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antimicrobial resistance in faecal escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. detection of a multiresistant e. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.eighty-nine escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. an e. coli strain carrying blactx-m-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (intl1-dfra16-blapse-1-a ...201627012919
genomic characterization of a novel epsilonpapillomavirus associated with pigmented papillomas in a red deer (cervus elaphus).two of a group of 15 farmed european red (cervus elaphus elaphus) x wapiti (c. e. canadensis) deer stags developed multiple persistent pigmented squamous papillomas (warts) on their chins. dna was extracted from a papilloma and a short section of dna from a novel papillomavirus (pv) was amplified. this short sequence was used to design 'outward facing' primers to amplify the remainder of the circular pv dna. the pcr product was sequenced using next-generation sequencing and the full genome of th ...201627154332
composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red deer, sheep, pig and cattle.animal blood is a large-volume by-product of the meat industry. besides blood meal fertiliser, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. in this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. some blood constituents were determined. fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scaven ...201625581344
genotypes of coxiella burnetii in wildlife: disentangling the molecular epidemiology of a multi-host pathogen.evidences point to a relevant role of wildlife in the ecology of coxiella burnetii worldwide. the lack of information on c. burnetii genotypes in wildlife prevents tracing-back clinical animal and human q fever cases with potential wildlife origin. to compare c. burnetii genotypes circulating in wildlife, livestock and humans, 107 samples from red deer, european wild rabbit, racoon, small mammals, goat and sheep were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization. gen ...201627336914
genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (dictyocaulus, nematoda) in wild deer in hungary.dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. this study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. specifically, we quantify genetic variation in dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. t ...201627150969
lungworm (nematoda: protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from małopolska region of poland.the conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. the post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (ovis aries) (14) and cattle (bos taurus) (18). some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. the faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red ...201627262959
antibody response to epsilon toxin of clostridium perfringens in captive red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-month period.deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. antibody production to the clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzy ...201627010263
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian wildlife.to investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater yellowstone area (ii): cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.recent cases of bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) in cattle (bos taurus) and domestic bison (bison bison) of the southern greater yellowstone area (sgya) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus). several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. it is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of ...201627836044
a field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of kashmir.one year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of kashmir through faecal examinations. out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with git helminthes. in present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), trichuris ovis (39.75 %), dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %) ...201627605778
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial dna and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.velvet antlers are used medicinally in asia and possess various therapeutic effects. prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. additionally, antlers of the canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna, fluoresc ...201626094991
the role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, a parasitic disease caused by besnoitia besnoiti, has been reported mainly in beef cattle raised under extensive pastoral systems and is considered to be re-emerging in western europe. horizontal transmission probably occurs either by means of blood sucking arthropods or as a consequence of direct contact between infected and non-infected cattle. however, the role that wild ruminants (e.g., red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus)) may play in the parasit ...201627198769
ashworthius sidemi schulz, 1933 and haemonchus contortus (rudolphi, 1803) in cervids in france: integrative approach for species identification.among gastro-intestinal nematodes, the blood-sucking worms belonging to the subfamily of haemonchinae are considered to be of pathogenic and economic great importance, particularly in small ruminants. haemonchus contortus, primary found in domestic ruminants and wild bovines (mouflon, chamois), is probably the most studied, but occurrence of ashworthius sidemi has gradually increased over recent years, especially in cervids and free roaming wild bovid as the european bison in eastern europe, and ...201627810500
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in slovakia.in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes that are potentially virulent for human in wild ruminants and ixodes ricinus in central italy.human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. as is the case for many tick-borne diseases, the epidemiological cycle is associated to the environmental conditions, including the presence of wild vertebrate reservoir hosts, vectors, climate and vegetation. in this study a total number of 87 spleen samples of wild ruminants carcasses from central italy, and 77 ixodes ricinus collected from the same dead animals were screened for anaplasma phagocytophilum by us ...201627020736
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia of red deer and sika deer in gansu, china in 2013.anaplasma and ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in gansu, china to assess the prevalence of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis and sequencing of 16s rrna or msp genes. pcr revealed that the prevalence of anaplasma ovis, anaplasma bovis and anaplasma platys of the qilian mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the preval ...201625660960
anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern spain.wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. in this study, we used real-time pcr to investigate the distribution of anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern spain. a first generic real-time pcr assay was used to screen for the presence of anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multi ...201626596894
molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).to estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus) living in italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by pcr for a. phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi s.l., coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. in particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for a. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for babesia divergens, 6 (1 ...201627477510
spatial-temporal trends and factors associated with the bluetongue virus seropositivity in large game hunting areas from southern spain.an epidemiological study was carried out to determine the spatial-temporal trends and risk factors potentially involved in the seropositivity to bluetongue virus (btv) in hunting areas with presence of red deer (cervus elaphus). a total of 60 of 98 (61.2%; ci95% : 51.6-70.9) hunting areas sampled presented at least one seropositive red deer. antibodies against btv were detected in juvenile animals during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 to 2013/2014 in 15 of 98 (15.3%) hunting areas, which indicate ...201625482024
pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the cantabrian mountains, spain.bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and border disease virus (bdv) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the cantabrian mountains, north-western spain. from 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by celisa, virus neutralisation test (vnt) and for the presence of pestiviral rna using a reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle ...201627083871
absence of circulation of pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern spain.ruminant pestiviruses (family flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. seropositivity was detected by both elisa and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diar ...201626864026
papillomavirus in healthy skin and mucosa of wild ruminants in the italian alps.we investigated healthy skin and mucosal specimens of wild ruminants in the italian alps. we identified bovine papillomavirus (bpv)-2 dna in the healthy skin of wild ruminants and documented coinfection of bpv-1 and cervus elaphus papillomavirus (cepv)-1 in a healthy red deer (cervus elaphus). we also demonstrated cross-infections of bpvs of the genus xipapillomavirus, both as single virus infection and also in association with deltapapillomavirus types 1 and 2, confirming that host tropism of p ...201626540178
influence of evisceration time and carcass ageing conditions on wild venison quality. preliminary study.the influence of common carcass preparation practices of wild red deer on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of venison was assessed by varying evisceration time and ageing method. deer were head shot; half were eviscerated 30 min and the other half 4 h post mortem. in both groups (n=18), 6 carcasses were skinned immediately after evisceration and aged for 24 h; 6 were aged unskinned for 24 h and 6 were aged unskinned for 72 h at 10°c. ageing method had a significant effect ...201626773970
characterization, thermochemical conversion studies, and heating value modeling of municipal solid waste.a study was carried out to examine the characteristics of municipal solid waste (msw) from the city of red deer, alberta, canada. experiments were performed for determining the moisture content, proximate and ultimate compositions, heating value of fourteen wastes in different categories. their thermal weight loss behaviors under pyrolysis/torrefaction conditions were also investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (tga). an empirical model was developed for the high heating value (hhv) estima ...201626445363
how many routes lead to migration? comparison of methods to assess and characterize migratory movements.decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. the main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterizing migration at the individual and population level on the basis of an ...201626412564
relationship between the electroglottographic signal and vocal fold contact area.electroglottography (egg) is a widely used noninvasive method that purports to measure changes in relative vocal fold contact area (vfca) during phonation. despite its broad application, the putative direct relation between the egg waveform and vfca has to date only been formally tested in a single study, suggesting an approximately linear relationship. however, in that study, flow-induced vocal fold (vf) vibration was not investigated. a rigorous empirical evaluation of egg as a measure of vfca ...201626256493
variation in stability of elk and red deer populations with abiotic and biotic factors at the species-distribution scale.stability in population dynamics is an emergent property of the interaction between direct and delayed density dependence, the strengths of which vary with environmental covariates. analysis of variation across populations in the strength of direct and delayed density dependence can reveal variation in stability properties of populations at the species level. we examined the stability properties of 22 elk/red deer populations in a two-stage analysis. first, we estimated direct and delayed densit ...201627870038
the role of topography in the distribution and intensity of damage caused by deer in polish mountain forests.the increase in the deer population observed in recent decades has strongly impacted forest regeneration and the forest itself. the reduction in the quality of raw wood material, as a consequence of deer-mediated damage, constitutes a significant burden on forest owners. the basis for the commencement of preventive actions in this setting is the understanding of the populations and behaviors of deer in their natural environment. although multiple studies have been carried out regarding this subj ...201627851776
the many axes of deer lactation.in undomesticated animals information about the production and composition of milk over time is still scarce. in general, for most mammals it is known that milk composition changes across lactation, is different for male and female offspring, and even that marsupials, such as kangaroos, can simultaneously produce milk of different compositions for young of different ages. such parallel milk production of differing compositions has not yet been studied in single-offspring placental mammals, but m ...201627744517
selection of red deer spermatozoa with different cryoresistance using density gradients.the objective of sperm selection media is selecting the best spermatozoa and to remove seminal plasma and diluent for using them in assisted reproductive techniques. it is known that individuals show different cryoresistance in response to the same freezing procedure. our hypothesis was that the efficacy of selection media could be dissimilar for samples with different sperm quality after thawing. epididymal sperm samples from mature iberian red deer were collected and frozen. males were classif ...201627562911
melatonin receptors mt1 and mt2 are expressed in spermatozoa from several seasonal and nonseasonal breeder species.melatonin is a ubiquitous and multipurpose molecule, and one of its roles is to regulate reproduction in some seasonal mammals. our group has previously reported the variation in the melatonin levels in ram seminal plasma along the year and identified mt1 and mt2 receptors in ram spermatozoa. the objective of this study was to elucidate whether the presence of melatonin receptors (mt1 and mt2) in the sperm plasma membrane, and melatonin in the seminal plasma is related to seasonal breeding. for ...201627448693
the effect of oxidative stress on thawed bulk-sorted red deer sperm.the aims of this study were to assess the effects of the sex-sorting process on post-thaw sperm quality as well as on induced oxidative stress damage (h2 o2 0 mm = h000; h2 o2 50 mm = h050; h2 o2 100 mm = h100) and the protective action of reduced glutathione (gsh) and trolox, when comparing sorted (bss) and non-sorted (ns) red deer spermatozoa incubated at 37°c. sperm samples from three stags were collected by electroejaculation and frozen. immediately after thawing, sperm motility was higher ( ...201627103320
technological analysis of the world's earliest shamanic costume: a multi-scalar, experimental study of a red deer headdress from the early holocene site of star carr, north yorkshire, uk.shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the early holocene site of star carr (c. 11 kya). more than 90% of the examples from prehistoric europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, ...201627073850
purification and identification of anti-inflammatory peptides derived from simulated gastrointestinal digests of velvet antler protein (cervus elaphus linnaeus).the objective of this study was to identify anti-inflammatory peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digest (pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysate) of velvet antler protein. the hydrolysate was purified using ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. the anti-inflammatory activity of the purified fraction was evaluated by the inhibition of no production in lipopolysaccharide-induced raw 264.7 macrophages. four anti-inflammatory peptides, vh (val-his), lan (leu-ala-asn), al (ala-leu), an ...201628911592
leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn ...201628792596
testosterone and cortisol concentrations vary with reproductive status in wild female red deer.although hormones are key regulators of many fitness and life history traits, the causes of individual level variation in hormones, particularly in wild systems, remain understudied. whilst we know that androgen and glucocorticoid levels vary within and among individuals in mammalian populations, how this relates to key reproductive processes such as gestation and lactation, and their effects on a female's measurable hormone levels are poorly understood in wild systems. using fecal samples colle ...201626941946
purifying selection, density blocking and unnoticed mitochondrial dna diversity in the red deer, cervus elaphus.the trajectories of postglacial range expansions, the occurrence of lineage patches and the formation and maintenance of secondary contact between lineages may mostly reflect neutral demographic processes, including density blocking, that may leave long-lasting genetic signatures. however, a few studies have recently shown that climate may also play a role. we used red deer, a large, mobile herbivore that is assumed to be sensitive to climate change, to test hypotheses of possible selection on t ...201627649313
complete mitochondrial genome of a wild alashan red deer (cervus elaphus alxaicus).the complete mitochondrial genome of a wild red deer from helan mountain, china was sequenced and annotated newly. the total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,428 bp, with a base composition of 33.3% a, 28.8% t, 24.4% c and 13.5% g, and it contains 12s rrna gene, 16s rrna gene, 22 trna genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region.201625693699
mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the almadén mining district (ciudad real, spain) as a case of study.the impact of mercury (hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. in particular, studies including hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. therefore, in this work, we report on hg species (inorganic mercury, ihg, and monomethylmercury, mehg) distributio ...201626160125
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern red deer (cervus elaphus xanthopygus).the complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern red deer, cervus elaphus xanthopygus, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. the entire genome is 16,416 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. the overall base composition of the northeastern red deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of a, 24.3% of c, 28.9% of t and 13.5% of g. a termination-associated sequenc ...201624708113
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis).the complete mitochondrial genome of the tarim red deer, cervus elaphus yarkandensis, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. the entire genome was 16,351 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region, all of which were arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. the overall base composition of the northeast sika deer's mitochondrial genome was 33.3% of a, 24.4% of c, 28.9% of t and 13.4% of g. a termination-associated sequence an ...201624438284
selective predation of a stalking predator on ungulate prey.prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. an optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking ca ...201627548478
characteristics of pcr-sscp and rapd-hpce methods for identifying authentication of penis et testis cervi in traditional chinese medicine based on cytochrome b gene.the use of penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious traditional chinese medicine (tcm), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in china. there are abundant species of deer in china, the penis et testis from species of cervus nippon and cervus elaphusl were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controll ...201626309015
ixodes ricinus (ixodidae), an occasional phoront on necrophagous and coprophagous beetles in europe.for ticks, phoretic behaviour using insects associated with vertebrates might offer an alternative strategy to host-seeking. here we report for the first time the presence of immature stages of the most widespread tick species in western europe, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), on three beetle species belonging to families silphidae and geotrupidae (coleoptera). specimens were collected while performing fieldwork surveys on insect diversity during the peak of tick's questing behaviour, in july ...201525491290
a comparison of food habits and prey preference of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the russian far east.prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. we used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the russian far east. we also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. we collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. similar to previous stu ...201525939758
incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape.apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. however, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. in particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predato ...201526336169
effect of microsatellite selection on individual and population genetic inferences: an empirical study using cross-specific and species-specific amplifications.although whole-genome sequencing is becoming more accessible and feasible for nonmodel organisms, microsatellites have remained the markers of choice for various population and conservation genetic studies. however, the criteria for choosing microsatellites are still controversial due to ascertainment bias that may be introduced into the genetic inference. an empirical study of red deer (cervus elaphus) populations, in which cross-specific and species-specific microsatellites developed through p ...201525403329
authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (dama dama), red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (cervus nippon) by real-time pcr.this contribution presents a single real-time pcr assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (dama dama), red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. the pcr assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. the limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. the deer content in meat produ ...201525306377
increased chromatin fragmentation and reduced acrosome integrity in spermatozoa of red deer from lead polluted sites.vertebrates are constantly exposed to a diffuse pollution of heavy metals existing in the environment, but in some cases, the proximity to emission sources like mining activity increases the risk of developing adverse effects of these pollutants. here we have studied lead (pb) levels in spermatozoa and testis, and chromatin damage and levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in spermatozoa of red deer (cervus elaphus) from a pb mining area (n=37) and a control area (n=26). deer from the pb-poll ...201525306093
[molecular identification of hairy antler by analysis of high resolution melting].high resolution melting (hrm) , an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authenticity of traditional chinese medicine. this paper selected universal co i primers and used hrm to establish a new method for authenticity of hairy antler. pcr was conducted at the annealing temperature of 60 °c and 45 cycles. the range of the dna template concentration, the primer concentration and the mg2+ ion concentration were further optimized. the results showed th ...201526137679
assessing nutritional parameters of brown bear diets among ecosystems gives insight into differences among populations.food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. however, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (ursus arctos) diets among ...201526083536
solar radiation determines site occupancy of coexisting tropical and temperate deer species introduced to new zealand forests.assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. we tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to new zealand's temperate rainforests. we hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). since adult male ...201526061426
contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (cervus elaphus).northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. we investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. our results supp ...201526017492
analysis of annual changes in the concentrations of selected macro- and microelements, thyroxine, and testosterone in the serum of red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.the aim of the study was to analyze seasonal changes in the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and selenium as well as thyroxine and testosterone in adult red deer stags. the highest testosterone concentrations (mean 6.29±4.36 ng/ml) were observed from the end of august to november, confirming an increase in testicular secretory activity during the mating season. the changes in thyroxine concentration show circannual rhythms, most likely related to changes in the air temperature. ...201525998797
investment in constitutive immune function by north american elk experimentally maintained at two different population densities.natural selection favors individuals that respond with effective and appropriate immune responses to macro or microparasites. animals living in populations close to ecological carrying capacity experience increased intraspecific competition, and as a result are often in poor nutritional condition. nutritional condition, in turn, affects the amount of endogenous resources that are available for investment in immune function. our objective was to understand the relationship between immune function ...201525992627
admixture of eastern and western european red deer lineages as a result of postglacial recolonization of the czech republic (central europe).due to a restriction of the distributional range of european red deer (cervus elaphus l.) during the quaternary and subsequent recolonization of europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial dna markers. in central europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of european red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. we used mitochondrial dna (control region and cytochrom ...201525918430
sexual segregation in north american elk: the role of density dependence.we investigated how density-dependent processes and subsequent variation in nutritional condition of individuals influenced both timing and duration of sexual segregation and selection of resources. during 1999-2001, we experimentally created two population densities of north american elk (cervus elaphus), a high-density population at 20 elk/km(2), and a low-density population at 4 elk/km(2) to test hypotheses relative to timing and duration of sexual segregation and variation in selection of re ...201525691992
pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of kashmir red deer (cervus elaphus hanglu) in india.the hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the indian subcontinent. despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the department of wildlife protection in jammu & kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. the hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the dachi ...201525671567
vegetation changes associated with a population irruption by roosevelt elk.interactions between large herbivores and their food supply are central to the study of population dynamics. we assessed temporal and spatial patterns in meadow plant biomass over a 23-year period for meadow complexes that were spatially linked to three distinct populations of roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in northwestern california. our objectives were to determine whether the plant community exhibited a tolerant or resistant response when elk population growth became irruptive. pla ...201525628868
the content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (cervus elaphus) from poland.the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of pb, cu, zn, rb, cs, sr and ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of poland (south-western and north-eastern). the data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (icp-ms) method ...201525548020
cortisol but not testosterone is repeatable and varies with reproductive effort in wild red deer stags.although it is known that hormone concentrations vary considerably between individuals within a population, how they change across time and how they relate to an individual's reproductive effort remains poorly quantified in wild animals. using faecal samples collected from wild red deer stags, we examined sources of variation in faecal cortisol and androgen metabolites, and the potential relationship that these might have with an index of reproductive effort. we also biologically validated an as ...201526209865
manganese supplementation in deer under balanced diet increases impact energy and contents in minerals of antler bone tissue.bone ash, collagen, ca and p composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. however, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. a previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cort ...201526177083
vocal activity of the red deer and the acoustic structure of its rutting calls in the russian far east. 201526164336
mitochondrial genomes of giant deers suggest their late survival in central europe.the giant deer megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating late pleistocene eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. we analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the swabian jura (baden-württemberg, germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. using hybridization capture in combination with next generation se ...201526052672
use of androcoll-s after thawing improves the quality of electroejaculated and epididymal sperm samples from red deer.single layer centrifugation is a useful technique to select sperm with good quality. the use of selection methods such as androcoll could become an important tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to improve other artificial reproductive techniques such as sperm sex sorting, in vitro fertilization or ai. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single layer centrifugation with androcoll-s on the sperm quality of red deer sperm samples of two different origins, el ...201526002696
framing the relationship between people and nature in the context of european conservation.a key controversy in conservation is the framing of the relationship between people and nature. the extent to which the realms of nature and human culture are viewed as separate (dualistic view) or integrated is often discussed in the social sciences. to explore how this relationship is represented in the practice of conservation in europe, we considered examples of cultural landscapes, wildlife (red deer, reindeer, horses), and protected area management. we found little support, for a dualistic ...201525997474
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of peptides from red deer antlers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. to develop novel anti-diabetic drugs from nature sources has always been the focus of research. red deer (cervus elaphu linnaeus) antler is one of the most famous chinese traditional medicines. we found that the peptides of 5-10 kda from red deer antlers (prda) promoted the growth of cultured rat islet cells. the purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic actions of prda in vivo and purify a pure active peptide. we theref ...201525985857
combining small-vertebrate, marine and stable-isotope data to reconstruct past environments.three very different records are combined here to reconstruct the evolution of environments in the cantabrian region during the upper pleistocene, covering ~35.000 years. two of these records come from antoliñako koba (bizkaia, spain), an exceptional prehistoric deposit comprising 9 chrono-cultural units (aurignacian to epipaleolithic). the palaeoecological signal of small-vertebrate communities and red deer stable-isotope data (δ(13)c and δ(15)n) from this mainland site are contrasted to marine ...201526391668
beyond testis size: links between spermatogenesis and sperm traits in a seasonal breeding mammal.spermatogenesis is a costly process that is expected to be under selection to maximise sperm quantity and quality. testis size is often regarded as a proxy measure of sperm investment, implicitly overlooking the quantitative assessment of spermatogenesis. an enhanced understanding of testicular function, beyond testis size, may reveal further sexual traits involved in sperm quantity and quality. here, we first estimated the inter-male variation in testicular function and sperm traits in red deer ...201526430740
exploring the potential of laser ablation carbon isotope analysis for examining ecology during the ontogeny of middle pleistocene hominins from sima de los huesos (northern spain).laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle pleistocene sites in the sierra de atapuerca in northern spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggestin ...201526673156
intramale variation in sperm size: functional significance in a polygynous mammal.studies concerning the relationships between sperm size and velocity at the intraspecific level are quite limited and often yielded contradictory results across the animal kingdom. intramale variation in sperm size may represent a meaningful factor to predict sperm velocity, due to its relationship with the level of sperm competition among related taxa. because sperm phenotype is under post-copulatory sexual selection, we hypothesized that a reduced intramale variation in sperm size is associate ...201526664807
[morphometry in development of red deer's adrenal glands].histological structures and morphometric and some histochemical indicators of elk's adrenal gland development as subspecies of red deer in prenatal and postnatal ontogenies stages was studied. it was found that the growth of the fetus adrenal glands weight and the thickness of the structures adrenal glands fragments continue throughout the prenatal period of ontogeny. the cells of androgenic zone with single wandering sympathogoniae are differentiated in the adrenal glands in the second month of ...201526480487
reduced glutathione addition improves both the kinematics and physiological quality of post-thawed red deer sperm.the potential protective effect of reduced glutathione (gsh) and trolox (trx), an analogue of vitamin e, supplementation during in vitro culture (2h, 39°c) of electroejaculated frozen/thawed red deer sperm was investigated. cryopreserved sperm were thawed and incubated with no additive (control) and 1mm or 5mm of each antioxidant to find out whether these supplementations can maintain the sperm quality, considering the use of thawed samples for in vitro techniques such as in vitro fertilisation ...201526474690
variation of spermatogenic and sertoli cell number detected by fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) in iberian red deer during and out of the breeding season.the aim of the present study was to evaluate spermatogenesis in iberian red deer, a short-day seasonal breeder, using the fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) technique. reports on spermatogenesis in deer are limited and here, for the first time, fnac has been used to evaluate changes in such physiological process during and out of the breeding season. testes were collected from 51 stags from november 2010 to february 2011. the sertoli index and spermatic index were significantly higher during ...201525483787
pre-orbital gland opening during aggressive interactions in rusa deer (rusa timorensis).the opening of the preorbital gland in cervids has a visual meaning and is frequently associated with agonistic and/or stress related situations. apart from in red deer, this behaviour has scarcely been studied and the range of situations when it may occur remains unclear. in this study we report the unusual case of preorbital gland opening in rusa deer, rusa timorensis, associated to direct aggressive agonistic interaction (biting/kicking) between two adult hinds. this case observed in tierpark ...201525481309
beyond mice and men: environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates.in the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. we argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: many components of environmental change--shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns and reduced environmental predictability--may affect host immunity. we suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discove ...201525354672
bluetongue in europe and the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of disease.the article reviews a current bluetongue (bt) epidemiological situation in europe, bt restricted zones and the role of wild ungulates as a reservoir for bluetongue virus (btv) and its transmission. bt has been eradicated from central and northern europe, however it is still circulating in some regions of southern and south-eastern europe. according to the recent information of the directoriate general for health and consumer affairs (dg sanco) disease caused by btv1 was spreading at the beginnin ...201526172200
detection of invasive borrelia burgdorferi strains in north-eastern piedmont, italy.following reports of human cases of lyme borreliosis from the ossola valley, a mountainous area of piemonte, north-western italy, the abundance and altitudinal distribution of ticks, and infection of these vectors with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were evaluated. a total of 1662 host-seeking ixodes ricinus were collected by dragging from april to september 2011 at locations between 400 and 1450 m above sea level. additional 104 i. ricinus were collected from 35 hunted wild animals (4 chamois, ...201525220838
a geographic cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in moose (alces alces) in norway.three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) in free-ranging moose (alces alces) were diagnosed in lesja, norway, december 2008-february 2010. the diagnosis was based on pcr identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) dna (n = 3) and typical histopathologic lesions (n = 1). to study the possibility of subclinical or latent mcf virus (mcfv) infection in this moose population and in red deer (cervus elaphus), we examined clinically normal animals sampled during hunt ...201525574807
parasite infections in red deer cervus elaphus from krakow area, southern poland.the study describes the parasitofauna of red deer cervus elaphus from kraków area (southern poland). the study was done in years 2011-2012 and included altogether 6 animals. five deer originated from the forest areas (hunted) and one came from the urban site (it died in a road accident). in addition to post-mortem examination, coproscopic analyses with sporulation were performed to define eimeria species diversity. the deer were infected with four species of nematodes: ashworthius sidemi, spicul ...201525911038
prion amplification and hierarchical bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids. immunohistochemistry (ihc) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical cwd that are important to understanding cwd transmission and ecology. we assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to improve detection of cwd prior ...201525665713
progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (cwd). a section of obex from 85 cwd-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) in 10 axonal tract ...201526185123
novel sequence types of chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in switzerland.chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), ibex (capra ibex), chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (cervus elaphus), and birds. this identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. to begin to address this question, we employed a c. ...201525647593
establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).to investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep gin at a rate of 327l3/kg bodyweight. the lsmean (se) establishment rates (%) for haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta, cooperia curticei, trichostrongylus spp. and oesophagostomum+chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0 ...201525657087
coxiella burnetii shedding by farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever. currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human q fever cases. however, a human case of q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with c. burnetii and ascertain the implicat ...201524127840
granuloma coinfection with mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in five hunted red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal.we report granulomatous lymphadenitis in red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal caused by coinfection with corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, as demonstrated by molecular methods.201525932668
early detection of chronic wasting disease prions in urine of pre-symptomatic deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of captive and free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp), elk (cervus elaphus nelsonii) and moose (alces alces shirasi). unlike in most other prion diseases, in cwd prions are shed in urine and feces, which most likely contributes to the horizontal transmission within and between cervid species. to date, cwd ante-mortem diagnosis is only possible by immunohistochemical detection of protease resistant prion protein (prp (sc) ) in tonsil or recto-anal muco ...201523764839
experimental studies of microbial populations and incidence of zoonotic pathogens in the faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus).wild animals can serve as hosts, amplifiers or reservoirs for various zoonotic diseases. most species of deer in highly fragmented agricultural landscapes, search out maximum cover from intrusive human activity. hence, the likelihood of zoonosis transmission is likely to increase the more humans and wildlife interact. in our study, we conducted a comparative analysis of bacteria isolated from the faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus) living in their natural environment in south-western poland and ...201526222832
development of a multiplex pcr for identification of dictyocaulus lungworms in domestic and wild ruminants.dictyocaulus lungworms are the causative agents of parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterised by coughing and severe lung pathology in domestic and wild ruminants. the objective of this study was to design a simple molecular test that could detect of lungworm dna from both adult and larval lungworms and could distinguish between the most common dictyocaulus species found in cattle and in some species of wild ruminants. a multiplex pcr test with four novel primers targeting species-speci ...201526266883
host and environmental factors modulate the exposure of free-ranging and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) to coxiella burnetii.the control of multihost pathogens, such as coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. we aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (cervus elaphus) in the ecology of c. burnetii. we predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a european context would be exposed to c. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to c. burnetii. to test this hypoth ...201526150466
prevalence of subtilase cytotoxin-encoding subab variants among shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains isolated from wild ruminants and sheep differs from that of cattle and pigs and is predominated by the new allelic variant subab2-2.subtilase cytotoxin (subab) is an ab5 toxin produced by shiga toxin (stx)-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. three allelic variants of subab encoding genes have been described: subab1, located on a plasmid, subab2-1, located on the pathogenicity island se-pai and subab2-2 located in an outer membrane efflux protein (oep) region. subab is becoming increasingly recognized as a toxin potentially involved in human pathogenesis. ruminants and cattl ...201525488108
fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in germany.after initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of fascioloides (f.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern bavaria, germany, at the border to the czech republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. in march 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. to monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from june 2012 to june 2013 inclusive. in addition, li ...201526054221
antimicrobial resistance in wildlife: implications for public health.the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (amr) bacteria in natural environments is a major concern with serious implications for human and animal health. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of amr escherichia coli (e. coli) in wild birds and mammalian species. thirty faecal samples were collected from each of the following wildlife species: herring gulls (larus argentatus), black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus), lesser black-back gulls (larus fuscus), hybrid deer spe ...201525639901
extension of occurrence area of the american fluke fascioloides magna in south-western poland.liver fluke fascioloides magna is a typical parasite of american cervids. the reason for f. magna to appear in poland territory was bringing the american wapiti deer to those forests around 1850. along with these deer the aforementioned fluke was also introduced. the aim of this study was to present the case of finding of this species in cervids in bory zielonogórskie. samples of deer feces were collected in february 2015 in forest district krzystkowice. a total of 16 samples of feces were exami ...201526342504
molecular characterization of fascioloides magna (trematoda: fasciolidae) from south-western poland based on mitochondrial markers.the giant liver fluke, fascioloides magna, is a veterinary important liver parasite of free living and domestic ruminants. this originally north american parasite was introduced along with its cervid hosts to europe where it has established three permanent natural foci - in northern italy, central and southern parts of the czech republic and the danube floodplain forests. the first record on fascioloidosis in poland originated from the lower silesian forest in south-western poland and since then ...201526204195
development of an interspecies nested dose-response model for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) causes chronic inflammation of the intestines in humans, ruminants, and other species. it is the causative agent of johne's disease in cattle, and has been implicated as the causative agent of crohn's disease in humans. to date, no quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) for map utilizing a dose-response function exists. the objective of this study is to develop a nested dose-response model for infection from oral exposure to map utiliz ...201525809926
molecular identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum by duplex high-resolution melt analysis and subspecies-specific real-time pcr.accurate identification of mycobacterial species and subspecies is essential to evaluate their significance and to perform epidemiological studies. the subspecies of mycobacterium avium have different attributes but coincide in their zoonotic potential. our knowledge about m. avium subsp. silvaticum is limited, since its identification is uncertain. mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and m. avium subsp. silvaticum can be discriminated from each other based only on phenotypic characteristics, as th ...201525740770
belgian wildlife as potential zoonotic reservoir of hepatitis e virus.hepatitis e is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals but may become chronic in immunocompromised patients. it is caused by the hepatitis e virus (hev) and can have a zoonotic origin, particularly in high-income countries. in this study, 383 sera from wild boars were selected for serology; for virological analyses, 69 sera and 61 livers from young wild boars were used. a total of 189 and 235 sera of, respectively, red deer and roe deer were collected for serological analysis. for vi ...201526518619
prevalence and molecular typing of giardia duodenalis in wildlife from eastern poland.faecal samples from 162 wild animals were collected from 32 distinct sites of łęczyńsko-włodawskie lakeland (eastern poland). the presence of giardia duodenalis (stiles, 1902) was assessed by a direct fluorescence assay (dfa) and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing of a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. dfa showed the presence of cysts of g. duodenalis in 12 of 162 faecal samples (7%), namely in four wild boars (15%), four foxes (19%), two roe deer (4%), and two wolves (29%). pcr ...201526278650
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