Publications

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seroprevalence of leptospirosis, brucellosis, and q fever in a wild red deer (cervus elaphus) population kept in a fenced reserve in absence of contact with livestock.wildlife health is of interest for public and animal health because wild animals have been identified as important sentinels for the surveillance for zoonotic pathogens. this work investigated brucella spp., coxiella burnetii, and leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in a free-ranging red deer population. the study was conducted in a fenced reserve with controlled hunting activity in central spain with animals that did not have any contact with livestock. sampling was performed at two time p ...201728873022
intensive management and natural genetic variation in red deer (cervus elaphus).the current magnitude of big-game hunting has outpaced the natural growth of populations, making artificial breeding necessary to rapidly boost hunted populations. in this study, we evaluated if the rapid increase of red deer (cervus elaphus) abundance, caused by the growing popularity of big-game hunting, has impacted the natural genetic diversity of the species. we compared several genetic diversity metrics between 37 fenced populations subject to intensive management and 21 wild free-ranging ...201728863451
molecular cloning and expression analysis of annexin a2 gene in sika deer antler tip.molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of annexin a2 gene in sika deer antler tip were conducted. the role of annexin a2 gene in the growth and development of the antler were analyzed initially.201728823128
myiasis of domestic and wild ruminants caused by hypodermatinae in the mediterranean and indian subcontinent.myiasis caused by hypodermatinae flies is an economically important disease affecting domesticated and wild ruminants in countries of the mediterranean and indian subcontinent. the adult flies have a short life span of 1 week, and they spread disease by laying their eggs on the coat of animals. hypoderma spp. primarily lay their eggs on cattle, buffalo, roe deer, red deer and reindeer, while przhevalskiana spp. lay eggs on the coat of goats. the larvae live as tissue parasites, inducing myiasis ...201728807296
relative selection strength: quantifying effect size in habitat- and step-selection inference.habitat-selection analysis lacks an appropriate measure of the ecological significance of the statistical estimates-a practical interpretation of the magnitude of the selection coefficients. there is a need for a standard approach that allows relating the strength of selection to a change in habitat conditions across space, a quantification of the estimated effect size that can be compared both within and across studies. we offer a solution, based on the epidemiological risk ratio, which we term ...201728770070
isotopic analyses suggest mammoth and plant in the diet of the oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast europe.relatively high 15n abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high 15n prey. at buran-kaya iii, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. the site of buran-kaya iii is located in south crimea a ...201728754955
large herbivores in novel ecosystems - habitat selection by red deer (cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area.after centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of europe. one example is the red deer (cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems ...201728505192
study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat.the aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, ph, water-binding capacity (wbc), and amino acid content.201728717313
a high-density linkage map reveals sexual dimorphism in recombination landscapes in red deer (cervus elaphus).high-density linkage maps are an important tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of traits of evolutionary and economic interest, and provide a resource to characterize variation in recombination landscapes. here, we used information from the cattle genome and the 50 k cervine illumina beadchip to inform and refine a high-density linkage map in a wild population of red deer (cervus elaphus). we constructed a predicted linkage map of 38,038 snps and a skeleton map of 10,835 snps acro ...201728667018
the role of landscape characteristics for forage maturation and nutritional benefits of migration in red deer.large herbivores gain nutritional benefits from following the sequential flush of newly emergent, high-quality forage along environmental gradients in the landscape, termed green wave surfing. which landscape characteristics underlie the environmental gradient causing the green wave and to what extent landscape characteristics alone explain individual variation in nutritional benefits remain unresolved questions. here, we combine gps data from 346 red deer (cervus elaphus) from four partially mi ...201728649354
learning from the mistakes of others: how female elk (cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.in animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to preda ...201728614406
distribution of bdnf and trkb isoforms in growing antler tissues of red deer.antlers are the cranial appendages of deer that regenerate each year. this renewal provides a model to explore molecules involved in mammalian organ regeneration. the cellular distributions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and the isoforms of its cognate receptor trk tyrosine kinase receptor (trkb) were localized by immunohistochemistry in sections of growing red deer antler. bdnf and trkb full length were widely expressed in the integument, perichondrium, periosteum and bone. the ...201728602824
erosion of the alberta badlands produces highly variable and elevated heavy metal concentrations in the red deer river, alberta.erosion is important in the transport of heavy metals from terrestrial to fluvial environments. in this study, we investigated riverine heavy metal (cd, cu, hg and pb) dynamics in the red deer river (rdr) watershed at sites upstream (n=2) and downstream (n=7) of the alberta badlands, an area of naturally high erosion. at sites draining the badlands, total water column cd, cu, hg and pb concentrations frequently exceeded guidelines for the protection of freshwater biota. furthermore, peak concent ...201728448918
comparative analysis of the merino sheep and iberian red deer abomasum during prenatal development.the aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. to compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. the appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep ( ...201728422357
dioxins and pcbs in game animals: interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-pcb) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-pcb) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. dioxins and pcbs enter the animal organisms through foraging. due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. the ...201726826359
chronic wasting disease (cwd) in cervids.in april and may of 2016, norway confirmed two cases of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a wild reindeer and a wild moose, respectively. in the light of this emerging issue, the european commission requested efsa to recommend surveillance activities and, if necessary, additional animal health risk-based measures to prevent the introduction of the disease and the spread into/within the eu, specifically estonia, finland, iceland, latvia, lithuania, norway, poland and sweden, and considering seven ...201732625260
antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial pathogens isolated from faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus).antibacterial activity is the most widely studied aspect of plant extracts. antibiotics extensively produced and consumed in large quantities, have proved to be problematic due to various types of adverse effects. the development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. one of the alternative strategies for fighting antibiotic- resistant bacteria is the use of natural antimicrobial substances such as plant extracts. we t ...201729611658
predicting herbivore faecal nitrogen using a multispecies near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibration.optimal management of free-ranging herbivores requires the accurate assessment of an animal's nutritional status. for this purpose 'near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy' (nirs) is very useful, especially when nutritional assessment is done through faecal indicators such as faecal nitrogen (fn). in order to perform an nirs calibration, the default protocol recommends starting by generating an initial equation based on at least 50-75 samples from the given species. although this protocol optimis ...201728453544
assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the animal health law (regulation (eu) no 2016/429): bluetongue.a specific concept of strain was developed in order to classify the btv serotypes ever reported in europe based on their properties of animal health impact: the genotype, morbidity, mortality, speed of spread, period and geographical area of occurrence were considered as classification parameters. according to this methodology the strain groups identified were (i) the btv strains belonging to serotypes btv-1-24, (ii) some strains of serotypes btv-16 and (iii) small ruminant-adapted strains belon ...201732625623
spavin in red deer: a case study from the early neolithic blagotin, serbia.pathological modifications are rarely observed in the remains of wild animals from archaeological sites. we present one such specific, pathological change - a case of spavin in a red deer specimen from the early neolithic site of blagotin, in central serbia. the left tarsal joint presented proliferative new bone formation, which was analyzed macroscopically, then subjected to x-ray and computed tomography (ct) imaging. we assume that the initial degenerative changes in this red deer tarsal joint ...201629539526
elk resource selection and implications for anthrax management in montana.anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals throughout the world. in north america, anthrax outbreaks occur in livestock and wildlife species. vaccine administration in wildlife is untenable; the most effective form of management is surveillance and decontamination of carcasses. successful management is critical because untreated carcasses can create infectious zones increasing risk for other susceptible hosts. we studi ...201629887642
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti in a wildlife conservation area in southern portugal.toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti are closely related apicomplexan protozoa. t. gondii is a zoonotic pathogen which may cause serious disease in man and warm-blooded animals, including wild species. b. besnoiti causes bovine besnoitiosis, an emergent disease in europe, which is linked to important production losses. unlike t. gondii, the life cycle of b. besnoiti remains a mystery, since the definitive host has not yet been identified. the aim of this work was to determine the seroprevale ...201631014504
influence of evisceration time and carcass ageing conditions on wild venison quality. preliminary study.the influence of common carcass preparation practices of wild red deer on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of venison was assessed by varying evisceration time and ageing method. deer were head shot; half were eviscerated 30 min and the other half 4 h post mortem. in both groups (n=18), 6 carcasses were skinned immediately after evisceration and aged for 24 h; 6 were aged unskinned for 24 h and 6 were aged unskinned for 72 h at 10°c. ageing method had a significant effect ...201626773970
variation in stability of elk and red deer populations with abiotic and biotic factors at the species-distribution scale.stability in population dynamics is an emergent property of the interaction between direct and delayed density dependence, the strengths of which vary with environmental covariates. analysis of variation across populations in the strength of direct and delayed density dependence can reveal variation in stability properties of populations at the species level. we examined the stability properties of 22 elk/red deer populations in a two-stage analysis. first, we estimated direct and delayed densit ...201627870038
selection of red deer spermatozoa with different cryoresistance using density gradients.the objective of sperm selection media is selecting the best spermatozoa and to remove seminal plasma and diluent for using them in assisted reproductive techniques. it is known that individuals show different cryoresistance in response to the same freezing procedure. our hypothesis was that the efficacy of selection media could be dissimilar for samples with different sperm quality after thawing. epididymal sperm samples from mature iberian red deer were collected and frozen. males were classif ...201627562911
technological analysis of the world's earliest shamanic costume: a multi-scalar, experimental study of a red deer headdress from the early holocene site of star carr, north yorkshire, uk.shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the early holocene site of star carr (c. 11 kya). more than 90% of the examples from prehistoric europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, ...201627073850
purification and identification of anti-inflammatory peptides derived from simulated gastrointestinal digests of velvet antler protein (cervus elaphus linnaeus).the objective of this study was to identify anti-inflammatory peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digest (pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysate) of velvet antler protein. the hydrolysate was purified using ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. the anti-inflammatory activity of the purified fraction was evaluated by the inhibition of no production in lipopolysaccharide-induced raw 264.7 macrophages. four anti-inflammatory peptides, vh (val-his), lan (leu-ala-asn), al (ala-leu), an ...201628911592
leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn ...201628792596
testosterone and cortisol concentrations vary with reproductive status in wild female red deer.although hormones are key regulators of many fitness and life history traits, the causes of individual level variation in hormones, particularly in wild systems, remain understudied. whilst we know that androgen and glucocorticoid levels vary within and among individuals in mammalian populations, how this relates to key reproductive processes such as gestation and lactation, and their effects on a female's measurable hormone levels are poorly understood in wild systems. using fecal samples colle ...201626941946
how many routes lead to migration? comparison of methods to assess and characterize migratory movements.decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. the main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterizing migration at the individual and population level on the basis of an ...201626412564
the role of topography in the distribution and intensity of damage caused by deer in polish mountain forests.the increase in the deer population observed in recent decades has strongly impacted forest regeneration and the forest itself. the reduction in the quality of raw wood material, as a consequence of deer-mediated damage, constitutes a significant burden on forest owners. the basis for the commencement of preventive actions in this setting is the understanding of the populations and behaviors of deer in their natural environment. although multiple studies have been carried out regarding this subj ...201627851776
the many axes of deer lactation.in undomesticated animals information about the production and composition of milk over time is still scarce. in general, for most mammals it is known that milk composition changes across lactation, is different for male and female offspring, and even that marsupials, such as kangaroos, can simultaneously produce milk of different compositions for young of different ages. such parallel milk production of differing compositions has not yet been studied in single-offspring placental mammals, but m ...201627744517
melatonin receptors mt1 and mt2 are expressed in spermatozoa from several seasonal and nonseasonal breeder species.melatonin is a ubiquitous and multipurpose molecule, and one of its roles is to regulate reproduction in some seasonal mammals. our group has previously reported the variation in the melatonin levels in ram seminal plasma along the year and identified mt1 and mt2 receptors in ram spermatozoa. the objective of this study was to elucidate whether the presence of melatonin receptors (mt1 and mt2) in the sperm plasma membrane, and melatonin in the seminal plasma is related to seasonal breeding. for ...201627448693
the effect of oxidative stress on thawed bulk-sorted red deer sperm.the aims of this study were to assess the effects of the sex-sorting process on post-thaw sperm quality as well as on induced oxidative stress damage (h2 o2 0 mm = h000; h2 o2 50 mm = h050; h2 o2 100 mm = h100) and the protective action of reduced glutathione (gsh) and trolox, when comparing sorted (bss) and non-sorted (ns) red deer spermatozoa incubated at 37°c. sperm samples from three stags were collected by electroejaculation and frozen. immediately after thawing, sperm motility was higher ( ...201627103320
characterization, thermochemical conversion studies, and heating value modeling of municipal solid waste.a study was carried out to examine the characteristics of municipal solid waste (msw) from the city of red deer, alberta, canada. experiments were performed for determining the moisture content, proximate and ultimate compositions, heating value of fourteen wastes in different categories. their thermal weight loss behaviors under pyrolysis/torrefaction conditions were also investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (tga). an empirical model was developed for the high heating value (hhv) estima ...201626445363
relationship between the electroglottographic signal and vocal fold contact area.electroglottography (egg) is a widely used noninvasive method that purports to measure changes in relative vocal fold contact area (vfca) during phonation. despite its broad application, the putative direct relation between the egg waveform and vfca has to date only been formally tested in a single study, suggesting an approximately linear relationship. however, in that study, flow-induced vocal fold (vf) vibration was not investigated. a rigorous empirical evaluation of egg as a measure of vfca ...201626256493
morphological and molecular characterization of sarcocystis taeniata and sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. from the sika deer (cervus nippon) in lithuania.the diaphragm muscles of eight sika deer (cervus nippon) bred in lithuania were examined for sarcocystis cysts. two sarcocystis species, sarcocystis taeniata, which were previously reported in canadian moose (alces alces) and argentinean red deer (cervus elaphus), and sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. were described using light microscopy (lm), transmission electron microscopy (tem), 18s ribosomal dna (rdna), and subunit i of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequences analysis. by lm, cysts of s. taeniata we ...201627086872
detection and characterisation of yersinia enterocolitica strains in cold-stored carcasses of large game animals in poland.yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen. the aim of the present study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of y.enterocolitica strains isolated from three different anatomical regions of cold-stored carcasses of large game animals intended for human consumption. y.enterocolitica strains were found in 12/20 (60%) of the roe deer carcasses examined, 7/16 (43.8%) of red deer carcasses and 11/20 (55%) of wild boar carcasses. of the 52 y.enterocolitica strains, 19 ...201626626093
sarcocystosis in wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in patagonia, argentina.sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. in these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. seven sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (cervus elephus). the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the ...201626779923
molecular identification of the rumen flukes paramphistomum leydeni and paramphistomum cervi in a concurrent infection of the red deer cervus elaphus.paramphistomosis, caused by paramphistomid flukes, is a gastrointestinal parasitic disease of domestic and wild ruminants. originally thought to be limited to the tropics and subtropics, the disease has recently been reported in temperate regions. here we describe the concurrent infection of a red deer doe (cervus elaphus) with paramphistomum leydeni and paramphistomum cervi. this is the first report of p. leydeni in croatia. flukes were identified on the basis of morphological keys (tegumental ...201627813468
effect of different ecosystems and management practices on toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in wild ruminants in spain.toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. however, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. we studied the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii and n. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four nat ...201626967135
listeria monocytogenes in different specimens from healthy red deer and wild boars.in the past, listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from game feces and meat. however, less information is available on the occurrence of l. monocytogenes in other specimens originating from game animals. hence, the aim of this study was to get an overview of the occurrence and distribution of l. monocytogenes in game animals by characterization of isolates from different matrices. for that purpose, samples were collected from red deer (cervus elaphus), wild boars (sus scrofa), and feed during ...201627159352
spatially explicit modeling of animal tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in ciudad real province, spain.eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) are the most important wildlife reservoirs for animal tuberculosis (tb) caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc), in mediterranean spain. these species are considered to play an important role in the transmission and persistence of mtc in cattle in some regions; however the factors contributing to the risk of transmission at the wildlife-livestock interface and the areas at highest risk for such transmission are largely ...201627237396
first description of onchocerca jakutensis (nematoda: filarioidea) in red deer (cervus elaphus) in switzerland.twenty-seven species of the genus onchocerca (nematoda; filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. most onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical africa. the european red deer (cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). two species, onchocerca flexuosa and onchocerca jakutensis, produce s ...201627617204
association between vitamin d supplementation and severity of tuberculosis in wild boar and red deer.tuberculosis (tb) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. severity of tb caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin d3 intake. however, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with mycobacterium bovis. the aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of m. bovis show different levels of tb severity depending on the level of vitamin d found in serum after supple ...201627663379
two alternative dna extraction methods to improve the detection of mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex members in cattle and red deer tissue samples.bovine tuberculosis (btb), which is caused by mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae, is a notifiable animal disease in germany. diagnostic procedure is based on a prescribed protocol that is published in the framework of german btb legislation. in this protocol small sample volumes are used for dna extraction followed by real-time pcr analyses. as mycobacteria tend to concentrate in granuloma and the infected tissue in early stages of infection does not necessarily show any visible lesions, it is li ...201627629399
spoligotype diversity and 5-year trends of bovine tuberculosis in extremadura, southern spain.bovine tuberculosis (btb) causes significant losses to farming economies worldwide. a better understanding on the epidemiology of this disease and the role that the different hosts develop in the maintenance and spread of btb is vital to control this zoonotic disease. this study reports the spoligotype diversity and temporal evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtbc) isolates obtained from extremadura (southern spain). genotyping data of mycobacterium bovis (n = 2102) and mycobacteri ...201627524741
oral administration of heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. as the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis. thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (tb) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). immunized hinds were ...201627032499
mycobacterium spp. in wild game in slovenia.wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (btb), caused by mycobacterium bovis. slovenia is officially free of btb, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. in this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in slovenia belonging to the families cervidae, suidae, canidae, mustelida ...201626639827
new insights into mycobacterium bovis prevalence in wild mammals in portugal.a survey to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in wild mammals in portugal was conducted by testing samples from hunted animals and those found dead between 2009 and 2013. in this study, we investigated 2116 wild mammals. post-mortem examinations were performed, and tissues were collected from wild mammals representing 8 families and 11 different species, with a total of 393 animals analysed. cultures were performed, and acid-fast isolates were identified by pcr. tissues were also s ...201625484245
solid sage sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (cervus elaphus) challenged with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.this study compared in vivo lymph node gene expression levels between six young red deer that were either relatively resistant (r) or susceptible (s) to paratuberculosis following experimental challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. intestinal lymph nodes were biopsied at 4, 12 and 50 weeks post challenge (pc) and parallel changes in histopathology, immunology and bacterial load monitored. solid sage (serial analysis of gene expression) next generation sequencing of biopsied ...201626620077
benzimidazole resistance in haemonchus contortus recovered from farmed red deer.thirty haemonchus contortus male worms were collected from farmed red deer yearlings in order to determine whether routine administration of albendazole for a long-term period (17 years) could select anthelmintic resistance. pcr-rflp method based on single-nucleotide polymorphism of codon 200 in isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene (phe200tyr) was applied. the results showed a significant frequency of either the resistant allele (85 %) or the homozygous resistant genotype (70 %). by chi-square test, hardy-w ...201627249966
tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, cervus elaphus.understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. these interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (tb) and body size in adult red deer. heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and tb at individual and population levels. a single local effect was found f ...201627245150
detection of wide genetic diversity and several novel strains among non-avium nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from farmed and wild animals in hungary.besides mycobacterium avium numerous nontuberculous mycobacterium (ntm) species exist, which pose constant health risk to both humans and animals. the aim of our study was to identify non-avium ntm isolates from veterinary origin in hungary, and to detect the occurrence of rifampicin resistance among them.201627038193
serologic and molecular survey of hepatitis e virus in german deer populations.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. the virus is endemic in developing countries of africa, asia, and latin america and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. in western europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of hev from domestic and wild animals. in germany, animal reservoirs for hev have bee ...201626528571
constant hepatitis e virus (hev) circulation in wild boar and red deer in spain: an increasing concern source of hev zoonotic transmission.hepatitis e is a viral zoonosis that affects multiple hosts. the complete dynamics of infection in wildlife are still unknown, but the previous fact facilitates the maintenance and circulation of the virus, posing a risk to human health in the case of meat consumption from susceptible animals. in spain, it has been shown how domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife (i.e. wild boar and red deer) clearly interact in hunting farms, generating a complex epidemiological situation in terms of interspecies p ...201625571944
genotypes of coxiella burnetii in wildlife: disentangling the molecular epidemiology of a multi-host pathogen.evidences point to a relevant role of wildlife in the ecology of coxiella burnetii worldwide. the lack of information on c. burnetii genotypes in wildlife prevents tracing-back clinical animal and human q fever cases with potential wildlife origin. to compare c. burnetii genotypes circulating in wildlife, livestock and humans, 107 samples from red deer, european wild rabbit, racoon, small mammals, goat and sheep were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization. gen ...201627336914
ashworthius sidemi schulz, 1933 and haemonchus contortus (rudolphi, 1803) in cervids in france: integrative approach for species identification.among gastro-intestinal nematodes, the blood-sucking worms belonging to the subfamily of haemonchinae are considered to be of pathogenic and economic great importance, particularly in small ruminants. haemonchus contortus, primary found in domestic ruminants and wild bovines (mouflon, chamois), is probably the most studied, but occurrence of ashworthius sidemi has gradually increased over recent years, especially in cervids and free roaming wild bovid as the european bison in eastern europe, and ...201627810500
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian wildlife.to investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
genomic characterization of a novel epsilonpapillomavirus associated with pigmented papillomas in a red deer (cervus elaphus).two of a group of 15 farmed european red (cervus elaphus elaphus) x wapiti (c. e. canadensis) deer stags developed multiple persistent pigmented squamous papillomas (warts) on their chins. dna was extracted from a papilloma and a short section of dna from a novel papillomavirus (pv) was amplified. this short sequence was used to design 'outward facing' primers to amplify the remainder of the circular pv dna. the pcr product was sequenced using next-generation sequencing and the full genome of th ...201627154332
a field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of kashmir.one year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of kashmir through faecal examinations. out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with git helminthes. in present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), trichuris ovis (39.75 %), dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %) ...201627605778
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial dna and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.velvet antlers are used medicinally in asia and possess various therapeutic effects. prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. additionally, antlers of the canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna, fluoresc ...201626094991
antibody response to epsilon toxin of clostridium perfringens in captive red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-month period.deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. antibody production to the clostridium perfringens type d epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzy ...201627010263
genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (dictyocaulus, nematoda) in wild deer in hungary.dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. this study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. specifically, we quantify genetic variation in dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. t ...201627150969
composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red deer, sheep, pig and cattle.animal blood is a large-volume by-product of the meat industry. besides blood meal fertiliser, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. in this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. some blood constituents were determined. fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scaven ...201625581344
lungworm (nematoda: protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from małopolska region of poland.the conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. the post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (ovis aries) (14) and cattle (bos taurus) (18). some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. the faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red ...201627262959
antimicrobial resistance in faecal escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. detection of a multiresistant e. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.eighty-nine escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. an e. coli strain carrying blactx-m-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (intl1-dfra16-blapse-1-a ...201627012919
risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater yellowstone area (ii): cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.recent cases of bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) in cattle (bos taurus) and domestic bison (bison bison) of the southern greater yellowstone area (sgya) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus). several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. it is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of ...201627836044
pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the cantabrian mountains, spain.bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and border disease virus (bdv) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the cantabrian mountains, north-western spain. from 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by celisa, virus neutralisation test (vnt) and for the presence of pestiviral rna using a reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle ...201627083871
late pleistocene/early holocene migratory behavior of ungulates using isotopic analysis of tooth enamel and its effects on forager mobility.zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. in this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (cervus elaphus) and caprids at the pleistocene-holocene transition in the northeastern adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. the data show a significant change in δ18 ...201627275784
absence of circulation of pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern spain.ruminant pestiviruses (family flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. seropositivity was detected by both elisa and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diar ...201626864026
papillomavirus in healthy skin and mucosa of wild ruminants in the italian alps.we investigated healthy skin and mucosal specimens of wild ruminants in the italian alps. we identified bovine papillomavirus (bpv)-2 dna in the healthy skin of wild ruminants and documented coinfection of bpv-1 and cervus elaphus papillomavirus (cepv)-1 in a healthy red deer (cervus elaphus). we also demonstrated cross-infections of bpvs of the genus xipapillomavirus, both as single virus infection and also in association with deltapapillomavirus types 1 and 2, confirming that host tropism of p ...201626540178
spatial-temporal trends and factors associated with the bluetongue virus seropositivity in large game hunting areas from southern spain.an epidemiological study was carried out to determine the spatial-temporal trends and risk factors potentially involved in the seropositivity to bluetongue virus (btv) in hunting areas with presence of red deer (cervus elaphus). a total of 60 of 98 (61.2%; ci95% : 51.6-70.9) hunting areas sampled presented at least one seropositive red deer. antibodies against btv were detected in juvenile animals during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 to 2013/2014 in 15 of 98 (15.3%) hunting areas, which indicate ...201625482024
wild boar (sus scrofa) - reservoir host of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and anaplasma phagocytophilum in slovakia.in central europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently cf foodborne infections. in this study serological and molecular detection of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum. blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from southern slovakia were examined for antibodies to t. gondii by indirect and to n. caninum by ...201627078648
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes that are potentially virulent for human in wild ruminants and ixodes ricinus in central italy.human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. as is the case for many tick-borne diseases, the epidemiological cycle is associated to the environmental conditions, including the presence of wild vertebrate reservoir hosts, vectors, climate and vegetation. in this study a total number of 87 spleen samples of wild ruminants carcasses from central italy, and 77 ixodes ricinus collected from the same dead animals were screened for anaplasma phagocytophilum by us ...201627020736
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia of red deer and sika deer in gansu, china in 2013.anaplasma and ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in gansu, china to assess the prevalence of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis and sequencing of 16s rrna or msp genes. pcr revealed that the prevalence of anaplasma ovis, anaplasma bovis and anaplasma platys of the qilian mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the preval ...201625660960
anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern spain.wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. in this study, we used real-time pcr to investigate the distribution of anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern spain. a first generic real-time pcr assay was used to screen for the presence of anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multi ...201626596894
molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).to estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus) living in italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by pcr for a. phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi s.l., coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. in particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for a. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for babesia divergens, 6 (1 ...201627477510
the role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, a parasitic disease caused by besnoitia besnoiti, has been reported mainly in beef cattle raised under extensive pastoral systems and is considered to be re-emerging in western europe. horizontal transmission probably occurs either by means of blood sucking arthropods or as a consequence of direct contact between infected and non-infected cattle. however, the role that wild ruminants (e.g., red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus)) may play in the parasit ...201627198769
challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations.although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular the two species of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and mousedeer. while virus isolation and serologic analyses indicate that pestiviruses are circulating in these populations, little is known regarding their impact. the lack of regular survei ...201627379051
post-entry blockade of small ruminant lentiviruses by wild ruminants.small ruminant lentivirus (srlv) infection causes losses in the small ruminant industry due to reduced animal production and increased replacement rates. infection of wild ruminants in close contact with infected domestic animals has been proposed to play a role in srlv epidemiology, but studies are limited and mostly involve hybrids between wild and domestic animals. in this study, srlv seropositive red deer, roe deer and mouflon were detected through modified elisa tests, but virus was not suc ...201626738942
serological survey of coxiella burnetii at the wildlife-livestock interface in the eastern pyrenees, spain.coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease q fever. both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of c. burnetii infection. in order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the eastern pyrenees, northeastern spain, in the epidemiology of q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants.201627121001
multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis potentially reveals the existence of two groups of anaplasma phagocytophilum circulating in cattle in france with different wild reservoirs.anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in europe. epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. to date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in europe, as european reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem), of the bacterium have not yet been clea ...201627876073
markers for ongoing or previous hepatitis e virus infection are as common in wild ungulates as in humans in sweden.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a human pathogen with zoonotic spread, infecting both domestic and wild animals. about 17% of the swedish population is immune to hev, but few cases are reported annually, indicating that most infections are subclinical. however, clinical hepatitis e may also be overlooked. for identified cases, the source of infection is mostly unknown. in order to identify whether hev may be spread from wild game, the prevalence of markers for past and/or ongoing infection was invest ...201627657108
prevalence of liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) in wild red deer (cervus elaphus): coproantigen elisa is a practicable alternative to faecal egg counting for surveillance in remote populations.red deer (cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (fe) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen elisa (celisa) for f. hepatica surveillance. we also present celisa surveillance data for red deer from the highlands of scotland. diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a ...201627598003
effects of repeated comparative intradermal tuberculin testing on test results: a longitudinal study in tb-free red deer.diagnosing tuberculosis (tb) in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) is challenging and might require combining cellular and humoral diagnostic tests. repeated skin-testing with mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (ppds) might sensitize or desensitize the subjects to both kinds of diagnostic tools. we evaluated the effect of repeated (every 6 months) comparative tuberculin skin testing on skin test and elisa responsiveness in farmed red deer hinds from a tb-free herd. eighteen 8-month old hin ...201627596591
evidence of shared bovine viral diarrhea infections between red deer and extensively raised cattle in south-central spain.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (sus scrofa). it is believed that domestic livestock can become infected through contact with wild animals, though it is known that infection can spread among wild animals in the absence of contact with livestock. little is known about the sharing of bvdv infection between wild and domestic animals in the same habitat, which is importa ...201626767363
the influence of red deer space use on the distribution of ixodes ricinus ticks in the landscape.many wingless ectoparasites have a limited capacity for active movement and are therefore primarily dependent on hitchhiking on their hosts for transportation. the distribution of the tick ixodes ricinus is expected to depend mainly on transportation by hosts and tick subsequent survival in areas where they drop off. in europe, the most important hosts of adult female i. ricinus are cervids. the extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for i. ricinus than tha ...201627737695
molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from portugal.wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the centre and south of portugal.201627160767
spatio-temporal trends and risk factors affecting west nile virus and related flavivirus exposure in spanish wild ruminants.during the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (genus flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. to further study utility of wild ruminant samples in west nile virus (wnv) surveillance, we assessed spatio-temporal trends and factors associated with wnv and cross-reacting flaviviruses exposure, particularly usutu virus (usuv) and meaban virus (mbv), in wild ruminants in spain. serum samples from 4693 wild ruminants, including 3073 fre ...201627829427
purifying selection, density blocking and unnoticed mitochondrial dna diversity in the red deer, cervus elaphus.the trajectories of postglacial range expansions, the occurrence of lineage patches and the formation and maintenance of secondary contact between lineages may mostly reflect neutral demographic processes, including density blocking, that may leave long-lasting genetic signatures. however, a few studies have recently shown that climate may also play a role. we used red deer, a large, mobile herbivore that is assumed to be sensitive to climate change, to test hypotheses of possible selection on t ...201627649313
[a rare zoonosis in hungary: cercarial dermatitis caused by schistosoma turkestanicum blood-fluke].several trematodes that parasitize vertebrate animals utilize swimming aquatic larvae to infect the host percutaneously. the most important ones among these parasites are the blood-flukes of birds and mammals comprising species that are also zoonotic. within this latter group are species that cause the bilharziasis or schistosomiasis of inhabitants of the tropical countries, and other trematode species that are able to penetrate human skin, but do not develop to an adult form of the worm in the ...201627690621
changes in the rumen microbiome and metabolites reveal the effect of host genetics on hybrid crosses.the rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. however, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. here, we used sika deer (cervus nippon) and elk (cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (seh) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (esh). then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybr ...201627717170
linking landscape-scale differences in forage to ungulate nutritional ecology.understanding how habitat and nutritional condition affect ungulate populations is necessary for informing management, particularly in areas experiencing carnivore recovery and declining ungulate population trends. variations in forage species availability, plant phenological stage, and the abundance of forage make it challenging to understand landscape-level effects of nutrition on ungulates. we developed an integrated spatial modeling approach to estimate landscape-level elk (cervus elaphus) n ...201627755722
population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation.most large mammals have constantly been exposed to anthropogenic influence over decades or even centuries. because of their long generation times and lack of sampling material, inferences of past population genetic dynamics, including anthropogenic impacts, have only relied on the analysis of the structure of extant populations. here, we investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200-year-old antlers (30 ...201627096075
mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (cervus elaphus and sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.mercury (hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these hg containing biomolecules. however, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. new ana ...201627093497
colonization of the scottish islands via long-distance neolithic transport of red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. this relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. studying such translocations allows us to better u ...201627053752
linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape.animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. we hypothesized that strength of selection by north american elk (cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-qualit ...201627003702
inbreeding depression across the lifespan in a wild mammal population.inbreeding depression is of major concern for the conservation of threatened species, and inbreeding avoidance is thought to be a key driver in the evolution of mating systems. however, the estimation of individual inbreeding coefficients in natural populations has been challenging, and, consequently, the full effect of inbreeding on fitness remains unclear. genomic inbreeding coefficients may resolve the long-standing paucity of data on inbreeding depression in adult traits and total fitness. h ...201626979959
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