isolation of encysted toxoplasma gondii from musculature of moose and pronghorn in montana.pieces of skeletal muscle from 43 mule deer, 34 elk, 4 white-tailed deer, 21 pronghorn, 7 moose, and 2 bison were examined for toxoplasma infection, by the acid-pepsin digestion technique. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 1 moose and 1 pronghorn. the isolated strains of t gondii were of low virulence to mice.19817224306
brain tumors in two free-ranging elk in colorado. 19817253089
further observations on the induction of antler growth in red deer females. 19817262356
wegener's granulomatosis. long-term results of treatment.seventeen patients with wegener's granulomatosis are presented. the very complex clinical features are outlined. a recently suggested new classification (elk-classification) is applied. fourteen patients were treated with cytotoxic agents and steroids, 12 of these receiving 6-mercaptopurine. of the ten patients still alive, eight are in remission with treatment withdrawn in three cases. the duration of the treatment is discussed. the results are largely satisfactory, but the course of the diseas ...19817271127
the transmission of onchocerca tarsicola (filarioidea: onchocercidae) by odagmia ornata and prosimulium nigripes (diptera: simuliidae).onchocerca tarsicola is a subcutaneous filariid of the red deer living on the tendons of the radial-carpal and tibial-tarsal joints. its microfilariae concentrate mainly in the external ears. the extrinsic cycle of this parasite was investigated. in a hyperendemic area wild-caught odagmia ornata were dissected, as well as samples which had fed on a tame deer and been kept in the laboratory after the infecting blood-meal. about 3 to 5% of the flies were infected with larval stages of onchocerca t ...19817276502
diarrhea in young red deer associated with infection with an outbreak of diarrhea among 82 artificially reared red deer calves, 56 developed the disease and 20 subsequently died. during the outbreak 80% of diarrheal and 50% of apparently healthy calves excreted cryptosporidial oocysts in feces. the coincidence of infection with crytosporidium and clinical diarrhea suggested a causal relationship. histologic examination of intestinal sections from a necropsied deer calf showed lesions consistent with field and experimental cryptosporidiosis in other ...19817276628
[diffusion of helminth parasites of the digestive system and respiratory system in deer (cervus elaphus) of the la mandria regional park (piedmont)].a study was carried out on the diffusion of helminth parasites of liver, gastrointestinal system and bronchial system in 68 red deer (cervus elaphus) from regional park "la mandria" (piedmont, italy). the following species of nematodes were identified: trichostrongylus axei, spiculopteragia spiculoptera, rinadia mathevossiani, cooperia oncophora, cooperia pectinata, cooperia punctata, cooperia zurnabada, oesophagostomum venulosum, dictyocaulus eckerti, varestrongylus sagittatus. studies on some ...19807312394
copper status of red deer on the island of rhum.the mean (+/- sd) liver copper level of 186 red deer (cervus elaphus) (87 stags and 99 hinds) on the island of rhum was 51.26 +/- 44.1 ppm dry matter. the level found in the south-east part of the island was significantly higher than elsewhere in hinds, but not in stags. levels below 20 ppm dry matter, comparable to those found in cases of enzootic ataxia in deer parks, occurred in 18 stags and 20 hinds. since enzootic ataxia has never been observed on rhum, it is deduced that low copper status ...19817324361
paratuberculosis in tule elk in california. 19817328012
investigations on a babesia isolated from scottish sheep.the pathognomic, serologic and morphometric identity of a babesia sp. recently isolated from sheep in argyllshire was studied. initially, problems were encountered due to the occurrence of eperythrozoon ovis as a contaminant of the isolate and treatment with neoarsphenamine failed to remove it. finally, a combination of oxytetracycline therapy and rapid passage allowed isolation of the babesia sp. and its preservation in the form of a glycerolized, infected blood stabilate. inoculation of the st ...19817329723
further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in wyoming ii.further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in wyoming by blood culture. two free-ranging moose from utah were negative. one of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 american bison (bison bison) being brought into wyoming from nebraska. nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. identification of ...19817338978
seminoma in an elk (cervus canadensis). 19807361384
serum constituents of red deer (cervus elaphus).the concentrations of proteins, total bilirubin, calcium and inorganic phosphate and the activities of some enzymes were measured in the sera from 49 red deer. the results were analysed with respect to age, season and sex.19807375732
experimental toxoplasmosis in elk (cervus canadensis).one cow elk (approx 4 months pregnant) and one calf elk were each inoculated intraruminally with 10(5) infective oocysts of toxoplasma gondii. both animals were seronegative when inoculated, but became seropositive to t gondii. sabin-feldman dye test antibody titers in relation to day postinoculation were as follows: 1:1024, 1:1024, and 1:2048 (days 28, 69, and 73) for the calf; 1:2048, 1:128, and 1:128 (days 34, 69, and 73) for the cow; and 1:2546 (73 days after inoculation of the cow) for the ...19807406299
liver copper concentrations in red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (c canadensis) in new zealand.concentrations of copper in livers from red deer (cervus elaphus) or wapiti (c canadensis) were measured and classified according to the age and species of the animals whether farmed or feral, the area from which they came and their sex. significant variations occurred with age, species, environment (farmed or feral) and area. mean liver copper concentrations (after logarithmic transformation) ranged from 356 mg/kg of fresh matter in fetus/neonate to 10.5 mg/kg in mature animals.19807414075
some serum constituents of fallow deer (dama dama).the concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, proteins and total bilirubin and the activities of some enzymes in the sera of 54 fallow deer are presented. electrophoresis of the serum proteins indicate that fallow deer have a single alpha-globulin whereas red deer have two.19807455339
toxoplasmosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in scotland.farming of red deer began in scotland in 1970 when an experimental nucleus was established on a hill farm in kincardineshire. from 1972 to 1977 sera from these animals were tested by the haemagglutination test (ha) and the sabin-feldman dye test (dt) for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii. overall, dye test antibodies (greater than or equal to 1/16) were detected in 32.5 per cent of sera and ha antibodies in only 9.8 per cent. on average 14.1 per cent of the deer tested in 1972, 197 ...19807455352
novel members of the eph receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily expressed during xenopus development.three cdnas encoding receptor tyrosine kinases (rtks) of the eph-subfamily have been identified based on their homology to pagliaccio (winning and sargent, 1994, mech. dev. 46:219-229). these have been named tck, xelk (xenopus homologue of elk), and pl7a (pag-like clone 7a). each of these genes is expressed in a distinctive, tissue specific manner during early development. tck is expressed in pre-somitic mesoderm, caudal somites, midbrain and cement gland. xelk is expressed in the brain and spin ...19957478602
[biodiversity and similarity between the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants].the analysis of the bibliografical information concerning to the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants, permitted to obtein the following values of maximum diversity index, bovidae: 4.88 bits; cervidae: 4.33 bits and cameliae: 3.69 bits. the highest values of this index within each family of host wee 5.75 bits. 5.49 bits and 4.32 bits for ovis aries (bovidae), capreolus capreolus (cervidae), lama pacos and camelus dromedarius (camelidae), respectively. the families of para ...19937483967
a consensus insulin response element is activated by an ets-related transcription factor.insulin increases expression of somatostatin-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) constructs 10-fold and thymidine kinase-cat constructs 5-fold in gh4 cells. these responses are similar to our previously reported data on insulin-increased prolactin-cat expression. they are also observed in hela cells and are thus not cell type specific. the evidence suggests that the insulin responsiveness of these genes is mediated by an ets-related transcription factor. first, linker-scanning mutations and/ ...19957499246
ehk-1 and ehk-2: two novel members of the eph receptor-like tyrosine kinase family with distinctive structures and neuronal expression.we have identified two novel members of the eph rtk family, termed ehk (eph homology kinase) -1 and -2. compared to the amino acid sequences of various eph family members, ehk-1 and ehk-2 are closest to the sek and cek-4/mek-4/hek kinases, and both are more similar to the elk kinase than they are to the eck or eph kinases. analysis of ehk-1 cdnas from various brain libraries reveals alternatively spliced transcripts that can encode five different forms of ehk-1 transmembrane proteins. by contras ...19937504232
comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors elk-1, sap-1a and sap-2 (erp/net).a transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (srf) and ternary complex factor (tcf) mediates the response of the c-fos serum response element (sre) to growth factors and mitogens. three ets domain proteins, elk-1, sap-1 and erp/net, have been reported to have the properties of tcf. here we compare elk-1 and sap-1a with the human erp/net homologue sap-2. all three tcf rnas are ubiquitously expressed at similar relative levels. all three proteins contain conserved regio ...19957540136
expression of the prolactin receptor gene during the breeding and non-breeding seasons in red deer (cervus elaphus): evidence for the expression of two forms in the testis.the red deer is a seasonally breeding mammal with a circannual cycle of prolactin secretion which reaches its peak during the non-breeding season. this study investigated expression of the prolactin receptor gene in red deer tissues collected in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. a 562 bp fragment of the extracellular domain of the red deer prolactin receptor cdna was amplified from red deer liver poly(a)+ rna by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using primers designed ...19957561644
manipulating melatonin in red deer (cervus elaphus): differences in the response to food restriction and lactation on the timing of the breeding season and prolactin-dependent pelage this study, we investigated the influence of food availability and lactation upon seasonality in red deer. this was examined by testing the hypothesis that advancing the timing of breeding and autumn moult using the hormone melatonin will be prevented when the food availability of lactating hinds is severely restricted. this hypothesis was rejected. implanting 1 g of melatonin between june 22 and november 30 resulted in advances in the timing of the onset of ovarian activity and winter coat g ...19957561720
stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women.the relationship between stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women was explored, using a semistructured interview that consisted of a demographic questionnaire; the xhosa life event scale (xles; swartz, elk, teggin, & gillis, 1983), which comprises mainly personal stressors; the township life event scale (tles; bluen & odesnik, 1988), which comprises mainly sociopolitical stressors; and the general health questionnaire (ghq, goldberg, 1972, 1978). the participan ...19957564304
differential activation of c-fos promoter elements by serum, lysophosphatidic acid, g proteins and polypeptide growth factors.the upstream regulatory region of the c-fos promoter contains two growth factor-regulated promoter elements: the serum response element, which binds a ternary complex comprising serum response factor (srf) and a ternary complex factor (tcf); and the sis-inducible element (sie) which binds stat transcription factors. we used transient transfection of c-fos promoter mutants in nih 3t3 cells to assess the contributions of these elements to activation by different extracellular stimuli. colony-stimu ...19957588632
mouse elk oncogene maps to chromosome x and a novel elk oncogene (elk3) maps to chromosome 10.the elk protein is a member of the ets family found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. human elk1 encoded by elk1 binds alone or together with serum response factor to dna and regulates gene expression in a variety of biological processes. using a panel of interspecific backcross mice, we have mapped the elk oncogene (elk) and a novel type elk oncogene (elk3), closely related to elk1. elk maps to chr x, and elk3 maps to the proximal region of chr 10.19957601474
a comparative study of the histopathologic features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, fallow deer (dama dama), sika deer (cervus nippon), and red deer and elk (cervus elaphus).sections of tuberculous lesions from 23 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus), 12 fallow deer (dama dama), 10 sika deer (cervus nippon), and 30 cattle were examined and compared. lesions were scored for caseous necrosis, mineralization, neutrophils, macrophages, giant cells, and acid-fast bacilli. some differences in lesion morphology between the species were noted. elk/red deer lesions had marked variation and often differed from bovine lesions in several characteri ...19957604487
elaeophorosis in red deer caused by elaeophora elaphi: lesions of natural disease.this is the first study of the lesions produced by elaeophora elaphi, a filarial worm first reported in 1986. only the morphologic characteristics of this species have been described previously. samples for the study were taken from 74 red deer (cervus elaphus), 1-10 years old, slaughtered in central spain. grossly, filariae were observed in the transverse, left, or right branches of the portal vein of 18 animals. in addition to filariae, whitish thrombi were found in the right and left branches ...19957604492
johne's disease in red deer. 19957604515
differential expressions of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinase genes (sek, elk, eck) in the developing nervous system of the examine the roles of the eph subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk), we isolated mouse cdnas for sek, elk, and eck and localized their mrnas in the developing mouse, with particular reference to the cns development, by in situ hybridization. sek mrna is most abundantly expressed throughout development; sek was detected in the germinal layer of the embryonic cns during mid- to late-gestation and was widely expressed in the early postnatal brain. elk was expressed in the mantle layer of th ...19957609620
erk2/p42 map kinase stimulates both autonomous and srf-dependent dna binding by elk-1.a ternary complex comprised of srf, ternary complex factor (tcf) and the c-fos sre is the target of several extracellular signal regulated pathways. phosphorylation of the tcf elk-1 is a key event in the activation of this complex. we demonstrate that erk2/p42 phosphorylation of elk-1 stimulates its recruitment into ternary complexes with srf. moreover, phosphorylation of elk-1 also stimulates its autonomous srf-independent binding to high affinity binding sites. thus part of the effect of erk2/ ...19957615093
luteolytic potency of a prostaglandin analogue at different stages of the oestrous cycle in red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds.the luteolytic effect of the prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue, cloprostenol, was investigated in red deer by monitoring concentrations of plasma progesterone, the induction of oestrus and ovulation, and fertility. oestrus was synchronized in 48 adult hinds by intravaginal delivery of exogenous progesterone for 12 days and i.m. injection of 250 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin at progesterone withdrawal. a single i.m. dose of 500 micrograms cloprostenol was administered at day 4, 6, 8, 10, 1 ...19957616503
integration of map kinase signal transduction pathways at the serum response element.the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily of ets-domain transcription factors bind with serum response factor (srf) to the serum response element (sre) and mediate increased gene expression. the tcf protein elk-1 is phosphorylated by the jnk and erk groups of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases causing increased dna binding, ternary complex formation, and transcriptional activation. activated sre-dependent gene expression is induced by jnk in cells treated with interleukin-1 and by erk afte ...19957618106
membrane-bound lerk2 ligand can signal through three different eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases.the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of at least 13 members, several of which display distinctive expression patterns in the developing and adult nervous system. recently, a small family of ligands, structurally related to the b61 protein, was identified. binding of these ligands to eph-related receptors did not, however, elicit measurable biological signals in cultured cells. in order to study functional interactions between b61-related ligands and eph-related receptors, ...19957621826
susceptibility of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and two species of north american molluscs to elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda: metastrongyloidea).an experimental study was done to determine whether elaphostrongylus cervi can be transmitted to common intermediate and definitive hosts indigenous to north america. first-stage larvae of e. cervi obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) in new zealand developed to the infective third stage in snails (triodopis multilineata) and slugs (deroceros reticulatum). two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with 102 or 406 third-stage larvae. one animal developed a patent infec ...19957623202
gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog-induced patterns of luteinizing hormone secretion in female wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy.we conducted two studies to determine the pattern of gnrh analog-induced lh secretion in adult female wapiti during the breeding season, anestrus, and pregnancy. in the first study, we measured lh secretion during the breeding season and anestrus in five females challenged with each of five doses of gnrh analog (0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 micrograms/50 kg bw). in the second study, lh response was determined in six pregnant females treated with six doses of gnrh analog (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 microgr ...19957626720
influence of prenatal photoperiod on postnatal plasma concentrations of progesterone and prolactin in female red deer (cervus elaphus) reared in constant equatorial photoperiod.prenatal photoperiod influences postnatal prolactin secretion and the timing of reproductive development in male red deer reared from birth in a constant equatorial photoperiod (12:12 light:dark). the present trial investigated whether a similar phenomenon occurs in female red deer. female deer whose mothers had been exposed for the last 14 weeks of gestation to long (group l, 18:6 light:dark) or short day length (group s, 6:18 light:dark) were kept from birth in constant equatorial day length w ...19957629694
dna bending in the ternary nucleoprotein complex at the c-fos promoter.transcriptional induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene in response to serum growth factors is mediated in part by a ternary complex that forms on the serum response element (sre) within its promoter. this complex consists of elk-1, serum response factor (srf) and the sre. elk-1 is phosphorylated by map kinase, which correlates with the induction of c-fos transcription. in this study we have investigated the protein-induced dna bending which occurs during the formation and post-translational modif ...19957630721
the spatial distribution of borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes ricinus in the connemara region of county galway, ireland.studies were carried out in the connemara area of county galway in the west of ireland in order to determine the abundance and distribution of the tick, ixodes ricinus and the prevalence of its infection with borrelia burgdorferi. the tick was very abundant locally, in particular when associated with cattle, sheep and enclosed red deer. large numbers of ticks not only occurred on the pastures, but also on adjacent roadside verges. no infections with b. burgdorferi could be demonstrated when nymp ...19957634971
evolution of protamine p1 genes in mammals.protamine p1 genes have been sequenced following pcr amplification from 11 mammals representing five major mammalian orders: rodentia (rat and guinea pig), carnivora (cat and bear), proboscidea (elephant), perissodactyla (horse), and artiodactyla (camel, deer, elk, moose, and gazelle). the predicted amino acid sequence for these genes together with previously reported sequences results in a data set of 25 different p1 genes and 30 different p1 amino acid sequences. the alignment of all these seq ...19957643410
elf-2, a new member of the eph ligand family, is segmentally expressed in mouse embryos in the region of the hindbrain and newly forming somites.the eph receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases and are notable for distinctive expression patterns in the nervous system and in early vertebrate development. however, all were identified as orphan receptors, and only recently have there been descriptions of a corresponding family of ligands. we describe here a new member of the eph ligand family, designated elf-2 (eph ligand family 2). the cdna sequence for mouse elf-2 indicates that it is a transmembrane ligand. it ...19957651410
protein synthesis inhibitors reveal differential regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and stress-activated protein kinase pathways that converge on elk-1.inhibitors of protein synthesis, such as anisomycin and cycloheximide, lead to superinduction of immediate-early genes. we demonstrate that these two drugs activate intracellular signaling pathways involving both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) and stress-activated protein kinase (sapk) cascades. the activation of either pathway correlates with phosphorylation of the c-fos regulatory transcription factor elk-1. in hela cells, anisomycin stabilizes c-fos mrna when protein synthesis is ...19957651411
relationship between fluoride content in bones and the age in european elk (alces alces l.).the relation between fluoride content in bones (jaws) and the age of elks living in poland in areas of relatively low pollution by industrial emissions was studied. multiple regression analysis was performed by making use of 11 mathematical models. the relationship between fluoride content in bones and the animals age is best described by square root and linear models.19957656178
johne's disease in a herd of farmed red outbreak of johne's disease in a herd of farmed red deer was studied for four years. serological, histopathological and cultural techniques were used to monitor the progress of the disease, and delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests were also applied. the results of the serological tests showed that they were poor predictors of future clinical cases and did not consistently identify animals harbouring mycobacteria. the histopathological methods provided a sensitive and specific means of con ...19957661952
histogenesis of antlerogenic tissues cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo in red deer (cervus elaphus).in a previous study we showed that formation of deer pedicle and first antler proceeded through four ossification pattern change stages: intramembranous, transition, pedicle endochondral, and antler endochondral. in the present study antlerogenic tissues (antlerogenic periosteum, apical periosteum/perichondrium, and apical perichondrial of pedicle and antler) taken from four developmental stages were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo as autografts for 42-68 days. the results showed that a ...19957673872
mitochondrial trna(thr) and trna(pro) sequences from three deer species: odocoileus hemionus, cervus elaphus, and cervus nippon. 19937688119
identification of protein-tyrosine kinase genes preferentially expressed in embryo stomach and gastric cancer.for identification of the protein-tyrosine kinases that are expressed in embryo stomach and gastric cancer, a 16-day rat embryo stomach and two human gastric cancer cdna expression libraries were screened with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. eight cdnas encoding protein-tyrosine kinase were isolated, and northern blot analysis revealed that five out of eight clones were highly expressed in rat embryo stomach, but not in adult rat stomach. from nucleotide sequence analysis, these five cdnas wer ...19937688222
evaluation of lymphocyte stimulation tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in elk (cervus elaphus).lymphocyte stimulation tests (lst), performed using 6 antigen preparations, were compared individually and in pairs. the tests were performed on 433 blood samples collected from elk in mycobacterium bovis-infected herds. these elk were killed as part of agriculture and agri-food canada's bovine tuberculosis eradication policy, and mycobacterial culture results were obtained from tissues of each animal. the lst, which had the highest total sum of sensitivity and specificity, was a comparative tes ...19957695145
nuclear import of serum response factor (srf) requires a short amino-terminal nuclear localization sequence and is independent of the casein kinase ii phosphorylation site.serum stimulation of resting cells is mediated at least in part at the transcriptional level by the activation of numerous genes among which c-fos constitutes a model. serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre) with an accessory protein p62tcf/elk-1. both proteins are the targets of multiple phosphorylation events and their role is still unknown in the amino terminus of srf. while the transcriptional activation domain has been mapped between ami ...19947699002
expression of an amphibian homolog of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases is developmentally order to study the function of tyrosine kinase receptors during xenopus development, we have isolated xek (xenopus elk-like kinase), a tyrosine kinase receptor, which shows significant homology to rat elk and chicken cek5, members of the eph family. xek exists as a maternally expressed mrna which decreases in expression at the mid blastula transition and reappears at late neurulation in xenopus. xek mrna is expressed at higher levels in the anterior and dorsal regions of embryonic stages 16, ...19957700636
sap1a is a nuclear target of signaling cascades involving erks.the ets protein sap1a has been shown to interact with the c-fos serum response element upon recruitment by the serum response factor. we demonstrate that sap1a is a nuclear protein stimulating transcription via the c-fos serum response element, and additionally via an ets binding site independently of the serum response factor. however, transactivation has only been observed under conditions leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erks). the transcriptional a ...19957700646
light and electron microscopy studies on onchocerca jakutensis and o. flexuosa of red deer show different host-parasite filariae of two intranodular onchocerca species of red deer (cervus elaphus) were examined at the ultrastructural level. in all, 90 nodules of o. flexuosa and 20 nodules of o. jakutensis were studied by histology. o. jakutensis caused cystic and pus-filled nodules in which the female and male worms were motile. female worms possessed a thick cuticle and a well-developed somatic musculature. the basal lamina of the muscular syncytia was connected with the transhypodermal fibers through long ...19957724516
nonamplifying alleles at microsatellite loci: a caution for parentage and population studies.while genotyping wild red deer (cervus elaphus) at microsatellite loci for paternity assignment, we found three loci (maf65, bovirbp and celjp23) with segregating nonamplifying alleles. nonamplifying alleles were detected through mismatches between known mother-offspring pairs and by significant deviations from hardy-weinberg equilibria. in a wide range of molecular ecology application, and especially in parentage assignment, the possible existence of undetectable alleles must be taken into acco ...19957735527
mandibular bone fluoride accumulation in wild red deer (cervus elaphus l.) of known age.mandibular bone fluoride concentration and its relation to age were studied in a sample of 39 red deer of known age (between 2 and 18 years) from an area not exposed to increased fluoride deposition (harz mountains, germany). bone fluoride level ranged from 208 to 1026 ppm dry weight and was positively correlated with age (r = 0.808, p < 0.001), the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation being higher in younger individuals. this indicates that during the period of skeletal growth, fluoride uptak ...19957735899
organic osmolytes in the kidney of domesticated red deer, cervus elaphus.the cortex, inner and outer medulla, and papilla of kidneys of domestic red deer were analysed. in hydrated animals the urine concentration was found to be 672 +/- 45 mosm.l-1. the medullary and papillary regions of the kidney were rich in the osmolytes betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine (gpc), inositol and sorbitol, all of which showed a steep rise in concentration from cortex to papilla. the kidney was rich in free amino acids, in particular taurine, glutamate (+glutamine), glycine and alanine, ...19957735901
parapoxvirus of red deer: evidence for its inclusion as a new member in the genus parapoxvirus.there are three accepted members of the parapoxvirus genus, orf virus (ov), papular stomatitis virus (psv), and pseudocowpox virus (pcv). ov is maintained in sheep and goats and psv and pcv in cattle. restriction endonuclease profiles of the dna derived from representatives of these established members of the genus were compared with profiles from a parapoxvirus recently isolated from red deer. in no case did the profile of this latter virus (dpv) resemble those generated from the other parapoxv ...19957747456
susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. in a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from p. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. alveolar macrophag ...19947760482
a new gene mapping resource: interspecies hybrids between père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (cervus elaphus).three male f1 hybrids between père david's deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. the pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. we examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (type i) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved dna probes. two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loc ...19957768446
application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for differentiation of vaccine strain rb51 from field isolates of brucella abortus from cattle, bison, and elk.restriction endonuclease patterns of genomic fragments separated by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to differentiate brucella abortus strain rb51, a rifampin-resistant mutant of the standard virulent strain 2308, from other brucellae. results were compared with results obtained by use of standard methods for characterizing brucellae. electrophoretic patterns of the atcc type strains allowed identification of the strains to the level of species. genomic profiles of b abortus bio ...19957771697
assignment of the gene (eplg2) encoding a high-affinity binding protein for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk to a 200-kilobasepair region in human chromosome xq12. 19957774950
outbreaks of yersiniosis caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis in farmed cervids.yersiniosis, caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis, was diagnosed in 25 deer submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratories of the ontario ministry of agriculture and food from 8 farms in ontario, canada, over the 4-year period of january 1990 to december 1993. the organism was cultured, usually in large numbers, from the intestines and, less frequently, mesenteric lymph nodes and/or the spleen of 13 red deer (cervus elaphus), 6 elk (c. e. canadiensis), 4 fallow deer (dama dama), and 2 red ...19957779969
a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase. structure, expression, and regulation.mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase lies at the convergence of various extracellular ligand-mediated signaling pathways. it is activated by the dual-specificity kinase, map kinase kinase or mek. map kinase inactivation is mediated by dephosphorylation via specific map kinase phosphatases (mkps). one mkp (mkp-1 (also known as 3ch134, erp, or cl100)) has been reported to be expressed in a wide range of tissues and cells. we report the identification of a second widely expressed mkp, termed mkp- ...19957782322
calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a ras- and elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase.enhanced levels of cytoplasmic ca2+ due to membrane depolarization with elevated levels of kcl or exposure to the ca2+ ionophore ionomycin stimulate serum response element (sre)-dependent transcription in the pheochromocytoma cell line pc12. by using altered binding specificity mutants of transcription factors that bind to the sre, it was demonstrated that in contrast to treatment with purified growth factors, such as nerve growth factor, the serum response factor (srf), but not elk-1, mediates ...19957791774
cloning and sequencing of expressed drb genes of the red deer (cervus elaphus) mhc.the expressed major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii drb genes of 50 unrelated deer were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of drb exon 2. deer, like other mammals, have at least one highly polymorphic mhc class ii drb gene. thirty-four different sequences were identified. most of the variation in amino acid composition occurred at positions that have been shown to form the peptide binding site (pbs). eighteen deer-specific substitutions ...19957797262
ras-dependent and -independent pathways target the mitogen-activated protein kinase network in macrophages.mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) are activated upon a variety of extracellular stimuli in different cells. in macrophages, colony-stimulating factor 1 (csf-1) stimulates proliferation, while bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) inhibits cell growth and causes differentiation and activation. both csf-1 and lps rapidly activate the mapk network and induce the phosphorylation of two distinct ternary complex factors (tcfs), tcf/elk and tcf/sap. csf-1, but not lps, stimulated the formation of ...19957799956
occupational exposure to mycobacterium bovis infection in deer and elk in late 1991, two herds of deer and elk were depopulated at a slaughtering plant in ontario, followed by processing of infected animals at a rendering plant. we conducted a questionnaire plus tuberculin skin-test survey of 104 exposed slaughtering and rendering plant workers, and government veterinarians and inspectors. overall, 17 participants were skin-test positive, one of 51 initially skin-test negative subjects tested a second time three months later became positive, consistent with the ris ...19947804937
[development of pcr tests for the detection of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial viruses and pestiviruses].the development of pcr assays for detection of bhv-1, brsv, bvdv and another pestiviruses is summarized. a polymerase chain reaction assay based on primers selected from the viral gi glycoprotein gene detected 3 fg pure bhv-1 dna, 0.1-1.0 tcid50 or a single infected cell. no amplification was observed with dna from bhv-2, bhv-3, bhv-4, ohv-1 or ohv-2. however, a fragment of the correct size (468 bp) was amplified using dna from herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, red deer and goat. the pcr ass ...19947817501
'double-head' antlers in red deer cervus elaphus ssp. in which the antler cores survived the death of the unusual case of spike antlers in male red deer is described in which the antler core apparently survived the partial mineralization of the cortex in the first rut and then in the next year supported a new, "antleroma-like" growth. on one side of the antler beam a "separation gap" developed between the living core and the dead cortex. on the opposite side a new growth of antler tissue was observed; this was made of spongious bone which in some areas partially resembled peruke-like growth and i ...19947819606
cells cultured from the growing tip of red deer antler express alkaline phosphatase and proliferate in response to insulin-like growth factor-i.deer antler growth provides a unique natural model of rapid and complete bone regeneration. in this study, the distal antler tips of male red deer (cervus elaphus) were collected post-mortem during the annual growth period (april-august), and an in vitro system established for the culture of cells from three regions; the inner layer of the perichondrium, the reserve mesenchyme and the cartilage zone. alkaline phosphatase (alp) expression by cultured cells, as demonstrated by enzyme histochemistr ...19947829985
the establishment of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus cervus).japanese sika deer (cervus nippon nippon) were introduced to scotland around 80 years (20 generations) ago. the sika phenotype is expanding its range and hybridizing extensively with native red deer (cervus elaphus) leading to the establishment of a hybrid zone. this zone is currently moving and cannot be considered to be at equilibrium. cervid genotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes were mapped across the sika phenotype range, using diagnostic protein isozymes, microsatellite nuclear dna markers ...19947834107
effects of insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) and igf-ii on the growth of antler cells in vitro.the effects of insulin-like growth factors -i and -ii (igf-i and -ii) on the growth of undifferentiated (fibroblast zone) cells from the growing tip of red deer velvet antlers and from cells 1.5 cm distal to the growing tip (cartilage zone) were investigated in primary cell culture. the addition of igf-i or igf-ii to the medium of cultures preincubated in serum-free medium for 24 h increased the rate of [3h]thymidine uptake in a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, with maximal stimulation ...19947836891
ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinases hek and elk: isolation of cdnas encoding a family of proteins.hek is a member of the eph subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases whose members include elk, hek2, sek, eph and eck among others. using a soluble form of hek consisting of the extracellular region of the receptor fused to the fc domain of human igg1 and an expression cloning strategy, we have isolated two different but related cdnas from the human t-lymphoma line hsb-2 that encode ligands for hek. the cdnas encode proteins of 238 and 201 amino acids (44% amino acid identity) that are anchored to ...19957838529
strontium-90 in antlers of red deer: an indicator of environmental contamination by strontium-90.the sampling procedures in connection with a very sensitive analytical method are described. results from different areas in austria are presented and an interpretion of the results is attempted. some findings are in accordance with measurements from other substances, some are not. the differences most probably depend on several factors like soil type, precipitation, migration of strontium-90, concentration of stable strontium and calcium. no significant rise in the concentration could be found ...19947839120
rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv 1) using the polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay based on primers from the viral gi glycoprotein gene detected 3 fg pure bhv-1 dna, 0.1-1.0 tcid50 or a single infected cell. no amplification was observed with dna from bhv-2, bhv-3, bhv-4, ohv-1 or ohv-2. however, a fragment of the correct size was amplified using dna from herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, red deer and goats. the pcr assay was able to detect virus in nasal swabs up to 14 days after experimental infection of cattle and there was a good ...19947839585
the role of regulated phosphorylation in the biological activity of transcription factors srf and elk-1/sap-1.the promoters of many genes whose expression is rapidly and transiently increased upon growth factor or mitogen stimulation of susceptible cells harbor a common regulatory element, the serum response element (sre). the transcription factors that interact with the sre of these immediate-early genes are being intensively studied so as to elucidate the signal transduction cascades that link cell surface receptors to the sre, and to determine the mechanisms by which signal-dependent phosphorylation ...19947847828
mapping of the human sap1 (srf accessory protein 1) gene and sap2, a gene encoding a related protein, to chromosomal bands 1q32 and 12q23, respectively.sap1, sap2, and elk1 form a related subgroup of ets-domain proteins that can form ternary complexes with the transcription factor srf at the c-fos serum response element (sre). sap1 was identified by a genetic screen for proteins interacting with srf expressed in yeast, and sap2 by its homology with sap1; elk1 was previously identified by its homology to the ets domain. cdna probes were used to isolate cosmid and phage clones harboring genes encoding sap1 and sap2. these clones were subsequently ...19947851904
role of steroids in antler growth of red deer stags.a series of six studies were carried out in red deer stags to test hypotheses concerning the importance of steroid control of velvet antler growth and to investigate mechanisms by which these hormones exert their effects. medroxyprogesterone acetate (mpa) an lh inhibitor administered to stags during hard antler caused premature antler casting, reduced subsequent antler weight and caused a reduction in the lh and testosterone responses to gnrh. in two separate studies blockade of testosterone rec ...19957884386
effects of unilateral cranial sympathectomy either alone or with sensory nerve sectioning on pedicle growth in red deer (cervus elaphus).in a previous study (li et al. [1993], j. exp. zool., 267:188-197) sensory nerve sectioning had no effect on the timing of pedicle growth. the aim of the present study was to determine whether sensory nerve sectioning in conjunction with sympathectomy would influence pedicle growth. twelve intact male red deer calves were allocated to treatment before any pedicle growth as follows: 1) unilateral sensory nerve removal (usx, n = 5), 2) unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (sgx, n = 4), or 3 ...19957884387
erk phosphorylation potentiates elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation.induction of the human c-fos proto-oncogene by mitogens depends on the formation of a ternary complex by p62tcf with the serum response factor (srf) and the serum response element (sre). we demonstrate that elk-1, a protein closely related to p62tcf in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the map kinase family, erk1 and erk2. phosphorylation of elk-1 increases the yield of ternary complex in vitro. at least five residues in the c-terminal domain of elk-1 are phosphorylated upon growth ...19957889942
characterization of the elk-1 ets dna-binding domain.the ets domain family of transcription factors is comprised of several important proteins that are involved in controlling key cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, and development. one such protein, elk-1, regulates the activity of the c-fos promoter in response to extracellular stimuli. elk-1 is representative of a subgroup of ets domain proteins that utilize a bipartite recognition mechanism that is mediated by both protein-dna and protein-protein interactions. in this study ...19957890710
dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and their relation to cortisol in red deer (cervus elaphus).adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone, its sulphate and, in comparison, cortisol in serum were determined over two periods in red deer. the hormone levels were determined in hinds farmed from their births, captured in adulthood, and in fawns reared under farm conditions with their mothers or under artificial farm conditions without their mothers. in addition, steroid levels were studied in stags under farm conditions in and after the breeding season. investigation of animals for their potent ...19947894886
genomic organization and chromosomal localization of mouse eplg2, a gene encoding a binding protein for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk.the human gene eplg2 (eph ligand-2) encodes a potential ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk. high sequence conservation between the human and the rat cdnas and developmentally regulated expression of the rat gene suggest that the protein encoded by eplg2 plays an important role in mammalian development. to facilitate analysis of the physiological role of the protein, we have cloned and characterized a 24-kb region of mouse genomic dna containing the mouse homologue of eplg2 (eplg2), incl ...19947896266
expression and developmental regulation of ehk-1, a neuronal elk-like receptor tyrosine kinase in brain.protein tyrosine kinases are pivotal in central nervous tissue development and maintenance. here we focus on the expression of ehk-1, a novel elk-related receptor tyrosine kinase. ehk-1 gene expression is observed in the developing and adult central nervous system and is highly regulated throughout development at both the messenger rna and protein levels. three messenger rna transcripts of 8.5, 5.9 and 5.1 kb are detectable in the rat brain and a variety of splice possibilities have been identif ...19947898646
erp, a new member of the ets transcription factor/oncoprotein family: cloning, characterization, and differential expression during b-lymphocyte development.the ets gene family encodes a group of proteins which function as transcription factors under physiological conditions and, if aberrantly expressed, can cause cellular transformation. we have recently identified two regulatory elements in the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (igh) enhancer, pi and microb, which exhibit striking similarity to binding sites for ets-related proteins. to identify ets-related transcriptional regulators expressed in pre-b lymphocytes that may interact with either the ...19947909357
binding of an ets-related protein within the dnase i hypersensitive site of the her2/neu promoter in human breast cancer cells.promoter elements accounting for her2 (c-erbb-2/neu) overexpression were searched for in several human breast cancer cell lines (mda-453, bt-474, zr-75-1, mcf-7) known to express constitutively a 30-fold range in her2 transcripts per gene copy. her2 overexpressing cells showed a single prominent dnase i hypersensitive site near a conserved and hitherto unrecognized ets response element (gaggaa), located 38 bases down-stream from the caat box and directly 5' of the tata box in the human her2 prom ...19947914192
involvement of growth factor receptors in the mammalian uvc response.irradiation of hela cells with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (uvc) induces the modification and activation of the preexisting transcription factors c-fos-c-jun (ap-1) and tcf/elk-1, as well as the protein synthesis independent transcriptional activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes. this response to uvc is mediated via obligatory cytoplasmic signal transduction, involving ras and raf, src, and map kinases. the uvc response is inhibited by prior down-modulation of growth factor receptor sign ...19947923365
refined mapping of the human ets-related gene elk-1 to xp11.2-p11.4, distal to the oatl1 region.the gene for human elk-1, an ets-related transcription factor, has previously been localized to a region that lies on the short arm of chromosome x and that is involved in specific chromosomal translocations associated with synovial sarcoma and renal adenocarcinomas. we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization and a panel of tumor-derived somatic cell hybrids to refine the localization of elk-1, in particular with regard to the rearrangements in these tumors. elk-1 has been assigned to xp11. ...19947927346
culture isolation and partial characterization of a babesia sp. from a north american elk (cervus elaphus).three north american yearling elk (cervus elaphus) died with clinical symptoms suggestive of babesiosis. babesia sp. organisms similar in morphology to b. odocoilei of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were observed in giemsa-stained blood films from one of the elk. continuous cultures of the parasite were established. antiserum raised against the elk babesia sp. isolate was compared to b. odocoilei specific antiserum in an immunofluorescent antibody assay; we found evidence of differen ...19947933298
experimental infections of eimeria wapiti and e. zuernii-like oocysts in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) 10 to 14 wk of age each were inoculated orally with a mixture of 50,000 sporulated oocysts of an eimeria zuernii-like apicomplexan (70%) and e. wapiti (30%). maximum numbers of oocysts per gram of feces (opg) in each elk ranged from 985 to 15,517, but all calves remained healthy and clinical signs of coccidiosis were not observed. the prepatent period for e. zuernii was 8 days and the patent period approximately 37 days, with a maximum mean (+/- se) recov ...19947933299
bot fly larvae (cephenemyia jellisoni) as a cause of neurologic signs in an june 1993, a yearling female elk (cervus elaphus) near john day, oregon (usa) was observed twice over a four week period with signs of neurologic disease including weakness, walking in circles with an uncoordinated gait and disorientation. the elk was shot, and the head and neck were examined grossly for parasites and lesions. thirty-five second and third instar larvae of cephenemyia jellisoni were recovered from an encapsulated space in the nasopharyngeal area dorsal to the soft palate. larv ...19947933300
[wegener's granulomatosis].wegener's granulomatosis (wg) is a multiorgan disease with a predilection for the upper airways (e: ear, eye, nose, throat) and lower airways (l: lung) and the kidneys (k):elk classification. typical histological features of wg include inflammation of small and medium sized vessels, necrosis and granuloma formation. the histological findings of wg are divided into 4 stages ie, i: degeneration ii: acute inflammation iii: granulation iv: scar. the recognition of the association between c (proteina ...19947933591
lerk-2, a binding protein for the receptor-tyrosine kinase elk, is evolutionarily conserved and expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern.we have isolated and characterized cdna clones that encode the rat homologue of a binding protein, lerk-2, for the receptor tyrosine kinase, elk. the cdnas contain an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides capable of encoding a protein 345 amino acid residues in length. the nucleotide sequence of the present clones is > 90% identical to the previously identified human lerk-2 cdna, and the predicted proteins encoded by the rat and human clones are identical at 95% of amino acid residues. recombin ...19947936648
an abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 north american elk (cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. the prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tube ...19947954222
electron spin resonance assessment of susceptibility of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) to oilseed rape (brassica napus) poisoning.ex vivo studies have been carried out on roe and red deer erythrocytes using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. free radical formation in cells challenged with the brassica-derived haemolysin, dimethyldisulphide, was measured using spin trapping techniques. significantly greater amounts of radical were trapped in the roe deer cells which may relate to differences in the antioxidant profile of the two genotypes. results suggest that roe deer have a greater risk of developing oilseed rape poiso ...19947956119
serum-regulated transcription by serum response factor (srf): a novel role for the dna binding domain.the transcription factors serum response factor (srf) and ternary complex factor (tcf) form a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). we show that in nih3t3 cells tcf binding is required for regulated transcription in response to stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate (pma), but not by whole serum. we constructed a novel transcriptionally inactive sre variant whose serum-regulated activity can be partially restored by overexpression of srf in the absence of bound tcf. activa ...19947957108
net, a new ets transcription factor that is activated by ras.ras signaling appears to be mediated in part by transcription factors that belong to the ets gene family. to identify downstream targets for the ras signal transduction pathway, we have used ras-transformed mouse fibroblasts to isolate a new member of the ets gene family, net. net has sequence similarity in three regions with the ets factors elk1 and sap1, which have been implicated in the serum response of the fos promoter. net shares various properties with these proteins, including the abilit ...19947958835
ras/map kinase-dependent and -independent signaling pathways target distinct ternary complex factors.transcriptional activation of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1 by extracellular signals appears to be mediated by ternary complex factors (tcfs). in bac-1 macrophages, growth factor stimulation leads to the retardation of protein-dna complexes containing distinct tcfs. one tcf is recognized by elk-1 antisera, whereas the other is immunologically related to sap-1. the appearance and decay of hyperphosphorylated tcf/elk-1-containing complexes after stimulation coincide with the activation ...19947958858
the genomes of the animal papillomaviruses european elk papillomavirus, deer papillomavirus, and reindeer papillomavirus contain a novel transforming gene (e9) near the early polyadenylation site.we report that the genomes of reindeer papillomavirus (rpv), european elk papillomavirus (eepv), and deer papillomavirus (dpv) contain a short conserved translational open reading frame (orf), e9, which is located between the e5 orf and the early polyadenylation site. in rpv, dpv, and eepv, e9 orfs have the potential to encode extremely hydrophobic polypeptides of approximately 40 amino acids. in mouse c127 cells transformed by eepv and rpv, there exists a unique, abundant mrna species of approx ...19947966628
ligands for eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases that require membrane attachment or clustering for activity.the eph-related transmembrane tyrosine kinases constitute the largest known family of receptor-like tyrosine kinases, with many members displaying specific patterns of expression in the developing and adult nervous system. a family of cell surface-bound ligands exhibiting distinct, but overlapping, specificities for these eph-related kinases was identified. these ligands were unable to act as conventional soluble factors. however, they did function when presented in membrane-bound form, suggesti ...19947973638
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