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development and validation of a fallow deer (dama dama)-specific taqman real-time pcr assay for the detection of food adulteration.the aim of the present study was to develop a real-time pcr assay for the identification and quantification of fallow deer (dama dama) in food to detect food adulteration. despite high sequence homology among different deer species, a fallow deer-specific primer/probe system targeting a fragment of the nuclear mc1-r gene was designed. this primer/probe system did not amplify dna from 19 other animals and 50 edible plant species. moderate cross-reactivity was observed for sika deer, red deer, roe ...201829146373
social rank affects the haematologic profile in red deer hinds.we studied the effects of social rank on the haematologic profile in a herd of 24 female iberian red deer hinds. social rank hierarchy was determined and blood samples were taken and analysed. after adjusting for age and body mass, dominance ranking showed a significant negative effect (ie, lower values in dominant hinds) on white blood cell (wbc) count, haemoglobin and haematocrit. our results are similar to those reported for stressed individuals due to physical immobilisation, but do not supp ...201829374098
age-dependent changes in essential elements and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood of red deer and vulnerability to nutritional deficiencies.changes in the concentration of circulating essential elements in animals over life may be indicative of periods of vulnerability to deficiencies and associated diseases. here we studied age-related variations in essential elements (se, cu, zn and mn) and some selected oxidative stress biomarkers (gpx, sod, vitamin a and vitamin e) in blood of an iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) population living in semicaptive conditions. animals during their first year of life showed to be especial ...201829353781
toxoplasma gondii in sympatric domestic and wild ungulates in the mediterranean ecosystem.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan of worldwide distribution. the present study provides information on risk factors affecting t. gondii infection in domestic and free-ranging wild ungulates sharing habitats in mediterranean ecosystems in spain. serum samples from 482 extensively reared domestic ruminants and 2351 wild ungulates were tested for t. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (mat, cut-off 1:25). toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was 41.2% of 194 sheep, 18.6% of ...201829344801
epizoochorous dispersal by ungulates depends on fur, grooming and social interactions.the transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and ...201829435234
first detection and genetic characterisation of enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild deer in melbourne's water catchments in australia.enterocytozoon bieneusi is reported to be a common microsporidian of humans and animals in various countries. however, e. bieneusi has yet to be recorded in animals in australia. here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiological investigation of e. bieneusi in three species of deer (cervus elaphus, dama dama and rusa unicolor) that live in the catchment areas that supply the city of melbourne with drinking water.201829295716
traditional cattle vs. introduced deer management in chaco serrano woodlands (argentina): analysis of environmental sustainability at increasing densities.wild ungulate populations have increased and expanded considerably in many regions, including austral woodlands and forests where deer (cervus elaphus) have been introduced as an alternative management to traditional cattle grazing. in this study, we compared traditional cattle with introduced deer management at increasing deer densities in the "chaco serrano" woodlands of argentina to assess their ecological sustainability. we used three ecological indicators (abundance of tree regeneration, wo ...201829132087
oocyte holding in the iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus): effect of initial oocyte quality and epidermal growth factor addition on in vitro maturation.current in vitro embryo production protocols in the iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) need to be optimized; oocyte harvesting in situ followed by overnight holding could reduce the human effort and shipping costs. in our work, post-mortem ovaries were retrieved, and the oocytes were harvested and allocated to g1 group (good quality) or g2 + g3 group (low quality). the oocytes were separately subjected to immediate in vitro maturation (ivm) or held overnight in a holding medium compose ...201829110393
pharmacokinetics of articaine hydrochloride and its metabolite articainic acid after subcutaneous administration in red deer (cervus elaphus).to develop and validate a simple and sensitive method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (lc-ms) for quantification of articaine, and its major metabolite articainic acid, in plasma of red deer (cervus elaphus), and to investigate the pharmacokinetics of articaine hydrochloride and articainic acid in red deer following s/c administration of articaine hydrochloride as a complete ring block around the antler pedicle.201829020878
rapid and robust authentication of deer antler velvet product by fast pcr-rflp analysis.deer antler velvet is widely used as a vitalizing, tonifying, haemopoietic and strengthening agent for debilitated persons in east asia. to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the identification of the biological source or origin in antler velvet products, a molecular approach was applied using pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. the cytochrome b gene sequences of nine cervidae species were analyzed, and a dde i restriction endonuclease recognition site was found only in ...201828071968
genetic diversity, genetic structure and diet of ancient and contemporary red deer (cervus elaphus l.) from north-eastern france.in north-eastern france, red deer (cervus elaphus l.) populations were rebuilt from a few hundred individuals, which have subsisted in remote valleys of the vosges mountains, and to a lesser extent from individuals escaped from private enclosures; at present times, this species occupies large areas, mainly in the vosges mountains. in this study, we examined the population dynamics of red deer in the vosges mountains using ancient and contemporary mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from 140 samples (23 an ...201829304165
mitochondrial dna of pre-last glacial maximum red deer from nw spain suggests a more complex phylogeographical history for the species.the major climatic oscillations that characterized the quaternary had a great influence on the evolution and distribution of several species. during cold periods, the distribution of temperate-adapted species became fragmented with many surviving in southern refugia (iberian, italian, and balkan peninsulas). red deer was one of the species that contracted its original range to southern refugia. currently, two main lineages have been described for the species: western and eastern. we have analyze ...201729299249
dioxins and pcbs in game animals: interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-pcb) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-pcb) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. dioxins and pcbs enter the animal organisms through foraging. due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. the ...201726826359
characteristics of air quality and sources affecting fine particulate matter (pm2.5) levels in the city of red deer, canada.with concern about levels and exceedances of canadian and provincial standards and objectives for fine particulate matter (pm2.5) in recent years, an investigation of air quality characteristics and potential local and long-range sources influencing pm2.5 concentrations was undertaken in the city of red deer, alberta. the study covered the period may 2009 to december 2015. comparatively higher concentrations of pm2.5 were observed in winter (mean: 11.6 μg/m3, median: 10 μg/m3) than in summer (me ...201727939625
corrigendum: bacterial community composition and fermentation in the rumen of xinjiang brown cattle (bos taurus), tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and karakul sheep (ovis aries). 201728925282
evidence for host specificity of theileria capreoli genotypes in cervids.data on the prevalence of piroplasms in buffaloes and large game animal species are lacking from several central european countries. therefore, to investigate the presence of babesia/theileria dna in these hosts, 239 blood and 270 spleen samples were taken from cervids (red, fallow, and roe deer), as well as from water buffaloes, mouflons, and wild boars in southwestern hungary, followed by dna extraction and molecular analysis for piroplasms. all samples from buffaloes and wild boars were pcr n ...201729017556
erratum: phylogeography of the tyrrhenian red deer (cervus elaphus corsicanus) resolved using ancient dna of radiocarbon-dated subfossils.a corarection to this article has been published and is linked from the html version of this paper. the error has not been fixed in the paper.201728955047
study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat.the aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, ph, water-binding capacity (wbc), and amino acid content.201728717313
copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.the aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. the research project "safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (lemisi) was conducted in germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ...201728934259
evaluation of western blot, elisa and latex agglutination tests to detect toxoplasma gondii serum antibodies in farmed red deer.abortion due to toxoplasma gondii has been suspected in new zealand farmed red deer. however, knowledge around the epidemiology and prevalence of t. gondii in farmed red deer is limited. the aim of this study was to firstly, assess the sensitivity and specificity of two commercially available assays, elisa and latex agglutination test (lat), for use in deer and secondly, to estimate the sero-prevalence of t. gondii in red deer. a total of 252 sera from rising 2-year-old and adult hinds from 17 n ...201728917307
a high-density linkage map reveals sexual dimorphism in recombination landscapes in red deer (cervus elaphus).high-density linkage maps are an important tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of traits of evolutionary and economic interest, and provide a resource to characterize variation in recombination landscapes. here, we used information from the cattle genome and the 50 k cervine illumina beadchip to inform and refine a high-density linkage map in a wild population of red deer (cervus elaphus). we constructed a predicted linkage map of 38,038 snps and a skeleton map of 10,835 snps acro ...201728667018
'blind with hormones' red deer to begin annual rut. 201728916683
the response of red deer to oral administration of heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis and challenge with a field strain.deer species (family cervidae) are often part of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex maintenance host community, and tuberculosis (tb) control in deer, including vaccination, is consequently an area of ongoing research. however, most research into deer vaccination against tb is focused on using the live bacillus calmette guerin (bcg). oral inactivated vaccines represent an interesting alternative to either oral or parenteral bcg, since neither diagnostic cross-reactions nor vaccine strain sur ...201728888638
revealing potential bridge vectors for btv and sbv: a study on culicoides blood feeding preferences in natural ecosystems in spain.several species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens, such as the bluetongue (btv) and schmallenberg (sbv) viruses, which cause important diseases in domestic and wild ruminants. as wild ruminants can contribute to overwintering and epizootics of both diseases, knowledge of the host-feeding behaviour of culicoides in natural ecosystems is important to better understand their epidemiology. blood-engorged culicoides females trapped in natural areas inhabited by differe ...201728857265
seroprevalence of leptospirosis, brucellosis, and q fever in a wild red deer (cervus elaphus) population kept in a fenced reserve in absence of contact with livestock.wildlife health is of interest for public and animal health because wild animals have been identified as important sentinels for the surveillance for zoonotic pathogens. this work investigated brucella spp., coxiella burnetii, and leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in a free-ranging red deer population. the study was conducted in a fenced reserve with controlled hunting activity in central spain with animals that did not have any contact with livestock. sampling was performed at two time p ...201728873022
distribution of bdnf and trkb isoforms in growing antler tissues of red deer.antlers are the cranial appendages of deer that regenerate each year. this renewal provides a model to explore molecules involved in mammalian organ regeneration. the cellular distributions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) and the isoforms of its cognate receptor trk tyrosine kinase receptor (trkb) were localized by immunohistochemistry in sections of growing red deer antler. bdnf and trkb full length were widely expressed in the integument, perichondrium, periosteum and bone. the ...201728602824
phylogeography of the tyrrhenian red deer (cervus elaphus corsicanus) resolved using ancient dna of radiocarbon-dated subfossils.we present ancient mitochondrial dna analyses of 31 complete cytochrome b gene sequences from subfossil red deer remains from the tyrrhenian islands (corsica and sardinia) and mainland italy in a european-wide phylogeographic framework. tyrrhenian and north african red deer, both going back to human introductions, were previously the only red deer to harbour the mitochondrial b lineage whose origin, however, remained unknown. our ancient italian samples from the central part of the peninsula tha ...201728539631
intensive management and natural genetic variation in red deer (cervus elaphus).the current magnitude of big-game hunting has outpaced the natural growth of populations, making artificial breeding necessary to rapidly boost hunted populations. in this study, we evaluated if the rapid increase of red deer (cervus elaphus) abundance, caused by the growing popularity of big-game hunting, has impacted the natural genetic diversity of the species. we compared several genetic diversity metrics between 37 fenced populations subject to intensive management and 21 wild free-ranging ...201728863451
molecular cloning and expression analysis of annexin a2 gene in sika deer antler tip.molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of annexin a2 gene in sika deer antler tip were conducted. the role of annexin a2 gene in the growth and development of the antler were analyzed initially.201728823128
myiasis of domestic and wild ruminants caused by hypodermatinae in the mediterranean and indian subcontinent.myiasis caused by hypodermatinae flies is an economically important disease affecting domesticated and wild ruminants in countries of the mediterranean and indian subcontinent. the adult flies have a short life span of 1 week, and they spread disease by laying their eggs on the coat of animals. hypoderma spp. primarily lay their eggs on cattle, buffalo, roe deer, red deer and reindeer, while przhevalskiana spp. lay eggs on the coat of goats. the larvae live as tissue parasites, inducing myiasis ...201728807296
relative selection strength: quantifying effect size in habitat- and step-selection inference.habitat-selection analysis lacks an appropriate measure of the ecological significance of the statistical estimates-a practical interpretation of the magnitude of the selection coefficients. there is a need for a standard approach that allows relating the strength of selection to a change in habitat conditions across space, a quantification of the estimated effect size that can be compared both within and across studies. we offer a solution, based on the epidemiological risk ratio, which we term ...201728770070
isotopic analyses suggest mammoth and plant in the diet of the oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast europe.relatively high 15n abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high 15n prey. at buran-kaya iii, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. the site of buran-kaya iii is located in south crimea a ...201728754955
erosion of the alberta badlands produces highly variable and elevated heavy metal concentrations in the red deer river, alberta.erosion is important in the transport of heavy metals from terrestrial to fluvial environments. in this study, we investigated riverine heavy metal (cd, cu, hg and pb) dynamics in the red deer river (rdr) watershed at sites upstream (n=2) and downstream (n=7) of the alberta badlands, an area of naturally high erosion. at sites draining the badlands, total water column cd, cu, hg and pb concentrations frequently exceeded guidelines for the protection of freshwater biota. furthermore, peak concent ...201728448918
comparative analysis of the merino sheep and iberian red deer abomasum during prenatal development.the aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the abomasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses of the sheep and 50 red deer from the first prenatal stages until birth. to compare similar periods of gestation in both species, we calculate the percentages of gestation. the appearance of the abomasum was earlier in the red deer (22% gestation) than in the sheep ( ...201728422357
ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease in recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (rt-quic) assay: a blinded collaborative study.prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) characterized by fatal, progressive neurologic diseases with prolonged incubation periods and an accumulation of infectious misfolded prion proteins. antemortem diagnosis is often difficult due to a long asymptomatic incubation period, differences in the pathogenesis of different prions, and the presence of very low levels of infectious prion in easily accessible samples. chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a tse affecting both wil ...201729098931
using genetic tools to estimate the prevalence of non-native red deer (cervus elaphus) in a western european population.game species like the red deer have been subjected to anthropogenic impacts for centuries. translocations are often carried out-sometimes illegally-not only for sporting purposes, but also to increase trophy quality, reduce inbreeding, or mitigate bottlenecks after excessive persecution. apart from the blurring of large-scale genetic structure, translocations without adequate quarantine measure risk introducing pathogens into potentially immunologically naïve populations. it is therefore importa ...201729043022
comparisons of airborne measurements and inventory estimates of methane emissions in the alberta upstream oil and gas sector.airborne measurements of methane emissions from oil and gas infrastructure were completed over two regions of alberta, canada. these top-down measurements were directly compared with region-specific bottom-up inventories that utilized current industry-reported flaring and venting volumes (reported data) and quantitative estimates of unreported venting and fugitive sources. for the 50 × 50 km measurement region near red deer, characterized by natural gas and light oil production, measured methane ...201729039181
the role of landscape characteristics for forage maturation and nutritional benefits of migration in red deer.large herbivores gain nutritional benefits from following the sequential flush of newly emergent, high-quality forage along environmental gradients in the landscape, termed green wave surfing. which landscape characteristics underlie the environmental gradient causing the green wave and to what extent landscape characteristics alone explain individual variation in nutritional benefits remain unresolved questions. here, we combine gps data from 346 red deer (cervus elaphus) from four partially mi ...201728649354
learning from the mistakes of others: how female elk (cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters.in animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to preda ...201728614406
large herbivores in novel ecosystems - habitat selection by red deer (cervus elaphus) in a former brown-coal mining area.after centuries of range contraction, many megafauna species are recolonizing parts of europe. one example is the red deer (cervus elaphus), which was able to expand its range and is now found in half the areas it inhabited in the beginning of the 19th century. herbivores are important ecosystem engineers, influencing e.g. vegetation. knowledge on their habitat selection and their influence on ecosystems might be crucial for future landscape management, especially for hybrid and novel ecosystems ...201728505192
human recreation affects spatio-temporal habitat use patterns in red deer (cervus elaphus).the rapid spread and diversification of outdoor recreation can impact on wildlife in various ways, often leading to the avoidance of disturbed habitats. to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts, spatial zonation schemes can be implemented to separate human activities from key wildlife habitats, e.g., by designating undisturbed wildlife refuges or areas with some level of restriction to human recreation and land use. however, mitigation practice rarely considers temporal differences in human-wildlife ...201728467429
expansion of ashworthius sidemi in red deer and roe deer from the lower silesian wilderness and its impact on infection with other gastrointestinal nematodes.nematodes ashworthius sidemi are typical parasites of asiatic cervids, mostly sika deer (cervus nippon). migrating red deer have probably introduced this parasite to the area of poland from neighbouring countries. the aim of the study was to determine prevalence and intensity of infection of red deer and roe deer from the lower silesian wilderness with a. sidemi after one year from previous studies and to examine the influence of these parasites on other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. 31 ...201729035860
nodular onchocercosis in red deer (cervus elaphus) in sweden.the presence of subcutaneous nodular onchocercosis was investigated at slaughter of 151 red deer (cervus elaphus) (107 juveniles and 44 adults) between october-december 2015. the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules was 56%. nodules were located in the lumbar region of the back in 96% of the cases, and 38% of the infected red deer had additional parasitic nodules in other body locations, such as rump, thorax, forelimbs and neck. the number of nodules per deer was 1-10 in two-thirds of the affected ...201729034165
brominated flame retardants and toxic elements in the meat and liver of red deer (cervus elaphus), wild boar (sus scrofa), and moose (alces alces) from latvian wildlife.in order to evaluate the contamination status of terrestrial biota in latvia, muscle and liver tissues of red deer (cervus elaphus), wild boar (sus scrofa), and moose (alces alces) were analyzed for the content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbde), hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd), tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa), as well as cadmium and lead. the highest mean concentrations of pbdes (46.6pgg-1 wet weight (w.w.)), cadmium (0.95mgkg-1 w.w.), and lead (0.22mgkg-1 w.w.) were observed in the tissues o ...201729202283
male group size, female distribution and changes in sexual segregation by roosevelt elk.sexual segregation, or the differential use of space by males and females, is hypothesized to be a function of body size dimorphism. sexual segregation can also manifest at small (social segregation) and large (habitat segregation) spatial scales for a variety of reasons. furthermore, the connection between small- and large-scale sexual segregation has rarely been addressed. we studied a population of roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) across 21 years in north coastal california, usa, to ...201729121076
molecular identification of parasitic nematodes (nematoda: strongylida) in feces of wild ruminants from tunisia.in tunisia and other north african countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of tunisian wild ruminants. a total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (addax, barbary sheep, barbary red deer, dorcas gazelle, slender-horned gazelle and sci ...201729113593
pathogen-mediated selection in free-ranging elk populations infected by chronic wasting disease.pathogens can exert a large influence on the evolution of hosts via selection for alleles or genotypes that moderate pathogen virulence. inconsistent interactions between parasites and the host genome, such as those resulting from genetic linkages and environmental stochasticity, have largely prevented observation of this process in wildlife species. we examined the prion protein gene (prnp) in north american elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations that have been infected with chronic wasting d ...201729087314
endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in wyoming.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (alces alces shirasi) in north america. in southeastern wyoming average annual cwd prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. we determined the effect of cwd on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, cwd transi ...201729049389
estimating the efficacy of a commercial phase i inactivated vaccine in decreasing the prevalence of coxiella burnetii infection and shedding in red deer (cervus elaphus).the red deer (cervus elaphus) is a relevant reservoir for coxiella burnetii in iberia. c. burnetii genotypes that infect red deer also infect humans and domestic animals. integrated control approaches that target both domestic and wild ruminants are, therefore, required to reduce c. burnetii infection risks in iberia, especially in wildlife-livestock-human interaction scenarios. the aim of this field experiment was to test the efficacy of an inactivated phase i vaccine [inactivated phase i vacci ...201729270411
first molecular characterization of hypoderma actaeon in cattle and red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal.hypoderma spp. larvae cause subcutaneous myiasis in several animal species. the objective of the present investigation was to identify and characterize morphologically and molecularly the larvae of hypoderma spp. collected from cattle (bos taurus taurus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in the district of castelo branco, portugal. for this purpose, a total of 8 larvae were collected from cattle (n=2) and red deer (n=6). after morphological identification of hypoderma spp. larvae, molecular characte ...201729320820
deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, ixodes ricinus, in dutch forests.understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. we tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density of deer, as adults of these ticks mainly feed on deer.201728927432
draft genome of tule elk cervus canadensis nannodes.this paper presents the first draft genome of the tule elk ( cervus elaphus nannodes), a subspecies native to california that underwent an extreme genetic bottleneck in the late 1800s.  the genome was generated from illumina hiseq 3000 whole genome sequencing of four individuals, resulting in the assembly of 2.395 billion base pairs (gbp) over 602,862 contigs over 500 bp and n50 = 6,885 bp. this genome provides a resource to facilitate future genomic research on elk and other cervids.201729333237
development and evaluation of an interferon gamma assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in red deer experimentally infected with mycobacterium bovis.red deer (cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) and closely related members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (tb). the standard antemortem screening test for the detection of tb in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (ifnγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to m. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most tb era ...201729145844
[identification of cervus nippon, c.elaphus and their hybridize samples based on coi and sry gene].for rapid identification of cervus nippon, c. elaphus and their hybridize samples, the specific pcr for mutual authentication of them was established based on the snps in coi and sry sequence. c. nippon, c. elaphus and their hybridize samples were collected from different origins, total dna of 24 identified samples were extracted, and the coi and sry gene was seqenced. snps in the coi and sry sequences of the samples were found by clustul x 2.1 program. primers for identifying c. nippon and c. e ...201729376256
mitochondrial genotyping of fascioloides magna from bavaria, germany.in last few years, a great effort has been made to understand genetic interrelationships of european and north american populations of giant liver fluke fascioloides magna (trematoda, fasciolidae). in europe, spatial distribution of this parasite is evidently dynamic and ongoing process since new f. magna populations have constantly been emerging. most recently, occurrence of f. magna in red deer (cervus elaphus), sika deer (cervus nippon), fallow deer (dama dama), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) ...201729035851
matrixlysis, an improved sample preparation method for recovery of mycobacteria from animal tissue material.mycobacterium caprae, a member of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is the main causative agent of bovine tuberculosis in alpine regions. bacterial culture is the gold standard in bovine tuberculosis diagnostic but takes up to twelve weeks. this increases the time and costs for stocks affected with bovine tuberculosis. hence this study focused on the implementation of a fast and precise mycobacterial detection method and compared it with currently used methods. matrix lysis is a chemical l ...201728723969
predicting herbivore faecal nitrogen using a multispecies near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibration.optimal management of free-ranging herbivores requires the accurate assessment of an animal's nutritional status. for this purpose 'near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy' (nirs) is very useful, especially when nutritional assessment is done through faecal indicators such as faecal nitrogen (fn). in order to perform an nirs calibration, the default protocol recommends starting by generating an initial equation based on at least 50-75 samples from the given species. although this protocol optimis ...201728453544
ticks and bacterial tick-borne pathogens in piemonte region, northwest italy.a molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens was carried out in engorged and in questing ticks collected in verbano cusio ossola county, piemonte region, italy. engorged ticks were removed from wild and domestic animal hosts. the most abundant and common tick species in the area was ixodes ricinus (192 adults, 907 nymphs). few individuals of ixodes hexagonus (15) and rhipicephalus sanguineus (7) were found among the ticks removed from domestic animals (46 examined ticks). the presence of ricke ...201729189951
the effects of acaricide treatment of sheep on red grouse lagopus lagopus scotica tick burdens and productivity in a multi-host system.ixodes ricinus (ixodida: ixodidae) ticks are of economic and pathogenic importance across europe. within the uplands of the u.k., management to reduce ticks is undertaken to benefit red grouse lagopus lagopus scotica (galliformes: phasianidae). management strategies focus on the acaricide treatment of domestic sheep ovis aries (artiodactyla: bovidae), but the effectiveness of this is less certain in the presence of wild hosts, particularly red deer cervus elaphus (artiodactyla: cervidae) and mou ...201729194726
tissue residue levels after immobilization of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone antagonized with naltrexone, atipamezole, and tolazoline.previous studies demonstrated that nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (nalmed-a) can effectively immobilize adult elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and be antagonized using naltrexone and atipamezole, with or without tolazoline. to assess duration of tissue residues for this immobilization package, we immobilized 14 captive adult elk with nalmed-a, then euthanized animals and collected tissues 0, 3, 6, 14, 21, or 28 d later. except for two animals euthanized immediately, all elk were recovered ...201729148888
morphological and molecular characteristics of six sarcocystis spp. from red deer (cervus elaphus) in spain, including sarcocystis cervicanis and three new species.samples of muscle tissue from the diaphragm, oesophagus and/or heart of eight adult red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) from the quintos de mora park in toledo, central spain, were screened for sarcocysts by means of the compression method. from positive samples, individual sarcocysts were excised and examined in wet mounts under a light microscope (lm) in order to study their basic morphology before being preserved for molecular studies. in all red deer examined, only microscopic sarcocysts we ...201728856431
monitoring of schmallenberg virus in spanish wild artiodactyls, 2006-2015.schmallenberg disease is an emerging disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants in europe. an epidemiological survey was carried out to assess exposure to schmallenberg virus (sbv) in wild artiodactyls in spain between 2006 and 2015. a total of 1751 sera from wild artiodactyls, including 1066 red deer, 304 fallow deer, 192 mouflon, 109 wild boar, 49 roe deer and 31 spanish ibex were tested for antibodies against sbv by elisa and confirmed by virus neutralization test. sbv was not detected ...201728813443
antimicrobial resistance in escherichia coli isolated from wild animals in poland.antimicrobial resistance was tested in escherichia coli isolated from feces (n = 660) of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, european bison, and wild boar shot in regional forests in poland during two winter hunting seasons. indicator e. coli (n = 542) was resistant against 11 of 14 tested compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline (1.3-6.6% range). no significant differences were observed between boar and ruminant isolates. most of deer and bison i ...201729185858
characterization of a xylanolytic bacterial strain c10 isolated from the rumen of a red deer (cervus elaphus) closely related of the recently described species actinomyces succiniciruminis, a. glycerinitolerans, and a. ruminicola.gram-stain-positive, catalase and oxidase-negative and short rod-shaped bacterium c10 with occasional branching was isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from the rumen fluid of a red deer (cervus elaphus) in the course of study attempting to uncover new xylanolytic and cellulolytic rumen bacteria inhabiting the digestive tract of wild ruminants in the czech republic. the anaerobic m10 medium containing bovine rumen fluid and carboxymethylcellulose as a defined source of organic carbon wa ...201729270873
ungulates increase forest plant species richness to the benefit of non-forest specialists.large wild ungulates are a major biotic factor shaping plant communities. they influence species abundance and occurrence directly by herbivory and plant dispersal, or indirectly by modifying plant-plant interactions and through soil disturbance. in forest ecosystems, researchers' attention has been mainly focused on deer overabundance. far less is known about the effects on understory plant dynamics and diversity of wild ungulates where their abundance is maintained at lower levels to mitigate ...201728892277
a survey of tick species in a recently reintroduced elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) population in southeastern kentucky with potential implications for interstate translocation of zoonotic disease vectors.in the late 20th century, elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) were reintroduced into southeastern kentucky, us. this population has since been used as a stock population for additional elk reintroductions in other eastern states. although reintroduction and translocation practices are effective, they can disseminate vectors and pathogens. therefore, we surveyed tick species residing on elk hosts a decade after elk reintroduction in kentucky by examining 263 captured individuals (female=86; male=177 ...201729286258
molecular detection of bartonella spp. in deer ked (lipoptena cervi) in poland.the bacteria of the genus bartonella are obligate parasites of vertebrates. their distribution range covers almost the entire world from america, europe, asia to africa and australia. some species of bartonella are pathogenic for humans. their main vectors are blood-sucking arthropods such as fleas, ticks and blood-feeding flies. one such dipteran able to transfer vector-borne pathogens is the deer ked (lipoptena cervi) of the family hippoboscidae. this species acts as a transmitter of bartonell ...201729037227
seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus 1 related alphaherpesvirus infections in free-living and captive cervids in poland.to determine the occurrence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1) related alphaherpesvirus infections in cervids, 1194 serum samples of wild ruminants originating from 59 forest districts of poland were tested with ibr gb elisa and virus neutralization test (vnt) against bohv-1 and cervid herpesvirus 1 (cvhv-1). the seroprevalence differed significantly between free-living and captive cervids (p<0.001) with a total of 89 out of 498 (17.9%) and 268 out of 696 (38.5%) seropositive animals in each type ...201728532809
interrelationships of dictyocaulus spp. in wild ruminants with morphological description of dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) from red deer, cervus elaphus.lungworms from the genus dictyocaulus cause parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis) characterized by coughing and severe lung pathology in both domestic and wild ruminants. in this study we investigated the interrelationships of dictyocaulus spp. from european bison (bison bonasus l.), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) by nucleotide sequence analysis spanning the 18s rna gene (ssu) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) regions of the ribosomal gene array as well as th ...201728585897
new genotypes of enterocytozoon bieneusi isolated from sika deer and red deer in china.to examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of enterocytozoon bieneusi in cervids, 615 fecal samples were collected from red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (cervus nippon) on 10 different farms in henan and jilin province. enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped with a nested pcr analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region of the rrna genes, showing an average infection rate of 35.9% (221/615). in this study, 25 its genotypes were identified including seven ...201728572794
concentrations of campylobacter spp., escherichia coli, enterococci, and yersinia spp. in the feces of farmed red deer in new zealand.intensive deer farming can cause environmental issues, mainly by its impact on soils and water quality. in particular, there is a risk to the microbial quality of water, as high quantities of suspended sediment and fecal bacteria can enter into water systems. the feces of farmed red deer (, = 206) from canterbury and southland, new zealand, were analyzed with regard to the presence of spp., , enterococci, and spp.. enterococci and were isolated from all samples, with mean concentrations of 4.5 × ...201728783788
geochemical landscapes as drivers of trace and toxic element profiles in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).tissue concentrations of essential trace and toxic elements in red deer (cervus elaphus) are associated with the plants, soil and water they ingest. as such, variation in tissue concentrations is associated with variation in local geochemistry and bioavailability of elements. physiological factors such as liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) infection, breeding status, and in-tissue element interactions may also affect tissue concentrations, though their effects in red deer are not well understood. t ...201728609848
taenia sp. in human burial from kan river, east siberia.we present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the neftprovod ii burial ground in east siberia, which dated from the bronze age. analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of taenia sp. eggs. because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with taenia. this finding represents the oldest case of a ...201728443983
whole-genome sequences of odocoileus hemionus deer adenovirus isolates from deer, moose and elk are highly conserved and support a new species in the genus atadenovirus.we present the first complete genome sequence of odocoileus hemionus deer adenovirus 1 (odadv-1). this virus can cause sporadic haemorrhagic disease in cervids, although epizootics with high mortality have occurred in california. odadv-1 has been placed in the genus atadenovirus, based on partial hexon, pviii and fibre genes. ten field isolates recovered from naturally infected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginiana) and moose (alces alces) from wyoming, black- ...201728809152
a survey of free-ranging deer in ireland for serological evidence of exposure to bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpes virus-1, bluetongue virus and schmallenberg virus.deer are an important wildlife species in both the republic of ireland and northern ireland having colonised most regions across the island of ireland. in comparison to cattle and sheep which represent the main farmed ruminant species on the island, there is a lack of data concerning their exposure, as measured by the presence of antibodies, to important viral pathogens of ruminants. a study was therefore undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of wild deer to four viruses, namely bovine vi ...201728503294
establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer can be infected with some gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) of cattle but it is unknown to what extent. an indoor study was conducted to determine the establishment rate of cattle gin in young deer. five young calves and 5 young red deer were used. they were effectively treated with anthelmintics when housed and then infected 2 weeks later. after four weeks they were killed for total worm counts. establishment rates were assessed comparing worm counts to the infective dose which were ide ...201728807276
using white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in infectious disease research.between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. the majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. achieving this goal often requires usi ...201728724483
serological survey for west nile virus in wild artiodactyls, southern moravia (czech republic).antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) were examined by plaque-reduction neutralization test in the blood sera of 1023 wild artiodactyls: 105 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 148 red deer (cervus elaphus), 287 fallow deer (dama dama), 71 mouflons (ovis musimon), and 412 wild boars (sus scrofa), sampled in south moravian district of breclav (czech republic) in the years 1990-2008. neutralizing antibodies were detected in 5.9% of wild ruminants (4.8% roe deer, 4.1% red deer, 6.3% fallow deer, 9.9% mou ...201728727516
social interactions in a solitary carnivore.in total, 177 of 245 terrestrial carnivores are described as solitary, and much of carnivore ecology is built on the assumptions that interactions between adult solitary carnivores are rare. we employed global positioning system (gps) technology and motion-triggered cameras to test predictions of land-tenure territoriality and the resource dispersion hypothesis in a territorial carnivore, the puma puma concolor. we documented 89 independent gps interactions, 60% of which occurred at puma kills ( ...201729491995
bovine tuberculosis outbreak in farmed american bison (bison bison) in poland.poland has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (btb) free country for the last seven years. the problem currently observed is the increasing number of new cases of btb in wild species, kept in a farmed herd and free-living herd: european bison (bison bonasus), wild boar (sus scrofa), wolves (canis lupus) and red deer (cervus elaphus). this article presents the case of mycobacterium caprae transmission to an american bison (bison bison) herd kept on a private farm in eastern poland.201729611649
chronic wasting disease (cwd) in cervids.in april and may of 2016, norway confirmed two cases of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a wild reindeer and a wild moose, respectively. in the light of this emerging issue, the european commission requested efsa to recommend surveillance activities and, if necessary, additional animal health risk-based measures to prevent the introduction of the disease and the spread into/within the eu, specifically estonia, finland, iceland, latvia, lithuania, norway, poland and sweden, and considering seven ...201732625260
antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial pathogens isolated from faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus).antibacterial activity is the most widely studied aspect of plant extracts. antibiotics extensively produced and consumed in large quantities, have proved to be problematic due to various types of adverse effects. the development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. one of the alternative strategies for fighting antibiotic- resistant bacteria is the use of natural antimicrobial substances such as plant extracts. we t ...201729611658
dominance of the enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype beb6 in red deer (cervus elaphus) and siberian roe deer (capreolus pygargus) in china and a brief literature review.enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans and is also found in a wide range of animals. it is considered to be an important but neglected zoonotic pathogen. with the development of deer bred in captivity, the number of deer has been increasing in recent years in china and there are more people involved in this work. the aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotypes of e. bieneusi in red deer (cervus elaphus) and siberian roe deer (c ...201729267159
frequency of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminth infections in wild deer from western romania.a survey was carried out to assess the prevalence and the intensity of helminth infections in the roe deer (capreolus capreolus l.), red deer (cervus elaphus l.) and fallow deer (dama dama l.) from 16 hunting areas in western romania. overall, 122 deer shot during the hunting season 2013-2015 were examined. haemonchus contortus, nematodirus filicollis, oesophagostomum venulosum and dictyocalus spp. were found in all the deer species. trichuris spp. and dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in the ...201731014642
assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the animal health law (regulation (eu) no 2016/429): bluetongue.a specific concept of strain was developed in order to classify the btv serotypes ever reported in europe based on their properties of animal health impact: the genotype, morbidity, mortality, speed of spread, period and geographical area of occurrence were considered as classification parameters. according to this methodology the strain groups identified were (i) the btv strains belonging to serotypes btv-1-24, (ii) some strains of serotypes btv-16 and (iii) small ruminant-adapted strains belon ...201732625623
wildlife interactions on baited places and waterholes in a french area infected by bovine tuberculosis.interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. although france is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (btb), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. we aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. we described the visits in term ...201728138439
molecular analysis of anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia divergens in red deer (cervus elaphus) in western austria.wild ungulates may act as reservoirs of various vector borne pathogens that can infect humans and domestic animals. in the present study, blood samples from 196 red deer (cervus elaphus) from western austria (vorarlberg, tyrol and salzburg) were collected on filter paper and tested for anaplasmataceae, piroplasmida, rickettsia and filarioid helminths using molecular tools. babesia divergens was detected in ten (5.1%) and anaplasma phagocytophilum in three (1.5%) of the 196 samples. filarioid hel ...201727417532
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
wide exposure to coxiella burnetii in ruminant and feline species living in a natural environment: zoonoses in a human-livestock-wildlife interface.assessment of the role of wild and domestic hosts as potential reservoirs of misdiagnosed zoonoses, such as q fever by coxiella burnetii, is an important public health issue today both for wildlife conservation and management of disease in human-livestock-wildlife interface. this study used elisa, an indirect antibody, to research (2003-2013) c. burnetii infection in seven free-living wild and domestic ruminant species and in european wildcats (felis silvestris). the animals studied were 0 europ ...201727776577
antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.the increasing number of antimicrobial resistant enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. the objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment ...201728040165
absence of antibodies specific to besnoitia spp. in european sheep and goats from areas in spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic.besnoitia besnoiti and b. caprae, which infect bovids (cattle and antelopes) and goats, respectively, are responsible for besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease. bovine besnoitiosis is considered to be a reemerging disease in central and western europe. in addition, infection by besnoitia spp. has been reported in reindeer from sweden and finland. recently, the parasite was also detected in roe deer and red deer from spain, where an interconnection between the domestic and sylvatic cyc ...201727815735
foot-and-mouth disease in red deer - experimental infection and test methods performance.the aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) test methods for use in red deer. ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the fmd virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). it tested ...201725907028
presence of hepatitis e virus in a red deer (cervus elaphus) population in central italy.hepatitis e is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis e virus (hev). in addition to humans, hev has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. in this study, we evaluated hev prevalence in a free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) population in central italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and rna in sera. a total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-hev igg. hev rna was detected in 10 of ...201725892400
hepatitis e virus in wild boars and spillover infection in red and roe deer, germany, 2013-2015.to determine animal hepatitis e virus (hev) reservoirs, we analyzed serologic and molecular markers of hev infection among wild animals in germany. we detected hev genotype 3 strains in inner organs and muscle tissues of a high percentage of wild boars and a lower percentage of deer, indicating a risk for foodborne infection of humans.201727983488
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in kidney samples of red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal: evaluation of different methods.paratuberculosis or johne's disease, caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. the present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (cervus elaphus). with that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the centre-eastern portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and his ...201728132959
control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in england.this report describes how mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of england, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. by taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with ...201728100768
a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystb gene of yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. the objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystb gene of y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.201728378975
presence of ail and ystb genes in yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1a isolates from game animals in poland.the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. strains belonging to biotype 1a do not possess pyv plasmids, often harbour the ystb gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for y. enterocolitica. the simultaneous presence of ail and ystb is uncommon. in this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1a y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (cervus elaphus; ...201728283072
high seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in elk (cervus canadensis) of the central appalachians, usa.toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe, little is known about t. gondii impacts on the closely related north american counterpart, the elk (wapiti, cervus canadensis), which has increased in number and expanded in range during the past century. we assessed seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies using a modified agglu ...201728130658
serological testing of schmallenberg virus in swedish wild cervids from 2012 to 2016.schmallenberg virus (sbv) first emerged in europe in 2011, and in sweden in late 2012. the virus was still circulating in parts of europe in 2015. in recent testing, the virus has not been detected in swedish domestic animals, indicating that it is no longer circulating in sweden. it is not known if the virus has circulated and is still circulating in swedish wild cervid populations and whether wildlife can act as virus reservoirs. the aim of this study was to investigate whether sbv has circula ...201728376790
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