent with a dog-elk-dog pattern of circulation was revealed in the presence of a natural focus where the circulation pattern was wolf-elk-wolf.19902377142
[unusual metaplasia of the deer lung].a short description of metaplasia in the bronchioles of a red deer is given. the process is possibly started by aspiration and chronic irritation by larvae of cephenemyia stimulator.19902377988
comparative studies on megatrypanum trypanosomes from cervids.trypanosomes were isolated by culture from 2 out of 50 blood samples collected from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.) in northern sweden and from a blood sample from a moose (alces alces) from southern sweden. the parasites were indistinguishable morphologically from other trypanosomes reported from cervids, both as epimastigotes in axenic culture at 27 degrees c and as bloodstream-like trypomastigotes cultured on mammalian fibroblasts at 37 degrees c. surface carbohydrate and isoenzyme comparison ...19902382100
intestinal lesions resembling paratuberculosis in a wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).one of three feral rabbits from a colony on a hill grazing used to sustain farmed red deer in north-east scotland, had chronic intestinal lesions resembling paratuberculosis (johne's disease), but similar lesions were not found in 29 juvenile and adult rabbits killed subsequently on the same ground. acid- and alcohol-fast bacteria were observed in fixed tissues, but material for culture was not obtained from the affected rabbit, thus the species of mycobacterium involved was not identified. the ...19902394843
real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and estimation of fetal age in farmed red deer.twenty-nine farmed red deer hinds two years of age or older were observed during mating in april, and the dates of oestrus and, or, mating were recorded. from may 28 to august 13, at approximately weekly intervals, the deer's uteri and associated structures were examined by rectal ultrasound using a 5 mhz transducer while the deer were held standing in a restraining device. the uterine diameter, amniotic sac diameters, crown-rump length, head length, nose length, chest depth, chest width and pla ...19902408225
column-like structures following the course of dentinal tubules in bovine, red deer, and rat teeth.a material of bovine, red deer, and rat incisors was investigated, with emphasis on the bovine teeth. both ground sections and paraffin wax sections of demineralized material were used. the sections were investigated by ordinary and polarized light microscopy and contact microradiography. in the bulk of the dentin irregular column-like light structures, alternating with largely similar, but dark, columns, followed the course of the dentinal tubules from the pulpal border to just below the mantle ...19882462743
novel protein-tyrosine kinase cdnas related to fps/fes and eph cloned using anti-phosphotyrosine antibody.a rat brain lambda gt11 cdna expression library was screened with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody to identify recombinant clones that encode enzymatically active protein-tyrosine kinases. the inserts of two bacteriophage that gave positive signals were sequenced. both translation products possess sequence motifs characteristic of protein-tyrosine kinases. however, each polypeptide is distinct from previously described members of the tyrosine kinase family. the predicted product of the lambda b1 cl ...19882485255
integrated control of fascioloides magna infection in northern italy.the following study records ten years' experience in the control of fascioloides magna infection in a fenced area grazed by an overdense red deer population together with free-ranging cattle. during the winter 1977/78 mortality due to a "fascioloidosis-malnutrition syndrome" reduced the deer stock almost by half. control measures were aimed at combatting the fluke in the wild definitive host by the administration of medicated pellets. four flukicides were used over the years: rafoxanide, diamphe ...19892486993
snakebite in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eight cases of snakebite occurred in seven of 11 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during june and july 1987. severity of reactions to envenomation varied; affected elk presented with combinations of signs that included painful swelling restricted to the face and muzzle, submandibular edema, inspiratory dyspnea, epistaxis, frothy, blood-tinged nasal discharge, epiphora, anorexia and anxiousness or depression. we observed puncture wounds in only two cases. treatment consisted of ...19892503625
isolation of pilobolus spp. from the northern elk herd in yellowstone national park.pilobolus spp. were recovered from all fecal samples collected from an elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd in yellowstone national park (usa) with a high prevalence of dictyocaulus viviparus infection. pilobolus spp. have been shown to be important in the epizootiology of d. viviparus infections in cattle because these fungi aid in dissemination of larvae away from feces to areas where animals are more likely to ingest them, and protect larvae against dehydration and thus prolong survival. the sam ...19892523978
elk, tissue-specific ets-related genes on chromosomes x and 14 near translocation breakpoints.the myb-ets-containing acute leukemia virus, e26, transforms myeloblasts and erythroblasts in culture and causes a mixed erythroid and myeloid leukemia in chicks. genes (ets-1, ets-2, and erg) with variable relatedness to the v-ets oncogene of the e26 virus have been identified, cloned, and characterized in several species. two new members (elk-1 and elk-2) of the ets oncogene superfamily have now been identified. nucleotide sequence analysis of the elk-1 cdna clone revealed that this gene encod ...19892539641
identification of genetic variation between strains of bluetongue virus serotype 11 using cdna probes.recombinant plasmids containing inserts representing genome segments 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11, with tentative coding assignments for viral proteins p2, p5, ns1, ns2, and p6, respectively, have been used to study the genetic diversity within a btv serotype using northern blot hybridization. btv 11 strains were isolated in california, nevada, oklahoma, and mexico from elk, deer, and cattle. diversity was indirectly indicated in the btv 11 strains by comparisons of el ...19892543132
definition of an ets1 protein domain required for nuclear localization in cells and dna-binding activity in vitro.ets1 and ets2 are nuclear phosphoproteins which bind to dna in vitro and share two domains of strong identity. deletion analyses of each of these conserved regions in ets1 demonstrated that integrity of the carboxy-terminal domain, also conserved in the more distantly related elk and erg gene products, is essential for both nuclear targeting and dna-binding activity in vitro.19892555704
the nature of the unconventional slow infection agents remains a puzzle.unconventional slow infections are progressive transmissible degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. the human diseases belonging to this group are creutzfeld-jakob disease, kuru, and gerstmann-straussler syndrome. scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, and the recently discovered bovine spongiform encephalopathy are similar diseases found in animals. unusual characteristics of the unconventional slow infections clearly distinguish ...19892568119
erve virus, a probable member of bunyaviridae family isolated from shrews (crocidura russula) in france.an apparently new agent, provisionally named erve virus, was isolated in 1982 from tissues of three white toothed shrews, crocidura russula, trapped near saulges village in western france. results of virological and ultrastructural studies suggest that this virus belongs to the bunyaviridae family and is a bunyavirus-like agent. serosurveys indicate that erve virus had apparently a large geographical distribution in france and infects rodents, insectivores, wild boars (sus scrofa), red deer (cer ...19892570514
reproduction in the red deer female and the effect of oestrogens on the antler cycle and behaviour.red deer (cervus elaphus) is a seasonally breeding mammal. the season of reproduction is probably regulated by photoperiod. the rut and the majority of conceptions occur in october. if hind is not allowed to mate the oestrus is repeated at an interval of about 13.5 days. in captivity the mating season is more prolonged and the calving season is extended. the length of gestation is about 235 days. the fat % of milk varies between 6.6 and 17.4. a hind in good condition may attain puberty as 16.5 m ...19892603745
[legal regulations and practical application of studies of slaughtered game animals and their meat].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publications on the one hand dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mouflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892617520
melatonin can induce year-round ovarian cyclicity in red deer (cervus elaphus).from 17 february 1987 (day 1) to 5 june 1988 (day 475), 6 red deer hinds which had been in natural daylength (nl/m) and 6 hinds which had been in continuous artificial light for the previous month (cl/m) were each given melatonin (5 mg in feed) daily at 15:00 h. six controls (c) received unsupplemented feed. from day 1 all hinds were in natural daylight and ovarian cyclicity was assessed from plasma progesterone concentrations. group c first went into anoestrus on 15 march 1987 (day 27 +/- 9.2 ( ...19892621713
bone formation and body composition of european elk: an ontogenetic model.metapodial and femur measurements were gathered on 8 female and 12 male western european elk (alces alces [l. 1758] alces) skeletons in four osteological collections in scandinavia. additional variables such as carcass and bone weight as well as metacarpal measurements recorded on 43 females and 47 males hunted in central sweden were completed by metatarsal measurements available for 28 female and 29 male individuals of the same sample. these bones were divided into two gross age groups on the b ...19892627003
[harboring of helminth parasites by the european bison (bison bonasus l.) and deer (cervidae) in the białowieza forest].parasitological autopsy of 31 european bison , 9 red-deer and 3 roe-deer was made in białowieza forest in the period 1983-1988. together 20 species of nematodes were found, from them as much as 18 in bison , 6 in red-deer and 8 in roe-deer . the highest intensity and 100% of extensity was shown by nematodes from subfamily ostertagiinae. four species of this subfamily (o. leptospicularis, o. kolchida, s. boehmi i s. mathevossiani) have been permanently adapted by bison from cervids, however two s ...19892633504
lh and testosterone responses to gnrh in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags kept in a manipulated photoperiod.six red deer stags from age 4 months were kept in a light-proof room under an artificial photoperiod consisting of 5.5 cycles of alternate 2-month periods of 16 h light and 8 h dark (16l:8d) and 8l:16d. at 2 or 3 weekly intervals from 10 months of age through 4 cycles, the stags were anaesthetized with xylazine and challenged i.v. with 10 micrograms gnrh. blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and 10 and 60 min after injection. lh and testosterone concentrations were measured in all sam ...19892644427
diagnosis of pregnancy and prediction of fetal age in red deer by real-time ultrasonic scanning.sixteen pregnant red deer hinds were scanned using real-time ultra sound at regular intervals during the first 150 days of pregnancy. in the early stages of pregnancy, an intra-rectal linear array transducer was used but later in pregnancy the hinds were scanned externally with a sector scanner. pregnancy was determined from 30 days of gestation by intra-rectal scanning, and from 50 days by external scanning. with advancing age the size of the fetus increased, and linear regressions of size on a ...19892658297
rapid dwarfing of red deer on jersey in the last interglacial.the dwarfing of large mammals on islands occurred repeatedly in the pleistocene. elephants, deer, hippopotami and other species became dwarfed on islands in indonesia, the mediterranean, the east pacific and elsewhere. in most cases, the full-sized ancestral form can be recognized among the adjacent mainland fauna, but evolutionary rates cannot be estimated because the entry of the ancestor onto the island, and appearance of the dwarf form, are poorly dated. here i give the first example in whic ...19892685610
antibody to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) in hamsters experimentally infected with ahv-1 and the 'sheep-associated' agent of malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever was induced in four groups of hamsters by the inoculation of cells infected with either the c/500 isolate of alcelaphine herpes-virus-1 (ahv-1) or the sheep-associated agent derived from cattle, red deer or père david's deer. using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, antibody to ahv-1 was detected in sera of clinically affected animals of all four groups. the reaction of sera from hamsters affected with malignant catarrhal fever induced by ahv-1 caused diffuse cytopla ...19892687990
pulmonary mycosis in farmed deer: allergic zygomycosis and invasive aspergillosis.during 1988, pulmonary mycosis was diagnosed in four of 116 farmed deer examined on suspicion of tuberculosis. the histopathology showed allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in a red deer (cervus elaphus) and the agent was identified as a zygomycete, probably absidia corymbifera, by immunofluorescence staining. three fallow deer (dama dama) had invasive necrotizing mycotic pneumonia and progressive exudative mycotic alveolitis caused by aspergillus fumigatus. in the red deer, weakness due to paratu ...19892689623
identification of dorsal-spined larvae from free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) in southwestern manitoba, canada.dorsal-spined first-stage larvae recovered from feces of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) were passaged through snails (triodopsis multilineata) and two hand-raised white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 74 adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis were recovered from the fawns; no other protostrongylid nematodes were recovered. the study indicates that wapiti may be infected with natural infections of meningeal worm and pass larvae suitable for transmission to gastropod interme ...19892716114
species of the genus elaphostrongylus parasite of swedish cervidae. a description of e. alces n. sp.a description of elaphostrongylus alces n. sp., a parasite of moose (alces alces l.), is given. the main features differing e. alces n. sp. from the other two investigated species are the bottle shaped oesophagus and the oval bursa, which is about 150 microns x 200 microns. e. rangiferi mitskevith, 1960, a parasite of reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus l.) and e. cervi cameron, 1931, a parasite of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) have both a club shaped or cylindrical oesophagus and a circular bur ...19892735702
[food specialization in ruminants: the role of endosymbiosis in its formation].peculiarities of endosymbiosis have been studied in four species of ruminant animals with different food specialization (cervus elaphus, moschus moschiferus, carpa sibirica, ans gasella subgutturosa) using the methods of macromorphology, light and electron microscopy, and histochemistry. the differences in morphology of bacteria from populations inhabiting rumen epithelium of the studied animals have been revealed. the specificity of connection of bacteria with cornified epithelium has been demo ...19892745856
pulsatile growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors and antler development in red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus) stags.plasma samples taken every 30 min over a 26-h period each month from six 4- to 15-month-old red deer stags were analysed for gh. in addition, two samples taken at 10.00 and 22.00 h were analysed for insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) and insulin-like growth factor-ii (igf-ii). a concentrate diet was available ad libitum. food intake, body weight and antler status were recorded. concentrations of gh were analysed using the pulsar peak detection routine. secretion of gh was pulsatile in every mo ...19892754367
[legal foundation and practical execution of slaughtering and meat examination of game animals].meat regulations also involve game inspection. on the one hand the previous publications dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mufflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892763282
isolation and characterisation of lymphoblastoid cells from cattle and deer affected with 'sheep-associated' malignant catarrhal fever.cells with the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of large granular lymphocytes (lgl) have been obtained in culture from both cattle and red deer (cervus elaphus) reacting with 'sheep-associated' malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). such cells have been derived from thymus, lymph node and spleen suspensions as well as from cerebrospinal fluid cells and cultured cornea. on most occasions their presence was observed only transitorily but by providing the cells with feeder monolayers and, ...19892772411
perocormus associated with segmental aplasia of the cervical spinal cord in a japanese shorthorn calf.a rare case of perocormus associated with segmental aplasia of the cervical spinal cord in a japanese shorthorn calf is reported. the severe reduction of body length with normal extremities combined to produce so the called "elk calf" appearance. other associated malformations included hypoplasia of the lung, anorectal agenesis and a lobulated spleen.19892794159
[removal of cesium from deer meat].the effects of pickle-curing on a decrease in the cesium-nuclides amount in red-deer meat were investigated. this meat was contaminated through ingestion of natural feed in seasons after the fall-out from chernobyl accident. two pickles were studied: vinegar solution and the same one with added vegetables and spices. the pickle curing was carried out at temperatures of 5 degrees c and 11 degrees c after cutting the meat into little pieces of about 1.5 cm. adecrease in cesium activity was measure ...19892800252
a comparison of the seasonal hormone changes and patterns of growth, voluntary food intake and reproduction in juvenile and adult red deer (cervus elaphus) and père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus) hinds.non-domesticated seasonally breeding ungulates exhibit marked seasonal changes in metabolic rate, voluntary food intake (vfi), pelage growth and moult and hormone secretion. it is not known whether these seasonal rhythms are regulated by the same central processes which control the onset and termination of the breeding season. here we compare two closely related deer species which have significantly different mating and calving seasons. seasonal changes in vfi, liveweight, coat growth, plasma pr ...19892809481
reindeer papillomavirus transforming properties correlate with a highly conserved e5 region.a papillomavirus was isolated from the epithelial layer of a cutaneous fibropapilloma on a swedish reindeer (rangifer tarandus). reindeer papillomavirus (rpv) is morphologically indistinguishable from other papillomaviruses, but the restriction enzyme cleavage pattern of its genome is different. no sequence homology was detected between rpv dna and the dnas of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) and avian papillomavirus when hybridization was performed under stringent conditions. however, the r ...19872822949
latent herpesvirus infection in red deer: characterization of a specific deer herpesvirus including comparison of genomic restriction fragment patterns. 19872825490
cross-hybridization and relationships of various papillomavirus dnas at different degrees of stringency.cloned dnas of 21 different papillomaviruses which naturally infect mammals and one bird papillomavirus were compared for relative homology by southern blot hybridization. blots were carried out under low (tm-40 degrees), medium (tm-33 degrees), and high (tm-22 degrees) stringency conditions. at higher stringency, human papillomaviruses cross-hybridized with each other reflecting species-specific similarities. bovine papillomavirus types 1, 2, 5, european elk papillomavirus, and deer papillomavi ...19872832347
serological survey of herpesvirus infections in wild ruminants of france and belgium.the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovid herpesvirus 6 (bhv-6), herpesvirus of cervidae type 1 (hvc-1), reindeer herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 2 (bhv-2) and bovid herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was investigated in wild ruminants of france and belgium between 1981 and 1986. there were no animals serologically positive for bhv-4. antibodies against bhv-2 were demonstrated in roe deer (cervus capreolus) (less than 1%) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) (1%) in france. animals ...19882836635
serological survey for selected diseases in the endangered san joaquin kit fox (vulpes macrotis mutica).blood from endangered san joaquin kit foxes (vulpes macrotis mutica) inhabiting the elk hills naval petroleum reserve, kern county, and the elkhorn plain, san luis obispo county, california, was collected in 1981, 1982 and 1984 and sera were tested for antibodies against 10 selected pathogens. proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against pathogens were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981-1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis virus, 6% in 1981-1982 and 21% in 1984; canine di ...19882836636
serological comparisons of antigenically related herpesviruses in cattle, red deer and goats.serological comparisons were made using related herpesviruses from cattle (bovid herpesvirus 1), red deer (herpesvirus of cervidae 1) and goats (bovid herpesvirus 6) by virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the test samples comprised field sera from british cattle, red deer and goats and sera from experimentally infected or immunized animals. both the cervine and caprine viruses appeared to be more closely related to bovid herpesvirus 1 than they were to each other. cattle ...19882848356
genome of the european elk papillomavirus (eepv).the genome of the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) was found to be 8,095 base pairs (bp) long and its genetic organization was similar to that of other papillomaviruses. ten open reading frames (orfs), designated e1-e7 and l1-l3, were identified in the genome, all located on one strand. the presence of the l3 orf is rare among the papillomaviruses and to date has only been identified in the genomes of eepv, the deer papillomavirus (dpv) and the cottontail papillomavirus (crpv). the orf is well ...19882853484
prostaglandin (pgf2 alpha)-induced parturition in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).prostaglandin pgf2 alpha seems to act satisfactorily as a birth inducing agent in red deer (cervus elaphus). the progress of actual delivery and lactation in the experiments of induced parturition corresponds with observations from natural conditions. the pattern of response time to the birth inducing agent agrees with experience from domesticated species, being longest in females with the least developed fetuses. complications such as those reported from practice with induced parturition in dom ...19862869897
fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals.like a number of plants, some mammals commonly produce more progeny than they can afford to rear, terminating investment in some or even all of their offspring once the resources available for breeding are known. adaptive interpretations of juvenile wastage rely on the argument that the costs of gestation are small compared to those of feeding offspring. though energetic evidence supports this conclusion, it is unsafe to assume that the relative costs of gestation and lactation to the mother's s ...19892911365
elaphostrongylus cervi in danish wild red deer (cervus elaphus). 19892922906
[wild ungulates as a food source for ixodid ticks in belorussia].the stock rise of elk, roe and boar up to 24.2, 20.8, and 29.3 thousand heads, respectively, increased their role as hosts of imaginal developmental stages of ixodes ricinus and dermacentor pictus. elk plays an especially important role as the host of i. ricinus (the index of ticks abundance--7.31, the index of saturation--176.9). the indices of saturation of i. ricinus imagos on roe and boar are 96.5 and 73.1, respectively. d. pictus imagos parasitise, in general, board (the index of ticks abun ...19852931663
naturally occurring parasitic bronchitis in red deer: effect of vaccination using live bovine lungworm vaccine.fifteen red deer calves were put to pasture in two groups, at the same set stocking rates, one group of 10 and one of five, in separate but adjoining enclosures likely to be carrying infective stage larvae of dictyocaulus naturally parasitising the red deer of scotland. the group of 10 had been vaccinated with a live, bovine lungworm oral vaccine; the group of five had not. results did not indicate any advantage to the vaccinated deer in weight gain or general health but they excreted fewer dict ...19862943074
preliminary observations on lungworms in farmed and feral red deer (cervus elaphus) in denmark.deer farming is on its increase in denmark. based on experiences from other countries, lungworm infection is expected to cause severe problems in farmed deer. therefore, in the present paper, which is the first one to deal with pathogens in danish deer farms, the faecal larval excretion in red deer is examined.19862944072
skeletal development in ruminants: further data on sexual dimorphism in elk (alces alces). 19862953201
the selection-arena hypothesis.the selection arena hypothesis offers one answer to a puzzling question. why do some organisms produce many more fertilized zygotes than are actually reared to hatching, birth, or release-then neglect, discard, resorb, or eat some of them, or allow them to eat each other? it makes four assumptions: (1) zygotes are cheap; (2) after conception the investment of parental time, energy, or risk into offspring continues; (3) offspring vary in fitness; (4) variation in offspring fitness can be identifi ...19872961604
comparison by experimental infections in cattle of a dictyocaulus species occurring naturally in red deer and a dictyocaulus of bovine origin.dictyocaulus species larvae were obtained from young red deer which had become infected on pastures considered to be carrying the dictyocaulus species indigenous to the red deer of scotland. these larvae were cultured to third stage and transmitted to five bovine calves. five other bovine calves were infected with third stage dictyocaulus viviparus larvae of bovine origin. microscopic appearances of both groups of larvae were indistinguishable and their lengths were similar. results indicated th ...19882968018
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
[ethmoid tumors in moose and roe deer].ethmoid tumors are expansively-infiltratively growing tumors of carcinomatous or sarcomatous nature, deriving from the mucous membrane of the ethmoid bone. in sweden, such tumors were found in 35 elks (alces a. alces) and 4 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) during the years 1947-1982, that means a frequency of about 1 and 0.1 per cent, respectively of the investigation material. however, in the free living elk and roe deer population, the frequency might be much lower. the tumors were malign, exten ...19852993995
a cutaneous fibropapilloma from a red deer (cervus elaphus) associated with a papillomavirus.a cutaneous fibropapilloma was found on a scottish red deer (cervus elaphus), and a papillomavirus was isolated from it. the virus appeared to be related to bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv1) or type 2 (bpv2) because: (i) it cross-reacted in peroxidase-antiperoxidase tests with antisera raised against these virions; (ii) bpv1 and bpv2 dnas cross-hybridized to the red deer papillomavirus in situ; and (iii) bpv1 and/or bpv2 dna cross-hybridized to the red deer papillomavirus dna on southern blots ...19852997076
reversal of xylazine in red deer. 19853001997
papillomavirus dna associated with pulmonary fibromatosis in european elks.multiple beadlike fibromas have been observed in the lungs of european elks bearing cutaneous fibromas and fibropapillomas. dna extracted from the lung fibromas was found to contain multiple copies of unintegrated european elk papillomavirus dna, indicating an association between pulmonary fibromatosis and papillomavirus. no virus particles were observed in the tumor tissue by electron microscopy. histological examination revealed that the lung fibromas had a morphology similar to that of cutane ...19863005617
antagonism of xylazine hydrochloride with yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine in captive wapiti.eight captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were injected with xylazine hydrochloride on two occasions during march and april 1984. animals were grouped into a modified latin square design and were given either successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine (4-ap) to antagonize the sedative effects of xylazine hydrochloride or permitted an unantagonized recovery. induction times ranged from 3 to 26 min with excited and wild animals requiring a supplementary dose. time unt ...19863005668
experimental infection of red deer (cervus elaphus) and cattle with a herpesvirus isolated from red deer. 19863006321
prevalence of herpesvirus infection in british red deer and investigations of further disease outbreaks.a serological survey of the prevalence of a new herpesvirus isolated from red deer (cervus elaphus), tentatively designated herpesvirus of cervidae type 1 (hvc-1), has shown that the virus is widespread in free-living and farmed red deer. neutralising antibodies were detected in hill deer culled at three different locations in the north of scotland, in farmed deer on five of eight scottish farms and in four of 12 groups of english farmed or park deer. fifty-eight of 145 (40 per cent) hill deer, ...19863008405
herpesvirus in red deer. 19863012852
dna cloning and hybridization in deer species supporting the chromosome field theory.the cervidae show the largest variation in chromosome number found within any mammalian family. the eight species of deer which are the subject of this study vary in chromosome number from 2n = 70 to 2n = 6. three species of bovidae are also included since they belong to a closely related family. digestion of nuclear dnas with the restriction endonucleases hae iii, hpa ii, msp i, eco ri, xba i, pst i and bam hi reveals that there is a series of highly repetitive sequences forming similar band pa ...19863022841
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
organization and expression of the transforming region from the european elk papillomavirus (eepv).the nucleotide sequence of the early (transforming) region from the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) double-stranded dna has been determined together with flanking regions. the established sequence, which is 5732 bp long, shows that the genome of eepv is closely related to the previously sequenced bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) and deer papillomavirus (dpv) genomes. seven open reading frames (orfs), designated e1-e7, were identified in similar positions as in the bpv-1 genome. the e1 and ...19863034730
epizootic vesicular stomatitis in colorado, 1982: some observations on the possible role of wildlife populations in an enzootic maintenance cycle.sera obtained from wild ungulates, carnivores, and rodents in colorado were tested for neutralizing (n) antibody against vesicular stomatitis, new jersey serotype (vsnj), virus to determine their involvement in the 1982 colorado vsnj epizootic in domestic animals. viremic and n antibody responses of two local rodent species to a 1982 colorado isolate of vsnj were determined in the laboratory. the rodents produced only weak viremias, but all developed n antibody. n antibody prevalences for vsnj i ...19873035241
lester r. dragstedt 1893-1975. chronic ulcerative colitis. a summary of evidence implicating bacterium necrophorum as an etiologic agent.lester dragstedt was born in anaconda, montana, the son of swedish immigrant parents. his entire college and professional education took place at the university of chicago, where he received a b.s. degree in 1915, a master's degree in physiology in 1916, a ph.d. in physiology in 1920, and the m.d. degree (from rush) in 1921. his first academic appointment was as a physiologist at the state university of iowa. in 1925 dragstedt was recruited by dallas b. phemister to help design the new universit ...19883042305
tuberculosis in imported red deer (cervus elaphus).an outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in farmed red deer imported from an eastern european country is described. twenty-six of the 106 deer examined at autopsy were found to be infected and 19 had visible lesions of tuberculosis. single comparative intradermal tuberculin tests on 51 deer showed that the test had a specificity of 61.3 per cent and a sensitivity of 80 per cent relative to subsequent biological and cultural tests on tissues taken at autopsy. three hundred and seven ...19883043888
[sarcocystis alceslatrans (apicomplexa) from a palaearctic elk (ruminantia)].sarcocysts from a palaearctic moose have been studied for the first time by light and electron microscopy. because of coincidences in morphology of the cysts, especially of the cyst wall structure and the cystozoides, with the north american species sarcocystis alceslatrans dubey, 1980, they are assigned to this species.19863096168
long-term stimulatory effects of a continuous infusion of lhrh agonist on testicular function in male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags were infused continuously with the lhrh agonist buserelin at 180-270 micrograms/day (1.2-1.8 micrograms/kg/day) for 72 days starting in late winter with the aim of suppressing reproductive function and inducing premature casting of the antlers. contrary to expectation, the treatment resulted in a long-term stimulation of testicular activity lasting at least 2 months; the increases in plasma concentrations of testosterone were associated with an increase in aggressive behaviour and ...19873110411
[immobilization of red deer stags (cervus elaphus l.) using etorphine]. 19883136584
septicemic pasteurellosis in elk (cervus elaphus) on the united states national elk refuge, wyoming.septicemic pasteurellosis caused by pasteurella multocida is believed responsible for the deaths of 48 elk (cervus elaphus) on the national elk refuge near jackson, wyoming (usa) during 1986 and 1987. clinical signs included depression and salivation; necropsy findings included congestion and petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in lymph nodes, diaphragm, lungs and endocardium. pasteurella multocida was isolated from femur marrow of eight carcasses and a variety of tissues from eight others.19883143020
antler anomalies in tule elk.antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to point reyes, california (usa). these anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. the elk were judged deficient in copper. low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.19883193560
polymorphism and genetic control of erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the genus cervus.a study of 11 enzyme systems in blood samples of cervus dama, c. elaphus, c. nippon and hybrids c. elaphus x nippon has revealed an erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase polymorphism in the hybrid populations. genetic analysis suggests that this enzyme is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles, one specific for pure japanese sika deer, the other for pure red deer as well as for fallow deer, while both alleles have been found in the red x sika hybrids.19883207221
effect of physical restraint and xylazine sedation on haematological values in red deer (cervus elaphus).blood samples were taken from healthy red deer (cervus elaphus) using physical restraint or xylazine sedation. red and white cell and platelet parameters were measured using a technicon h6000/c analyser. lower circulating red cell mass, lymphocyte and platelet counts were found in sedated deer. mean red cell volume was significantly lower, probably due to the preferential sequestration of young red cells in the spleen. while the main cause of the observed differences is likely to be splenic cont ...19883212274
effects of chronic long-acting bromocriptine treatment on liveweight, voluntary food intake, coat growth and breeding season in non-pregnant red deer hinds.seventeen red deer hinds were housed in individual pens and from 28 february until 11 november were injected each week with vehicle (group a; n = 6) or 5 (group b; n = 6) or 12.5 mg (group c; n = 5) of a long-acting formulation of bromocriptine. liveweight and voluntary food intake (vfi) were recorded for each hind, and blood was collected for determination of progesterone, prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (t3) and cortisol concentrations by radioimmunoassay. treatment with the high dose of bromocri ...19883221154
[legal fundamentals and practical accomplishments of abattoir and meat research in mammalian game animals].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publication mainly dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter. the following publication deals with game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mufflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit) and also game such as the badger and the raccoon.19883222786
[the characteristic musculature of the pelvic limbs of pudu pudu (molina 1782)].the present study gives a topographic description of the muscles of the pelvic limb of pudu pudu (molina 1782). the tabular composed results are discussed together with findings in capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus, ovis aries, and capra hircus.19883224796
changes in blood content and histology during growth of antlers in red deer (cervus elaphus) and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels.antlers were removed sequentially from 18 mature red deer stags between 28 and 112 days after casting of the previous hard antlers and the blood volume determined and structure investigated histologically. one antler from each stag was removed during the growth phase, the other at velvet shedding. antler blood volume increased linearly, with increasing antler weight at a rate of 194 ml/kg between 28 and 91 days after casting but subsequently declined rapidly. a zone of mineralisation occurred be ...19883225223
the chernobyl accident. transport of radionuclides to man living in northern sweden.the pathways of 131i, 134cs and 137cs from the chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of västerbotten, sweden. reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137cs was 3-40 kbq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kbq/m2. multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131i ground deposition. the effective dose equivalent from 131i became low, less than 0.1 msv, as the cows were stabled. the 137cs activity concen ...19883233171
[analysis of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocytes of the hybrid f1 between red deer and sika deer]. 19883273670
plasma lh and testosterone responses to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in adult red deer (cervus elaphus) stags during the annual antler cycle.eight adult red deer stags were given an i.v. injection of synthetic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) on seven occasions at various stages of the antler cycle, namely hard antler in late winter, casting, mid-velvet growth, full velvet growth, antler cleaning and hard antler both during the rut and in mid-winter. the stags were allocated at random on each occasion to one of four doses, i.e. 1, 3, 10 or 95 micrograms gnrh. blood samples were taken before gnrh injection and for up to 2 h afte ...19883282020
small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of giardia spp. and campylobacter spp.sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central washington cascade mountains were positive for giardia spp. trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the giardia duodenalis type. small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive anim ...19873310881
comparison of the serum amylases of farm animals.1. serum isoamylases with alpha-glucosidase activity from cattle, sheep, horses, goats, red deer, pigs and dogs were compared to one another. 2. the isoamylases from cattle and pigs were polymorphic. 3. in agarose gel electrophoresis the isoamylases behaved as alpha-1-globulins but in starch gel electrophoresis they were differentially retarded by affinity effects. 4. molecular weights were estimated: cattle (417,000); sheep (402,000); horses (420,000); goat (399,000); red deer (405,000); pigs ( ...19873322662
meningoencephalitis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) caused by streptococcus zooepidemicus. 19883358286
blood biochemical reference values for farmed red deer.the activities and concentrations of 30 whole blood and plasma constituents including enzymes, substrates, electrolytes and vitamins were determined in samples from 91 clinically healthy farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds ranging in age from one to 15 years. the hinds were randomly selected from a herd maintained on a mixture of reseeded and permanent hill pasture at an experimental research station in north east scotland. the results were analysed statistically and the calculated means, sta ...19883363833
elevated plasma igf 1 levels in stags prevented from growing antlers.we have previously shown that plasma igf 1 concentration is positively correlated with the rate of antler growth and have proposed that igf 1 is stimulatory for antler growth in the red deer stag. therefore to partly resolve the question of whether the igf 1 was of circulating or local origin in relation to its effect on antler growth, we surgically prevented stags from growing antlers. we recorded significantly elevated plasma levels of igf 1 in the non-antlered stags compared with normal antle ...19883371270
the pathology of "sheep-associated" malignant catarrhal fever in the hamster.lesions induced in hamsters by inoculation with the "sheep-associated" agents of malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) isolated from a red deer (cervus elaphus), designated d/1 and of bovine origin (c/2), are described. clinical signs in hamsters inoculated with the d/1 isolate occurred as early as 13 days after infection although the mean incubation period in animals that developed signs was 27 days. increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present in the blood of clinically affected ...19883372751
borrelia infections of ruminants in europe.the occurrence of borrelia spirochaetes in cattle in the netherlands is reported for the second time, and in red deer and roe-deer in austria for the first time. it is postulated that these spirochaetes are borrelia burgdorferi rather than b. theileri. the reservoir role of ruminants in the epidemiology of human disease caused by b. burgdorferi in europe should be investigated.19883376412
[topography and structure of the stylohyoid muscle in mammals].topography and structure of the musculus stylohyoideus (msh) have been studied in 78 species of mammalia from 12 orders. the muscle in question has specific peculiarities not only in its position and fixation, but also in a great variability of its structure. the msh is not revealed in philander opossum, lagostrophus fasciatus, guinea pig, meriones eversmanni, rhombomys opimus, nyctereutes procyonoides, thos aureus, mastelidae. various pathways of development and different functional loading def ...19883408352
tuberculosis in red deer. 19883413948
tuberculosis in red deer. 19883413965
observations on the morphology of the hair follicle mites (acari: demodicidae) from cervus elaphus l., 1758 including description of demodex acutipes sp. n.morphology of demodex acutipes sp. n. and demodex sp. parasitizing the red deer, cervus elaphus l., 1758 is described and diagnostic characters of three demodex species from this host are compared.19883417202
ingestion of microfilariae from different sources by culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) through an artificial membrane.laboratory-hatched culicoides nubeculosus midges were membrane-fed on cattle blood containing various onchocerca microfilariae which had been isolated from the hides of red deer (cervus elaphus) and from australian and native german cattle. all microfilariae were ingested through the membrane except those of o. tarsicola, which were too large. onchocerca gibsoni and o. lienalis reached the thoracic musculature, but no further development occurred. microfilariae of o. flexuosa developed to the "s ...19883420793
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