c-jun nh2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors.regulatory proteins are often ubiquitinated, depending on their phosphorylation status as well as on their association with ancillary proteins that serve as adapters of the ubiquitination machinery. we previously demonstrated that c-jun is targeted for ubiquitination by its association with inactive c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk). phosphorylation by activated jnk protects c-jun from ubiquitination, thus by prolonging its half-life. in the study reported here, we determined the ability of jnk to ...19979405416
nuclear hormone receptor antagonism with ap-1 by inhibition of the jnk pathway.the activity of c-jun, the major component of the transcription factor ap-1, is potentiated by amino-terminal phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 (ser-63/73). this phosphorylation is mediated by the jun amino-terminal kinase (jnk) and required to recruit the transcriptional coactivator creb-binding protein (cbp). ap-1 function is antagonized by activated members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. recently, a competition for cbp has been proposed as a mechanism for this antagon ...19979407028
inhibition of map kinase blocks insulin-mediated dna synthesis and transcriptional activation of c-fos by elk-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.insulin-stimulated dna synthesis, map kinase (mapk) activity and c-fos expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) was blocked by the mapk inhibitor pd 98059. regulation of c-fos expression by the transcription factor elk-1 at the serum response element (sre) is dependent on its phosphorylation by mapk. pd 98059 also suppressed insulin-induced elk-1 transcriptional activity through the sre. these data show that mapk plays a critical role in both insulin-mediated growth and elk-1-dependent ...19979409734
in vivo expression and regulation of elk-1, a target of the extracellular-regulated kinase signaling pathway, in the adult rat brain.the transcription factor elk-1, a nuclear target of extracellular-regulated kinases (erks), plays a pivotal role in immediate early gene induction by external stimuli. notably, the degree of phosphorylation of elk-1 is tightly correlated with the level of activation of transcription of c-fos by proliferative signals. no data yet indicate the role of elk-1 in the adult brain in vivo. to address this question, we have analyzed in the present work (1) elk-1 mrna and protein expression in the adult ...19989412502
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
[a focus of dermacentor reticulatus kept by red and fallow deer in animal husbandry (kosewo, poland)].focus of dermacentor reticulatus has been found on the area of fenced cervides farm. very frequent occurrence of d. reticulatus on plants of red and fallow deer pens indicates that these animals in farm conditions are good hosts of adult forms of this tick. on pens of red deer the number of ticks caught on plants was considerable greater than on pens of fallow deer. however, proportion of males in spring and autumn populations of ticks caught on fallow deer pens was considerable greater than on ...19979424941
lactate dehydrogenase quantification and isoenzyme distribution in physiological response to stress in red deer (cervus elaphus).as a contribution to the description of the physiological response to stress in red deer (cervus elaphus), the potential use of the intracellular glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and its isoenzyme ldh-5, as a marker of muscle damage was assessed. the distribution of ldh isoenzymes within red deer tissues was similar to that shown in other ruminants: tissue characterisation showed isoenzyme ldh-5 to be particularly associated with skeletal muscle. high plasma concentrations of creat ...19979429243
nck recruitment to eph receptor, ephb1/elk, couples ligand activation to c-jun kinase.eph family receptor tyrosine kinases signal axonal guidance, neuronal bundling, and angiogenesis; yet the signaling systems that couple these receptors to targeting and cell-cell assembly responses are incompletely defined. functional links to regulators of cytoskeletal structure are anticipated based on receptor mediated cell-cell aggregation and migratory responses. we used two-hybrid interaction cloning to identify ephb1-interactive proteins. six independent cdnas encoding the sh2 domain of t ...19989430661
functional role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in gastric acid secretion.epidermal growth factor (egf) has acute inhibitory and chronic stimulatory effects on gastric acid secretion. because a cascade of intracellular events culminating in the activation of a family of serine-threonine protein kinases called extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erks) is known to mediate the actions of egf, we undertook studies to explore the functional role of the erks in gastric acid secretion. erk2 was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates of highly purified (> 95%) gastr ...19979435551
physiological effects of hunting red deer (cervus elaphus).when red deer (cervus elaphus) were hunted by humans with hounds the average distance travelled was at least 19 km. this study of 64 hunted red deer provides the first empirical evidence on their state at the time of death. blood and muscle samples obtained from hunted deer after death were compared with samples from 50 non-hunted red deer that had been cleanly shot with rifles. the effects on deer of long hunts were (i) depletion of carbohydrate resources for powering muscles, (ii) disruption o ...19979447728
the elk-1 ets-domain transcription factor contains a mitogen-activated protein kinase targeting motif.the phosphorylation of transcription factors by mitogen-activated protein kinases (map) is a pivotal event in the cellular response to the activation of map kinase signal transduction pathways. mitogenic and stress stimuli activate different pathways and lead to the activation of distinct groups of target proteins. elk-1 is targeted by three distinct map kinase pathways. in this study, we demonstrate that the map kinase erk2 is targeted to elk-1 by a domain which is distinct from, and located n- ...19989447967
[enzootic spinal ataxia in fallow and wild red deer in upper bavaria].since 1993 several cases of spinal ataxia occurred in adult red and/or fallow deer in four farms in southern bavaria. the disease based on a secondary copper deficiency due to a high level of molybden and a low level of copper content in the feed. some of the animals suffer from a severe disturbance of motion. in most cases the animals are shot at the beginning of illness. histologically the most important lesions are in the spinal cord consisting mainly in a bilateral symmetric degeneration of ...19979451765
urea activates ribosomal s6 kinase (rsk) in a mek-dependent fashion in renal mimcd3 cells.urea activates a characteristic subset of signaling pathways in a tissue-specific fashion, including transcription of immediate early genes through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk), erk (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), and activation of its transcription factor substrate, elk-1. the ability of urea to activate the erk effector and pivotal regulatory kinase, ribosomal s6 kinase (rsk), was investigated in mimcd3 renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. urea upr ...19989458825
cloning and characterisation of the gene encoding red deer (cervus elaphus) growth hormone: implications for the molecular evolution of growth hormone in mammals the structure of pituitary gh is generally strongly conserved, indicating a slow basal rate of molecular evolution. however, on two occasions, during the evolution of primates and of artiodactyls, the rate of evolution has increased dramatically (25- to 50-fold) so that the sequences of human and ruminant ghs differ markedly from those of other mammalian ghs. in order to define further the burst of gh evolution that occurred in artiodactyls we have cloned and characterised the gh gene ...19979460647
effect of pregnancy and exogenous interferon on synchronous pulsatile release of oxytocin and luteolytic prostaglandin f2 alpha in red deer (cervus elaphus).three experiments were carried out to investigate the secretion of luteolytic hormones in red deer hinds during the oestrous cycle, early pregnancy and after administration of interferon, the putative pregnancy recognition signal. three groups of hinds (n = 8-9 per group) were treated with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices for 13 days (device withdrawal = day 0). group 1 (n = 9) served as controls; group 2 (n = 8) received injections of 4 mg ...19979462299
premature luteal regression induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and estrogen is suppressed by administration of exogenous interferon in red deer (cervus elaphus).superovulation of red deer hinds with ecg causes premature luteal regression by inducing follicular hypersecretion of estrogen that activates the luteolytic mechanism. six groups of hinds (n = 8 per group) were treated with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal controlled internal drug-releasing (cidr) devices for 14 days to synchronize estrus (cidr device withdrawal = day 0). group 1 served as controls; group 2 received an i.m. injection of 1200 iu ecg at -72 h; group 3 received similar ecg tre ...19989472932
one-sample pregnancy diagnosis in elk using fecal steroid metabolites.recent research has demonstrated the potential of pregnancy diagnosis in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using immunoassays of fecal steroid concentration. however, multiple samples are required to insure accurate results, limiting its utility for free-ranging animals. we attempted to develop an accurate one-sample pregnancy diagnosis using 153 fecal samples that were collected from free-ranging, radio-collared, adult female elk in yellowstone national park (wyoming, usa) and from captive elk maint ...19989476233
epizootiology of sarcoptic mange in a population of cantabrian chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica parva) in northwestern may of 1993, an epizootic of sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei) was detected in the chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica parva) population of the cantabrian mountains in northwestern spain. the epizootic initially spread across an area inhabited by some 1600 chamois. mortality was lower than reported for other populations of ungulates. the maximum number of animals were affected from february to may. four red deer (cervus elaphus) and a roe deer (capreolus capreolus), were diagnosed with sarcoptic m ...19979477502
signal transduction pathways activated by ret oncoproteins in pc12 pheochromocytoma cells.gene alterations in the ret proto-oncogene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, have been found to associate with several human diseases. in this study, we showed that induction of the vgf promoter activity is a good molecular indicator for ret activation in pc12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line. we demonstrated that all forms of ret oncoprotein, including ret chimeric oncoproteins found in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (ret/ptc) as well as ret oncoproteins found in patients wi ...19989478934
shear stress activates p60src-ras-mapk signaling pathways in vascular endothelial cells.the aim of this study was to elucidate the upstream signaling mechanism that mediates the fluid shear stress activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks), including c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erks), in vascular endothelial cells (ecs). our results indicate that p60src is rapidly activated by fluid shear stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells (baecs). shear stress induction of the hemagglutinin (ha) epitope-tagged ha-jnk1 and the myc ...19989484987
welfare of hunted red deer. 19989491532
[the occurrence of lumbar paralysis in goats and the appearance of elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer in the canton ticino].the aim of the study was to examine the incidence of lumbar paralysis in goats and the possible role of elaphostrongylus cervi as an agent. for this reason questionnaires concerning the clinical pictures and the incidence of lumbar paralysis were sent to 200 owners of goats and to 9 veterinarians. the study showed that the symptoms of lumbar paralysis had been observed for many years mainly during the winter. most of the animals suffering from lumbar paralysis originated from the valley of leven ...19989492579
eph receptors discriminate specific ligand oligomers to determine alternative signaling complexes, attachment, and assembly responses.eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (including epha3, ephb4) direct pathfinding of neurons within migratory fields of cells expressing gradients of their membrane-bound ligands. others (ephb1 and epha2) direct vascular network assembly, affecting endothelial migration, capillary morphogenesis, and angiogenesis. to explore how ephrins could provide positional labels for cell targeting, we tested whether endogenous endothelial and p19 cell ephb1 (elk) and ephb2 (nuk) receptors discriminate betwee ...19989499402
[history of the laryngology department in the military hospital in ełk]. 19959499857
the kinase suppressor of ras (ksr) modulates growth factor and ras signaling by uncoupling elk-1 phosphorylation from map kinase activation.the ras gtpase plays an essential role in many cellular signal transduction events. activation of the mitogen activated protein (map) kinase is a primary consequence of ras activation and plays a key role in mediating ras signal transduction. a novel kinase, ksr, has recently been functionally isolated as a positive regulator of ras signaling in caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction and drosophila photoreceptor differentiation. we have examined the effect of ksr on growth factor and ras-induce ...19989501093
differential targeting of map kinases to the ets-domain transcription factor elk-1.the activation of map kinase (mapk) signal transduction pathways results in the phosphorylation of transcription factors by the terminal kinases in these cascades. different pathways are activated by mitogenic and stress stimuli, which lead to the activation of distinct groups of target proteins. the ets-domain transcription factor elk-1 is a substrate for three distinct classes of mapks. elk-1 contains a targeting domain, the d-domain, which is distinct from the phosphoacceptor motifs and is re ...19989501095
three-dimensional matrix primes mesangial cells to down-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin via deactivation of carg box elements.prolonged culture of mesangial cells forms multifocal nodular structures, termed "hillocks," composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ecm), which may mimic the situation in the glomerular mesangium. mesangial cells incorporated in hillocks show repressed expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a marker of mesangial cell activation/dedifferentiation. the aim of this study is to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, focusing on the activity of carg box elements located in ...19989507215
synergistic increase in c-fos expression by simultaneous activation of the ras/raf/map kinase- and protein kinase a signaling pathways is mediated by the c-fos ap-1 and sre sites.expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene is induced by numerous stimuli some of which are transmitted through the ras/raf/map kinase or the camp-dependent protein kinase (pka) pathways. the effect of cell-specific interactions between these pathways on c-fos expression was investigated by exposing quiescent nih3t3 cells to serum, forskolin, or a combination. co-stimulation with serum and forskolin resulted in a more than additive increase in c-fos transcription. synergistic increase in c-fos promo ...19989512670
transforming growth factor-beta1 and protein kinase c synergistically activate the c-fos serum response element in myocardial cells.we previously reported that transforming growth factor-beta1 (tgf-beta1) potentiated alpha1-adrenergic and stretch-induced c-fos mrna expression and norepinephrine (ne)-induced amino acid incorporation in rat cultured myocardial cells (mcs). in the present study, we attempted to explore the mode of tgf-beta1 action for c-fos gene expression in mcs. in the transient transfection assay, tgf-beta1 potentiated ne- or 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa)-activated c-fos promoter/enhancer, but n ...19989515031
tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces interleukin-6 production and integrin ligand expression by distinct transduction pathways.tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that elicits a large number of biological effects. however, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that are responsible for the tnf-alpha effects remain largely unknown. we have previously demonstrated that cultured mouse sertoli cells, after tnf-alpha treatment, increase the surface expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (vcam-1) and interleukin-6 ...19989516459
population dynamics of norwegian red deer: density-dependence and climatic variation.we present a model on plant-deer climate interactions developed for improving our understanding of the temporal dynamics of deer abundance and, in particular, how intrinsic (density-dependent) and extrinsic (plants, climate) factors influence these dynamics. the model was tested statistically by analysing the dynamics of five norwegian red deer populations between 1964 and 1993. direct and delayed density-dependence significantly influenced the development of the populations: delayed density-dep ...19989523435
rapid activation of jnk1 in uv-b irradiated epidermal keratinocytes.jun n-terminal kinase (jnk1) is a member of a family of stress-activated protein kinases which are activated by many forms of stress including uv radiation, resulting in the phosphorylation of c-jun, atf-2, elk-1 and p53. as uv-b radiation is mainly responsible for ultraviolet (uv)-induced skin cancers, we chose to elucidate jnk1 activation in keratinocytes which represent a uv-relevant cell system. we have demonstrated rapid activation of jnk1 in a keratinocyte cell line, c50, in response to mu ...19989525748
aging-related deficiency of cd28 expression in cd4+ t cells is associated with the loss of gene-specific nuclear factor binding activity.changes in t cell populations and concomitant perturbation of t cell effector functions have been postulated to account for many aging-related immune dysfunctions. here, we report that high frequencies of cd28(null) cd4+ t cells were found in elderly individuals. because deviations in the function of these unusual cd4+ t cells might be directly related to cd28 deficiency, we examined the molecular basis for the loss of cd28 expression in cd4+ t cells. in reporter gene bioassays, the minimal prom ...19989525915
the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (pka) is required for the sustained activation of mitogen-activated kinases and gene expression by nerve growth factor.induction of neuronal differentiation of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, pc12 cells, by nerve growth factor (ngf) requires activation of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk). camp-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase a (pka)) also can induce differentiation of these cells. like ngf, the ability of pka to differentiate pc12 cells is associated with a sustained activation of erks. here we show that maximal sustained activation of erk1 by ...19989525930
raf and fibroblast growth factor phosphorylate elk1 and activate the serum response element of the immediate early gene pip92 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent as well as -dependent signaling pathways.previous studies have shown that a mitogen activated protein (map) kinase (mek)-independent signaling pathway is required by activated raf or fibroblast-derived growth factor (fgf) for the differentiation of rat hippocampal neuronal h19-7 cells. we now demonstrate that both raf and fgf similarly induce prolonged transcription and translation of the immediate early gene pip92 in the absence of activation of the map kinases (mapks) erk1 and erk2. to determine the mechanism by which this occurs and ...19989528798
regulation of glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression in cells with mutated or endogenous growth hormone identify mechanisms by which gh receptors (ghr) mediate downstream events representative of growth and metabolic responses to gh, stimulation by gh of c-fos and egr-1 expression and glucose transport activity were examined in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells expressing mutated ghr. in cho cells expressing wild-type ghr(ghr(1-638)), gh stimulated the expression of c-fos and egr-1, and stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, responses also mediated by endogenous ghr in 3t3-f442a cells. deletion of t ...19989528972
evolutionarily conserved promoter region containing carg*-like elements is crucial for smooth muscle myosin heavy chain gene recent years, significant progress has been made toward understanding skeletal muscle development. however, the mechanisms that regulate smooth muscle development and differentiation are presently unknown. to better understand smooth muscle-specific gene expression, we have focused our studies on the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smhc) gene, a highly specific marker of differentiated smooth muscle cells. the goal of the present study was to isolate and characterize the mouse smhc gene pro ...19989529161
differentiation-stimulated activity binds an ets-like, essential regulatory element in the human promyelocytic defensin-1 promoter.the human hnp-defensin-1 gene encodes a peptide antibiotic found exclusively in neutrophils and is key to elimination of microbes. expression is a marker for the granulocytic lineage and for certain stages of differentiation and is not known to be inducible in mature cells under physiological conditions. low level of transcription also occurs in hl-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and is greatly activated upon drug-induced granulocytic maturation and by low doses of retinoic acid, in a strictly c ...19989535850
differential induction of dna-binding activities following cd19 cross-linking in human b lineage cells.the b cell-specific cell surface molecule cd19 is expressed at all stages of b cell development, including normal plasma cells, and mediates signal transduction via interaction with cytoplasmic effector proteins. cross-linking cd19 on early human b lineage cells induces the formation of a cd19/vav/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase complex, tyrosine phosphorylation of cd19 and vav, and activation of the ras pathway. to further explore the ramifications of cd19 signaling, the current study examined wh ...19979548490
seasonal patterns of luteal cyclicity in young red deer (cervus elaphus) and sambar deer (cervus unicolor).seasonal onset of pubertal ovulation and incidence of luteal cyclicity was assessed from plasma progesterone profiles over 15 months for tame red deer (n = 7) and sambar deer (n = 7) hinds. seasonal responses to photoperiod were determined from plasma prolactin profiles. all red deer attained puberty at 17-18 months of age in may-june and expressed 3-6 luteal cycles of length 20.0+/-10.4 days (mean+/-s.e.m.) over 52-102 days. six sambar deer attained puberty at 7-19 months of age, between august ...19979551662
interaction of transcription factors with serum response factor. identification of the elk-1 binding surface.serum response elements (sres) play important roles in transforming extracellular signals into specific nuclear responses. the sre-binding protein, serum response factor (srf), plays a pivotal role in this process. several transcription factors have been shown to interact with srf and thereby create distinct complexes with different regulatory potentials. the ets domain transcription factor elk-1 is one such protein and serves to integrate distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades at sr ...19989553110
rap1 mediates sustained map kinase activation induced by nerve growth factor.activation of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase (also known as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, or erk) by growth factors can trigger either cell growth or differentiation. the intracellular signals that couple growth factors to map kinase may determine the different effects of growth factors: for example, transient activation of map kinase by epidermal growth factor stimulates proliferation of pc12 cells, whereas they differentiate in response to nerve growth factor, which acts partl ...19989560161
nucleotide sequence heterogeneity in the small subunit ribosomal rna gene variable (v4) region among and within geographic isolates of theileria from cattle, elk and white-tailed deer.the phylogenetic relationships among fourteen isolates of benign theileria spp. infecting cattle, elk and white-tailed deer were studied by nucleotide sequence comparisons of the variable (v4) region (200 nucleotides) of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene. included were six korean bovine, one japanese bovine, three north american bovine, and four north american cervine isolates. the ssu rrna gene from each isolate was amplified, cloned, and the v4 region fragment sequenced. seven different nuc ...19989566093
pre-transport loading of farmed red deer: effects of previous overnight housing environment, vehicle illumination and shape of loading race.the behaviour of farmed red deer was studied while they were being loaded on to a transporter. in experiment 1, the effects of previous overnight housing conditions (indoors, at a space allowance of either 4 or 8 m2 per deer, or in an outdoor raceway) on the ease of loading were investigated. the number of attempts required to load the deer was not significantly affected by their housing conditions or their sex, but there was a significant increase in the number of attempts required after the fi ...19989569479
microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.the fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. we explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (cervus elaphus) born on the isle of rum between ...19989569667
detection of growth factors and proto-oncogene mrna in the growing tip of red deer (cervus elaphus) antler using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr).deer antler is a unique mammalian organ that has an annual cycle of regeneration. the antler grows very rapidly from the tip at up to 1 cm/day in red deer for a 90- to 120-day period. it is hypothesised that locally produced growth factors are required to control and stimulate this growth. the tip of the growing antler from animals whose antlers had been growing for 30, 60, or 90 days was dissected into four zones: epidermis/dermis, reserve mesenchyme, precartilaginous, and cartilaginous. total ...19989571767
meningeal worm evokes a heterogeneous immune response in elk.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a neurotropic nematode of ungulates in eastern north america. lack of an effective diagnostic test increases the concern of translocating potentially infected ungulates into western north america, where p. tenuis does not occur naturally. in an attempt to identify serodiagnostic molecules, we determined (1) whether elk (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with p. tenuis produce antibodies against infective larvae or adult worms, and (2) if sera ...19989577781
is prolactin a gonadotrophic hormone in red deer (cervus elaphus)? pattern of expression of the prolactin receptor gene in the testis and epididymis.this study investigated the pattern and site of expression of the prolactin receptor gene in the testis and epididymis of red deer collected during the breeding season (n=3). ribonuclease protection assays using 50 microg total rna and a 300 bp [32p]-labelled antisense crna probe, generated from the extracellular domain of the red deer prolactin receptor, confirmed the expression of the receptor in both the testis and epididymis; a higher level of prolactin receptor mrna was detected in the epid ...19989584832
omasal anatomy in new zealand red and fallow deer: an exploratory multivariate analysis.we measured the weight and volume of omasae, and the number, weight and area of omasal laminae from wild fallow (cervus dama), and wild and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) whose diet, as indicated by rumen content, was known. a multivariate analysis yielded two principal components, interpreted as indices of overall omasal size and laminar leafiness. the second component showed significantly greater variance in wild red deer than in farmed red or wild fallow deer. deer feeding on a mixed diet o ...19989591369
immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic lesions associated with elaeophora elaphi parasitism in red deer (cervus elaphus).this study was based on the immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic lesions caused by elaeophora elaphi in 15 red deer. in eight animals filariae were found in branches of the portal vein. "web-like" endophlebitis (15 cases), lymph nodule-like thrombi associated with filarial debris (12 cases) and fibrinous thrombi (three cases) were also observed in the portal vein. multifocal granulomatous hepatitis (six cases) and lymph nodule-like tissue (three cases) were found in the liver parenchy ...19989595352
sex identification of elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.we have developed a pcr-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). the technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the y-chromosome (sry) and a region of the fragile x mental retardation gene (fmr-1). the multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the sry marker with the fmr-1 marker providing ...19989608686
[transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals].transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals are known for centuries. in particular scrapie in sheep and goats occurs worldwide; it spreads as a natural disease and is genetically controlled. chronic wasting disease (cwd) in the united states (wyoming and colorado) also spreads as natural disease among free ranging and captive elk and mule deer. in contrast, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of mink in fur producing farms is caused by contaminated feed; the source of this food cont ...19989611347
interleukin-1beta-induced rat pancreatic islet nitric oxide synthesis requires both the p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases.interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) is cytotoxic to rat pancreatic beta-cells by inhibiting glucose oxidation, causing dna damage and inducing apoptosis. nitric oxide (no) is a necessary but not sufficient mediator of these effects. il-1beta induced kinase activity toward elk-1, activation transcription factor 2, c-jun, and heat shock protein 25 in rat islets. by western blotting with phosphospecific antibodies and by immunocomplex kinase assay, il-1beta was shown to activate extracellular signal-regul ...19989614146
fluid shear stress activation of egr-1 transcription in cultured human endothelial and epithelial cells is mediated via the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.the primary response transcription factor, early growth response-1 (egr-1), is rapidly activated by a variety of extracellular stimuli. egr-1 binds to a sequence found in the promoters of genes involved in vascular injury, such as pdgf-a and tissue factor, and trans-activates their expression in endothelial cells in response to fluid shear stress. here we show that egr-1 mrna is increased after 30 min of flow in human aortic endothelial cell and hela cell cultures. transient transfection of hela ...19989616225
monoclonal antibody f89/160.1.5 defines a conserved epitope on the ruminant prion protein.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders occurring in humans, mink, cats, and ruminant herbivores. the occurrence of novel transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in cattle in the united kingdom and europe and in mule deer and elk in parts of the united states has emphasized the need for reliable diagnostic tests with standardized reagents. postmortem diagnosis is performed by histologic examination of brain sections from affe ...19989620413
comparative scanning electron microscopy of third-instar hypoderma spp. (diptera: oestridae).scanning electron microscope study of third-instar larvae of four species of hypoderma revealed differences among species in the pattern of spination, spine morphology and morphology of the spiracular plates. these observations identify characters that enable the differentiation of hypoderma actaeon and h. diana, parasitizing red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe, and provide additional characters for differentiating h. bovis and h. lineatum parasitizing cattle.19989622372
embryo development and placentome formation during early pregnancy in red deer.early embryo development and placentome formation were assessed in red deer between days 27 and 55 of gestation. uteri were collected from 12 pregnant hinds in which mating was observed following a synchronized oestrus, and the tissues retained for measurements and histological processing for light microscopy. twelve embryos were recovered with mean embryo weights increasing from 0.02+/-0.01 g at day 27 to 7.56+/-1.39 g at day 55 of gestation. similarly, crown-rump lengths increased from 5.7+/-0 ...19979623493
new phylogenetic perspectives on the cervidae (artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was compared for 11 species of the artiodactyl family cervidae, representing all living subfamilies, i.e., the antlered cervinae (cervus elaphus, c. nippon, dama dama), muntiacinae (muntiacus reevesi), and odocoileinae (odocoileus hemionus, mazama sp., capreolus capreolus, c. pygargus, rangifer tarandus, alces alces); and the antlerless hydropotinae (hydropotes inermis). phylogenetic analyses using tragulidae, antilocapridae, giraffidae and bovi ...19989628037
grb10 identified as a potential regulator of growth hormone (gh) signaling by cloning of gh receptor target proteins.the cloning of receptor targets procedure, used so far to identify proteins associated with tyrosine kinase receptors was modified to clone sh2 proteins able to bind to the growth hormone receptor (ghr). the cytoplasmic region of ghr, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily does not contain tyrosine kinase activity. it was thus phosphorylated in bacteria by the elk tyrosine kinase and radiolabeled to screen a mouse expression library. with this probe, we identified shc and the p85 subunit ...19989632636
statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations.paternity inference using highly polymorphic codominant markers is becoming common in the study of natural populations. however, multiple males are often found to be genetically compatible with each offspring tested, even when the probability of excluding an unrelated male is high. while various methods exist for evaluating the likelihood of paternity of each nonexcluded male, interpreting these likelihoods has hitherto been difficult, and no method takes account of the incomplete sampling and e ...19989633105
studies on the parietal region of the cervid skull. iii. on the occurrence of an interparietal in cervus.the occurrence of an os interparietal was studied in two transparent preparations of fetal red deer (cervus elaphus) heads and in 14 dried skulls of fetal to early postnatal individuals from four cervus species (c. elaphus, c. nippon, c. duvauceli and c. eldi). in 14 of the 16 specimens, an interparietal was present as either a paired or single bone. in only a neonate red deer and a 5-week-old sika deer this skull element was missing. we therefore conclude that an os interparietal, developing fr ...19989652148
caveolin-mediated regulation of signaling along the p42/44 map kinase cascade in vivo. a role for the caveolin-scaffolding domain.the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (map)-kinase cascade is a well-established signal transduction pathway that is initiated at the cell surface and terminates within the nucleus. more specifically, receptor tyrosine kinases can indirectly activate raf, which in turn leads to activation of mek and erk and ultimately phosphorylation of elk, a nuclear transcription factor. recent reports have suggested that some members of p42/44 map kinase cascade can be sequestered within plasmalemmal caveolae ...19989654135
serotonergic repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase control of the calcitonin gene-related peptide enhancer.we have investigated the mechanisms underlying regulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) cell-specific enhancer. recently, we reported that this enhancer is inhibited by serotonin type-1 (5-ht1) agonists, similar to currently used antimigraine drugs. we have now tested whether this repression involves a mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase pathway. we first demonstrate that the cgrp enhancer is strongly (10-fold) activated by a constitutively active map kinase kinase (mek1), yie ...19989658404
suppression of c-fos gene transcription with malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.the activator protein-1 (ap-1) complex is a dimeric transcription factor composed of fos and jun proteins that regulates cellular growth and differentiation. we previously demonstrated a reduction in basal ap-1 transcriptional activity associated with the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial (hbe) cells that was, in part, a consequence of decreased c-fos expression. in this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the reduction in c-fos expression associated with the ma ...19989662337
assessment of the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase b, and protein kinase c in insulin inhibition of camp-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription.transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) gene is induced by glucagon, acting through camp and protein kinase a, and this induction is inhibited by insulin. conflicting reports have suggested that insulin inhibits induction by camp by activating the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway or by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pi3-kinase), but not mapk, pathway. insulin activated pi3-kinase phosphorylates lipids that activate protein kinase b (pkb) a ...19989668048
stress-induced immediate-early gene, egr-1, involves activation of p38/jnk1.the ras/raf/map kinase (erk) pathway is a major signaling pathway induced by growth factors in mammalian cells. two other types of mammalian map kinases, jnk (sapk) and p38 (rk, csbp), are induced by environmental stress. although the immediate-early gene, egr-1, is induced by growth factors, cytokines, differentiation signals and dna damaging agents, less is known about its induction by environmental stress and the mechanism involved. here we report that in nih3t3 cells, egr-1 is induced by var ...19989671412
cdc42 and fgd1 cause distinct signaling and transforming activities.activated forms of different rho family members (cdc42, rac1, rhoa, rhob, and rhog) have been shown to transform nih 3t3 cells as well as contribute to ras transformation. rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) (also known as dbl family proteins) that activate cdc42, rac1, and rhoa also demonstrate oncogenic potential. the faciogenital dysplasia gene product, fgd1, is a dbl family member that has recently been shown to function as a cdc42-specific gef. mutations within the fgd1 lo ...19989671479
the src homology 2 and phosphotyrosine binding domains of the shcc adaptor protein function as inhibitors of mitogenic signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor.upon ligand activation, the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated, thereby recruiting intracellular signaling proteins such as shc. egfr binding of shc proteins results in their tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent activation of the ras and erk pathways. shc interaction with activated receptor tyrosine kinases is mediated by two distinct phosphotyrosine interaction domains, an nh2-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (ptb) domain and a cooh-terminal src homology ...19989685397
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates the transcriptional induction of the atrial natriuretic factor gene through a serum response element. a potential role for the transcription factor various cell types certain stresses can stimulate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 mapk), leading to the transcriptional activation of genes that contribute to appropriate compensatory responses. in this report the mechanism of p38-activated transcription was studied in cardiac myocytes where this mapk is a key regulator of the cell growth and the cardiac-specific gene induction that occurs in response to potentially stressful stimuli. in the cardiac atrial natriuretic factor (anf) g ...19989685422
binding of ets family members is important for the function of the c-sis/platelet-derived growth factor-b tata neighboring sequence in 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated k562 cells.the c-sis/platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf)-b tata neighboring sequence (tns) is a promoter element that is required for the full induction of this gene in k562 erythroleukemia cells undergoing 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-mediated megakaryoblastic differentiation. nuclear factors from k562 cells can bind to the c-sis/pdgf-b tns, generating four complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. one of these complexes was previously shown to contain sp family members. in this work, ...19989690620
induction of apoptosis by elk-1 and deltaelk-1 proteins.elk-1, an ets related gene codes for at least two splice variants elk-1, which regulates c-fos transcription and deltaelk-1, both of which function as transcriptional activators. to investigate the role of elk-1 and deltaelk-1 proteins in apoptosis; we have developed rat fibroblast cell lines and human breast cancer cell lines expressing elk-1 and deltaelk-1. the expression of elk-1 and deltaelk-1 proteins in the elk-1/deltaelk-1 transfectants were analysed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochem ...19989696047
mek inhibition augments raf activity, but has variable effects on mitogenesis, in vascular smooth muscle cells.proteins comprising the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase signaling cascade are activated by a variety of growth factors, but the precise role of this series of kinase reactions, especially raf kinase and map kinase kinase (mek), in vascular smooth muscle (vsm) cell mitogenesis is not known. in this study, a specific and selective inhibitor of mek, pd-98059, was used to examine the role of mek in dna synthesis and raf-1 activity in vsm cells stimulated with serum as well as with growth fact ...19989696694
genetic analysis of farmed deer hybrids.molecular methods which identify species-specific genetic markers are valuable for identification and genetic analysis of hybrid deer. we have used a variety of molecular techniques to compare père david's deer elaphurus davidianus, red deer cervus elaphus scotticus and north american wapiti c. e. manatobensis. in total, these analyses have identifed over 300 markers in which père david's deer sires are distinct from farmed red deer and over 100 markers in which wapiti sires differ from red deer ...19989704532
growth, voluntary food intake and digestion in farmed temperate and tropical deer.growth and voluntary feed intake (vfi) in grazing temperate farmed deer species are influenced by the feeding value of the forage and the stage of the deer's seasonal cycle. liveweight gain (lwg) of growing red deer was greater when perennial ryegrass (0.80)/white clover (0.20) pasture was grazed at 10 cm than 5 cm surface height, but venison production by one year of age was still low. chicory and red clover were of superior feeding value for deer than perennial ryegrass-based pastures, increas ...19989704535
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive rocky mountain elk.between june 1986 and may 1997, chronic wasting disease (cwd) was the only natural cause of adult mortality among captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) held at a wildlife research facility near fort collins, colorado (usa). of 23 elk that remained in this herd > 15 mo, four (17%) developed cwd. all affected elk were unrelated females from the founding cohort, captured as neonates and raised in 1986. the index case was diagnosed in 1989; time intervals between subsequent cases range ...19989706562
antibody response of elk immunized with porcine zona pellucida.immunocontraception using porcine zona pellucida (pzp) vaccines is being explored as a nonlethal method of solving the problems of locally overabundant wildlife populations. this study characterized the immunological response of captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) to pzp challenge using 18 3-yr-old cows and was conducted from 14 september 1994 to 13 december 1995. all animals were given a single pzp inoculation and 1 mo later six of these animals were randomly chosen and received a booster inoc ...19989706563
neurotensin type 1 receptor-mediated activation of krox24, c-fos and elk-1: preventing effect of the neurotensin antagonists sr 48692 and sr 142948.stimulation of neurotensin (nt) type 1 receptors (nt1-r) in transfected cho cells is followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the expression of the early response gene krox24. by making point mutations and internal deletions in the krox24 promoter, we show that proximal serum responsive elements (sre) are involved in transcriptional activation by nt. in addition, we show that the related early response gene c-fos and the ets protein elk-1 are also induced by nt. the in ...19989710257
cloning of a mammalian elk potassium channel gene and eag mrna distribution in rat sympathetic ganglia.1. three new members of the eag potassium channel gene family were identified in rat and the complete coding sequence of one of these genes (elk1) was determined by cdna cloning. 2. the elk1 gene, when expressed in xenopus oocytes, encodes a slowly activating and slowly deactivating potassium channel. 3. the elk1 gene is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and is also expressed in sciatic nerve. 4. six of the seven known eag genes were found to be expressed in rat sympathetic ganglia, suggesting an ...19989714851
could asynchrony in activity between the sexes cause intersexual social segregation in ruminants?in many sexually dimorphic mammal species, the sexes live outside the mating season in separate social groups ('social segregation'). social segregation occurs in a wide range of environmental conditions, but its cause in unknown. i suggest that social segregation is caused by a lower level of activity synchrony between individuals in mixed-sex groups than in single-sex groups, owing to sex differences in activity rhythm. as a consequence, mixed-sex groups are more likely to break up than single ...19989718738
alternative splicing of the prolactin receptor gene generates a 1.7 kb rna transcript that is linked to prolactin function in the red deer testis.a cdna encoding a putative non-membrane bound prolactin receptor was amplified by rt-pcr from red deer (cervus elaphus) testis. sequence analysis suggests that the testicular cdna is generated by alternative splicing resulting in the deletion of exons 7 and 8, which code for: (a) the final 53 aa of the extracellular domain of the receptor including the fifth conserved cysteine residue and the ws x ws motif, (b) the entire transmembrane domain, (c) the first three cytoplasmic amino acid residues, ...19989723863
bradykinin stimulates the erk-->elk-1-->fos/ap-1 pathway in mesangial cells.among its diverse biological actions, the vasoactive peptide bradykinin (bk) induces the transcription factor ap-1 and proliferation of mesangial cells (s. s. el-dahr, s. dipp, i. v. yosipiv, and w. h. baricos. kidney int. 50: 1850-1855, 1996). in the present study, we examined the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, erk1/2,in mediating bk-induced ap-1 and dna replication in cultured rat mesangial cells. bk (10(-9) to 10(-7) m) stimulated a rapid i ...19989729506
a diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (antilocapra americana), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (ovis can ...19989732028
mp1: a mek binding partner that enhances enzymatic activation of the map kinase cascade.signal transduction is controlled both by regulation of enzyme activation and by organization of enzymatic complexes with nonenzymatic adapters, scaffolds, and anchor proteins. the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) cascade is one of several evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase cascades important in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. a two-hybrid screen was conducted to identify nonenzymatic components of this signaling cascade that migh ...19989733512
structures of sap-1 bound to dna targets from the e74 and c-fos promoters: insights into dna sequence discrimination by ets is a member of the ets transcription factors and cooperates with srf protein to activate transcription of the c-fos protooncogene. the crystal structures of the conserved ets domain of sap-1 bound to dna sequences from the e74 and c-fos promoters reveal that a set of conserved residues contact a gga core dna sequence. discrimination for sequences outside this core is mediated by dna contacts from conserved and nonconserved protein residues and sequence-dependent dna structural properties c ...19989734357
isolation and characterisation of obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria from the rumen of red deer.two gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria, isolates lip4 and lip5, were obtained from the rumen contents of juvenile red deer. these mesophilic bacterial strains were capable of hydrolysing the neutral lipids, tallow, tripalmitin and oliver oil, into their constituent free long-chain fatty acid and glycerol moieties. the latter compound was dissimilated by both isolates, with isolate lip4 producing propionate as the predominant product, while isolate lip5 produced acetate, etha ...19989741118
bovine microsatellite loci are highly conserved in red deer (cervus elaphus), sika deer (cervus nippon) and soay sheep (ovis aries).we tested 174 bovine microsatellite primer pairs for use in a primitive breed of sheep and two species of deer. of 173 markers, 127 (73.4%) gave a product in soay sheep (ovis aries) of which 54 (42.5%) were polymorphic. one hundred and twenty-nine of 174 (74.1%) markers gave a product in red deer (cervus elaphus) of which 72 (55.8%) were polymorphic. in sika deer (cervus nippon) 126 of 171 (73.7%) microsatellite primers gave a product with 47 (37.3%) polymorphic. the proportion of bovine microsa ...19989745670
pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the ovariectomized, thyroidectomized red deer hind following treatment with dopaminergic and opioidergic agonists and antagonists.two experiments were conducted to determine whether dopaminergic or opioidergic pathways are modulated by thyroid gland secretions for seasonal suppression of lh secretion in red deer hinds. ovariectomized (n = 5) or ovariectomized and thyroidectomized (n = 4) hinds, treated with estradiol implants, received the dopamine agonist bromocriptine or the antagonist sulpiride during pulse bleeds in july (breeding season) and october (nonbreeding season). comparison of july and october mean plasma lh c ...19989746749
alpha2-heremans schmid glycoprotein inhibits insulin-stimulated elk-1 phosphorylation, but not glucose transport, in rat adipose cells.alpha2-heremans schmid glycoprotein (alpha2-hsg) is a member of the fetuin family of serum proteins whose biological functions are not completely understood. there is a consensus that alpha2-hsg plays a role in the regulation of tissue mineralization. however, one aspect of alpha2-hsg function that remains controversial is its ability to inhibit the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and the biological actions of insulin. interestingly, some studies suggest that alpha2-hsg differentially inhibits ...19989751494
hypotonicity activates transcription through erk-dependent and -independent pathways in renal cells.acute hypotonic shock (50% dilution of medium with sterile water, but not with isotonic nacl) activated the extracellular signal response kinase (erk) mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases in renal medullary cells, as measured by western analysis with a phospho-erk-specific antibody and by in vitro kinase assay of epitope-tagged erks immunoprecipitated from stable ha-erk transfectants. hypotonicity also activated the transcription factor and erk substrate elk-1 in a partially pd-98059-sensitiv ...19989755064
phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of ruminal tannin-tolerant bacteria.the 16s rrna sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including sardinian sheep (ovis aries), honduran and colombian goats (capra hircus), white-tail deer (odocoileus virginianus) from upstate new york, and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from oregon. nearly compl ...19989758806
oxidant stress incites spreading of macrophages via extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.cultured macrophages exhibit spreading in response to external stimuli. it is relevant to in vivo morphologic changes of macrophages during extravasation, migration, and differentiation. the present study was performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms that regulate spreading of macrophages. redox is a crucial factor that modulates a wide range of cell function. we found that macrophages undergo spreading in response to oxidant stress caused by hydrogen peroxide or an oxidant generating agent me ...19989759878
nociception activates elk-1 and sap1a following expression of the orl1 receptor in chinese hamster ovary cells.nociceptin stimulation of the orl1 receptor expressed in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells results in the activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinases erk1 and erk2. erk1/erk2 activation is inhibited by pertussis toxin, the mek inhibitor pd 98059 and by transient expression of alpha-transducin, indicating that orl1 up-regulation of these kinases occurs as a consequence of the release of the g-protein betagamma complex following the activation of pertussis-toxin sensitive galphai-fami ...19989760105
cloning and characterization of gets-1, a goldfish ets family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor in ets transcription factor family member, gets-1, was cloned from a goldfish retina cdna library. gets-1 contains a conserved ets dna-binding domain at its n-terminus and is most similar to ternary complex factor (tcf) serum-response-factor protein-1a (sap-1a). gets-1 is expressed in many tissues, but is enriched in retina and brain. as with the tcfs sap-1a and ets-related protein (erp), overexpression of the gets-1 promoter suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene expre ...19989761723
extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity is sustained early during human cytomegalovirus infection.expression of many early viral genes during human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) infection is dependent on cellular transcription factors. several immediate-early and early viral promoters contain dna binding sites for cellular factors such as creb, ap-1, serum response factor, and elk-1, and these transcription factors can be activated by phosphorylation via the cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) signal transduction cascade. to determine if the extracellular signal-regulated mapks, erk1 a ...19989765464
rsk-2 activity is necessary for epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of creb protein and transcription of c-fos gene.activation by growth factors of the ras-dependent signaling cascade results in the induction of p90 ribosomal s6 kinases (p90(rsk)). these are translocated into the nucleus upon phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases, with which p90(rsk) are physically associated in the cytoplasm. in humans there are three isoforms of the p90(rsk) family, rsk-1, rsk-2, and rsk-3, which are products of distinct genes. although these isoforms are structurally very similar, little is known about their ...19989770464
the traf family of signal transducers mediates nf-kappab activation by the trance receptor.tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-related activation-induced cytokine (trance), a member of the tnf family expressed on activated t-cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and osteoblasts, regulates the function of dendritic cells (dc) and osteoclasts. the trance receptor (trance-r), recently identified as receptor activator of nf-kappabeta (rank), activates nf-kappab, a transcription factor critical in the differentiation and activation of those cells. in this report we identify the tnf receptor-associated ...19989774460
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in alzheimer brains bearing the app670/671 mutation.alzheimer's disease (ad) is associated with a striking reduction in the activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (kgdhc). the deficiency occurs in brains from ad patients of undefined etiology, and in fibroblasts from both sporadic and familial ad cases. to further assess the nature of the abnormality of kgdhc in ad, kgdhc activities and immunoreactivities were analyzed in brains from ad patients bearing the swedish app670/671 mutation. this gene defect causes overproduction of ...19989778267
extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) controls immediate early gene induction on corticostriatal stimulation.activity-dependent changes in neuronal structure and synaptic remodeling depend critically on gene regulation. in an attempt to understand how glutamate receptor stimulation at the membrane leads to gene regulation in the nucleus, we traced intracellular signaling pathways targeting dna regulatory elements of immediate early genes (iegs). for this purpose we used an in vivo electrical stimulation of the glutamatergic corticostriatal pathway. we show that a transient activation of extracellular s ...19989786988
an evaluation of rapd fragment reproducibility and nature.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) fragment reproducibility was assayed in three animal species: red deer (cervus elaphus), wild boar (sus scrofa) and fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster). ten 10-mer primers (operon) were tested in two replicate reactions per individual under different stringency conditions (annealing temperatures of 35 degrees c or 45 degrees c). two estimates were generated from the data: autosimilarity, which tests the reproducibility of overall banding patterns, and band ...19989787445
isolation, characterization and localization of glycosaminoglycans in growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus).glycosaminoglycans were isolated from the four sections (tip, upper, middle and base) of the main beam of growing antlers of wapiti (cervus elaphus) by papain digestion and deae-sephacel chromatography. chondroitin sulfate was the major glycosaminoglycan in each section of antler accounting for, on average, 88% of the total uronic acid. the yield of chondroitin sulfate liberated from the tissue was approximately 6-fold greater in the cartilaginous (tip and upper) sections than in the bony (middl ...19989787796
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