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the european bison (bison bonasus) as an indicatory species for the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) in natural foci in poland.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in europe transmitted by ixodidae vectors. while small mammals such as bank voles and ticks constitute the main reservoirs for virus transmission, large sylvatic species act as a food source for ticks. cervids such as roe deer and red deer are considered sentinel species for tbe in natural foci. in addition, an increase of the population size and density of large wild mammals in an area corresponds to an increase in the ti ...202134358779
detection of tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus), united kingdom.deer represent a major vertebrate host for all feeding stages of the hard tick ixodes ricinus in the united kingdom (uk), and could play a role in the persistence of tick-borne pathogens. however, there have been few studies reporting the presence of babesia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum in deer in the uk, and those that detected babesia were unable to confirm the species. to address this, we have investigated blood samples from red deer (cervus elaphus) for the presence of tick-borne patho ...202134070977
a survey of shared pathogens at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface in doñana national park (spain).a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate shared pathogens that can be transmitted by close or non-close contact at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface. during summer-autumn 2015, a total of 138 cattle and 203 wild ruminants (red deer, cervus elaphus, and fallow deer, dama dama) were sampled in doñana national park (dnp, south-western spain), a mediterranean ecosystem well known for the interaction network occurring in the ungulate host community. pestiviruses, bovine respiratory sy ...202133900033
schmallenberg virus, cyclical reemergence in the core region: a seroepidemiologic study in wild cervids, belgium, 2012-2017.schmallenberg virus emerged in 2011 in europe. the epicentre of primordial spreading was the region straddling germany, the netherlands and belgium. one of the key questions is whether the newcomer would establish a lasting presence on the continent. the apparent seroprevalence in southern belgium wild deer populations was followed for 6 years. two years of intense circulation were revealed, 2012 and 2016, characterized by a peak seroprevalence in the two studied populations (capreolus capreolus ...202133949132
long-term determinants of the seroprevalence of the bluetongue virus in deer species in southern spain.bluetongue is a vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, with a major socioeconomic impact. endemic circulation of the bluetongue virus serotype 4 (btv-4) and btv-1 have occurred in spain since 2004 and 2007, respectively. however, epidemiological studies have seldom been approached from a long-term perspective in wild ruminants. a total of 881 deer (red deer and fallow deer) were necropsied from 2005 to 2018 as part of the dnp health-monitoring program. serum samples were tes ...202134280654
mammalian orthoreovirus (mrv) is widespread in wild ungulates of northern italy.mammalian orthoreoviruses (mrvs) are emerging infectious agents that may affect wild animals. mrvs are usually associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory and enteric infections. however, severe clinical manifestations have been occasionally reported in human and animal hosts. an insight into their circulation is essential to minimize the risk of diffusion to farmed animals and possibly to humans. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of likely zoonotic mrvs in wild ungulate ...202133546342
shedding of mycobacterium caprae by wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in the bavarian alpine regions, germany.the number of natural infections with mycobacterium caprae in wildlife and in cattle in the bavarian and austrian alpine regions has increased over the last decade. red deer (cervus elaphus) have been recognized as maintenance reservoir; however, the transmission routes of m. caprae among and from naturally infected red deer are unknown. the unexpected high prevalence in some hot spot regions might suggest an effective indirect transmission of infection. therefore, this study was undertaken to d ...202031512795
valuing biodiversity attributes: a choice experiment design.this study seeks to estimate household's willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation in dachigam national park, which houses the last viable population of asiatic black bear and the hangul (which is the only surviving sub-species of red deer in the world). a survey based on choice experiment method was carried out at dachigam national park, an area that is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. a set of attributes, such as endangered species, national park area and research and educ ...202032648162
endozoochorous dispersal by herbivores and omnivores is mediated by germination conditions.vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal is probably the main long distance dispersal mode. through endozoochory, large mammals act as mobile links between habitats within and among forest patches. along with other factors, their feeding regimes do affect their contribution as dispersal vectors. we conducted a cross-species comparative experiment involving two herbivores, red deer and roe deer; and two opportunistic omnivores, wild boar and brown bear, all occurring in the forest and steppe-forest eco ...202032867734
a novel, rapid and simple method for detecting brucellosis based on rapid vertical flow technology.to prevent the spread of brucellosis, a simple and rapid vertical flow technology (rvft) for the detection of antibodies targeting brucellosis was developed.202031715073
diversity of babesia spp. in cervid ungulates based on the 18s rdna and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i phylogenies.free ranging ungulates, represented in europe mostly by several deer species, are important hosts for ticks and reservoirs of tick-borne infections. a number of studies have focused on the prevalence of tick borne pathogens in deer chiefly with the aim to determine their potential role as reservoir hosts for important human and livestock pathogens. however, genetic similarity of babesia spp. forming a group commonly termed as a clade vi that accommodates the deer piroplasms, complicates this tas ...202031678240
prevalence of coxiella burnetii (legionellales: coxiellaceae) infection among wildlife species and the tick hyalomma lusitanicum (acari: ixodidae) in a meso-mediterranean ecosystem.q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by coxiella burnetii (derrick) philip. it is a major cause of abortion among sheep and may be responsible for reproductive losses in red deer in spain. airborne transmission is the most widespread; however, some studies suggested that ticks may play a role, but little is known about their actual involvement in the c. burnetii cycle. the aim of this study was to determine the role that hyalomma lusitanicum (koch) tick plays in the maintenance of this agent a ...202031589748
prevalence and subtypes of blastocystis sp. infection in zoo animals in three cities in china.blastocystis is a highly prevalent eukaryotic parasite of many animals and humans worldwide. it can compromise the gastrointestinal tract and cause gastrointestinal symptoms, constituting a serious threat to human health and animal growth. many animals are potential sources of blastocystis infection in humans. however, limited data are available regarding the prevalence and subtype distribution of blastocystis infection among zoo animals in china. therefore, the present study examined the preval ...202031845021
identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from wild animals in turkey.many enzootic life cycles involving wild animals and non-nidicolous ixodids are still unknown. therefore, the aim of this study was to report the identified tick species collected from seven different animal species (red deer, brown bear, gray wolf, eurasian lynx, red fox, european hare, and mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise) living in the wild in turkey and to investigate the presence of a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in the tick samples obtained from these animals. the collected t ...202032683558
immunohistochemical assessment of immune response in the dermis of sarcoptes scabiei-infested wild carnivores (wolf and fox) and ruminants (chamois and red deer).sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite sarcoptes scabiei and has been described in several species of domestic and wild mammals. macroscopic lesions are predominantly hyperkeratotic (type i hypersensitivity) in fox, chamois and deer, but alopecic (type iv hypersensitivity) in wolf and some fox populations. to begin to understand the immune processes underlying these species differences in lesions, we examined skin biopsies from wolves (canis lupus), foxes (vulpes vulpes), chamois (rupicapra rupic ...202032640758
what does the wolf eat? assessing the diet of the endangered iberian wolf (canis lupus signatus) in northeast portugal.the iberian wolf (canis lupus signatus) is a top predator that inhabits the iberian peninsula. in portugal, its numbers and distribution declined throughout the 20th century, due to human persecution, habitat degradation and prey decline, which have led to higher predation rates of livestock in the remaining packs. in montesinho natural park (northeast portugal), wild ungulate populations have been increasing in the last years, which may have led wolf to predate upon them. in order to assess ibe ...202032231379
weak spatiotemporal response of prey to predation risk in a freely interacting system.the extent to which prey space use actively minimizes predation risk continues to ignite controversy. methodological reasons that have hindered consensus include inconsistent measurements of predation risk, biased spatiotemporal scales at which responses are measured and lack of robust null expectations. we addressed all three challenges in a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal responses of adult female elk (cervus elaphus) to the risk of predation by wolves (canis lupus) during winter ...202030838656
sarcocystis infection in red deer (cervus elaphus) with eosinophilic myositis/fasciitis in switzerland and involvement of red foxes (vulpesvulpes) and hunting dogs in the transmission.red deer (cervus elaphus) carcasses showing grey-greenish discolouration have been increasingly observed in the canton of grisons, switzerland. we investigated whether sarcocystis infections were associated with this pathology, and whether wild and domestic canids were involved in their transmission. meat from affected red deer (n = 26), faeces and intestines from red foxes (vulpesvulpes) (n = 126), and faeces from hunting dogs (n = 12) from the region, were analysed. eosinophilic myositis and/o ...202033083225
generalized tuberculosis due to mycobacterium caprae in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) in austria.mycobacterium caprae subtype lechtal was detected in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) shot by a hunter in 2018 in the western part of austria, where, among wildlife, tuberculosis is known to occur in red deer (cervus elaphus). the red fox showed a generalized (disseminated) manifestation of the disease and a multibacillary distribution of mycobacteria in the inner organs.202032402235
infectious wildlife diseases in austria-a literature review from 1980 until 2017.this literature review examines infectious wildlife disease research in austria. we analyzed 226 research papers, published between 1980 and 2017. we determined that wildlife disease papers increased significantly from 0.8 ± 0.8 publications per year in the first decade (1980-1989) when compared to 2008-2017 with an average of 12.9 ± 4.1 publications per year. we illustrate information about the most investigated diseases and highlight the lack of research into certain wildlife pathogens. a spec ...202032154271
mycobacterium bovis infection in red foxes in four animal tuberculosis endemic areas in france.in france, animal tuberculosis (tb) due to mycobacterium bovis (m.bovis) affects a multi-host community that include cattle and wildlife species such as wild boars (sus scrofa), badgers (meles meles), or wild deer (cervus elaphus, capreolus capreolus). the involvement of foxes in the epidemiology of tb is fairly described in countries facing multispecies concerns. after the discovery of grouped cases of tb in foxes in a french tb endemic region, a study was implemented in the core of four tb end ...202032709124
protective effect of oral bcg and inactivated mycobacterium bovis vaccines in european badgers (meles meles) experimentally infected with m. bovis.in europe, badgers (meles meles) are recognized as major tuberculosis (tb) reservoir hosts with the potential to transmit infection to associated cattle herds. recent studies in spain have demonstrated that vaccination with a heat-inactivated mycobacterium bovis vaccine (himb) successfully protects captive wild boar and red deer against progressive disease. the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral vaccines against tb in a badger model: the live-attenuated m. bovis bacillus ...202032118064
assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance effectiveness in french wildlife: an operational approach.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a chronic, zoonotic, bacterial disease mostly caused by mycobacterium bovis, which can affect both domestic and wild species. france was officially declared btb-free in 2001 but faced since 2004 an increase of the prevalence in cattle. since 2001, btb has been detected in several wild species: red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), wild boar (sus scrofa) and badger (meles meles). infected wild species constitute a major threat, because they may co ...202031923750
epidemiological characterization of mycobacterium caprae strains isolated from wildlife in the bieszczady mountains, on the border of southeast poland.the majority of animal tuberculosis (tb) cases reported in wildlife in poland over the past 20 years have concerned the european bison inhabiting the bieszczady mountains in southeast poland: an area running along the border of southeast poland. as no tb cases have been reported in domestic animals in this region since 2005, any occurrence of tb in the free-living animals inhabiting this area might pose a real threat to local livestock and result in the loss of disease-free status. the aim of th ...202032993648
the wildlife-livestock interface on extensive free-ranging pig farms in central spain during the "montanera" period.the effective management of shared pathogens between wild ungulates and livestock requires the understanding of the processes of interaction between them. in this work, we studied the interspecific frequency of interaction (ifreq) and its spatiotemporal pattern between wild and domestic ungulates that coexist in free-ranging farms. for this purpose, 6 red deer, 6 wild boar, 8 iberian pigs and 3 cattle were monitored using gps devices during the "montanera" period (the period in which iberian pig ...202032979253
temporal patterns of ungulate-vehicle collisions in lithuania.wildlife mortality caused by vehicles is a serious conservation and economic problem as collisions with large mammals are global, pervasive and increasing. we analysed 14,989 reports of ungulate-vehicle collisions (uvc) that occurred in lithuania from 2002 to 2017. we analysed uvc data for four major ungulate species (roe deer, red deer, moose and wild boar) and checked for potential seasonal or daily trends. the temporal distribution of collisions was species-dependent. uvc analysis showed stro ...202032768765
long-term determinants of tuberculosis in the ungulate host community of doñana national park.animal tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in wild boar (sus scrofa), red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama) and cattle in south and central spain. in order to clarify the processes that operate in the medium and long-term, we studied tb at the wildlife-livestock interface in doñana national park for 14 years (2006-2018) in relation to host density, stochastic factors (rainfall) and environmental features (e.g., aggregation points such as waterholes). wild boar showed the highest prevalence ...202032516963
detection of porcine circovirus 3 in wildlife species in spain.porcine circovirus 3 (pcv-3) is the third member of the family circoviridae, genus circovirus, able to infect swine. a high prevalence of viral dna has been recorded in wild boars. recently, pcv-3 dna was identified in italian wild ruminants. based on these previous results, this study assessed the frequency of pcv-3 dna detection in free-ranging ruminants and lagomorpha species in spain. in addition, the genetic characterization of the pcv-3 pcr-positive samples was performed. a total of 801 se ...202032369945
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild boar and deer in brandenburg, germany.consumption of game in germany has increased during the past 10 years. wild boar (sus scrofa), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) are the most frequently hunted and consumed game animals in germany, yet information on the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in these animal species is scarce. to better estimate the public health risk emanating from handling and consumption of game, this study investigated seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii in game hunted in the german fed ...202032291969
the unique spatial ecology of human hunters.human hunters are described as 'superpredators' with a unique ecology. chronic wasting disease among cervids and african swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in europe, with huge economic and cultural repercussions. understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control the spread of these diseases. here we show, based on analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of hunters of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365 ...202032203320
dynamic network of interactions in the wildlife-livestock interface in mediterranean spain: an epidemiological point of view.the correct management of diseases that are transmitted between wildlife and livestock requires a reliable estimate of the pathogen transmission rate. the calculation of this parameter is a challenge for epidemiologists, since transmission can occur through multiple pathways. the social network analysis is a widely used tool in epidemiology due to its capacity to identify individuals and communities with relevant roles for pathogen transmission. in the present work, we studied the dynamic networ ...202032069995
low serologic prevalences suggest sporadic infections of hepatitis e virus in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in the italian alps.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a worldwide public health concern, with an increase in human autochthonous cases in europe. although domestic pigs and wild boar (sus scrofa) are the main reservoirs of hev, the constant expansion of wild ruminants increases the potential for hev transmission. we investigated hev infection in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in the italian alps using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). we detected hev antibodies from 2013 to 2015 in ...202031658433
no evidence of hepatitis e virus infection in farmed deer in germany.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but hev infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. however, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from fallow deer, red deer, and sika deer strictly hold in game enclosures from 11 farms in germany were a ...202031625032
gammaherpesvirus in cervid species from norway: characterization of a new virus in wild and semi-domesticated eurasian tundra reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus).gammaherpesvirus infections have been described in cervids worldwide, mainly the genera macavirus or rhadinovirus. however, little is known about the gammaherpesviruses species infecting cervids in norway and fennoscandia. blood samples from semi-domesticated (n = 39) and wild (n = 35) eurasian tundra reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus), moose (alces alces, n = 51), and red deer (cervus elaphus, n = 41) were tested using a panherpesvirus dna polymerase (dpol) pcr. dpol-pcr-positive samples wer ...202032796534
the biomolecular characterization of a finger ring contextually dated to the emergence of the early neolithic from syltholm, denmark.we present the analysis of an osseous finger ring from a predominantly early neolithic context in denmark. to characterize the artefact and identify the raw material used for its manufacture, we performed micro-computed tomography scanning, zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (zooms) peptide mass fingerprinting, as well as protein sequencing by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). we conclude that the ring was made from long bone or antler due to the presence of osteons (ha ...202032218948
the scale-dependent effectiveness of wildlife management: a case study on british deer.impacts of herbivory by wild ungulates represent a significant issue world-wide. to be effective, management of populations and impacts needs to be coordinated above the site scale, yet little research has investigated the appropriate spatial scale over which management should be integrated to be fully effective. in consideration of reduction of impacts in deciduous or mixed woodland habitats, we tested scale-specific management effectiveness in a lowland area of uk where moderate- to high-densi ...202032947117
distribution of pestivirus exposure in wild ruminants in spain.a large-scale study was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pestivirus species in wild ruminants and describe their spatial variation in mainland spain. serum samples of 1,874 wild ruminants from different regions of this country were collected between the years 2000 and 2017. a total of 6.6% (123/1,874) animals showed antibodies against pestivirus by both blocking elisa (belisa) and virus neutralization tests (vnt). the prevalence of antibodies against pestiviruses was ...202032920992
stable body size of alpine ungulates.in many species, decreasing body size has been associated with increasing temperatures. although climate-induced phenotypic shifts, and evolutionary impacts, can affect the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial ecosystems through biological and metabolic rules, evidence for shrinking body size is often challenged by (i) relatively short intervals of observation, (ii) a limited number of individuals, and (iii) confinement to small and isolated populations. to overcome these issues a ...202032874622
species identification of red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and water deer (hydropotes inermis) using capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex pcr.to provide consumers correct information on meat species, specific and sensitive detection methods are needed. thus, we developed a capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex pcr assay to simultaneously detect red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and water deer (hydropotes inermis). specific primer sets for these three species were newly designed. each primer set only amplified target species without any reactivity against non-target species. to identify multiple targets in ...202032718080
serosurveillance of schmallenberg virus in wild ruminants in spain.schmallenberg disease (sbd) is an emerging vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. a long-term serosurvey was conducted to assess exposure to schmallenberg virus (sbv) in all the wild ruminant species present in mainland spain. between 2010 and 2016, sera from 1,216 animals were tested for antibodies against sbv using a commercial blocking elisa. the overall prevalence of antibodies was 27.1% (95%ci: 24.7-29.7). statistically significant differences among species were obse ...202032530115
comparison studies of the chemical, physical, technological, and microbiological characteristics of the european roe deer, boar, red deer, and beaver hunted wild game meat.the aim of this research was to perform comparison studies of the chemical, physical, technological, and microbiological characteristics, including biogenic amines (bas) and volatile compounds (vc), of the european roe deer (rdm), boar (bom), red deer (redm), and beaver (bm) hunted wild game meat (hwgm). the outcome of this study showed a significant effect (p < .05) of animal species on protein content, ph, drip loss, shear force, cooking loss, color coordinates, total count of enterobacteria, ...202032219928
first molecular detection of onchocerca flexuosa (wedl, 1856) in red deer in slovakia.the present paper deals with the post-mortem diagnostics of onchocerciasis and the molecular detection of causative agents of this disease in wild ruminant ungulates (cervus elaphus, dama dama and capreolus capreolus). the animals were shot in hunting seasons 2017 and 2018, in two regions of the eastern slovakia. the total number of examined skins was fifty-eight. the presence of subcutaneous nodules was confirmed in 27.59% (95% ci 16-39) of animals. all positive skins belonged to red deer indiv ...202031953565
identifying maintenance hosts for infection with dichelobacter nodosus in free-ranging wild ruminants in switzerland: a prevalence study.footrot is a worldwide economically important, painful, contagious bacterial foot disease of domestic and wild ungulates caused by dichelobacter nodosus. benign and virulent strains have been identified in sheep presenting with mild and severe lesions, respectively. however, in alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), both strains have been associated with severe lesions. because the disease is widespread throughout sheep flocks in switzerland, a nationwide footrot control program for sheep focusing on vi ...202031917824
temporal and spatial spread of hypoderma actaeon infection in roe deer from peninsular spain determined by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the host switching of hypoderma actaeon (diptera: oestridae), a specific parasite of red deer (cervus elaphus), towards roe deer (capreolus capreolus) has been recently reported in spain. to provide information about the temporal and spatial spreading of h. actaeon infection in roe deer, 244 serum samples from animals hunted in spain between 2013 and 2018 were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the overall seropositivity was 13.9%. seropositivity was higher in continental ...202031444796
characterisation of faecal staphylococci from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) and their susceptibility to gallidermin.our current knowledge of microbiota in wild ruminants is limited. the goal of this study was to evaluate staphylococcal species in red and roe deer for various attributes (haemolysis, dnase, and urease activities; lactic acid and biofilm production; and antibiotic profile) and their susceptibility to gallidermin. sixteen staphylococcal strains were identified from faeces of 21 free-living animals (9 adult female cervus elaphus-red deer and 12 young female capreolus capreolus-roe deer) sampled by ...202030710249
pressure algometry validation and determination of efficacy of articaine hydrochloride ring block in antler removal in red deer (cervus elaphus).new zealand deer farming centres on the production of meat and velvet antler. velvet antler removal is a painful procedure and currently, new zealand animal welfare regulations dictate surgical removal of velvet antlers under lignocaine anaesthesia. to improve our knowledge on the efficacy and duration of other local anaesthetics to mitigate pain after antler removal, it is important to accurately assess and quantify pain arising from antler removal. therefore, the current study was designed to ...202033153106
the dark ventral patch: a bimodal flexible trait related to male competition in red deer.sexual signals play a central role in male-male competition in polygynous species. in red deer (cervus elaphus), male's ventral area become dark during the rutting season due to urine spraying behaviour and retains many chemical compounds potentially revealing individual features. here we investigate the variation in size of this trait, exploring its relationship with age and male competitive features such as antlers or body size, as well as populational level of intrasexual competition for mate ...202033151970
the importance of individual movement and feeding behaviour for long-distance seed dispersal by red deer: a data-driven model.long-distance seed dispersal (ldd) has strong impacts on the spatiotemporal dynamics of plants. large animals are important ldd vectors because they regularly transport seeds of many plant species over long distances. while there is now ample evidence that behaviour varies considerably between individual animals, it is not clear to what extent inter-individual variation in behaviour alters seed dispersal by animals.202033133610
bilateral antler sequestration above the coronet in a red deer (cervus elaphus) stag-insights into the process of antler casting.this paper reports a case of delayed velvet shedding and bilateral premature antler casting above the coronets in a young adult red deer stag from germany. based on the established role of testosterone in the control of the antler cycle, the antler abnormality is considered to have been the result of a (temporary) androgen deficiency. the basal surfaces (separation planes or seals) of the cast antlers were markedly concave. scanning electron microscopy revealed that the separation plane was dens ...202033128478
plantain (plantago lanceolata) reduces the environmental impact of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plantain (plantago lanceolata l.) on water dynamics and balance, as well as nitrogen (n) excretion by red deer (cervus elaphus l.) as a potential forage tool to reduce negative environmental impacts. this experiment used a crossover design with red deer (n = 8) in metabolism crates to determine how fresh-cut herbage diets of either plantain or ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) compared in terms of dry matter intake (dmi), diet digestibility, w ...202033123680
transstadial transmission from nymph to adult of coxiella burnetii by naturally infected hyalomma lusitanicum.coxiella burnetii (derrick) philip, the causative agent of q fever, is mainly transmitted by aerosols, but ticks can also be a source of infection. transstadial and transovarial transmission of c. burnetii by hyalomma lusitanicum (koch) has been suggested. there is a close relationship between this tick species, wild animals and c. burnetii but the transmission in a natural environment has not been demonstrated. in this study, we collected 80 engorged nymphs of h. lusitanicum from red deer and w ...202033113791
temporal trends (1953-2012) of toxic and essential elements in red deer antlers from northeastern poland.red deer antlers have a number of advantages that make them a unique material for monitoring trace elements. as antlers are shed and regrown every year, results of toxicological investigations can be applied to a particular region and time. we analyzed the content of four toxic (pb, cd, hg, as) and three essential (cu, zn, fe) trace elements in 254 red deer antler samples spanning between 1953 and 2012. age of stags did not influence concentrations of analyzed elements in antlers, except for zn ...202033113660
interspecific interactions among functionally diverse frugivores and their outcomes for plant reproduction: a new approach based on camera-trap data and tailored null models.the study of plant-frugivore interactions is essential to understand the ecology and evolution of many plant communities. however, very little is known about how interactions among frugivores indirectly affect plant reproductive success. in this study, we examined direct interactions among vertebrate frugivores sharing the same fruit resources. then, we inferred how the revealed direct interspecific interactions could lead to indirect (positive or negative) effects on reproductive success of fle ...202033064761
elk population dynamics when carrying capacities vary within and among herds.population and land management relies on understanding population regulation and growth, which may be impacted by variation in population growth parameters within and among populations. we explored the interactions between variation in carrying capacity (k), intrinsic population growth rate (r), and strength of density dependence (β) within and among elk (cervus elaphus) herds in a small part of the geographic range of the species. we also estimated stochastic fluctuations in abundance around k ...202032994437
impact of freeze-thaw cycles on die-off of e. coli and intestinal enterococci in deer and dairy faeces: implications for landscape contamination of watercourses.characterising faecal indicator organism (fio) survival in the environment is important for informing land management and minimising public health risk to downstream water users. however, key gaps in knowledge include understanding how wildlife contribute to catchment-wide fio sources and how fio survival is affected by low environmental temperatures. the aim of this study was to quantify e. coli and intestinal enterococci die-off in dairy cow versus red deer faecal sources exposed to repeated f ...202032987924
comparative metabolomics study revealed difference in central carbon metabolism between sika deer and red deer antler.the antler regeneration has been well studied for the past two decades and adopted in the regenerative medicine model for studying on developmental biology. despite our growing knowledge of functional molecules regulating antler regeneration, we still do not know whether antler from different deer species possess the exact same mechanism or not. our previous comparative study between sika deer and red deer suggests that the metabolic pathways between them are profoundly different based on protei ...202032908856
failure to detect prion infectivity in ticks following prion-infected blood meal.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging and fatal contagious prion disease that affects cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, black-tailed deer, red deer reindeer, elk, and moose. cwd prions are widely distributed throughout the bodies of cwd-infected animals and are found in the nervous system, lymphoid tissues, muscle, blood, urine, feces, and antler velvet. the mechanism of cwd transmission in natural settings is unknown. potential mechanisms of transmission include horizontal ...202032878935
a survey of gastrointestinal nematode species in red deer (cervus elaphus) farms in new zealand using pcr.gastrointestinal nematodes are recognised as an animal health issue for farmed red deer. the aim of this study was to explore the range of species infecting farmed deer herds and their farm-level prevalence in new zealand. faecal samples were collected from 12-24-month-old deer (n = 6-26; mean 19) on 59 farms located in the north (n = 25) and south (n = 34) islands. sub-samples of faeces were pooled by farm and cultured to recover third stage larvae. twenty four larvae were randomly selected and ...202032862895
dear deer? maybe for now. people's perception on red deer (cervus elaphus) populations in portugal.the human dimension of wildlife is a subject of increasing interest, especially considering the potential impact of people's perceptions on decision-making concerning wildlife management and thus on species' distribution and abundance. this is particularly important for species that inhabit human-dominated landscapes, where conflicts are likely to arise. these conflicts typically emerge between different human collectives when their interests collide and thus an assessment of their perceptions i ...202032823227
nanotechnology in reproduction: vitamin e nanoemulsions for reducing oxidative stress in sperm cells.vitamin e is considered a powerful biological antioxidant; however, its characteristics such as high hydrophobicity and low stability limit its application. we propose to use nanotechnology as an innovative tool in spermatology, formulating nanoemulsions (ne) that accommodate vitamin e, protecting it from oxidation and promoting its release into the medium. the protective effect of the ne against oxidative stress was assessed in red deer epididymal sperm incubated at 37 °c. cryopreserved sperm f ...202032768571
a study of kudurs used by wild animals located on the water sources high in ree content in the caucasus nature reserve.one of the theories explaining the reasons for geophagy, which was proposed earlier by the authors of the article, consists in the assumption that animals need rare-earth elements (ree). in order to test this hypothesis, we studied the chemical composition of spring waters in the territory of the caucasus nature reserve at three kudurs along the achipsta river, as well as at the mamaevsky kudur (southwestern slope of the pshekish mountain). at the mamaevsky kudur, we also studied the chemical co ...202032748302
identification of the prion-related protein gene (prnt) sequences in various species of the cervidae family.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is caused by abnormal deleterious prion protein (prpsc), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy occurs in the cervidae family. in recent studies, the susceptibility of prion disease has been affected by polymorphisms of the prion gene family. however, the study of the prion-related protein gene (prnt) is rare, and the dna sequence of this gene was not fully reported in all cervidae families. in the present study, we amplified and first identified prnt dna seque ...202032737828
quality of main types of hunted red deer meat obtained in spain compared to farmed venison from new zealand.deer venison is increasingly valued as a natural meat. this study examines the three main sources of venison: farmed venison from new zealand (nz), the world's leading producer, and wild deer from spain (sp), the second largest producer, which mainly supplies venison from traditional autumn-winter driven hunts (monteria), involving packs of dogs, and a smaller proportion culled through summer selective stalking. meat from nz contained more protein, lower shear force and lower n-6/n-3 ratio (p <  ...202032699311
to beat or not to beat: behavioral plasticity during the antler growth period affects cortisol but not testosterone concentrations in red deer (cervus elaphus) males.out of rut, male red deer (cervus elaphus) associate themselves in bachelor groups where animals compete for rank position via agonistic interactions. in a previous study on red deer, males were recognized either as "non-fighters" (nf, low frequency of attacks) or "fighters" (f, high frequency of attacks). this study, therefore, aims to verify the consistency of the inter-individual differences in fighting attitude across different social contexts and investigate whether they could be considered ...202032687931
antioxidative potential of red deer embryos depends on reproductive stage of hind as a oocyte donor.the aim was to compare the blastocyst stages of red deer embryos in respect of in vitro fertilization (ivf) efficiency, morphology, apoptotic and proliferative abilities, and antioxidative potential according to the reproductive status of hinds. we used three experimental groups, including the ovaries collected post mortem on the 4th and 13th days of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy (n = 18). after oocyte maturation, frozen-thawed epididymal semen was used for ivf. blastocyst quality, apop ...202032674333
fatty acid composition of meat and edible offal from free-living red deer (cervus elaphus).the objective of the study was to characterize tissue-associated differences in the fatty acid composition of fat in skeletal muscles m. longissimus dorsi (loin), m. biceps femoris (hind quarter), and m. triceps brachii (shoulder), and internal organs (i.e., liver, heart, and kidney) from free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) females (n = 11) hunted in lithuania. skeletal muscles were characterized by lower content of free fat compared with the offal. the highest percentage of saturated fatty ac ...202032674267
multi-event capture-recapture analysis in alpine chamois reveals contrasting responses to interspecific competition, within and between populations.understanding components of interspecific competition has long been a major goal in ecological studies. classical models of competition typically consider equal responses of all individuals to the density of competitors, however responses may differ both among individuals from the same population, and between populations. based on individual long-term monitoring of two chamois populations in sympatry with red deer, we built a multi-event capture-recapture model to assess how vital rates of the s ...202032654115
dermacentor reticulatus and babesia canis in bavaria (germany)-a georeferenced field study with digital habitat characterization.the hard tick dermacentor reticulatus transmits babesia canis, the causative agent of canine babesiosis. both the occurrence and local distribution of d. reticulatus as well as infection rates of questing ticks with b. canis are thus far poorly known in bavaria, germany. the objectives of this study were to conduct (1) a georeferenced field study on the occurrence of d. reticulatus with digital habitat characterization and (2) a pcr analysis of d. reticulatus collected in bavaria for infection w ...202032645829
is canadian federal legislation effective in preventing youth access to vaping initiation products? a study using secret shoppers and online access in three alberta cities.the tobacco and vaping products act (canada, 1997) (the "tvpa") aims to protect the health of young persons by restricting access to vaping products. we studied whether the tvpa achieves this goal by sending young 'secret shoppers' to 120 shops in calgary, edmonton, and red deer to attempt to buy nicotine-based vaping-initiation products, and by asking minors to purchase the same product online. we used three 'improper' shop scenarios: 1. a minor or minors; 2. a young adult with no or invalid id ...202032637300
ecological niche modeling of babesia sp infection in wildlife experimentally evaluated in questing ixodes ricinus.tick-borne diseases and especially protozoa of the genus babesia, are gaining increasing attention as emerging zoonotic pathogens. zoonotic species like b. venatorum and b. microti have wild animals as main reservoir hosts. we propose a habitat suitability model for babesia spp., as tool for institutions and policy makes to better understand the entity of babesia presence, to improve diagnostic awareness and to optimize screening and preventive actions. the probability of presence of babesia spp ...202032575961
chromosome-level genome assembly of tarim red deer, cervus elaphus yarkandensis.tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis) is the only subspecies of red deer (of 22 subspecies) from central asia. this species is a desert dweller of the tarim basin of southern xinjiang, china, and exhibits some unique adaptations to the dry and extreme hot climate. we report here the assembly of a tarim red deer genome employing a 10x genomics library, termed cey_v1. our genome consisted of 2.6 gb with contig n50 and scaffold n50 of 275.5 kb and 31.7 mb, respectively. around 96% of the ass ...202032561793
physiological stress reactions in red deer induced by hunting activities.hunting activity is usually seen as a factor capable of causing an intense stress response in wildlife that may lead to short but also long-term stress. in the lousã mountain, portugal, the population of red deer (cervuselaphus) is the target of intensive seasonal hunting. we collected and measured cortisol (and its metabolites) in three tissues types (blood, feces and hair) from red deer hunted during two hunting seasons to evaluate the stress levels at different time windows. we also assessed ...202032521768
social environment modulates investment in sex trait versus lifespan: red deer produce bigger antlers when facing more rivalry.theory predicts that the plastic expression of sex-traits should be modulated not only by their production costs but also by the benefits derived from the presence of rivals and mates, yet there is a paucity of evidence for an adaptive response of sex-trait expression to social environment. we studied antler size, a costly and plastic sex trait, and tooth wear, a trait related to food intake and longevity, in over 4,000 male iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) from 56 wild populations c ...202032514059
the use of rnai technology to interfere with zfx gene increases the male rates of red deer (cervus elaphus) offspring.zinc finger protein x-linked (zfx) was regarded to be a sex determination factor and plays a critical role in spermatogenesis. rnai is an effective method of silencing zfx mrna expression. however, there has been little research on the use of rnai technology to control the sex of the offspring of red deer (cervus elaphus). the objective of this study was first to explore an efficient method to alter the red deer offspring sex-ratio by silencing the gene zfx during spermatogenesis. three recombin ...202032509876
cardiovascular effects of intravenous vatinoxan (mk-467) in medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam anaesthetised red deer (cervus elaphus).to determine the effect of intravenous vatinoxan administration on bradycardia, hypertension and level of anaesthesia induced by medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in red deer (cervus elaphus).202032507716
heat stress reduces growth rate of red deer calf: climate warming implications.climate models agree in predicting scenarios of global warming. in endothermic species heat stress takes place when they are upper their thermal neutral zone. any physiological or behavioural mechanism to mitigate heat stress is at the cost of diverting energy from other physiological functions, with negative repercussions for individual fitness. tolerance to heat stress differs between species, age classes and sexes, those with the highest metabolic rates being the most sensitive to stressing t ...202032480402
the genetic architecture of maternal effects across ontogeny in the red deer.maternal effects, either environmental or genetic in origin, are an underappreciated source of phenotypic variance in natural populations. maternal genetic effects have the potential to constrain or enhance the evolution of offspring traits depending on their magnitude and their genetic correlation with direct genetic effects. we estimated the maternal effect variance and its genetic component for 12 traits expressed over the life history in a pedigreed population of wild red deer (morphology, s ...202032462712
nutritional quality of wild iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) meat: effects of sex and hunting period.the proximate composition, energetic value, minerals, b-group vitamins and ph value of the loin (longissimus thoracis) of 71 wild iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus), were evaluated in stags and hinds hunted in autumn and winter. in autumn, meat had a higher content of moisture, k, na, zn and thiamine when compared to winter, in which higher content of proteins and p were detected. meat from stags had a higher moisture, na, zn and folic acid content, while hinds provided optimal ph valu ...202032447187
prenatal histomorphological development of the reticulum in fallow deer (dama dama).the histomorphological changes occurring in the dama dama reticulum during prenatal development have been investigated. twenty-five dama dama embryos were used, from the first stages of prenatal life until birth. differentiation of the reticulum was observed at 23% gestation. by 25% gestation the reticular wall comprised three layers: an internal epithelial layer, a middle layer of pluripotential blastemic tissue and an external layer or serosa. primary reticular crests were visible at 38% gesta ...202032441442
epitheliotropic infections in wildlife ruminants from the central alps and stelvio national park.the mountain chain of the alps, represents the habitat of alpine fauna where the red deer (cervus elaphus) population is the outmost numerous, followed by the chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and the alpine ibex (capra ibex) at higher altitudes. previous reports showed the circulation of epitheliotropic viruses, belonging to the families papillomaviridae and poxviridae, causing skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants of the stelvio national park, situated in the area. to deepen our knowledge on ...202032426384
genomic analysis of a multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae st11 strain recovered from barbary deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) in akfadou forest, algeria.the emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing enterobacterales (cpe) is a great public-health concern. this study aimed to screen for the presence of cpe isolates from barbary deer in akfadou forest, béjaïa (algeria).202032380242
beneficial effects of melatonin in the ovarian transport medium on in vitro embryo production of iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus).a major limiting factor for the development of in vitro embryo production (ivp) in wild species, such as iberian red deer, compared to livestock animals is the poor availability and limited access to biological material. thus, the use of post-mortem ovaries from slaughtered animals represent a source of oocytes for the large scale production of embryos needed for research and to improve the efficiency of ivp. however, these oocytes are not as developmentally competent as their in vivo counterpar ...202032349425
what do rates of deposition of dental cementum tell us? functional and evolutionary hypotheses in red deer.cementum is a bone connective tissue that provides a flexible attachment for the tooth to the alveolar bone in many mammalian species. it does not undergo continuous remodelling, unlike non-dental bone, which combined with its growth pattern of seasonal layering makes this tissue uniquely suitable as a proxy for tracking changes in body repair investment throughout an animal´s life. we tested functional and sexual selection hypotheses on the rate of cementum deposition related to the highly poly ...202032343718
testosterone and the dark ventral patch of male red deer: the role of the social environment.the expression of male sexual traits, which is stimulated by testosterone, entails significant costs for individuals. consequently, natural selection is expected to favour the modulation of sexual trait development according to the balance between its costs and benefits. the proportion of rivals in a population may affect this balance by increasing or decreasing the reproductive benefits associated with the development of sex traits. here, we explore the relationship between testosterone level a ...202032333124
gelation of milks of different species (dairy cattle, goat, sheep, red deer, and water buffalo) using glucono-δ-lactone and pepsin.dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology was used to study the gelation properties of skim milk gels made at 37°c, using glucono-δ-lactone alone (acid gels) or a combination of glucono-δ-lactone and porcine pepsin ("combination gels"). the protein contents of the skim milks increased in the order goat milk < cattle milk < buffalo milk < sheep milk < deer milk, whereas the average casein micelle diameters increased in the order cattle milk < buffalo milk < goat milk < sheep milk ≃ deer milk. th ...202032331870
short communication: red deer (cervus elaphus) colostrum during its transition to milk.we studied changes in chemical composition, somatic cell count, and immunoglobulin g (igg) and m (igm) content in red deer (cervus elaphus) colostrum during the transition to milk at different times after parturition (<5 h, 24 h, 48 h, 2 wk, and 4 wk). the production level was higher at 2 and 4 wk of lactation than during the first day after parturition, with intermediate values at 48 h postpartum. fat content did not vary during the study period. however, total protein and casein contents were ...202032307161
[herbalogical study on cervi colla].cervi colla, deer's gelatin, had two kinds of original sources historically, including the skin and antler of deer, known as cervi corii colla(lupijiao, lpj) and cervi cornus colla(lujiaojiao, ljj) respectively.ljj is the mainstream of the market, while lpj is only used by common people in guizhou and jilin etc. this article sorted out the ancient and modern literature(since rites of the zhou in zhou dynasty) on cervi colla and conducted the herbalogical study. the results of the study include:① ...202032237464
herbivory and climate as drivers of woody plant growth: do deer decrease the impacts of warming?vegetation at ecotone transitions between open and forested areas is often heavily affected by two key processes: climate change and management of large herbivore densities. these both drive woody plant state shifts, determining the location and the nature of the limit between open and tree or shrub-dominated landscapes. in order to adapt management to prevailing and future climate, we need to understand how browsing and climatic factors together affect the growth of plants at biome borders. to ...202032160360
should i stay or should i go? determinants of immediate and delayed movement responses of female red deer (cervus elaphus) to drive hunts.hunting can be used as a tool for wildlife management, through limitation of population densities and dissuading game from using sensitive areas. the success of these approaches requires in depth knowledge of prey movement. indeed, movement decisions of game during hunting may affect the killing success of hunters as well as the subsequent location of surviving animals. we thus investigated red deer movement responses to drive hunts and their causal factors. we studied 34 hunting events in the n ...202032150545
a comparison of methods for estimating forage intake, digestibility, and fecal output in red deer (cervus elaphus).the objective of this experiment was to determine appropriate methods for estimating fecal output, digestibility, and intake in red deer (cervus elaphus). dry matter intake (dmi), digestibility, and fecal output were estimated using the dual-marker (titanium dioxide; tio2 and indigestible acid detergent fiber) technique, double n-alkane ratio technique (alk) and the pulse dose (yttrium; y) technique to determine a suitable method to estimate dmi, fecal output, and digestibility measurements. fou ...202032115639
no effect of inoculation site and injection device on the skin test response of red deer to the intradermal injection of mycobacterium avium-derived purified protein derivative (ppd).mycobacterial diseases are important health issues in farmed deer. the single intradermal tuberculin test is the standard test for tuberculosis testing in deer. we studied two factors which might influence the response of deer to skin testing: the inoculation site and the injection device. deer included in this study were 2.5 years old farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds (n = 80). two areas of 3 cm × 3 cm were shaved at the left side of the neck. site a (sa) was situated about 10 cm caudal to ...202032088530
novel strain of the chronic wasting disease agent isolated from experimentally inoculated elk with ll132 prion protein.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal, progressive disease that affects cervid species, including rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). there are 2 allelic variants in the elk prion protein gene: l132 (leucine) and m132 (methionine). following experimental oral challenge with the cwd agent incubation periods are longest in ll132 elk, intermediate in ml132 elk, and shortest in mm132 elk. in order to ascertain whether such cwd-infected elk carry distinct prion strains, groups of tg12 mic ...202032081886
control and surveillance operations to prevent chronic wasting disease establishment in free-ranging white-tailed deer in québec, canada.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a degenerative and fatal prion disease affecting cervids, was detected for the first time in the province of québec, canada, in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm in the laurentides region on 10 september 2018. to assess cwd prevalence and control the disease in the free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) population, a response plan including enhanced surveillance, population control, regulatory measures, and public outreach was deployed by the minist ...202032059390
serological survey of wild cervids in england and wales for bovine viral diarrhoea virus.bovine viral diarrhoea (bvd) is a production disease commonly found in british cattle herds. species other than cattle have been shown to be infected with the virus, thereby providing a potential source of infection for livestock. this study surveyed serum samples taken from 596 culled wild deer from england and wales, between 2009 and 2010, for the presence of bvd antibodies.202032054720
a genome-wide scan study identifies a single nucleotide substitution in the tyrosinase gene associated with white coat colour in a red deer (cervus elaphus) population.red deer with very pale coat colour are observed sporadically. in the red deer (cervus elaphus) population of reinhardswald in germany, about 5% of animals have a white coat colour that is not associated with albinism. in order to facilitate the conservation of the animals, it should be determined whether and to what extent brown animals carry the white gene. for this purpose, samples of one white hind and her brown calf were available for whole genome sequencing to identify the single nucleotid ...202032041521
seroprevalence of small ruminant lentivirus (srlv) infection in wild cervids in poland.small ruminant lentiviruses (srlv) are widespread amongst domesticated sheep and goats worldwide. infection of wild ruminants in close contact with affected domesticated small ruminants has been proposed as an actor in srlv epidemiology, but studies are limited. the aim of this study was to estimate the apparent (ap) and estimated prevalence (ep) of exposure to srlv infection in wild ruminants from poland. samples originating from 198 free-living cervids comprising 142 european red deer and 56 r ...202032004826
increased genetic marker density reveals high levels of admixture between red deer and introduced japanese sika in kintyre, scotland.hybridization is a natural process at species range boundaries, but increasing numbers of species are hybridizing due to direct or indirect human activities. in such cases of anthropogenic hybridization, subsequent introgression can threaten the survival of native species. to date, many such systems have been studied with too few genetic markers to assess the level of threat resulting from advanced backcrossing. here, we use 44,999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and the admixture program ...202031993087
post-epidemic investigation of schmallenberg virus in wild ruminants in slovenia.schmallenberg virus (sbv) is a vector-borne virus belonging to the genus orthobunyavirus within the bunyaviridae family. sbv emerged in europe in 2011 and was characterized by epidemics of abortions, stillbirths and congenital malformations in domestic ruminants. the first evidence of sbv infection in slovenia was from an elisa-positive sample from a cow collected in august 2012; clinical manifestations of sbv disease in sheep and cattle were observed in 2013, with sbv rna detected in samples co ...202031991522
viability longevity and quality of epididymal sperm stored in the liquid state of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).the aim of the study was to evaluate viability longevity and quality of liquid-stored epididymal sperm of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus). sperm samples were recovered from epididymides of 15 mature stags. samples were diluted to 100 × 106 sperm⁄ml in modified salomon's extender and stored at 5 °c for 25 days. sperm were analyzed to determine total motility (tmot), progressive motility (pmot) and motion variables [casa system], acrosomes with normal apical ridges (nar), viability and ...202031987322
ericaceous species reduce methane emissions in sheep and red deer: respiration chamber measurements and predictions at the scale of european heathlands.despite the importance of atmospheric methane as a potent greenhouse gas and the significant contribution from ruminant enteric fermentation on methane emissions at a global scale, little effort has been made to consider the influence that different plant-based natural diets have on methane emissions in grazing systems. heathland is an ericaceous dwarf-shrub-dominated habitat widespread across the northern hemisphere, in europe, provides valuable ecosystem services in areas with poor soils, such ...202031982753
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