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tissue migration of elaphostrongylus spp. in guinea pigs (cavia porcellus).third-stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi, originating from red deer (cervus elaphus), first reached the central nervous system (cns) of guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) 11 days postinfection (dpi). neurologic signs were seen between 11 and 62 dpi in 4 of a total of 18 infected guinea pigs killed up to 112 dpi. animals showing signs had 3 or more larvae in the cns. only 1, of a total of 1,114 larvae recovered, had developed to the fourth stage at 40 dpi. a direct tissue migration by third-stage ...19989794639
the human elk-1 gene family: the functional gene and two processed pseudogenes embedded in the igh locus.elk-1 is a transcription factor whose activation by several mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) mediates the immediate early responses of the c-fos promoter to growth factors and other stimuli. here, we report the structure of the human elk-1 gene, which we have localized about 6.5kb upstream of the properdin gene on the x chromosome. the coding sequence is interrupted by four introns; two additional introns lie within the 5' untranslated region. we have also found two elk-1-related proces ...19989795224
a constitutively active and nuclear form of the map kinase erk2 is sufficient for neurite outgrowth and cell transformation.mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases are ubiquitous components of many signal transduction pathways. constitutively active variants have been isolated for every component of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (erk1) and erk2 map kinase pathway except for the erk itself.19989799732
deer and their parasites: disease or coexistence?the occurrence of different parasites in roe (capreolus capreolus), and red deer (cervus elaphus) were examined during the period 1972-1995. deer shot at random or found dead were examined and parasitological status of a farmed red deer herd has been observed regularly. age, carcass weight, physical condition and pathological features were checked or measured. of the parasites, 38 species in roe and 18 in red deer were identified and at least 11 of them were shared by both hosts. none of them se ...19979802083
postmortem assessment of sperm characteristics of the red deer during the breeding season.this study examined the effect of male age, time lapse between death of individual and collection of its sperm, breeding season (1993, 1995, or 1996), and testicle sampled (left or right) on the cell quality of spermatozoa obtained postmortem from the epididymis of red deer stags (cervus elaphus hispanicus). a total of 142 sperm samples obtained from 71 free-ranging individuals shot during the breeding season were used to investigate these effects. the spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda ep ...19989805148
epizootic of paratuberculosis in farmed elk.after multiple cases of chronic diarrhea and weight loss in a farmed elk herd, 3 yearlings and 1 adult elk with similar clinical signs were euthanatized and necropsied. gross and histologic evidence of paratuberculosis were found in the yearlings. evidence of serum antibody to mycobacterium paratuberculosis was detected in the 2 elk with the most disseminated infection. acid-fast organisms were isolated from multiple organs in all 4 elk and identified as m paratuberculosis by dna probe. thirty-f ...19989810391
[malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in indian gauer (bos gaurus gaurus) and javan banteng (bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the munich zoo at that time. in the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of mcf occurred sporadically at the zoo in european and american bison (bison bonasus, b. bison' bison, b. bison athabascae), elk (alces alces), red deer (cervus e ...19989810608
growth hormone stimulates phosphorylation and activation of elk-1 and expression of c-fos, egr-1, and junb through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2.growth hormone (gh), a major regulator of normal body growth and metabolism, regulates cellular gene expression. the transcription factors elk-1 and serum response factor are necessary for gh-stimulated transcription of c-fos through the serum response element (sre). gh stimulates the serine phosphorylation of elk-1, thereby enabling elk-1 to mediate transcriptional activation. the contribution of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (mek)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) p ...19989813041
ehrlichia spp. in cervids from california.blood samples from six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 15 black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus), and 29 elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were assayed for human monocytic and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dna sequencing, and serology to determine whether or not cervids are involved in the maintenance of these potential human pathogens in california (usa). the deer were sampled in august to october 1992-95. the 29 tule elk from point reyes n ...19989813842
serosurvey for antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever-associated viruses in free-living and captive cervids in germany.a total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-associated viruses (mcfv) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa). eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against mcfv. among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (cervu ...19989813848
oestrosis in red deer from spain.a survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (cervus elaphus) in southern spain was conducted. the parasites involved were the larvae of pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis (diptera:oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. there were low d ...19989813856
specific and differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades by unfamiliar taste in the insular cortex of the behaving rat.rats were given to drink an unfamiliar taste solution under conditions that result in long-term memory of that taste. the insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex, was then removed and assayed for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades by using antibodies to the activated forms of various mapks. extracellular responsive kinase 1-2 (erk1-2) in the cortical homogenate was significantly activated within <30 min of drinking the taste solution, without alteration in the ...19989822758
cloning and functional expression of rat ether-à-go-go-like k+ channel genes.1. screening of rat cortex cdna resulted in cloning of two complete and one partial orthologue of the drosophila ether-à-go-go-like k+ channel (elk). 2. northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) analysis revealed predominant expression of rat elk mrnas in brain. each rat elk mrna showed a distinct, but overlapping expression pattern in different rat brain areas. 3. transient transfection of chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells with rat elk1 or rat elk2 cdna gave ris ...19989824707
electron microscopic studies of antlerogenic cells from five developmental stages during pedicle and early antler formation in red deer (cervus elaphus).previous studies using light microscopy have revealed that histogenesis of deer pedicle and antler has four ossification stages. the first of these stages is the development of the permanent pedicle. initial development of the pedicle is from the cellular layer cells of the antlerogenic periosteum and these cells have been termed initial antlerogenic cells (iacs). apart from the iacs, it has also been shown that the cellular layer cells of the apical periosteum/perichondrium, the peripheral peri ...19989845209
malignant schwannoma in a red deer (cervus elaphus).a five-year-old female red deer (cervus elaphus) was in poor condition and severely lame on the left hindleg owing to a 19.4 cm x 15.9 cm mass involving and destroying the distal end (head) of metatarsal bones iii and iv, the proximal sesamoid bones and the first phalanges (iii and iv). the histopathological analysis revealed a spindle cell tumour with frequent palisade arrangement (antoni type a pattern), and with highly anaplastic tumour cells in some areas. structures resembling peripheral ne ...19989854770
seasonality of meal patterns and hormonal correlates in red deer.two groups of six adult, castrated, male red deer were housed under natural daylength conditions and at ambient temperature at 57 degrees n and fed ad lib. (al) or at a fixed rate of 50 g/kg0.75 initial liveweight per day throughout the study (restricted, r). mean daily intakes of al animals were higher during periods of long daylength than during short daylength (p < 0.001). the higher rates of food intake during periods of long daylength were a function of greater meal durations (p < 0.001), s ...19989855479
protection against infection and abortion induced by virulent challenge exposure after oral vaccination of cattle with brucella abortus strain rb51.to determine efficacy of orally administered brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 against virulent b abortus challenge exposure in cattle as a model for vaccination of wild ungulates.19989858409
glutamate induces phosphorylation of elk-1 and creb, along with c-fos activation, via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway in brain slices.in cell culture systems, the tcf elk-1 represents a convergence point for extracellular signal-related kinase (erk) and c-jun n-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (jnk/sapk) subclasses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades. its phosphorylation strongly potentiates its ability to activate transcription of the c-fos promoter through a ternary complex assembled on the c-fos serum response element. in rat brain postmitotic neurons, elk-1 is strongly expressed (v. sgambato, ...19999858538
effects of thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement on seasonal reproduction in the red deer hind.two experiments were conducted to test whether thyroid hormones are required for the cessation of the breeding season in female red deer. in expt 1, 16 mature hinds were allocated early in the breeding season (may) to the following groups: thyroidectomized (thx), thyroidectomized and treated with subcutaneous thyroxine implants which increased plasma tri-iodothyronine to physiological concentrations (thx + t4), or euthyroid controls. plasma progesterone concentrations consistent with oestrous cy ...19989861164
microsatellite variation in scandinavian cervidae using primers derived from bovidae.the possibility of using microsatellite primers developed in bovidae to amplify microsatellite markers in cervidae was surveyed by using 75 microsatellite primer sets of bovine, ovine or caprine origin to analyse dna from moose, red deer, reindeer and roe deer from scandinavia. on average for the four cervids, approximately 50% of the ovine/caprine primer pairs amplified a specific pcr product, compared to only 16% of the bovine primers. approximately 50% of both ovine/caprine and bovine primers ...19989868926
evaluation of genetic variability in introduced populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) using dna fingerprinting. 19989868929
lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from sierra morena mountains (andalusia, spain). 19989871001
estimation of energy expenditure in free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) with the doubly-labelled water method.energy expenditure was estimated using the doubly-labelled water (dlw) method in summer in five free-living adult, non-pregnant, non-lactating, red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds (weight 107.3 (se 0.9) kg; age 6 (se 1) years) on lowland pasture under typical farming conditions. climatic conditions were monitored throughout the experiment. errors due to 2h losses in ch4 and faeces were calculated from previous estimates of stoichiometries. ch4 production, fractionated water loss, urinary n and o2 co ...19989875066
expression of a tyrosine phosphorylated, dna binding stat3beta dimer in bacteria.the signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat) proteins deliver signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. an n-terminally truncated fragment of murine stat3beta, stat3betatc (127-722), was produced in bacteria. stat proteins must be specifically phosphorylated at a single tyrosine residue for dimerization and dna binding. therefore, stat3betatc was coexpressed with the catalytic domain of the elk receptor tyrosine kinase. stat3betatc was quantitatively phosphorylated by this ki ...19989877182
pathological bone changes in the mandibles of wild red deer (cervus elaphus l.) exposed to high environmental levels of fluoride.a macroscopic, microscopic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the pathological bone changes of the mandibles of wild red deer (n = 61) exhibiting severe dental fluorosis. the animals originated from a highly fluoride polluted area in central europe (ore mountains and their southern foreland, czech-german border region) and constituted 11.2 % of the studied red deer sample (n = 545) from this area. pathologically increased wear and fracture of fluorosed teeth caused a variety ...19989877298
phylogeny of wapiti, red deer, sika deer, and other north american cervids as determined from mitochondrial dna.red deer (cervus elaphus) are divided into three subspecific groups; the first group includes seven subspecies from europe and northern africa, the second group includes seven subspecies from central asia, and the third group includes nine subspecies from eastern asia, siberia, and north america. recognition of the north american wapiti as a species has been denied on the basis of morphological similarity with red deer and the circumpolar distribution of c. elaphus. sika deer (c. nippon), which ...19989878235
characterization of the human elk-1 promoter. potential role of a downstream intronic sequence for elk-1 gene expression in monocytes.to characterize the human elk-1 promoter, we mapped the transcriptional start site and isolated elk-1-specific genomic phage clones that contained extensive upstream and downstream sequences. a tata-like motif was identified immediately upstream of the transcriptional start site. functional analyses of dna fragments containing the tata element and the identification of a dnase i-hypersensitive chromatin site (hs 1) in close proximity to the tata box suggest that the identified tata motif is impo ...19999880555
regulation of mcl1 through a serum response factor/elk-1-mediated mechanism links expression of a viability-promoting member of the bcl2 family to the induction of hematopoietic cell differentiation.proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are tightly regulated during hematopoiesis, allowing amplification along specific lineages while preventing excessive proliferation of immature cells. the mcl1 member of the bcl2 family is up-regulated during the induction of monocytic differentiation (approximately 10-fold with 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (tpa)). mcl1 has effects similar to those of bcl2, up-regulation promoting viability, but differs from bcl2 in its rapid inducibility and ...19999880563
novel roles of specific isoforms of protein kinase c in activation of the c-fos serum response element.protein kinase c (pkc) is a multigene family of enzymes consisting of at least 11 isoforms. it has been implicated in the induction of c-fos and other immediate response genes by various mitogens. the serum response element (sre) in the c-fos promoter is necessary and sufficient for induction of transcription of c-fos by serum, growth factors, and the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa). it forms a complex with the ternary complex factor (tcf) and with a dimer of the serum r ...19999891065
a high throughput system for the evaluation of protein kinase c inhibitors based on elk1 transcriptional activation in human astrocytoma cells.protein kinase c (pkc) designates a family of kinases that regulate many essential functions including cell growth and differentiation. the tight regulation of pkc activity is crucial for maintaining normal cellular proliferation and excessive activity leads to abnormal or uncontrolled cell growth. recent reports indicate that malignant glioma cell lines express 100 to 1000-fold higher pkc activity when compared to non-neoplastic astrocytes. this high activity correlates well with the proliferat ...19999917510
sp1 phosphorylation by erk 2 stimulates dna binding.egf stimulates gene expression through a variety of signal transduction pathways that include the ras-erk pathway. we have shown previously that egf receptor activation stimulates gastrin gene expression through a gc-rich element called gere. this element binds sp1 family members and raises the possibility that the ras-erk signal transduction cascade may target this novel egf responsive element. moreover, it is known that erk 2 is capable of phosphorylating other mitogen-inducible transcription ...19999918860
c3 toxin activates the stress signaling pathways, jnk and p38, but antagonizes the activation of ap-1 in rat-1 cells.lysophosphatidic acid (lpa) stimulates the c-fos serum response element (sre) by activating two distinct signal pathways regulated by the small gtpases, ras and rhoa. ras activates the erk cascade leading to phosphorylation of the transcription factors elk-1 and sap1a at the ets/tcf site. rhoa regulates an undefined pathway required for the activation of the srf/carg site. here we have examined the role of the ras and rhoa pathways in activation of the sre and c-fos expression in rat-1 cells. pe ...19999920930
gastrin induces c-fos gene transcription via multiple signaling pathways.we previously observed that the trophic actions of gastrin (g17) on the ar42j rat acinar cell line are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk)-induced c-fos gene transcription via protein kinase c (pkc)-dependent and -independent pathways. in this study, we further investigated the signaling pathways that target c-fos in response to g17. g17 led to a sixfold induction in luciferase activity in cells transfected with plasmids containing the -356+109 sequence of the murine c-fos promot ...19999950815
bidirectional transfer between electrical and flurothyl kindling in mice: evidence for common processes in epileptogenesis.this study sought to determine whether there was a transfer of seizure susceptibility between two models of epileptogenesis, electrical kindling and a newly described model of flurothyl kindling. in this study, we determined the effects of preexposure to one kindling agent on the seizure responsiveness to the other.19999952259
isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus).proteoglycans were extracted with 4 m guanidine-hcl from the zone of maturing chondrocytes, the site of endochondral ossification of growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus). proteoglycans were isolated by deae-sephacel chromatography and separated by sepharose cl-4b chromatography into three fractions. fraction i contained a high molecular mass (> 1000 kda) chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan capable of interacting with hyaluronic acid. its amino acid composition resembled that of the cartilage ...19989972315
high glucose alters the response of mesangial cell protein kinase c isoforms to endothelin-1.high glucose causes glomerular mesangial growth and increased matrix synthesis contributing to diabetic glomerulopathy. our purpose was to determine if high glucose alters endothelin-1 (et-1) or platelet-derived growth factor-b activation of mesangial cell diacylglycerol-sensitive protein kinase c (pkc) isoforms and subsequent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk; p42, p44).19999987073
molecular phylogeny of the ets gene family.we have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ets gene family. by distance and parsimony analysis of the ets conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ets, er71, gabp, pea3, erg, erf, elk, dets4, elf, ese, tel, yan, spi. since the three dimensional structure of the ets domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (cap and hsf) to root the tree. t ...199910022817
id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the tcf ets-domain transcription factors.the id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (hlh) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation mainly through interaction with other hlh proteins and by blocking their dna-binding activity. members of the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily of ets-domain proteins have key functions in regulating immediate-early gene expression in response to mitogenic stimulation. tcfs form dna-bound complexes wi ...199910022839
cloning and characterization of the promoters of the maxik channel alpha and beta subunits.large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (maxik) channels are expressed in nerve, muscle, and other cell types and are important determinants of smooth muscle tone. to determine the mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of maxik channels, we characterized the promoter regions of the pore forming (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits of the human channel complex. maximum promoter activity (up to 12.3-fold over control) occurred between nucleotides -567 and -220 for the alph ...199910023076
identification of grb4/nckbeta, a src homology 2 and 3 domain-containing adapter protein having similar binding and biological properties to nck.adapter proteins made up of src homology (sh) domains mediate multiple cellular signaling events initiated by receptor protein tyrosine kinases. here we report that grb4 is an adapter protein closely related to but distinct from nck that is made up of three sh3 domains and one sh2 domain. northern analysis indicated that both genes are expressed in multiple tissues. both nck and grb4 proteins could associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and the sh3-binding proteins pak, sos1, and prk2, and the ...199910026169
signalling and gene regulation by urea and nacl in the renal medulla.1. cells of the mammalian renal medulla are routinely subjected to an enormously elevated and labile ambient osmolality as a consequence of the renal concentrating mechanism. the present review focuses on the most recent advances in hyperosmotic solute-mediated signal transduction and regulation of gene transcription in cells of the kidney medulla. 2. on the basis of osmolality alone, nacl and urea are the principal renal medullary solutes. 3. urea, which is membrane permeant, activates transcri ...199910027073
overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (ptp-alpha) but not ptp-kappa inhibits translocation of glut4 in rat adipose cells.protein tyrosine phosphatases (ptpases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. we recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane ptpase ptp1b can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of glut4. we now examine the role of ptp-alpha and ptp-kappa (two transmembrane ptpases) in this metabolic action of insulin. rat adipose cells were transfected with either ptp-alpha or ptp-kappa and effects of these ptpases on the translocation of a cotransfected epitope-t ...199910049686
arachidonic acid in platelet microparticles up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin formation via a protein kinase c/mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.activation of platelets results in shedding of membrane microparticles (mp) with potentially bioactive properties. platelet mp modulate platelet, monocyte, and vascular endothelial cell function, both by direct effects of mp arachidonic acid (aa) and by its metabolism to bioactive prostanoids. we have previously reported that platelet mp induce expression of cyclooxygenase (cox)-2 and prostacyclin production in monocytes and endothelial cells. to elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that u ...199910066822
effects of photoperiod on the cessation of growth during autumn in male red deer and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-i secretion.male red deer undergo seasonal cycles of food intake and growth rate, which are high during spring and low during winter, despite high quality food ad libitum. hormonal profiles during the cessation of growth in autumn and the potential role of photoperiod in the timing of the observed changes have been investigated. whether this seasonal decrease in growth affected the response of gh and igf-i to fasting was also examined. two groups of six male 1-year-old red deer were exposed to different pho ...199910068507
experimental narthecium ossifragum nephrotoxicity in cervids from norway.one moose (alces alces), two red deer (cervus elaphus), two reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and two fallow deer (dama dama) were dosed intraruminally with an aqueous extract made from 30 g of bog asphodel (narthecium ossifragum) (wet weight) per kg live weight. the moose and one of the two reindeer were mildly depressed and had reduced appetite 3 to 7 days and 1 to 4 days after dosing, respectively. the serum creatinine and urea concentrations increased markedly in the moose and red deer, and moder ...199910073342
influence of social status on ovarian function in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).this study examines the effects of behavioural and environmental factors on ovarian function in red deer hinds. patterns of postovulatory luteal progesterone secretion were investigated in groups of farmed red deer hinds following oestrus induced by progesterone administration and withdrawal. hinds were held under conditions leading to low (experiment 1, held in paddocks: 0.29 per animal/h) or high (experiment 2, held in pens: 1.11 per animal/h) interaction rates, and progesterone was measured i ...199910073469
a differential requirement for the cooh-terminal region of the epidermal growth factor (egf) receptor in amphiregulin and egf mitogenic signaling.the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) mediates the actions of a family of bioactive peptides that include epidermal growth factor (egf) and amphiregulin (ar). here we have studied ar and egf mitogenic signaling in egfr-devoid nr6 fibroblasts that ectopically express either wild type egfr (wt) or a truncated egfr that lacks the three major sites of autophosphorylation (c'1000). cooh-terminal truncation of the egfr significantly impairs the ability of ar to (i) stimulate dna synthesis, (ii) ...199910085134
genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins.genomic dna from reference strains and biovars of the genus brucella was analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). fingerprints were compared to estimate genetic relatedness among the strains and to obtain information on evolutionary relationships. electrophoresis of dna digested with the restriction endonuclease xbai produced fragment profiles for the reference type strains that distinguished these strains to the level of species. included in this study were strains isolated from ...199910098687
low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced bohr effect in red deer (cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature.a study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. the oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of ph, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrin ...199910102994
a continuum of rehabilitative care. a day hospital extends patients' lifeline to the medical center.alexian brothers medical center in elk grove village, il, carries out its commitment to a continuum of care through the alexian brothers rehabilitation center and its physical rehabilitation day hospital. the day hospital treats patients who need rehabilitation but do not need around-the-clock hospitalization. the day hospital individualizes its intensive comprehensive, pulmonary, and arthritis programs. an important component of these outpatient programs is education and preventive techniques t ...199010107455
increasing medicaid clients' access to care. church, state, and private providers collaborate.medicaid clients often have difficulty obtaining a physician referral and thus seek treatment for nonemergent conditions in hospital emergency rooms. a committee with representatives from alexian brothers health system, inc., elk grove village, il, and catholic charities of the archdiocese of chicago, rolling meadows, il, has collaborated with six other organizations to put an end to this misuse of the healthcare system in chicago's northwest suburbs. catholic charities physician referral servic ...199110109231
association releases new pediatric discharge guides.an expert panel convened by the american academy of pediatrics (aap) in elk grove village, il, says traditional guidelines for the discharge of high-risk newborns are inadequate because they can't be tailored easily to many individual cases. in its own just-released guidelines, the aap distinguishes among four categories of high-risk newborns, including preterm infants, infants who require technological support, those at risk because of family issues, and those whose irreversible condition may r ...199810182863
effects of preslaughter handling on the behaviour, blood biochemistry and carcases of farmed red deer.eight groups of six red deer (four groups of males and four groups of females) were held overnight in an unfamiliar paddock, after which they were moved into a holding pen and slaughtered sequentially by stunning with a captive bolt pistol in a restraining pen. on entering the restraining pen, half the deer in each group were stunned immediately, but the other half were stunned after 10 minutes. deer spent much of the initial period in the holding pen standing stationary in 'alert' postures, but ...199910189673
positive and negative regulatory elements in the upstream region of the rat cu/zn-superoxide dismutase gene.cu/zn-superoxide dismutase (sod1) catalyses the dismutation of superoxide radicals and neutralizes the oxidative effects of various chemicals. deletion analysis of the upstream region of the rat sod1 gene revealed that the promoter contains a positive regulatory element (pre) and a negative regulatory element (nre), which encompass the regions from -576 to -412 and from -412 to -305 respectively from the site of initiation of transcription. these dna elements showed enhancer and silencer activit ...199910191264
functional analysis of a mouse brain elk-type k+ channel.members of the ether à go-go (eag) k+ channel subfamilies eag, erg, and elk are widely expressed in the nervous system, but their neural functions in vivo remain largely unknown. the biophysical properties of channels from the eag and erg subfamilies have been described, and based on their characteristic features and expression patterns, erg channels have been associated with native currents in the heart. little is known about the properties of channels from the elk subfamily. we have identified ...199910191308
ternary complex factors elk-1 and sap-1a mediate growth hormone-induced transcription of egr-1 (early growth response factor-1) in 3t3-f442a preadipocytes.in our search for transcription factors induced by gh, we have analyzed immediate early gene activation in a model of gh-dependent differentiation. here we describe the activation of early growth response factor-1 (egr-1) in gh-stimulated 3t3-f442a preadipocytes and the transcription factors responsible for its transactivation. binding activity of egr-1 in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (emsa) increased transiently 1 h after gh stimulation, accompanied by a concomitant increase in egr-1 mr ...199910194767
bone morphogenetic protein 2 inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced c-fos gene transcription and dna synthesis in mesangial cells. involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase.bone morphogenetic proteins (bmps) play an important role in nephrogenesis. the biologic effect and mechanism of action of these proteins in the adult kidney has not yet been studied. we investigated the effect of bmp2, a member of these growth and differentiation factors, on mitogenic signal transduction pathways induced by platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf) in glomerular mesangial cells. pdgf is a growth and survival factor for these cells in vitro and in vivo. incubation of mesangial cells ...199910196167
characterization of mhc-drb allelic diversity in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) provides insight into mhc-drb allelic evolution within cervidae.although white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are one of north america's best studied mammals, no information is available concerning allelic diversity at any locus of the major histocompatibility complex in this taxon. using the polymerase chain reaction, single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, and dna sequencing techniques, 15 drb exon 2 alleles were identified among 150 white-tailed deer from a single population in southeastern oklahoma. these alleles represent a single locu ...199910199919
environmental variation shapes sexual dimorphism in red deer.sexual dimorphism results from dichotomous selection on male and female strategies of growth in relation to reproduction. in polygynous mammals, these strategies reflect sexual selection on males for access to females and competitive selection on females for access to food. consequently, in such species, males display rapid early growth to large adult size, whereas females invest in condition and early sexual maturity at the expense of size. hence, the magnitude of adult size dimorphism should b ...199910200285
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus ticks in urban recreational areas of helsinki.lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the northern hemisphere. in the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of helsinki, finland. altogether 1,688 ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five areas located within 5 km of the downtown section of helsinki, and 726 of them (303 ...199910203487
involvement of protein kinase c and rho gtpase in the nuclear signalling pathway by transforming growth factor-beta1 in rat-2 fibroblast cells.the transforming growth factor (tgf)-beta signal-transduction cascade from the cell membrane to the nuclear target is poorly characterised. here we report that treatment with tgf-beta1 induces the levels of endogenous c-fos mrna in rat-2 fibroblast cells. in addition, by transient transfection analysis, tgf-beta1 was shown to stimulate c-fos serum response element (sre)-driven reporter gene activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that sre is one of the nuclear targets of tgf-be ...199910206347
effect of the method of capture on the haematology and blood chemistry of red deer (cervus elaphus).haematological and plasma biochemical constituents can be affected during capture and handling operations in wildlife. the present study compares the blood constituents of 40 red deer (cervus elaphus) captured using two different methods: 20 were captured by physical means, using long nets and box traps, and 20 by chemical means, using a mixture of xylazine and ketamine. significant differences were found in the haemogram: red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, and ...199910208884
a mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b phylogeny of sika deer (cervus nippon) and report of tandem repeats in the control region.sika deer (cervus nippon temminck) are endemic to mainland and insular asia. numerous subspecies have been named, but they are not quantitatively well defined. portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (450 bp) and control region (512 bp) were sequenced from 28 individuals belonging to five sika subspecies and two cervus elaphus subspecies. phylogenetic trees constructed using these sequences clearly demonstrated that sika are monophyletic with respect to c. elaphus. a survey of variation ...199910222160
introgression through rare hybridization: a genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus cervus) in argyll, scotland.in this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in argyll, scotland, between native red deer (cervus elaphus) and introduced japanese sika deer (cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial dna. in contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red-like phenotype. introgression is rare at any one locus, b ...199910224266
production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus.this is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. the nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by pcr and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunos ...199910225833
nf-kappa b-inducing kinase is a common mediator of il-17-, tnf-alpha-, and il-1 beta-induced chemokine promoter activation in intestinal epithelial cells.il-17 expression is restricted to activated t cells, whereas the il-17r is expressed in a variety of cell types including intestinal epithelial cells. however, the functional responses of intestinal epithelial cells to stimulation with il-17 are unknown. moreover, the signal transduction pathways activated by the il-17r have not been characterized. il-17 induced nf-kappa b protein-dna complexes consisting of p65/p50 heterodimers in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line iec-6. the induction of ...199910228009
structural organization of the human elk1 gene and its processed pseudogene elk2.in the ets gene family of transcription factors, elk1 belongs to the subfamily of ternary complex factors (tcfs) which bind to the serum response element (sre) in conjunction with a dimer of serum response factors (srfs). the primary structure of the human elk1 gene was determined by genomic cloning. the gene structure of elk1 spans 15.2 kb and consists of seven exons and six introns. the coding sequence resides on exons 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. sequencing of cdna clones isolated from human hippocampus ...199910231026
red deer regional dietetic services program.the regional dietetic services program coordinated by the red deer regional hospital centre is described. the program became a reality in june 1978, in response to requests for professional dietetic assistance from the rural hospitals located in central alberta. the program objectives were defined, standards were determined, duties and responsibilities of red deer regional hospital centre (the 'agency') and the 'user' hospital were clarified, and a yearly contract was established. the dietetic c ...198410268687
mission effectiveness study identifies, reinforces values.when the congregation of alexian brothers recommended that its sponsored institutions evaluate their mission effectiveness, the alexian brothers medical center, elk grove village, il, developed a study of patient and constituent perceptions. the purpose was to assess the degree to which the alexian mission guided the institution's performance. survey instruments included a survey of patient care perceptions and a questionnaire administered to alexians, alexian comembers, professional and support ...198410268698
red deer regional hospital centre, red deer, alberta. 198510274849
measuring corporate culture to ensure mission fulfillment.ancilla systems, inc., elk grove village, il, developed a mission-based performance evaluation program to provide tangible evidence of mission fulfillment and ensure the provision of high-quality healthcare. the program--characteristics of service--translates the language of healthcare action and evaluates corporate culture to ensure that it fulfills the expectations of its sponsor. the nine characteristics of service are: respect for the dignity of all persons. orientation toward the family uni ...198810290848
monomorphism and polymorphism at mhc drb loci in domestic and wild ruminants.genetic polymorphism at mhc class ii drb loci was investigated in samples of musk-ox from canada and greenland; moose from sweden, norway, canada, and alaska; roe deer from norway and sweden; reindeer from svalbard and norway; fallow deer from norway and sweden; and red deer from norway. the results were compared with published data on cattle, bison, goat, sheep, and red deer. cattle-specific primers amplified a single drb locus in all species except fallow deer and red deer, in which two loci w ...199910319259
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) belong to a group of degenerative neurological disorders collectively known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). the group also includes scrapie of sheep and goats, kuru of humans, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk and transmissible encephalopathy of mink. these fatal diseases cause behavioural changes, alterations of sensation, changes in mental state and ataxia. the typical pathology is no ...199810326298
finding an appropriate order for a hierarchy based on probabilistic dominance.methods of ranking individuals in a dominance hierarchy that use transitivity of relationships may obscure irregularities. furthermore, these methods use only a small proportion of the information available from dominance encounters. this paper presents an intuitively appealing and easily implemented alternative to existing methods for ordering dominance data, developed from the work of batchelder et al. (1992 journal of mathematical psychology36, 185-212). the procedure presented here is based ...199910328784
social segregation is not a consequence of habitat segregation in red deer and feral soay sheep.in many sexually dimorphic mammals, adults tend to form single-sex groups ('social segregation'). it has been assumed that social segregation is simply a by-product of sex differences in habitat use ('habitat segregation'). i tested this assumption on red deer, cervus elaphus, and feral soay sheep, ovis aries, using data on group composition, habitat use and space use collected on the scottish islands of rum (1974-1993) and hirta (1985-1994), respectively. if social segregation had been a by-pro ...199910328803
bone morphogenetic protein-2 inhibits mapk-dependent elk-1 transactivation and dna synthesis induced by egf in mesangial cells.bone morphogenetic protein-2 (bmp-2) is a member of the tgfbeta superfamily of growth and differentiation factors. we investigated the effect of bmp-2 on epidermal growth factor (egf)-induced mitogenic signaling in kidney glomerular mesangial cells. bmp-2 dose-dependently inhibits egf-induced dna synthesis. maximum effect was obtained at a concentration of 100 ng/ml. bmp-2 had no inhibitory effect on the egf receptor (egfr)-associated tyrosine kinase activity indicating that inhibition of dna sy ...199910329414
hypoxia-associated induction of early growth response-1 gene expression.the paradigm for the response to hypoxia is erythropoietin gene expression; activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (hif-1) results in erythropoietin production. previously, we found that oxygen deprivation induced tissue factor, especially in mononuclear phagocytes, by an early growth response (egr-1)-dependent pathway without involvement of hif-1 (yan, s.-f., zou, y.-s., gao, y., zhai, c., mackman, n., lee, s., milbrandt, j., pinsky, d., kisiel, w., and stern, d. (1998) proc. natl. acad. sci. ...199910329706
stimulation of elk1 transcriptional activity by mitogen-activated protein kinases is negatively regulated by protein phosphatase 2b (calcineurin).cellular calcium (ca2+) and the ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (cam) regulate the activities of ca2+/cam-dependent protein kinases and protein phosphatase 2b (calcineurin). functional interactions between cam kinases and mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases were described. in this report, we describe cross-talk between calcineurin and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. calcineurin was found to specifically down-regulate the transcriptional activity of transcription factor elk1, foll ...199910329725
targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to mef2 transcription factors.mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase-mediated signalling to the nucleus is an important event in the conversion of extracellular signals into a cellular response. however, the existence of multiple map kinases which phosphorylate similar phosphoacceptor motifs poses a problem in maintaining substrate specificity and hence the correct biological response. both the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) and c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk) subfamilies of map kinases use a second specificity ...199910330143
reproductive performance of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand. i. descriptive data.a longitudinal observational study of 15 red deer (cervus elaphus) farms was carried out in new zealand for 2 years from mar 1992. management of hind mobs and their composition during mating, calving, and weaning were recorded. about 2700 hinds were individually monitored for live weight, body condition score and reproductive success. all hinds were pregnancy tested in june by ultrasound and classified as having conceived before may 1, after may 1, or as being not pregnant. calving dates and dam ...199910333069
activation of the 9e3/ccaf chemokine by phorbol esters occurs via multiple signal transduction pathways that converge to mek1/erk2 and activate the elk1 transcription factor.using primary fibroblasts in culture, we have investigated the signal transduction mechanisms by which phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters, activate the 9e3 gene and its chemokine product the chicken chemotactic and angiogenic factor. this gene is highly stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (pdbu) via three pathways: (i) a small contribution through protein kinase c (the commonly recognized pathway for these tumor promoters), (ii) a contribution involving tyrosine kinases, and (iii) a l ...199910336436
angiogenesis activators and inhibitors differentially regulate caveolin-1 expression and caveolae formation in vascular endothelial cells. angiogenesis inhibitors block vascular endothelial growth factor-induced down-regulation of caveolin-1.angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed via proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. a variety of angiogenesis inhibitors that antagonize the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bfgf) have recently been identified. however, the mechanism by which these diverse angiogenesis inhibitors exert their common effects remains largely unknown. caveolin-1 and -2 are known to be highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells ...199910336480
production of interferon by the conceptus in red deer cervus elaphus.a type i interferon secreted by early sheep and cow conceptuses is responsible for the maternal recognition of pregnancy in these species. interferon-tau (ifn tau) acts locally on the maternal endometrium to prevent luteolysis and prolong progesterone secretion. the production of ifn tau was investigated in early pregnancy in red deer, cervus elaphus. the oestrous cycles of 14 hinds were synchronized using intra-vaginal controlled internal progesterone-releasing devices. hinds were run with a fe ...199910341723
reproductive performance of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand: ii. risk factors for adult hind conception.a 2-year longitudinal observational study of 15 red deer farms was carried out in new zealand from march 1992. about 2600 adult hinds were individually monitored for reproductive success. after mating, hinds were pregnancy-tested by ultrasound and were classified as having conceived before 1 may, after 1 may or as being not pregnant. risk factors potentially affecting the probability of conception before 1 may or of conception that year were investigated using path analysis. final path diagrams ...199910343332
reproductive performance of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand: iii. risk factors for yearling hind conception.a 2-year longitudinal observational study of 15 red-deer farms was carried out in new zealand from march 1992. seven hundred yearling hinds were individually monitored for reproductive success. after mating, hinds were pregnancy tested by ultrasound and were classified as having conceived before 1 may, after 1 may, or as being not pregnant. risk factors potentially affecting the probability of conception before 1 may or of conception that year were investigated using path analysis. to increase t ...199910343333
sperm collection from shot red deer stags (cervus elaphus) and the utilisation of sperm frozen and subsequently thawed.sperm samples were collected from the epididymides of 11 hunter-killed stags (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) within 2 to 17 h post mortem in september 1991. progressively motile spermatozoa were diluted and deep-frozen in tris-yolk extender by a procedure routinely used for bovine semen. the pre-freezing motility of spermatozoa from 6 stags was higher than 80%, while the sperm of 5 animals was found to be unsuitable for dilution. in the post-thawed sperm of six stags 40-50% of the spermatozoa showe ...199910344086
activated g protein-coupled receptor induces tyrosine phosphorylation of stat3 and agonist-selective serine phosphorylation via sustained stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. resultant effects on cell proliferation.the peptide hormone somatostatin exhibits antiproliferative activity by interacting with the g protein-coupled sst2 or sst5 receptor types. we show here that somatostatin at the human recombinant sst4 receptor induced a concentration-dependent increase in proliferation (ec50 20 nm) with a maximal response 5-fold greater than that produced by its synthetic analog, l-362,855. analysis of the phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk)1 and erk2 showed temporal differences ...199910347203
collagen-homology domain 1 deletion mutant of shc suppresses transformation mediated by neu through a mapk-independent pathway.shc proteins are implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinase to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway by recruiting grb2/sos to the plasma membrane. to better understand the role of shc in the oncogenesis by point-mutation activated neu (p185*), we transfected a shc mutant (shcdeltachi), which lacks the grb2 binding site y317 by deletion of collagen-homology domain 1, into p185*-transformed nih3t3 cells. the cellular transformation phenotypes were found to be largely suppressed ...199910353605
population density affects sex ratio variation in red deer.many mammal populations show significant deviations from an equal sex ratio at birth, but these effects are notoriously inconsistent. this may be because more than one mechanism affects the sex ratio and the action of these mechanisms depends on environmental conditions. here we show that the adaptive relationship between maternal dominance and offspring sex ratio previously demonstrated in red deer (cervus elaphus), where dominant females produced more males, disappeared at high population dens ...199910365956
immunohistochemical localization of epha5 in the adult human central nervous system.to better understand the functional role of epha5 in the adult human central nervous system (cns), we performed an immunohistochemical mapping study. epha5, like other members of the elk/eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, was widely distributed in cns neurons. however, the distribution of the neuronal staining was not uniform. the abundance of stained neurons appeared to increase from the forebrain to the hindbrain and spinal cord. glial and endothelial tissue was unstained. these findings ...199910375373
reproductive performance of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand. iv. biological markers as risk factors for yearling and adult hind conception.a 2-year observational study of 15 red deer (cervus elephus) farms was carried out in new zealand from march 1992. in each year of study, approximately 1650 hinds were individually monitored for reproductive success. during farm visits in march 1992 and 1993, five yearling and five adult hinds per farm were randomly selected and blood sampled to define their haematological, biochemical and blood mineral profile. faecal samples were taken for parasite egg and larvae count. biological markers pote ...199910379675
management of limb fractures in wapiti (cervus elaphus): 22 cases (1993-1997).to determine treatment and outcome of a series of wapiti (elk) with fractures of the limbs.199910382027
rapid phosphorylation of elk-1 transcription factor and activation of map kinase signal transduction pathways in response to visual stimulation.the ap-1 transcription factor, which is composed of various combinations of fos and jun proteins, is believed to be a key participant in molecular processes that guide activity-dependent changes in gene expression. in this study, we investigated the activity of different map kinases that have been implicated in ap-1 activation. we examined the activities of erk, jnk/sapk, and p38 mapk along with their nuclear targets (elk-1 and c-jun) in rat visual cortex after light stimulation. the transcripti ...199910383826
calcitonin gene-related peptide acts as a mitogen for human gin-1 gingival fibroblasts by activating the map kinase signalling pathway.in many peripheral tissues, calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) is released from peptidergic sensory nerve fibres and acts like a growth factor during tissue development and regeneration. however, the ability of cgrp to influence gingival tissue has not been studied. to address this question, we have now examined the effects of cgrp on the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (gin-1) in vitro. gin-1 cells have approximately 3100 specific cgrp-binding sites with a kd of 38.6 pm on their ...199910384404
gab2, a new pleckstrin homology domain-containing adapter protein, acts to uncouple signaling from erk kinase to elk-1.we describe a novel human adapter molecule containing a pleckstrin homolgy (ph) domain at the n terminus that is closely related to human grb2-associated binder 1, gab1, and drosophila daughter of sevenless. we designate this protein as gab2. northern blot analysis indicates that gab2 is widely expressed and has an overlapping but distinctive expression pattern as compared with gab1, with high levels of gab2 mrna detected in the heart, brain, placenta, spleen, ovary, peripheral blood leukocytes, ...199910391903
gi proteins use a novel beta gamma- and ras-independent pathway to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase and mobilize ap-1 transcription factors in jurkat t lymphocytes.receptors coupled to pertussis toxin (ptx)-sensitive gi proteins regulate t lymphocyte cytokine secretion, proliferation, and chemotaxis, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of gi protein signaling in mammalian lymphocytes. using the jurkat t lymphocyte cell line, we found that a stably expressed gi protein-coupled receptor (the delta-opioid receptor (dor1)) stimulates mek-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (erk1 and erk2) and transcriptional activity by an erk t ...199910391949
glycine-extended gastrin exerts growth-promoting effects on human colon cancer cells.since human colon cancers often contain significant quantities of progastrin-processing intermediates, we sought to explore the possibility that the biosynthetic precursor of fully processed amidated gastrin, glycine-extended gastrin, may exert trophic effects on human colonic cancer cells.199910404512
the expression of tobacco knotted1-type class 1 homeobox genes correspond to regions predicted by the cytohistological zonation model.we have isolated and characterized four tobacco homeobox genes, nth1, nth9, nth20, nth22 (nicotiana tabacum homeobox) which belong to the class 1 knotted1-type family of homeobox genes. comparison of the inferred amino acid sequences of the elk homeodomains of these genes and previously reported kn1-type class 1 proteins has revealed that the four new tobacco genes belong to distinct subclasses, suggesting that each nth gene may have distinct functions. using in situ hybridization and by analysi ...199910406119
a dominant role for the raf-mek pathway in forskolin, 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate, and platelet-derived growth factor-induced creb (camp-responsive element-binding protein) activation, uncoupled from serine 133 phosphorylation in nih 3t3 cells.in this study we describe that platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf), 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (tpa), and forskolin induced creb (camp-responsive element-binding protein) ser-133 phosphorylation with comparable magnitude and kinetics in nih 3t3 cells. while forskolin was the most potent activator of creb, tpa or pdgf modestly increased creb activity. the role of protein kinase c, protein kinase a, and the raf-mek kinase pathway in the activation and ser-133 phosphorylation of creb by t ...199910406459
a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase in mediating the ability of thyrotropin-releasing hormone to stimulate the prolactin promoter.the hypothalamic hormone, trh, stimulates prl secretion and gene transcription. we have examined the possibility that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) may play a role in mediating trh effects on the prl gene. trh was found to stimulate sustained activation of mapk in prl-producing, gh3 cells, consistent with a possible role in transcriptional regulation. a kinase-defective, interfering mapk kinase (mapkk) mutant reduced trh induction of the prl promoter. treatment with the mapkk inhib ...199910406461
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