the amino acid sequence of myoglobin from skeletal muscles of red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer myoglobin has been fragmented by restricted tryptic digestion and by treatment with cyanogen bromide. the fragments have been separated by gel permeation. the core peptide derived from cyanogen bromide cleavage have been further digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides have been separated on dowex 1x2. all fragments have been characterized by their amino acid composition, by determination of their n-terminal sequence using automatic edman degradation and of their c-terminal sequ ...19751202228
[pathomorphological and histochemical changes in parafasciolopsosis of elk and deer]. 19751209962
[investigations on the filariidae of the cervidae in southern germany. 3. the filariidae of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) (author's transl)].roe deer in southern germany are frequently infected with w. rugosicauda. the adult worms are found subcutaneously in the connective tissues of the back of the host. the microfilariae concentrate in a considerable distance near the nose, in smaller numbers also in the ears and in the skin of the legs. the vector is probably ixodes ricinus. in fallow deer c. wenki are found intradermally and subcutaneously. the microfilariae remain in the skin near the site of the adult worms. skin inhabiting mic ...19751216336
[the spleen of the cervidae (gray, 1821). quantitative-morphological studies on the spleens of stags (cervus elaphus, l.1785) and of deers (capreolus capreolus, l. 1758)].the macroscopical and microscopical structure of 17 spleens of cervus elaphus and 9 spleens of capreolus capreolus is described. the spleens of both species exhibit structural characteristics which resemble those of the reticular "non-sinusoidal" type. these include: spleen arterial ramifications of the "magistral type" (schabadasch), bilayered capsule, well developed smooth muscle cells containing trabecular networks, numerous muscle cells in the red pulp, poorlý developed white pulp, splenic v ...19751228055
weights of rocky mountain elk. 19761255028
induction of antler growth in a congenitally polled scottish red deer stag.a congenitally polled red deer stag was captured from a scottish deer forest and kept in an enclosure for observations. the animal had rudimentary antler pedicles but no antlers, and during five years of study no significant antler development occurred. amputation of the apex of one antler pedicle in may 1974 when the stat was 12 years of age resulted in the growth of a complete antler on the operated side, and this antler was subsequently cleaned and cast in the normal way and a new antler cycl ...19761262815
survey of anaplasmosis in elk of the clearwater national forest (idaho).samples of blood from 27 free-roaming elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) from the clearwater national forest in north central idaho were tested by the rapid card agglutination test and complement-fixation test for the presence of antibodies against anaplasma marginale. the serum card test and complement-fixation test gave incomplete and false-positive reactions; the plasma card test did not give any reactions. anaplasma bodies or other blood parasites were not observed in stained smears of elk b ...19761275349
rapid neural growth: calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance p-containing nerves attain exceptional growth rates in regenerating deer antler.deer antler is a unique mineralized tissue which can produce very high growth rates of > 1 cm/day in large species. on completion of antler growth, the dermal tissues which cover the antler are shed and the underlying calcified tissue dies. after several months the old antler is discarded and growth of a new one begins. it is known that deer antlers are sensitive to touch and are innervated. the major aims of this study were to identify and localize by immunohistochemical techniques the type of ...19921280352
molecular cloning of a family of protein kinase genes expressed in the avian embryo.we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique to clone kinase-related sequences from avian blastula, neural crest and neural tube mrna. twenty-three distinct protein kinase (pk) sequences were amplified, of which eight are identical to previously described pk genes. the cloned molecules fall into three classes: growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (rtks), cytosolic tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine kinases. among the cloned rtks were the insulin-like growth factor type i rece ...19921281306
[arbovirus antibodies in wild game caught in moravia].the hit method was used to examine blood serums of the game in moravia (roebuck, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, wild boar, brown hare) for the presence of antibodies to arboviruses of these groups: alphavirus (sindbis-sin), flavivirus (west nile-wn), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) and bunyamwera (tahyna-tah, calovo-cvo). antibodies to all viruses were detected, and namely in these frequencies: sin 0.9%, wn 16.9%, tah 41.5%, cvo 23.1% and tbe 8.5%.19921292172
serum progesterone, oestrone and oestradiol in pregnant and non-pregnant red deer hinds.changes in serum progesterone (p), oestrone (e1) and oestradiol (e2) concentrations were monitored in 34 female red deer (cervus elaphus) shortly after the end of the breeding season and at mid-gestation. pregnancy could be detected on the basis of serum p, but there were no significant differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant animals farmed animals in e1 and e2 concentrations. twenty-five pregnant hinds captured in winter showed serum p levels similar to those found in farmed deer duri ...19921298160
molecular cloning of hek, the gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by human lymphoid tumor cell lines.we describe the molecular cloning of a receptor tyrosine kinase from a cell line (lk63) derived from a case of human pre-b-cell leukemia. we have previously shown that a monoclonal antibody (iiia4) raised against lk63 recognized a glycosylated, cell-surface 135-kda molecule (hek), which displayed tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. the hek protein was purified by using a iiia4 antibody column and both n-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were obtained. a 51-mer degenerate oligonucleotide ...19921311845
presence of insulin-like growth factor-i receptors and absence of growth hormone receptors in the antler deer antler tips in the growing phase were removed 60 days after the recommencement of growth for autoradiographical studies and rras. sections were incubated with radiolabeled gh or insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i), with or without excess competing unlabeled hormones, and were analyzed autoradiographically. there was negligible binding of [125i]gh in any histological zone of antler sections. [125i]igf-i showed highest specific binding in the chondroblast zone to a receptor demonstrating ...19921315246
[asymptomatic carriage of pestivirus in ruminants].pestiviruses are enveloped single-chain ribonucleic acid viruses with a positive polarity. pestiviruses include the viruses of classical swine fever (hog cholera), border disease of sheep, mucosal disease of cattle, and isolates obtained from wild animals, such as red deer (cervus elaphus). among ruminants, pestiviruses have developed a remarkable strategy for assuring their persistence. through epigenetic transmission, they lead to the birth of asymptomatic carrier animals harbouring non-cytopa ...19921339065
characterization of sap-1, a protein recruited by serum response factor to the c-fos serum response element.we used a yeast genetic screen to isolate cdnas that encode a protein, srf accessory protein-1 (sap-1), that is recruited to the c-fos serum response element (sre) as part of a ternary complex that includes serum response factor (srf). sap-1 requires dna-bound srf for ternary complex formation and makes extensive dna contacts to the 5' side of srf, but does not bind dna autonomously. ternary complex formation by sap-1 requires only the dna-binding domain of srf, which can be replaced by that of ...19921339307
effect of age and time of day on the timing of the surge in luteinizing hormone, behavioural oestrus and mating in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus).the oestrous cycles of fourteen red deer hinds (six yearling; eight more than 2 years old) were synchronized during the early breeding season by removal of a progesterone-containing intravaginal device and blood samples were taken at intervals of 3 h commencing 13 or 25 h later and continued for 54 h. the controlled internal drug release devices (cidrs) were removed at 08:00 h (group 1; three yearlings and four adults) or 12 h later at 20:00 h (group 2; three yearlings and four adults). there wa ...19921339846
variation amongst the neutralizing epitopes of bluetongue viruses isolated in the united states in 1979-1981.neutralizing epitopes present on field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17 were evaluated with a panel of polyclonal and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a total of 91 field isolates were evaluated, including 15 isolates of btv-10, 29 isolates of btv-11, 26 isolates of btv-13, and 21 isolates of btv-17. the viruses were isolated from cattle, goats, sheep, elk and deer in idaho, louisiana, nebraska and, predominantly, california, in the years 1979, 1980 and 19 ...19921379766
effects of subcutaneous melatonin implants during long daylength on voluntary feed intake, rumen capacity and heart rate of red deer (cervus elaphus) fed on a forage diet.subcutaneous melatonin implants were administered to castrated hand-reared male red deer (cervus elaphus) during a 63 d period in spring, after which effects on voluntary feed intake (vfi), rumen pool size, rumen capacity (i.e. volume) and heart rate were measured on four occasions, evenly spread over a 12-month period, with the deer individually fed indoors on a diet of lucerne (medicago sativa) chaff. blood samples for hormone determinations were taken at intervals throughout the study. day-ti ...19921390618
seasonal pattern of luteinizing hormone and testosterone pulsatile secretion in young adult red deer stags (cervus elaphus) and its association with the antler cycle.blood from stages aged 15 months (n = 6) was sampled at monthly intervals every 30 min for 24 h for 12 months, at 45 degrees s in new zealand. three extra samplings each for 24 h were carried out at about the anticipated time of antler casting. all samples were analysed for luteinizing hormone (lh) and testosterone and the resulting data further analysed by the pulsar pulse detection routine. the animals were kept indoors under natural daylength and were fed ad libitum. all animals were weighed, ...19921404106
influence of prenatal photoperiod on postnatal prolactin secretion in red deer (cervus elaphus).plasma prolactin concentrations were higher (p < 0.001) in newborn red deer calves whose mothers had been maintained for the last 14 weeks of gestation in long days (18 h light) (group l, n = 9) than in those whose mothers had been kept over the same period in short days (6 h light) (group s, n = 5). after transfer of all hinds and suckled calves on the day of birth to constant intermediate daylength (12 h light), prolactin concentrations decreased exponentially (p < 0.001) in group l calves, bu ...19921404108
genetic polymorphism of erythrocyte diaphorase in red deer, cervus elaphus l.nadh diaphorase polymorphism was identified in red deer erythrocyte lysates using starch gel electrophoresis and activity staining. the inheritance of the polymorphism was consistent with predictions of autosomal codominant inheritance of two alleles dia1f and dias. in new zealand's four main feral red deer populations (n = 188) the dia1f allele frequency ranged from 0.491 to 0.985. a sample of north american wapiti (n = 42) was monomorphic for the dia1f allele.19921416251
spatial flexibility in ternary complexes between srf and its accessory proteins.we investigated the sequence requirements for ternary complex formation by the transcription factor srf and its ets domain accessory factors elk-1 and sap-1. ternary complex formation is specified by an srf consensus site cc(a/t)6gg and a neighbouring ets motif (c/a)(c/a)gga(a/t), which is contacted by elk-1/sap-1. both the spacing of these sequences and their relative orientation can be substantially altered with little effect on the efficiency of ternary complex formation. efficient ternary co ...19921425594
purification, partial characterization, and heterologous radioimmunoassay of growth hormone (cgh) in red deer growth hormone (cgh; 3.3 mg) was purified from an aqueous extract of seven pituitary glands (4.01 g wet weight) by preparative gel filtration on sephadex g-100, gel filtration on sephadex g-100 sf, and anion exchange chromatography on deae-sepharose cl-6b. purified cgh gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight under reducing conditions of 20,000 da and gave a single peak on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ...19921426952
relationship between the onset of oestrus, the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone and ovulation following oestrous synchronization and superovulation of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).the timing of ovulation relative to the onset of oestrus and the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone (lh) was studied in red deer following treatments to synchronize oestrus and induce either a monovulatory or superovulatory response. mature hinds (n = 36) were allocated randomly to two mating groups (n = 16 + 20), with respective treatments staggered by 4 weeks during the 1990 rut (march-april). each hind was treated with an intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing (cidr)-type s de ...19921432958
elk-1 domains responsible for autonomous dna binding, sre:srf interaction and negative regulation of dna binding.the ets oncogene superfamily consists of a family of sequence-specific dna-binding transcriptional activator proteins. we have previously identified, cloned and characterized one of the divergent ets-related members elk-1 and shown that it codes for a sequence-specific dna-binding transcriptional activator. we have also shown that elk-1 forms srf (serum response factor) dependent ternary complex with sre (serum response element), similar to p62tcf. in this report, we have mapped the dna-binding ...19921437156
affinity purification of histidine-tagged proteins transiently produced in hela order to produce eukaryotic proteins in a functional state, it is often necessary to use eukaryotic instead of prokaryotic expression systems. we have designed vectors which can be employed to express either n- or c-terminally histidine-tagged proteins in transiently transfected eukaryotic cells. the histidine tag allows the rapid enrichment of these proteins by metal chelate affinity chromatography in a native and functional state. yields of up to 5 micrograms protein/5 x 10(7) cells were ac ...19921446830
mycobacterium bovis infection in north american elk (cervus elaphus).a naturally occurring outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in captive wild elk (wapiti) in montana was confirmed by mycobacteriologic examination. twenty-eight of 143 elk responded to m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin injected intradermally in the cervical region (sct). the results of comparative cervical tuberculin skin tests conducted within 9 days of sct revealed greater responses to m. bovis ppd tuberculin than to m. avium ppd tuberculin in 23 of 28 elk responding. a ...19921457545
gross and microscopic lesions of naturally occurring tuberculosis in a captive herd of wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado.a mycobacterium bovis-infected herd of captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado was depopulated after lesions of bovine tuberculosis were confirmed in 8 of 10 tuberculin skin test reactors. of the 43 animals > 1 year of age, 26 had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 had microscopic lesions of tuberculosis, and 23 had acid-fast bacilli associated with the lesions. lungs and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most frequently affected sites. most lesions grossly and microscop ...19921457546
on the use of succinylcholine in elk. 19921474674
studies on the blood of fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus): haematology, red cell enzymes, metabolic intermediates and glycolytic rates.1. blood samples were obtained from fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). basic haematology, red cell enzymes, and metabolic intermediates and the glycolytic rate of the red cells incubated with different substrates were measured. 2. the major findings were (i) the activity of glucose phosphate isomerase was notably high in the red blood cells of the red deer; (ii) red deer cells also utilized adenosine more efficiently than those of fallow deer and (iii) red cells of both speci ...19921478069
big game species identification by deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) probes.species identification is important in many big game forensic science cases but cannot always be accomplished because of the lack of adequate techniques. the authors have developed deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) probes for elk, deer, and antelope by isolating highly repeated satellite sequences. these dna probes distinguish among deer, elk, and antelope, although not between different species of deer. because of the high number of sequence copies per genome, these probes are extremely sensitive, re ...19921500901
the ets gene family.ets proteins have a conserved dna-binding domain and regulate transcriptional initiation from a variety of cellular and viral gene promoter and enhancer elements. some members of the ets family, ets-1 and ets-2, cooperate in transcription with the ap-1 transcription factor, the product of the proto-oncogene families, fos and jun, while others, elk-1 and sap-1, form ternary complexes with the serum response factor (srf). certain ets gene family members possess transforming activity while others a ...19921502727
genetic polymorphism of plasminogen and vitamin d binding protein in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).genetic polymorphism was detected in the red deer (cervus elaphus l.), plasma proteins, plasminogen (plg) and vitamin d binding protein (gc) using antiserum to human proteins. the affinity of the antisera to deer plasma was less than 10% that of a human standard but they bound specifically to proteins of molecular weight expected for gc and plg. three codominant alleles of gc and five of plg were observed. in a set 124 farmed deer calves and their parents, six calves had genotypes which were not ...19921503269
seasonal variation in venison quality of mature, farmed red deer stags in new zealand.two studies involving 20 red deer (cervus elaphus) stags were conducted to determine the effects of season on venison quality. in each study, five sexually mature red deer stags were slaughtered immediately preceding the rut (autumn) and five were slaughtered after the rut. stags slaughtered postrut had lower carcass weights (25 to 30%) than those slaughtered prerut. average bodywall thickness measurements above the 12th rib (an indicator of fat thickness) were approximately 31 mm prerut compare ...19921526907
requirement of thyroid function for the expression of seasonal reproductive and related changes in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.the effect of thyroid function on regulation of seasonal reproduction was investigated in three red deer stags thyroidectomized (thx) in summer (january 1988) in comparison with five thyroid-intact controls. responses of luteinizing hormone (lh) and testosterone to a bolus injection of 10 micrograms gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) were tested in july, october, december, february and april. blood samples were collected at weekly intervals from december 1987 to june 1989 for measurement of ...19921552486
cryptosporidiosis in newborn red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer calves dying at 24 to 72 hours old were infected with cryptosporidia. the clinical signs were extreme depression and weakness, but they did not consistently have diarrhoea. one calf was severely uraemic, and evidence from subsequent cases suggested that cryptosporidium infection in very young red deer calves may result in terminal uraemia. the possibility of intrauterine infection is considered. the factors which could have predisposed to the outbreak of infection were investigated; the ...19921561743
[comparative studies of the hair of pudu pudu and european red deer].the awn and the fur hair of pudu were investigated. values of the length are between 14 and 56 mm for the awn hair, and 9 to 36 mm for the fur hair. hair thickness--especially at the thickest point--ranges from 140 to 236 microns for the awn hair and from 19 to 106 microns for the fur hair. the values of the cuticle scales are between 12 and 18 microns for the length and between 41 and 66 microns for the width. the shape of the scales is rectangular in the basal three quarters (r) and becomes cr ...19921585995
r51163 as a sedative for handling and transporting plains bison and wapiti.forty captive wapiti (cervus elaphus) and thirty-two bison (bison bison bison) were tested in april and october 1988, respectively, for their response to the sedative r51163. treatment animals were injected with either 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg of r51163/kg and then observed for 72 hr. behavior was significantly altered by the drug. hyperactive, aggressive, and milling behavior was characteristic of treated wapiti and they were extremely dangerous and reared when hind quarters were touched. although t ...19921602574
a comparison of serological relationships among five ruminant alphaherpesviruses by elisa.using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays the cross reactivity of bovine herpesvirus-1.1, bovine herpesvirus-1.2, caprine herpesvirus-2, cervine (red deer) herpesvirus-1 and rangiferine (reindeer) herpesvirus-1 has been examined using rabbit hyperimmune antisera and convalescent cattle and red deer field sera. significant cross-reactivity among all the five viruses was demonstrated. a detailed analysis showed that: (1) the two bovine herpesviruses are most closely related, (2) the cervine, caprin ...19921605741
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
effects of melatonin implants on insulin-like growth factor 1 in male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags have a seasonal pattern of growth, alternating between periods of summer weight gain and winter weight loss that are influenced by photoperiod and by exogenous melatonin. a seasonal pattern of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, also influenced by photoperiod, underlies the seasonal growth pattern. the present studies aimed to determine the influence of exogenous melatonin, administered at various times of the year, on plasma igf1 in adult red deer stags in new zealand at 45 degr ...19921624090
elk-1 protein domains required for direct and srf-assisted dna-binding.the ets-related elk-1 protein can bind to purine-rich dna target sites in a sequence specific fashion and, in addition, can form a ternary complex with the c-fos serum response element (sre) and the serum response factor (srf). we demonstrate that elk-1 can readily interchange between its different interaction partners. the amino terminal ets-domain of elk-1 was shown to be necessary and sufficient for direct dna-binding activity. for ternary complex formation with the sre and srf, both the elk- ...19921630903
eek and erk, new members of the eph subclass of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases.we have identified human and rat dnas encoding two novel members of the eph subclass of putative receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. rat cdna clones encoding eek (eph- and elk-related kinase) were isolated from a brain cdna library probed with dna encoding the kinase region of the insulin receptor-related receptor. the predicted eek protein contains all the amino acid residues conserved in the catalytic domains of protein-tyrosine kinases and is most similar to two putative receptor protein-tyros ...19911648701
human and experimental spongiform encephalopathies: recent progress in pathogenesis.the spongiform encephalopathies belong to the group of "slow virus infections" of the nervous system, characterized by a long incubation period, a protracted course and involvement of the nervous system with a lethal outcome. in contrast to the conventional virus infections, such as visna in sheep and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in humans, the etiological agent for the spongiform encephalopathies has not been clearly defined. the known forms in animals are scrapie in sheep a ...19911676992
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta, canada.human infection with mycobacterium bovis is rare in developed countries because of milk pasteurisation and the slaughter of infected cattle. an epizootic of m bovis infection in domesticated elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta, canada, which started in april, 1990, prompted us to seek human contacts of elk herds. there were 446 identified contacts, in 394 of whom tuberculin skin tests were done. of 81 contacts who were skin-test positive, 50 had been in contact with culture-positive animals. 6 of 10 ...19911682654
phenotypic analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cattle and deer affected with "sheep-associated" malignant catarrhal fever.established lymphoblastoid cell lines with natural killer cell-like activity have been derived from cattle and deer affected with malignant catarrhal fever. they were examined phenotypically using monoclonal antibodies chosen for their cross-reactivity with peripheral blood lymphocytes from these species. cell lines established from three of four cattle were identified as cytotoxic/suppressor lymphocytes (cd4-/cd8+/t19-) whilst the other was shown to be of the helper cell phenotype (cd4+/cd8-/t1 ...19911683050
the use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. they are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prep ...19901691773
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
ets-related protein elk-1 is homologous to the c-fos regulatory factor p62tcf.a key event in the response of cells to proliferative signals is the rapid, transient induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene, which is mediated through the serum response element (sre) in the fos promoter. genomic footprinting and transfection experiments suggest that this activation occurs through a ternary complex that includes the serum response factor (srf) and the ternary complex factor p62. interaction of p62tcf with the srf-sre binary complex requires a cagga tract immediately upstream of ...19911722028
creep fracture in bones with different stiffnesses.creep fracture experiments were used to examine the differences in time to fracture of bones with very different young's moduli (bovine bone and red deer antler) and the implications of these differences for the 'cumulative-damage' model of caler and carter [j. biomechanics 22, 625-635 (1989)] for bone fracture. using normalised stress as the explanatory variable, the slopes of the distributions agreed quite well with that of caler and carter for human bone. however, antler took far longer to fr ...19921733979
a divergent ets-related protein, elk-1, recognizes similar c-ets-1 proto-oncogene target sequences and acts as a transcriptional activator.the ets oncogene superfamily consists of a family of sequence-specific dna-binding proteins that activate transcription. we have previously identified two new members of the ets oncogene superfamily, namely elk-1 and elk-2. in this report we show that the recombinant elk-1 protein expressed in bacteria, like the c-ets-1 proto-oncogene, binds in a sequence-specific manner to moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, e74 target sequences and the pea3 motif (polyoma enhancer), but does not ...19921741166
is the "mammalian" brown fat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein present in adipose tissues of birds?1. mitochondria were isolated from the furcular, subcutaneous, abdominal, nape and lateral adipose tissue depots of five species of bird (pheasant, japanese quail, pigeon, house sparrow and great tit) acclimatized to the northern winter. 2. mitochondrial proteins were separated by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and probed for the presence of the 32,000-33,000 mr uncoupling protein characteristic of "mammalian" brown adipose tissue, using an anti-(g ...19911756620
transferrin polymorphism and genetic differentiation in cervus elaphus l. (european red deer) populations.a study of transferrin in 11 different european populations of cervus elaphus as well as in one cervus elephus x cervus nippon hybrid population has revealed a polymorphism of this protein. genetic analysis suggests that it is controlled by one gene locus with three codominant alleles. the allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination not only between the hybrid population and pure red deer but also between different continental red deer populations. comparison of the genotypic structures with ...19911757275
efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections of fascioloides magna in wapiti.fourteen free-ranging adult wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured in banff national park, alberta (canada) and held in captivity near edmonton. a 24% suspension of triclabendazole at doses of 30 to 100 mg/kg body weight was drenched into the rumen of eight females and four males. two male wapiti were used as untreated controls. animals were killed and examined at 4 (n = 3), 6 (n = 4), or 8 (n = 4) wk after treatment. efficacy was 90% against immature fascioloides magna collected 4 wk aft ...19911758025
scanning electron microscopic observations on the development and structure of tooth enamel in cervidae (mammalia: ruminantia).enamel formation and structure were investigated in 102 developing or erupted teeth of roe, fallow and red deer. special attention was given to the topography of the forming enamel surface, the form, arrangement and course of enamel rods, its relation to interprismatic enamel and the occurrence of hunter-schreger-bands in the enamel. discussed are the significance of the enamel pattern for the identification of certain taxa and the adaptive value of cervidean enamel structures.19911759724
spiculopteragia spiculoptera, s. asymmetrica and ostertagia leptospicularis from cervus elaphus in la pampa, argentina.the nematode species spiculopteragia spiculoptera, spiculopteragia asymmetrica and ostertagia leptospicularis were recovered from the abomasum of wild red deer, cervus elaphus, in the forest area of the semi-arid pampeana region of la pampa (argentina) for the first time. oesophagostomum venulosum and dictyocaulus spp. were also found.19911763487
erg, an ets-related gene, codes for sequence-specific transcriptional activators.e26 is a replication-defective avian acute leukemia virus which causes erythroblastosis and myeloblastosis in chickens. it carries two distinct oncogenes, v-myb and v-ets, both of which contribute to its transforming properties. several genes related to the ets oncogene (c-ets-1, ets-2, erg, elk-1, elk-2, pu.1/spi-1, e74 and fli-1) have been described. previously we have shown that the erg gene (ets-related gene) codes for at least two proteins (erg-1 and erg-2) because of alternative splicing a ...19911766675
[pathologic changes in the lungs of deer spontaneously infected with nematodes from the protostrongylidae family].lungs of 30 animals of the red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) attacked by parasitic helminths were submitted to a histological examination, and the changes which were caused by the nematodes of protostrongylidae family were estimated. the lungworm varestrongylus sagittatus (mueller, 1891) creates hatching tubercles of a dark-red or yellow-green and even ochre colour. the lobular catarrhal bronchopneumonia is a histological correlate. in hatching tubercles there are located adult nematodes, ov ...19911771735
temporal changes in lh and testosterone and their relationship with the first antler in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags from 3 to 15 months of age.blood samples were taken from six tame red deer stags at 3-15 months of age once a month from a jugular catheter every 30 min for 24 h to investigate hormonal secretion during puberty and during growth of the pedicle and first antler. all plasma samples were analysed for lh and testosterone concentrations and the resultant data were analysed using the pulsar pulse detection routine. in addition each stag was injected wih gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh; 20 ng/kg body weight) after the abov ...19911783890
observations on the output of nematode eggs in faeces and on the subsequent pasture infestation with third stage larvae produced by a herd of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).more than 2900 faecal samples and 200 herbage samples were examined from january 1986 to january 1989 during a study of the host/parasite relationships of the gastrointestinal nematodes of a herd of farmed red deer in surrey. the pattern of faecal egg output from the hinds appeared to conform to a tri-modal distribution with peaks during spring, the periparturient period and late summer. third stage larvae were present on the herbage during every month. the new generation appeared in june but le ...19911801404
lipoptena cervi (diptera), a potential vector of megatrypanum trypanosomes of deer (cervidae).in three different areas in northern germany, hippoboscids were collected from red deer (cervus elaphus). typanosomatids were demonstrated in the midgut and hindgut of 9/37 lipoptena cervi. the trypanosomatids were morphologically similar to vector forms of the subgenus megatrypanum that had been found in tabanids at the same location 5 years previously. hippoboscids are therefore potential vectors of trypanosoma (megatrypanum) spp. that infect red deer.19911805220
the biochemical systematics of red and sika deer (genus cervus) in ireland.twenty enzyme loci were investigated using starch gel electrophoresis in managed populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (c. nippon) from ireland. the red deer, which originated from several european countries, were polymorphic (%p) at 25% of the loci examined and exhibited a mean heterozygosity (h) of 0.025. the sika, originally from japan, were introduced to ireland in very limited numbers. here, %p was 5% and h was 0.006. mean genetic distance (d) between these taxa was 0.160. ...19911816170
mycobacterium bovis infection in humans exposed to elk in alberta.the evidence of zoonotic transmission of m. bovis infection in the 1 veterinarian is confirmed by growth of the organism from his sputum 6 months after animal contact. the high rate of initial tuberculin reactivity and the skin test conversions of 6 persons in contact with culture-positive animals strongly suggest that further human infection has taken place. however, the lack of baseline testing on 48/81 test-positive individuals and the relatively high proportion of immigrants in some occupati ...19911841004
characterization by restriction endonuclease analysis and seroagglutination of strains of mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intracellulare obtained from farmed deer.restriction endonuclease analysis and seroagglutination were used to characterize strains of mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intracellulare (collectively, mai) recovered from 1 local herd and 2 imported shipments of red deer (cervus elaphus) that developed sensitization to bovine tuberculin during skin testing. a total of 31 mai strains were isolated from lymph node pools (head, thorax, abdomen, and peripheral regions) of 21 of 29 local deer. similarly, 15 mai strains were isolated from th ...19911849382
red deer, nematodes and anthelmintics. 19911858266
antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated diseases: a pulmonologist's perspective.the development of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (anca) test has lent support to the concept of wegener's granulomatosis as a spectrum that may affect one or more of the major anatomic sites: upper respiratory tract (e), lung (l), or kidney (k). it is c-anca that has high specificity for wegener's granulomatosis (wg). the sensitivity is highest in the fully expressed wegener's triad, or elk, and less in local regional disease. it is possible that isolated manifestations such as epi ...19911867176
relationship between allozymes, heterozygosity and morphological characters in red deer (cervus elaphus), and the influence of selective hunting on allele frequency distribution.morphological characters in red deer (cervus elaphus), which serve as criteria for selective hunting, were examined in relation to electrophoretic variation in three populations from the vosges in eastern france. from the polymorphic loci examined, certain alleles at idh-2, me-1 and acp-1 showed significant associations with a special development of body and antler characters selected for by hunters. idh-2(125) was associated with larger hind foot length in females and a higher number of antler ...19911880046
tuberculosis in domesticated red deer: comparison of purified protein derivative and the specific protein mpb70 for in vitro diagnosis.the use of a mycobacterium bovis-specific protein, mycobacterial protein bovis 70 (mpb70), was compared with complex, m bovis-derived purified protein derivative (bovine ppd), for its ability to improve the diagnostic precision of in vitro assays for tuberculosis in farmed deer. a combination of lymphocyte transformation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to differentiate between specific m bovis reactivity and crossreactivity due to sensitisation with saprophytic mycobacteri ...19911882133
artificial insemination of red deer (cervus elaphus) with frozen-thawed wapiti semen.semen collected from wapiti (cervus elaphus) in canada in 1983 was frozen in two extenders. in 1988, the semen was used to inseminate 200 red deer hinds on 2 farms in new zealand. oestrus was synchronized in the hinds with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal devices (cidr); 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin was given to each hind on day 11. the cidrs were removed on day 12 at 20/h, as the numbers of the hinds were recorded. on day 14, 54-56 h after cidr removal, the hinds were brought ...19911920280
ectoparasites from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from wyoming.hides of nine elk, collected during the winter of 1986-1987 from the national elk refuge, wyoming (usa) were examined for ectoparasites. parasites recovered were mites, psoroptes sp. (five elk); lice, solenopotes ferrisi and bovicola (bovicola) longicornis (seven elk); and winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (nine elk). three elk with severe scabies had an estimated 0.6 x 10(6), 3.8 x 10(6) and 6.5 x 10(6) mites, respectively. densities of mites were much higher in skin regions with severe derm ...19911920665
prostaglandin-induced secretion of oxytocin and prolactin in red (cervus elaphus) and pere david's (elaphurus davidianus) deer hinds: evidence for oxytocin of luteal origin.peripheral plasma concentrations of oxytocin in female red deer during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle (9.3 +/- 2.1 fmol/ml) exceeded those in the follicular phase (3.1 +/- 1.4) or during seasonal anoestrus (3.2 +/- 1.3). in both red and père david's deer hinds during the mid-luteal phase of the cycle, systemic administration of a luteolytic dose of the prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue, cloprostenol, caused the concentration of oxytocin in the peripheral circulation to rise. mean (+/- sem) ...19911936924
leptospirosis as a result of elk exposure. 19911948245
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
characterization of elk, a brain-specific receptor tyrosine kinase.the elk gene encodes a novel receptorlike protein-tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the eph subfamily. we have previously identified a partial cdna encompassing the elk catalytic domain (k. letwin, s.-p. yee, and t. pawson, oncogene 3:621-678, 1988). using this cdna as a probe, we have isolated cdnas spanning the entire rat elk coding sequence. the predicted elk protein contains all the hallmarks of a receptor tyrosine kinase, including an n-terminal signal sequence, a cysteine-rich extracellula ...19912017163
interaction of red deer leucocytes with pasteurella haemolytica leucotoxin. 19912024415
use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.we have developed a modified elisa for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi (bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (elat). microtiter plates were coated with antigen of bb. the immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. the test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. we performed epidemiological studies with ...19912028231
ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in red deer.thirty-five farmed red deer hinds two years of age or older were observed during mating in april and may and the dates of oestrus and, or, matings were recorded. from immediately before the breeding season and at approximately weekly intervals from the start of mating until all deer were 42 days pregnant, rectal ultrasonographic scans were taken using a 5 mhz linear transducer while deer were held standing in a restraining device. scans were recorded on video. the vagina and cervix were visible ...19912048270
type ii ostertagiosis in farmed red deer.a mild form of type ii ostertagiosis was recorded in a group of 12, 22-month-old red deer stags, slaughtered in an abattoir in april 1989. the animals appeared clinically normal but they were light and in rather poor condition. mixed ostertagid infections were present in very variable numbers. in the seven most heavily infected animals, 70 per cent of the worms were in the early fourth stage and assumed to be hypobiotic. in some animals the worms were maturing and in these there were lesions sim ...19912048271
effects of melatonin implants on reproductive seasonality of male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags were treated with melatonin implants in 2 experiments designed to examine the control of reproductive seasonality. in exp. 1, stags (n = 24) were allocated to 4 treatment groups: 2 groups were treated with 3 implants per stag each month from 8 november to 5 february (em) or 9 december to 5 february (lm), 1 untreated group of control stags remained with the melatonin-treated stags (cc) and the other untreated control group remained isolated (ic). melatonin treatment advanced the se ...19912056480
brown fat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adipose tissues of newborn reindeer.reindeer inhabit a severe arctic or subarctic environment, with the young born in early spring under adverse weather conditions. the extreme northern climate imposes a major thermal challenge to the newborn, and in the present study we have examined fetal, neonatal, and young (from 2 wk before birth to 16 mo postpartum) semidomesticated reindeer from northern finland for the presence of thermogenic brown adipose tissue. adipose tissues were removed, mitochondria were prepared, and the proteins w ...19912058749
antimicrobial resistance and production of toxins in escherichia coli strains from wild ruminants and the alpine marmot.escherichia coli strains isolated from 81 fecal samples from red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreoulus capreoulus), chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and alpine marmot (marmota marmota) living in the stelvio national park, italy, were examined for antimicrobial resistance and production of toxic factors. direct plating of specimens on media containing antimicrobial drugs allowed us to isolate resistant strains of e. coli from 10 of 59 (17%) specimens examined by this technique. nine of 31 spec ...19912067054
evaluation of relationship between plasma fibrinogen concentration and tuberculin testing in red deer.after intradermal injection of bovine purified derivative (ppd), increases in plasma fibrinogen concentration and plasma viscosity developed in red deer (cervus elaphus) with a history of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis. serum haptoglobin concentrations were also found to increase under similar circumstances. the increases were reproducible and did not appear to be related to mustering, stress, or the handling associated with injection of ppd. a significant (p less than 0.05) direct r ...19912071482
the purification and characterisation of cervine igm and igg.a procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin g (igg) and immunoglobulin m (igm) from hyperimmune cervine serum. hybrids of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). an immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. the antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by klh-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into igm and igg by ...19902075697
[seroepidemiologic studies of the distribution of respiratory syncytial virus in wild ruminants].sera from wild ruminants (302 roe, 39 red deer, 17 fallow deer, 1 mouflon) were tested for antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). 22 sera (6.1%) were positive: 20 roe, 1 red deer, 1 mouflon. the findings are discussed from the epizootiological point of view.19902078187
contribution to knowledge of the morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the fallow deer (dama dama l.).as in the red deer, in the fallow deer embryo we found a number of ancestral structures reminiscent of relationships in other mammals, such as paraseptal cartilages, a septum nasi with trabecular widening, a lamina transversalis ant., a cart. ectochoanalis, a capsule wall with a roof and a lateral wall formed of a clearly distinguishable cart. parietotectalis and cart. paranasalis, an ethmoturbinale i projecting a long way rostrally and additionally, in the fallow deer, cart. paraseptales poster ...19902083886
genetic analysis of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase polymorphism in the genus cervus.a study of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in cervus dama, cervus elaphus, cervus nippon and cervus elaphus x cervus nippon hybrids has revealed a polymorphism of this enzyme system in cervus elaphus as well as in the hybrid population. genetic analysis suggests that this enzyme system is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles. the allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination between the hybrid population and the red deer population, whereas the fallow deer are fixed for th ...19902090010
[the role of large wildlife in the maintenance of natural foci of tick-borne meningoencephalitis in northern croatia].between 1986-1988 sera from 245 game animals--37 roe deers, 102 red deers, 81 wild boars and 25 hares--shot in 8 different localities of nort croatia, a well-known nosoareal of tick-borne encephalitis, were tested for tbe virus heminhibiting antibodies. the following percentages of positive animals were found: 24, 39, 39 and 0% respectively. most of the animals examined, 180 of them, were shot in lowland woods of the commune of nasice and its surroundings. there the percentage of positive animal ...19902091443
[cesium 134 and 137 contamination of game killed in hesse].the amount of caesium 134 and 137 in hessian game hunted for food (556 animals) after the reactor accident at chernobyl was investigated. comparisons have been made before and after the accident. although there was only a very low level of contamination, the contamination rate of different species varied; on average, the red deer showed the highest activity (130 bq/kg). the level of caesium contamination was mostly influenced by the permanent habitat of the animals. the main influence was due to ...19902103661
hypodermosis in the red deer cervus elaphus in córdoba, spain.the prevalence of red deer hypodermosis and the life cycle of hypodermia diana brauer 1858 in three provinces of the south of spain, córdoba, jaen and ciudad real, were studied by inspecting 254, thirty-eight and thirty-five deer from each province respectively. the prevalence of infestations was: córdoba, 87.75%; jaen, 92.10%, ciudad real, 91.42%. from this we deduced an overall prevalence of 88.67%, comprising 88.23% in male deer and 89.96% in female deer. the intensity of the parasitism in 21 ...19902132996
the pineal gland of the red deer male. histology and ultrastructure with notes on the fallow deer and mouflon pineals.the most conspicuous morphological feature of the investigated red deer pineal gland was very deep pineal recess, covered with continuous layer of the ependymal cells. its branches (2-3) reached the distal part of the gland. the slight differences in pineal structure of sexually active and sexually inactive red deer were observed. relatively large pineal glands both of mouflon and fallow deer showed many common as well as different structural features.19902136651
a serological comparison of some animal herpesviruses.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) isolates (cooper-type strain 4975 and oxford) were compared in neutralization tests with the bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) isolate (85/16 tv) and the herpesviruses of red deer (d2839/1) and goats (e/ch). hyperimmune antiserum was prepared in rabbits against the plaque-selected viruses and endpoint and kinetic neutralization test were made. bhv-4 was clearly different from the other four viruses. the closely-related bhv-1 strains were also related in these tests to the ...19902170074
cdna cloning and characterization of eck, an epithelial cell receptor protein-tyrosine kinase in the eph/elk family of protein kinases.a human epithelial (hela) cdna library was screened with degenerate oligonucleotides designed to hybridize to highly conserved regions of protein-tyrosine kinases. one cdna from this screen was shown to contain a putative protein-tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and subsequently used to isolate another cdna from a human keratinocyte library that encompasses the entire coding region of a 976-amino-acid polypeptide. the predicted protein has an external domain of 534 amino acids with a presumptive ...19902174105
accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of calving date in red deer using real-time ultrasound hundred and sixty-two 18-month-old farmed red deer were used to test the accuracy of pregnancy detection and equations for predicting gestational age. deer ranging from 30 to 110 days gestation were examined by rectal ultrasonography using a 5 mhz transducer while they were standing. each scan was recorded on video tape for measurements of uterine diameter, amniotic sac diameters, crown-rump length, head length, head diameter, nose length, chest depth, chest width and placentome base-apex le ...19902180196
isoforms of the human ets-1 protein: generation by alternative splicing and differential phosphorylation.the ets-1 gene belongs to the ets gene family (ets-1, ets-2, erg, and elk) and is homologous to the v-ets oncogene found in the avian leukemia virus e26. the ets-1 gene products were characterized using a specific monoclonal antibody developed against a bacterially expressed v-ets protein. the ets-1 gene product in the human t-cell line cem was found to consist of at least six species: four major species with apparent molecular weights of 51 kda (p51), 48 kda (p48), 42 kda (p42), and 39 kda (p39 ...19902189104
tuberculosis in domesticated deer (cervus elaphus): a large animal model for human tuberculosis.since the recent extensive domestication and farming of deer in new zealand, tuberculosis (tb) has presented a major health issue in farmed herds. the spectrum of disease pathology and immune reactivity in this naturally infected species represents a potentially valuable large animal model for the study of the underlying immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in mycobacterium bovis infection and its spread. a combination of laboratory assays for the detection of tuberculosis in deer ...19902203829
morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the red deer (cervus elaphus l.).three stages of morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the red deer (cervus elaphus l.) were studied. many ancestral traits reminiscent of relationships in other mammals and even in reptiles were found, including a cart, ectochoanalis, paraseptal cartilages, the septum nasi and its ventral trabecular enlargement, a lamina transversalis ant., clear separation of the cart, parietotectalis and cart, paranasalis from each other and a crista semicircularis. a maxilloturbinale, was present, but not a ...19902210511
yersiniosis in farmed deer.samples from 77 chital (axis axis), 42 fallow (dama dama), 26 red (cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (cervus unicolor) were examined. yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. gross pathology in chital included a fibrinou ...19902222364
chromosomal evolution in cervidae.on the basis of chromosome data obtained on 30 species and 20 subspecies of cervidae, a report is submitted on the karyosystematics of this family. the primitive karyotype of cervidae may be inferred to be composed of 35 acrocentric pairs (2n = 70 fn = 70). during the phyletic evolution of this family different types of chromosome rearrangements were probably selected and the group may have differentiated karyologically into three branches: (1) the cervinae that fixed a centric fusion resulting ...19902249009
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