Publications

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red deer antlers as biomonitors for lead contamination. 19958520137
effects of unilateral cranial sympathectomy either alone or with sensory nerve sectioning on pedicle growth in red deer (cervus elaphus).in a previous study (li et al. [1993], j. exp. zool., 267:188-197) sensory nerve sectioning had no effect on the timing of pedicle growth. the aim of the present study was to determine whether sensory nerve sectioning in conjunction with sympathectomy would influence pedicle growth. twelve intact male red deer calves were allocated to treatment before any pedicle growth as follows: 1) unilateral sensory nerve removal (usx, n = 5), 2) unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (sgx, n = 4), or 3 ...19957884387
role of steroids in antler growth of red deer stags.a series of six studies were carried out in red deer stags to test hypotheses concerning the importance of steroid control of velvet antler growth and to investigate mechanisms by which these hormones exert their effects. medroxyprogesterone acetate (mpa) an lh inhibitor administered to stags during hard antler caused premature antler casting, reduced subsequent antler weight and caused a reduction in the lh and testosterone responses to gnrh. in two separate studies blockade of testosterone rec ...19957884386
ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinases hek and elk: isolation of cdnas encoding a family of proteins.hek is a member of the eph subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases whose members include elk, hek2, sek, eph and eck among others. using a soluble form of hek consisting of the extracellular region of the receptor fused to the fc domain of human igg1 and an expression cloning strategy, we have isolated two different but related cdnas from the human t-lymphoma line hsb-2 that encode ligands for hek. the cdnas encode proteins of 238 and 201 amino acids (44% amino acid identity) that are anchored to ...19957838529
expression of the prolactin receptor gene during the breeding and non-breeding seasons in red deer (cervus elaphus): evidence for the expression of two forms in the testis.the red deer is a seasonally breeding mammal with a circannual cycle of prolactin secretion which reaches its peak during the non-breeding season. this study investigated expression of the prolactin receptor gene in red deer tissues collected in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. a 562 bp fragment of the extracellular domain of the red deer prolactin receptor cdna was amplified from red deer liver poly(a)+ rna by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using primers designed ...19957561644
manipulating melatonin in red deer (cervus elaphus): differences in the response to food restriction and lactation on the timing of the breeding season and prolactin-dependent pelage changes.in this study, we investigated the influence of food availability and lactation upon seasonality in red deer. this was examined by testing the hypothesis that advancing the timing of breeding and autumn moult using the hormone melatonin will be prevented when the food availability of lactating hinds is severely restricted. this hypothesis was rejected. implanting 1 g of melatonin between june 22 and november 30 resulted in advances in the timing of the onset of ovarian activity and winter coat g ...19957561720
stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women.the relationship between stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women was explored, using a semistructured interview that consisted of a demographic questionnaire; the xhosa life event scale (xles; swartz, elk, teggin, & gillis, 1983), which comprises mainly personal stressors; the township life event scale (tles; bluen & odesnik, 1988), which comprises mainly sociopolitical stressors; and the general health questionnaire (ghq, goldberg, 1972, 1978). the participan ...19957564304
differential activation of c-fos promoter elements by serum, lysophosphatidic acid, g proteins and polypeptide growth factors.the upstream regulatory region of the c-fos promoter contains two growth factor-regulated promoter elements: the serum response element, which binds a ternary complex comprising serum response factor (srf) and a ternary complex factor (tcf); and the sis-inducible element (sie) which binds stat transcription factors. we used transient transfection of c-fos promoter mutants in nih 3t3 cells to assess the contributions of these elements to activation by different extracellular stimuli. colony-stimu ...19957588632
mouse elk oncogene maps to chromosome x and a novel elk oncogene (elk3) maps to chromosome 10.the elk protein is a member of the ets family found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. human elk1 encoded by elk1 binds alone or together with serum response factor to dna and regulates gene expression in a variety of biological processes. using a panel of interspecific backcross mice, we have mapped the elk oncogene (elk) and a novel type elk oncogene (elk3), closely related to elk1. elk maps to chr x, and elk3 maps to the proximal region of chr 10.19957601474
a comparative study of the histopathologic features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, fallow deer (dama dama), sika deer (cervus nippon), and red deer and elk (cervus elaphus).sections of tuberculous lesions from 23 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus), 12 fallow deer (dama dama), 10 sika deer (cervus nippon), and 30 cattle were examined and compared. lesions were scored for caseous necrosis, mineralization, neutrophils, macrophages, giant cells, and acid-fast bacilli. some differences in lesion morphology between the species were noted. elk/red deer lesions had marked variation and often differed from bovine lesions in several characteri ...19957604487
elaeophorosis in red deer caused by elaeophora elaphi: lesions of natural disease.this is the first study of the lesions produced by elaeophora elaphi, a filarial worm first reported in 1986. only the morphologic characteristics of this species have been described previously. samples for the study were taken from 74 red deer (cervus elaphus), 1-10 years old, slaughtered in central spain. grossly, filariae were observed in the transverse, left, or right branches of the portal vein of 18 animals. in addition to filariae, whitish thrombi were found in the right and left branches ...19957604492
johne's disease in red deer. 19957604515
differential expressions of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinase genes (sek, elk, eck) in the developing nervous system of the mouse.to examine the roles of the eph subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk), we isolated mouse cdnas for sek, elk, and eck and localized their mrnas in the developing mouse, with particular reference to the cns development, by in situ hybridization. sek mrna is most abundantly expressed throughout development; sek was detected in the germinal layer of the embryonic cns during mid- to late-gestation and was widely expressed in the early postnatal brain. elk was expressed in the mantle layer of th ...19957609620
erk phosphorylation potentiates elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation.induction of the human c-fos proto-oncogene by mitogens depends on the formation of a ternary complex by p62tcf with the serum response factor (srf) and the serum response element (sre). we demonstrate that elk-1, a protein closely related to p62tcf in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the map kinase family, erk1 and erk2. phosphorylation of elk-1 increases the yield of ternary complex in vitro. at least five residues in the c-terminal domain of elk-1 are phosphorylated upon growth ...19957889942
[evaluation of the meat quality of game].the carcasses of 140 roe deer, 129 wild boars, 81 red deer and 55 fallow deer were examined to determine meat quality with respect to the influence of typical hunting situations. after hunting, many carcasses had not been cooled, which significantly influenced meat-quality parameters. the ph-value, detected electrochemically, gave the most reliable results out of all the meat-quality parameters investigated. determination of the ph-value with regard to the ph indexes ascertained for different po ...19958578914
bovine virus diarrhea and mucosal disease in free-ranging and captive deer (cervidae) in germany.from 1990 until 1992, 355 blood samples of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (n = 123), red deer (cervus elaphus) (n = 60), fallow deer (dama dama) (n = 87) and other cervid species (n = 85) from three different habitats (n = 180) and 11 wildlife parks or zoos (n = 175) in germany were tested for prevalence of pestivirus antibodies. seventeen samples were seropositive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv); only one animal had antibodies for border disease virus. microneutralization test titers ran ...19958583646
immobilization of rocky mountain elk with telazol and xylazine hydrochloride, and antagonism by yohimbine hydrochloride.ten trapped rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were successfully immobilized with a combination of 500 mg telazol and 60 mg xylazine hydrochloride (hcl) from 9 july to 25 august 1993 in custer state park, south dakota (usa). mean (sd) dosages of 2.5 (0.6) mg/kg telazol and 0.3 (0.1) mg/kg xylazine hcl, respectively, were administered, resulting in a mean (sd) induction time of 4.6 (0.8) min. induction time varied with weight and dosage. respiratory rate (breaths/min) increased following ...19958583649
pasteurellosis in elk (cervus elaphus): dna fingerprinting of isolates. 19958560727
experimental infections of sarcocystis spp. in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four 4-mo-old elk calves (cervus elaphus) obtained from northeastern oregon (usa) each were inoculated orally with 250,000 sporocysts of sarcocystis spp., including s. sybillensis and s. wapiti. three similar elk calves of comparable ages and weights served as uninoculated controls maintained with the inoculated elk during the experimental period between september and december 1993. body weights were evaluated at 0 and 90 days postinoculation (pi); packed cell volumes of whole blood were evaluat ...19958592375
forensic identification of ungulate species using restriction digests of pcr-amplified mitochondrial dna.a survey of mitochondrial d-loop variation in 15 species of ungulates was conducted via amplification by the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this survey included moose (alces alces), caribou (rangifer tarandus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (o. h. columbianus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), waipiti (cervus elaphus), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), stone's she ...19958522926
radionuclide uptake by red deer (cervus elaphus) on mountain grazing.forty-two red deer (cervus elaphus) were shot during the 1992 annual cull in glenveagh national park, ireland. samples of rumen, kidney and faeces were removed from each animal. kidney samples were used to estimate flesh radiocaesium (137cs) concentrations and the 95% confidence interval for the mean was 203 +/- 12 bq kg-1. the maximum recorded 137cs concentration in kidney was 367 bq kg-1 (fresh weight). the altitude of the cull, the age and sex of each animal were recorded. neither age nor sex ...19958605580
[serologic investigations on the occurrence of maedi-visna antibodies in game ruminants].the lentiviruses of small domestic ruminants (maedi-visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) have been shown to be infective for each other. there are only few investigations of virus susceptibility of other species of animals. the aim of our study reported here was to evaluate sera of wild animal species for lentivirus antibodies. 344 sera of capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus and dama dama from a territory with known sheep populations prevalence were tested in the agar gel immunodiffus ...19958593775
ligands for eph-related tyrosine kinase receptors are developmentally regulated in the cns.elk is a member of the eph family of receptor-like tyrosine kinases. although its function is unknown, elk is postulated to play a role in nervous system development. using northern analysis, we examined the developmental regulation of rnas encoding elk, and several ligands for the eph family of rtks, the lerks. expression of elk, lerk-1, and lerk-2 rnas is high in all regions examined in the embryonic and postnatal rat brain and decreases to low levels with age. one exception is the adult olfac ...19958568920
studies on the hypodermosis affecting red deer in central and southern spain.from november 1992 to february 1993, 455 red deer (cervus elaphus) were surveyed in order to estimate the prevalence of warble fly (hypoderma actaeon) larvae under the skin of this ungulate species. material came from montes de toledo, sierra morena, sierra de alcaraz, and sierras de cazorla, segura y las villas natural park (central and southern spain). we observed a prevalence of 92%, with a mean +/- sd intensity of 35.7 +/- 41.3 grubs per parasitized host; there was a maximum of 317 larvae pe ...19958592379
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging elk using fecal steroid metabolites.we validated fecal metabolite analysis as a noninvasive means of diagnosing pregnancy in uncaptured, free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). during november 1991, we collected blood samples from 21 radiocollared, 1- to 10-year-old female elk in yellowstone national park, wyoming (usa), and determined their pregnancy status by radioimmunoassay of serum pregnancy specific protein b and serum progesterone concentrations. from december 1991 through april 1992, we collected three to ...19958592383
embryo brain kinase: a novel gene of the eph/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family.a new gene belonging to the eph/eck/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family has been cloned from mouse brain. the gene maps to mouse chromosome 4. in the adult brain it is expressed exclusively and abundantly in the hippocampus. we propose to name it ebk (embryo brain kinase), as in situ hybridisation shows expression in many parts of the developing mouse brain. the most abundant expression is in the subcommissural organ, and the earliest expression is in the forebrain neural folds, in rhombomeres 2 ...19958541219
isolation of lerk-5: a ligand of the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases.hek and elk are members of the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently we isolated four cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands to hek and elk [beckman et al. (1994) embo j. 13, 3757-3762; kozlosky et al. (1995) oncogene 10, 299-306]. because of the promiscuous nature of their binding, we have termed these proteins ligands of the eph-related kinases or lerks. a search of genbank revealed an expressed sequence tag (est) with homology to the lerks. using this est as a probe, we hav ...19958559144
plant compositional constituents affecting between-plant and animal species prediction of forage intake.the purpose of the study was to identify plant compositional constituents that influence forage intake. emphasis was put on the ratio in vitro digestibility of organic matter (ivdom):ndf because preliminary work with cattle and a limited number of forages showed the ratio to account for more variation in intake than either ivdom or ndf alone. the compositional constituents were tested in intake prediction models using local and published data (n = 302) on grass pastures, silages, hays, straws, l ...19958567482
locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (elk3, elk1, and elk4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomes.net, elk1, and sap1 are related members of the ets oncoprotein family. we show by in situ hybridization on banded chromosomes with specific cdna probes that their map positions on mouse and human chromosomes (respectively) are net, 10c-d1 and 12q22-q23 (now called elk3), sap1, 1e3-g and 1q32 (elk4), and elk1, xa1-a3 and xp11.2-p11.1 (elk1), as well as a second locus 14q32 (elk2) unique to the human genome. the results for the mouse net, sap1, and elk1 and human elk3 genes are new. the human elk1 ...19958575773
neither erk nor jnk/sapk map kinase subtypes are essential for histone h3/hmg-14 phosphorylation or c-fos and c-jun induction.the effects of egf, tpa, uv radiation, okadaic acid and anisomycin on erk and jnk/sapk map kinase cascades have been compared with their ability to elicit histone h3/hmg-14 phosphorylation and induce c-fos and c-jun in c3h 10t1/2 cells. egf and uv radiation activate both erks and jnk/sapks but to markedly different extents; egf activates erks more strongly than jnk/sapks, whereas uv radiation activates jnk/sapks much more strongly than erks. anisomycin and okadaic acid activate jnk/sapks but not ...19958586671
the ets-domain transcription factors elk-1 and sap-1 exhibit differential dna binding specificities.the ets dna-binding domain is conserved amongst many eukaryotic transcription factors. ets-domains bind differentially to specific dna sites containing a central gga trinucleotide motif. the nucleotides flanking this motif define the binding specificity of individual proteins. in this study we have investigated binding specificity of the ets-domains from two members of the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily, elk-1 and sap-1. the ets dna-binding domains of elk-1 (elk-93) and sap-1 (sap-92) se ...19958524663
one known sarcocystis species and two found for the first time in red deer and wapiti (cervus elaphus) in europe.three species of sarcocysts from indigenous red deer and captive wapiti (cervus elaphus, cervidae) were characterized by means of light and electron microscopy. two of them were found in this intermediate host species for the first time. comparison of the literature and our results led to the conclusion that the three sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) should be provisionally designated as s. cf. grueneri, s. cf. capreolicanis and s. cf. hofmanni.19958528304
one known sarcocystis species and one found for the first time in fallow deer (dama dama).sarcocysts of free-ranging indigenous fallow deer (dama d. dama) from northeast germany and captive persian fallow deer (dama dama mesopotamica) from the zoo berlin-friedrichsfelde were described using the transmission electron microscope. two sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) were found in d. d. dama, one of them already known, the other new for this host. the known species was also found in d. dama mesopotamica. comparing the literature, former own findings in roe deer, red deer or ...19958528305
biochemical analysis of sh2 domain-mediated protein interactions. 19958531711
transcriptional regulation by map kinases.tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate map kinase by a complex mechanism involving the sh2/3 protein grb2, the exchange protein sos, and ras. the gtp-bound ras protein binds to the raf kinase and initiates a protein kinase cascade that leads to map kinase activation. three map kinase kinase kinases have been described--c-raf, c-mos, and mekk--that phosphorylate and activate mek, the map kinase kinase. activated mek phosphorylates and activates map kinase. subsequently, the activated ma ...19958607977
cdna cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal localization of net(epht2), a human eph-related receptor protein-tyrosine kinase gene preferentially expressed in brain.by screening a human fetal brain cdna expression library using a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we have isolated a cdna clone encoding a receptor type protein-tyrosine kinase belonging to the eph family, net (neuronally expressed eph-related tyrosine kinase). net shows 87% homology in nucleotide sequence and 99% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence to rat elk, suggesting that net is the human homologue of elk. the net gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q21-q23 by pcr screening ...19958666391
induction of c-fos expression through jnk-mediated tcf/elk-1 phosphorylation.growth factors induce c-fos transcription by stimulating phosphorylation of transcription factor tcf/elk-1, which binds to the serum response element (sre). under such conditions elk-1 could be phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) erk1 and erk2. however, c-fos transcription and sre activity are also induced by stimuli, such as uv irradiation and activation of the protein kinase mekk1, that cause only an insignificant increase in erk1/2 activity. however, both of these ...19958846788
serum response element and flanking sequences mediate the synergistic transcriptional activation of c-fos by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and cholera toxin in akr-2b cells.12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa) and cholera toxin have been shown previously to act synergistically to stimulate traverse of g0-g1 and entry into s phase in quiescent mouse fibroblasts. these agents also have a synergistic effect on the induction of the endogenous c-fos gene, as well as a transfected reporter construct containing the mouse fos promoter/enhancer region from -397 to +1 cloned upstream of luciferase. a detailed mutational analysis of the c-fos-regulatory region revealed ...19958547224
triplets in red deer (cervus elaphus). 19958825315
reduction and repair of colonic intussusception in a wapiti/red hybrid hind (cervus elaphus). 19958825316
the value of immunodiagnostic tests in detecting tuberculosis in an infected red deer herd and in eradication of the disease by selection.the sensitivity and specificity of intradermal tuberculin test (tb test) were studied in an infected red deer (cervus elaphus) herd (n = 109) in comparison to the results of other examinations including gross pathology, histopathology, mycobacterium bovis culture, and the lymphocyte-stimulation test (lst). in our case, relative sensitivity was 79.5% and relative specificity was 45.7%. the predictive value in negative and positive cases was 80.0% and 44.9%, respectively. on the basis of the resul ...19958882737
simultaneous comparison between transtympanic and extratympanic electrocochleography.electrocochleography (ecog) has become a mainstay in the diagnostic armamentarium used by otolaryngologists and audiologists in the evaluation of patients suffering auditory and vestibular symptoms. controversy exists, however, regarding the relative accuracy of ecog when recorded with a non-invasive external auditory canal (eac) electrode as compared to that recorded using a transtympanic electrode. in an effort to resolve this controversy, 19 healthy volunteers (37 ears) with no history of oto ...19958588643
activation of ternary complex factor elk-1 by stress-activated protein kinases.the mammalian response to stress results in the activation of stress-activated protein kinases (also known as cjun n-terminal kinases; sapks or jnks), which are a sub-group of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase family. the sapks are involved in the upregulation of activity of the transcription factor ap-1 by post-translational modification of two of its components, cjun and atf2. ap-1 activity can also be elevated by increased expression of the fos protein, a further ap-1 component. elk- ...19958548291
[history of the laryngology department in the military hospital in ełk]. 19959499857
wegener's granulomatosis.since its first description by wegener in 1936, wegener's granulomatosis has undergone significant changes in terms of clinical scope, diagnosis, and treatment. it is no longer tenable to insist on the fulfillment of the wegener's triad to make the diagnosis. the wide range of clinical presentations is encompassed by the elk (ear, nose, and throat; lung; kidney) classification in which any combination or singular involvement of the major sites can be considered within the wegener's spectrum if s ...19959363097
nucleotide-sequence of a canine oral papillomavirus containing a long noncoding region.the dna genome of a canine oral papillomavirus (copv) was completely sequenced and found to consist of 8607 base pairs, which were the longest of all known papillomaviruses (pvs). its organization was similar to that of other pvs except that it lacked early gene 5 (e5) and possessed a unique long noncoding region (l-ncr) between the end of the early genes and the beginning of the late genes. copv also possessed a short noncoding region (s-ncr) which contained a putative upper regulatory region ( ...199521552821
patch selection by red deer in relation to energy and protein intake: a re-evaluation of langvatn and hanley's (1993) results.langvatn and hanley (1993) recently reported that patch use by red deer (cervus elaphus) was more strongly correlated with short term rates of intake of digestible protein than dry matter. such short term measures overlook effects of gut filling, which may constrain intake by ruminants over longer time scales (i.e., daily rates of gain). we reanalyzed langvatn and hanley's data using an energy intake model incorporating such a processing constraint, to determine whether their conclusions are rob ...199528307585
herbivorous mammals as seed dispersers in a mediterranean dehesa.endozoochrous seed dispersal by herbivorous mammals has been verified repeatedly and its possible influence on the structure and function of herbaceous communities has been suggested. quantitative studies, however, are lacking in the field of seed dispersal via the dung of herbivore guilds in little-altered environments. the present paper analyses seed dispersal via rabbit, fallow deer, red deer and cow dung in a mediterranean dehesa (open woodland used for hunting and ranching) during the seedi ...199528307361
effect of predator odors on heart rate and metabolic rate of wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis).we measured the heart rate (hr) and oxygen consumption ([formula: see text]) of wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) before, during, and after presentation of biologically irrelevant odors (pentane, thiophene, and a perfume), artificial predator odors (an ether extract of cougar feces, and pdt, a compound found in mustelid anal gland secretion), stale predator odors (dog feces and urine and fox urine, kept at ambient temperature for a few weeks), and fresh predator odors (wolf, coyote, and cougar ...199624227589
comparative rumen morphology of sympatric sika deer (cervus nippon) and red deer (c. elaphus scoticus) in the ahimanawa and kaweka ranges, central north island, new zealand.eighteen sika deer (cervus nippon) and 14 red deer (c. elaphus scoticus) were sampled from two areas where these closely related species are sympatric. total body weight, carcass weight, age class, sex, and internal parameters (e.g. liver weight, kidney weight, rumen volume) were recorded. samples of rumen wall mucosa taken from the dorsal rumen wall, atrium ruminis, caudoventral blindsac, and ventral rumen wall were used to compare rumen morphology between the two species (and also any area, se ...199628307077
risk factors associated with bruising in red deer at a commercial slaughter plant.bruising of slaughter animals has both economic and welfare implications. in order to identify potential risk factors we surveyed bruising of red deer carcasses from a single deer slaughter plant (dsp) over a three year period. downgrading due to bruising did not vary between the three years surveyed [1991, n = 21 454, 6.5% downgraded (dg); 1992, n = 22 289, 7.9% dg; 1993, n = 22 262, 6.1% dg]. from an intensive examination of one year's kill (1991) we related the incidence of bruising to variou ...199622060828
medical microbiologysubacute progressive degenerative diseases of the nervous system are important because they appear to be caused by infectious agents that are smaller than conventional viruses and composed mainly of protein related to a cell protein. few, if any, of these diseases are curable. although some are genetically determined, most occur sporadically, and a history of the disease does not appear in close relatives. therefore, ...199621413288
polymorphisms in the promoter region of the waf1/cip1 gene.the waf1/cip1 gene encodes p21(waf1), a cdk inhibitor which is implicated in cell growth arrest and differentiation, and is activated by wild-type p53. we examined the presence of mutations in a part of the 5' flanking region which is known to contain p53 binding sites, in 50 cases of lung cancer and 11 individuals with no history of cancer. polymorphisms were identified in the region close to: but not within, the p53 binding sites. the first polymorphism occurred at nucleotide -2203 prior to th ...199621541551
the short- and long-term consequences of corporal punishment. proceedings of a conference. elk grove village, illinois, february 9-10, 1996. 19969064635
use of an indwelling peripheral catheter for 3-5 day chemotherapy administration in the outpatient setting.registered nurses (rns) and clinical pharmacists in the hematology-oncology clinic at walter reed army medical center conducted a descriptive study to determine the effectiveness and safety of using indwelling peripheral intravenous catheters (pics) for daily administration of various chemotherapeutic agents given intermittently over a 3-5 day period to outpatients. eighty-nine adult outpatients requiring daily doses of chemotherapy including fluorouracil (5-fu) (solopak, elk grove village, il), ...19969060358
effects of season and nutrition on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-i in male red deer.gh and insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i are important components of the growth axis. we undertook to determine how plasma levels of these hormones altered with different seasonal and nutritional states in young male red deer to provide an insight into how the growth axis changes under these conditions. growth rate alters dramatically with season in male red deer, providing an opportunity to sample the same animals at two different growth rates within a short period of time. gh was measured eve ...19968593820
a comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).the ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, eld's deer, red deer, pere david's deer, european mouflon, african buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (cs), grass and roughage eaters (gr) and intermediate feeders (im) were compared. the parotid acinar cells of the cs contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of t ...19969090994
mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus) as experimental definitive hosts for fascioloides magna.in august 1992, six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) fawns and four elk (cervus elaphus) calves (n = 2) or yearlings (n = 2) each were inoculated orally with 50, 250, or 2,000 metacercariae of the liver fluke fascioloides magna to evaluate their potential to serve as definitive hosts. animals were maintained for up to 403 days. three mule deer each inoculated with 50 metacercariae survived the infection and shed eggs in feces; thus mule deer can function as definitive hosts for f. magna. ...19969359058
swayback in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and a black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).ataxia associated with myelopathy and low liver copper concentrations is described in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) from the karoo nature reserve, graaff-reinet. this syndrome, which occurs in neonatal and delayed forms, has been described in sheep, goats, pigs and domesticated red deer, but reports in other ungulates, including antelope, are very rare and generally unconfirmed by histopathological examination. the 2 animals examined exhibited a ...19968765071
similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the elk subclass of eph receptors.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell surface bound ligands have been implicated in a number of developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and fasciculation, as well as patterning in the central nervous system. to better understand the complex signaling events taking place, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions between a subset of ligands, those that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of eph ...19968918835
the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in small island populations: large mammals in the hebrides.conventionally, small populations living on islands are expected to lose genetic variation by drift. fluctuations in population size, combined with polygynous mating systems, are expected to contribute to the process by increasing sampling effects on genetic variation. however, in individually monitored populations of red deer on rum and soay sheep on st. kilda, which experience fluctuations in population size, two processes have been identified which mitigate loss of genetic variation. first, i ...19968693018
accumulation of cadmium and lead in red deer and wild boar at the veluwe, the netherlands. 19968933695
experimental and theoretical quantification of the development of damage in fatigue tests of bone and antler.this study concerns the development of damage (as measured by a reduction in elastic modulus) in two kinds of bones differing considerably in their degrees of mineralisation: laminar bone from bovine femur and osteonal bone from red deer antler. antler bone is much tougher than 'ordinary' bone and its failure properties have been investigated in: (i) monotonic tensile tests and (ii) creep rupture experiments. tensile fatigue is another way of examining how damage develops in bone. the developmen ...19968817365
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activate a selective subset of rac/rho-dependent effector pathways.phosphatidylinositol 3'-hydroxyl kinase (pi 3-kinase) is activated by many growth factor receptors and is thought to exert its cellular functions through the elevation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate levels in the cell. pi 3-kinase is required for growth-factor induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton which are mediated by the gtpases rac and rho. recently, a role for rac and rho in regulating gene transcription has become evident.19968939609
effects of glucose or insulin infusions on growth hormone secretion in male red deer.the growth hormone (gh) secretory pattern in male red deer is associated with the seasonal growth cycle. during this cycle metabolic state changes from weight gain in spring to weight loss in winter. however, short-term metabolic changes due to feeding could also alter the gh pattern. to investigate the effect of such changes on gh secretion, the acute feedback of blood glucose level on the gh secretory pattern was examined. six yearling male red deer were infused iv with glucose (g; 150 mg/kg/h ...19968812391
regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.membrane depolarization of ng108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase iv (cam-kiv), as well as activation of c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk). to investigate whether the ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (erk, jnk, and p38) might be mediated by the cam kinase cascade, we have transfected pc12 cells, which lack cam-kiv, with constitutively active mutants of cam kinase kinase and/or cam-kiv (cam-kkc and cam-kivc, respectively) ...19968855261
multiple p21ras effector pathways regulate nuclear factor of activated t cells.the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated t cells (nfat) is a major target for p21ras and calcium signalling pathways in the il-2 gene and is induced by p21ras signals acting in synergy with calcium/calcineurin signals. one p21ras effector pathway involves the map kinase erk-2, and we have examined its role in nfat regulation. expression of dominant negative mapkk-1 prevents nfat induction. constitutively active mapkk-1 fully activates erk-2 and the transcription factor elk-1, but do ...19968670897
biosynthesis, processing, and targeting of sphingolipid activator protein (sap )precursor in cultured human fibroblasts. mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent endocytosis of sap precursor.sphingolipid activator proteins (saps) are essential cofactors for the lysosomal degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains by acidic exohydrolases. sap-a, -b, -c, and -d derive from proteolysis of a 73-kda glycoprotein, the sap precursor. in the present publication, we studied the intracellular transport and the endocytosis of sap precursor in human skin fibroblasts. our data indicate that sap precursor bears phosphate residues on noncomplex carbohydrate chains linked t ...19968943309
urea-inducible egr-1 transcription in renal inner medullary collecting duct (mimcd3) cells is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.urea (200-400 milliosmolar) activates transcription, translation of, and trans-activation by the immediate-early gene transcription factor egr-1 in a renal epithelial cell-specific fashion. the effect at the transcriptional level has been attributed to multiple serum response elements and their adjacent ets motifs located within the egr-1 promoter. elk-1, a principal ternary complex factor and ets domain-containing protein, is a substrate of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) mitoge ...19968855340
simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western washingtonmodern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. we incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii, psme)-western hemlock (tsuga heterophylla, tshe) forest in we ...19968703108
in vitro responses of cervine macrophages to bacterial stimulants.the function of cervine (deer) mononuclear phagocytes is poorly defined. in the present study, the potential of cervine macrophages to generate phagocytic and immunoregulatory responses following stimulation with bacterial products was investigated. blood-derived macrophages of red deer were cultured in vitro with particulate stimulants (mycobacterium bovis bcg and staphylococcus aureus sac) or soluble stimulants (m. bovis ppd and escherichia coli lps), prior to assessment of phagocytic response ...19968969045
synergistic interactions between overlapping binding sites for the serum response factor and elk-1 proteins mediate both basal enhancement and phorbol ester responsiveness of primate cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoters in monocyte and t-lymphocyte cell types.cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection is nonpermissive or persistent in many lymphoid and myeloid cell types but can be activated in differentiated macrophages. we have shown elsewhere that both the major immediate-early gene (mie) and lytic cycle infectious progeny virus expression can be induced in otherwise nonpermissive monocyte-like u-937 cell cultures infected with either human cmv (hcmv) or simian cmv (scmv) by treatment with the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa). two mul ...19968970984
a parentage evaluation test in north american elk (wapiti) using microsatellites of ovine and bovine origin.dna microsatellites originally detected in sheep and cattle are also detectable in north american elk (wapiti) using polymerase chain reactions. we have developed a parentage test in elk using eleven microsatellite markers that are highly polymorphic and informative.19968856904
[changes in the number of deer louse-flies lipoptena cervi (hippoboscidae) in the forests of northwestern russia].long term observations of the abundance fluctuations of the deer louse-fly lipoptena cervi were carried out in forest areas of the leningrad, novgorod and pskov provinces in 1988-1995. the registration of the winged individuals was held in the period of the mass flight in august by the number of deer louse-flies attacking a collector man during 1 km of the pathway. the abundance of deer louse-flies was being high everywhere up to 1993, while it decreased by 8-29 times in 1994-1995. the reason of ...19968984438
contribution of both stat and srf/tcf to c-fos promoter activation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) is a hematopoietic growth factor that has been shown to support call proliferation in murine fibroblasts engineered to stably express both chains of the human gm-csf receptor (nih-gmr). because the proto-oncogene c-fos is believed to provide a link between short-term signals elicited at the membrane and long-term cellular response, we chose to study the mechanism of gm-csf-dependent cell regulation using c-fos promoter activity as a molec ...19968874187
bidirectional signalling through the eph-family receptor nuk and its transmembrane ligands.receptor tyrosine kinases of the eph class have been implicated in the control of axon guidance and fasciculation, in regulating cell migration, and in defining compartments in the developing embryo. efficient activation of eph receptors generally requires that their ligands be anchored to the cell surface, either through a transmembrane (tm) region or a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (gpi) group. these observations have suggested that eph receptors can transduce signals initiated by direct cell- ...19968878483
exogenous interferon delays luteal regression in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) by suppressing steroid-induced endometrial oxytocin sensitivity.three groups of intact hinds (n = 10-18) and one group of ovariectomized hinds were treated with progesterone by mean, of controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices for 13 days (device removal = day 0). group 1 served as controls; group 2 received injections of 4 mg recombinant bovine interferon-alpha,1 twice daily from days 13 to 21; group 3 was run with a stag from days 0 to 3, and all hinds were subsequently diagnosed pregnant; group 4 (ovariectomized) was treated with cidr devices and ...19968879504
conservation of a 31-bp bovine subrepeat in centromeric satellite dna monomers of cervus elaphus and other cervid species.a centromeric satellite dna clone was isolated from the genome of the european red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and designated ce-pst1. this clone was localized to the centromeric region of all red deer chromosomes with the exception of a single pair of metacentric autosomes and the y chromosome. dna sequence analysis of the 806-bp ce-pst1 clone showed 73.0-78.9% sequence homology to four previously isolated cervid centromeric satellite dna clones, suggesting that the ce-pst1 clone is yet a ...19968889241
observations on the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed red deer in central southern england.the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed red deer was followed over three years on two farms in north hertfordshire. worm counts on 10 animals (four months to 10 years old) between november and march showed that mixed ostertagid infections were dominant with very small numbers of trichostrongylus axei, cooperia punctata and oesophagostomum species also present in some individuals. an increase in the faecal nematode egg count of the hinds in summer was followed by an increase ...19968883346
prevalence of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever virus in wild and domestic ruminants by competitive-inhibition elisa.a competitive-inhibition elisa (ci-elisa), based on a monoclonal antibody to an epitope conserved among malignant catarrhal fever virus (mcfv) strains of both wildebeest and sheep origin, was used to determine the prevalence of antibody to mcfv in selected domestic and wild ruminants, both free-ranging and captive, from the usa. we evaluated 2528 sera from 14 species between 1990 and 1995, including 80 pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), 339 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), 103 biston (b ...19968827669
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. i. residue levels.mandibular fluorine concentrations were determined in 1,425 red deer (cervus elaphus), 240 moose (alces alces), and 424 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) collected in norway from 1990 to 1993 in seven municipalities in which aluminum smelters are located, in eight neighboring municipalities, and in eight reference areas representing background levels. background fluorine concentration was significantly correlated with age in all three species. roe deer had the highest mean background fluorine level ...19968722253
fluoride exposure in cervids inhabiting areas adjacent to aluminum smelters in norway. ii. fluorosis.mandibles from 1104 red deer (cervus elaphus), 147 moose (alces alces), and 453 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), collected between 1990 and 1993 in the vicinity of seven norwegian aluminum smelters, were examined for dental fluorotic and osteofluorotic lesions. the metacarpal or metatarsal bones from 214 of these cervids also were evaluated. dental fluorotic lesions occurred in all three cervid species. prevalence of dental fluorosis was generally low at the various locations, with the exception ...19968722254
efficacy and safety of naltrexone hydrochloride for antagonizing carfentanil citrate immobilization in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).we evaluated efficacy and safety of naltrexone for antagonizing carfentanil immobilization in 12 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using a randomized incomplete block experiment. in three replicate trials, elk were hand-injected with 10 micrograms carfentanil citrate/kg body weight intramuscularly. fifteen min after each elk became recumbent, we administered naltrexone hcl (25% of dose intravenously, 75% subcutaneously) dosed at 0 (control), 25, 50, or 100 mg/mg carfentanil; af ...19968722260
multiple requirements for shptp2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined shptp2's function in growth factor signaling. overexpression of catalytically inactive shptp2 (ptp2cs) but not catalytically inactive shptp1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase activation and elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (egf) stimulation of 293 cells. an shptp2 mutant with both c-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (ptp2yf) was also without effect; mor ...19968622663
protection of balb/c mice against homologous and heterologous species of brucella by rough strain vaccines derived from brucella melitensis and brucella suis biovar 4.to evaluate stable rough mutants derived from brucella melitensis 16m and b suis 2579 (biovar 4) as vaccines against homologous and heterologous brucella spp in the balb/c mouse model. design, animals, and procedure: rough mutants vtrm1 and vtrs1 were obtained from b melitensis 16m and b suis 2579, respectively, by allelic exchange of rfbu gene encoding mannosyltransferase with a tn5-disrupted rfbu gene. mice were vaccinated with vtrm1 or vtrs1 and challenge exposed 8 weeks later.19968723881
integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.a transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (srf) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (tcf), mediates the response of the c-fos serum response element to growth factors and mitogens. in nih3t3 fibroblasts, tcf binding is required for transcriptional activation by the sre in response to activation of the ras-raf-erk pathway. we compared the properties of three members of the tcf family, elk-1, sap-1 and sap-2 (erp/net). although all the proteins contain sequen ...19968735278
innervation and anesthesia of the antler pedicle in wapiti and fallow deer.the heads from 6 mature male wapiti and 8 mature male fallow deer were dissected to provide a description of the nerves supplying the antler pedicles. innervation in both species was found to resemble that of the red deer, with major contributions coming from the infratrochlear and zygomaticotemporal nerves. all heads displayed a dorsal branch from the auriculopalpebral nerve, but in only 2 wapiti and 3 fallow deer heads was this branch observed travelling to the pedicle. the dorsal branches of ...19968853883
a comparison of gross pathology, histopathology, and mycobacterial culture for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elk (cervus elaphus).using the isolation of mycobacterium bovis as the reference standard, this study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistic of gross pathology (abattoir postmortem inspection), histopathology, and parallel or series combinations of the two for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 430 elk and red deer. two histopathology interpretations were evaluated: histopathology i, where the presence of lesions compatible with tuberculosis was considered positive, and histopathology ii, where les ...19968785715
chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types i, iia, iib, and x demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry.the annual regrowth of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration occurring in an adult animal. growth is initiated at the distal antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in some respects. however, there is some debate as to whether this process represents "true" endochondral ossification. as part of the characterization of the developmental process in pre-osseus antler tissue, we have studied, by in situ hybridization, the spatial expression of mrn ...19968850568
ability to culture dermal papilla cells from red deer (cervus elaphus) hair follicles with differing hormonal responses in vivo offers a new model for studying the control of hair follicle biology.red deer stags annually grow two distinct seasonal coats, a winter coat and a summer coat; in addition, they produce a mane during the breeding season when plasma testosterone levels are high, which is replaced by the short neck hairs of the summer coat when testosterone levels are low. as two very different hair types are produced from the same follicle under hormonal regulation, they offer an interesting model for studying the effects of hormones, particularly androgens, on mammalian hair grow ...19968795289
structure and organization of the mouse elk1 gene.in the ets gene family of transcription factors, elk1 belongs to the subfamily of ternary complex factors (tcfs) which bind to the serum response element (sre) in conjunction with a dimer of serum response factors (srfs). in this communication we report the isolation of cdnas from the mouse elk1 gene, containing the full coding sequence homologous (87% identical) to the human gene, and the structure and organization of 22 kb of the mouse elk1 locus. the coding sequence is spread through 5 exons ...19968863747
dose rate and mode of exposure are key factors in jnk activation by uv irradiation.single exposure of cells to uvc (254 nm for 30 s) or to uvb (300 nm for 10 min) was shown to activate jun-nh2 kinases which, in turn, phosphorylate their substrates elk-1, c-jun and atf-2. while uvc (40-80 j/m2) activates jnk up to 4 h, with maximal induction after 30 min, uvb (150-300 j/m2) activates jnk over a prolonged period, up to 24 h, with maximal induction after 6 h. uv-mediated activation of src-related tyrosine kinases and mapk revealed different kinetics, with maximal induction after ...19968824537
selective response of ternary complex factor sap1a to different mitogen-activated protein kinase subgroups.mitogenic and stres signals results in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erks) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun n-terminal kinases (sapk/jnks), respectively, which are two subgroups of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. a nuclear target of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases is the ternary complex factor elk-1, which underlies its involvement in the regulation of c-fos gene expression by mitogenic and stress signals. a second ternary complex factor, sap1a ...19968876175
pax-5 (bsap) recruits ets proto-oncogene family proteins to form functional ternary complexes on a b-cell-specific promoter.the paired box transcription factor pax-5 (b-cell-specific activator protein) is a key regulator of lineage-specific gene expression and differentiation in b-lymphocytes. we show that pax-5 functions as a cell type-specific docking protein that facilitates binding of the early b-cell-specific mb-1 promoter by proteins of the ets proto-oncogene family. transcriptional activity of the mb-1 promoter in pre-b-cells is critically dependent on binding sites for pax-5:ets complexes. ternary complex ass ...19968804314
molecular cloning of two novel transmembrane ligands for eph-related kinases (lerks) that are related to lerk-2.a search of the nucleic acid database of expressed sequence tags (ests) revealed several partial cdna sequences that could encode proteins homologous to the ligands for eph-related kinases (lerks). oligonucleotides designed from the ests were used to probe a human brain cdna library and obtain overlapping clones that encoded two different novel lerks (nlerk-1 and nlerk-2). nlerk-1 and nlerk-2 are most closely related to human lerk-2/elk-ligand and they form a subclass of lerks that contain a tra ...19968804996
ghf-1/pit-1 functions as a cell-specific integrator of ras signaling by targeting the ras pathway to a composite ets-1/ghf-1 response element.activation of the rat prolactin (rprl) promoter by ras is a prototypical example of tissue-specific transcriptional regulation in a highly differentiated cell type. using a series of site-specific mutations and deletions of the proximal rprl promoter we have mapped the major ras/raf response element (rre) to a composite ets-1/ghf-1 binding site located between positions -217 and -190. mutation of either the ets-1 or ghf-1 binding sites inhibits ras and raf activation of the rprl promoter, and in ...19968798730
modification of the mycobacterium bovis extracellular protein mpb70 with fluorescein for rapid detection of specific serum antibodies by fluorescence polarization.the principle of fluorescence polarization described by perrin (f. perrin, j. phys. radium 7:390-401, 1926) was applied to the development of a novel assay that used fluorescein-labeled mycobacterium bovis secretory protein mpb70 for rapid detection of anti-mpb70 antibodies in selected sera from three m. bovis-infected species (elk, ilama, and bison). labeling of purified mpb70 with fluorescein isothiocyanate resulted in the incorporation of 0.96 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 3) flu ...19968807210
dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (dlk) activates p46sapk and p38mapk but not erk2.because the catalytic domain of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (dlk) bears sequence similarity to members of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase kinase kinase subfamily, this protein kinase was investigated for its ability to activate map kinase pathways. when transiently transfected and overexpressed in either cos 7 cells or nih3t3 cells, wild type dlk potently activated p46(sapk) (sapk/jnk) but had no detectable effect in activating p42/44(mapk). dlk also activated p38(mapk) when ov ...19968798750
determination of stability of brucella abortus rb51 by use of genomic fingerprint, oxidative metabolism, and colonial morphology and differentiation of strain rb51 from b. abortus isolates from bison and elk.brucella abortus rb51 and isolates from cattle, bison, and elk were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and standard techniques for biotyping brucella species, which included biochemical, morphological, and antigenic techniques, phage susceptibility, and antibiotic resistance. the objectives were to ascertain the stability of rb51 and to differentiate rb51 from other brucellae. genomic restriction endonuclease patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a uni ...19968904427
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