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ternary complex factors: growth factor regulated transcriptional activators.members of a family of ets domain proteins, the ternary complex factors (tcfs), are recruited to the c-fos serum response element by interaction with the serum response factor. recent findings indicate that phosphorylation of tcfs occurs in response to activation of the map kinase pathway, and that regulation of tcf activity is an important mechanism by which the serum response element responds to growth factor signals.19948193547
cloning and expression of the cervine interleukin 4 gene.interleukin 4 (il-4), a cytokine produced by the t helper 2 subset of t lymphocytes is involved in up regulating antibody responses. a source of recombinant cervine il-4 would be useful for studying the immune response of deer to tuberculosis. we report here the cloning, sequencing and expression of recombinant cervine il-4. to achieve this mrna was isolated from red deer (cervus elaphus) mononuclear leucocytes. first strand cdna was synthesized from the mrna and the il-4 cdna was amplified, clo ...19948029646
the edmonton and red deer nursing program: collaborative model an update on implementation. 19948030390
the caax peptidomimetic compound b581 specifically blocks farnesylated, but not geranylgeranylated or myristylated, oncogenic ras signaling and transformation.recently developed caax peptidomimetic compounds have been shown to be potent and specific inhibitors of farnesyl protein transferase activity and to block the growth of ras-transformed cells. however, whether this growth inhibitory action is specifically a consequence of blocking oncogenic ras signaling has not been determined. to address this question, we have utilized mutants of the normally farnesylated oncogenic ras protein (ras-f) that are modified by alternative lipids, a geranylgeranyl i ...19948034681
deer-herd health and production profiling in new zealand. i. study design.a 2-year observational study was conducted on 15 commercial red-deer farms in the north island of new zealand, to provide health and production data, and identify risk factors for outcomes including health, reproduction, venison and velvet antler production. about 2,700 hinds, 2,400 weaner deer and 1,500 stags were monitored. daily management practices, deer performance and health problems were recorded. at 3-monthly visits, samples were collected from deer, pastures and soils. data were process ...19948038772
deer herd health and production profiling in new zealand. 2. preliminary results.a 2 yr observational study of 15 commercial red deer farms is being conducted in new zealand and statistical analysis initiated. preliminary results for weaner deer growth, reproduction and deer mortality data are presented. multivariable statistical analyses are used to identify risk factors for these various outcomes. factors associated with yearling hind conception status were included in a putative path diagram and logistic regression was used to identify important factors.19948038796
light microscopic studies of pedicle and early first antler development in red deer (cervus elaphus).although it is known that deer antlerogenic potential resides in the periosteum of an antlerogenic region and antler forms through modified endochondral ossification, how a deciduous antler forms histologically through a permanent pedicle from the periosteum has not been reported.19948059982
bonding soft reline materials to base metals.in the past it has been difficult to treat soft tissue changes occurring beneath metal frameworks of removable partial dentures or complete dentures using soft reline materials. the main difficulty has been in getting the resilient materials to adhere to the metal. this research investigates the use of microabrading with and without a universal resin bonding system in achieving a clinically useful bond between two soft reline materials and a commonly used base-metal alloy.19948061785
transient activation of raf-1, mek, and erk2 coincides kinetically with ternary complex factor phosphorylation and immediate-early gene promoter activity in vivo.we have investigated the early in vivo signaling events triggered by serum that lead to activation of the c-fos proto-oncogene in hela cells. both raf-1 and mek kinase activities are fully induced within 3 min of serum treatment and quickly decrease thereafter, slightly preceding the activation and inactivation of p42mapk/erk2. erk2 activity correlates tightly with a transient phosphatase-sensitive modification of ternary complex factor (tcf), manifested by the slower electrophoretic mobility of ...19948065354
antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda, metastrongyloidea).we studied the antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis, in an attempt to identify potential serodiagnostic molecules for this important infection of wild ungulates. soluble extracts of p. tenuis adult worms and third-stage larvae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and two-dimensional (2d) electrophoresis and analyzed by immunoblotting using purified rabbit anti-p. tenuis immunoglobulin g (igg) ...19948068755
molecular characterization of a family of ligands for eph-related tyrosine kinase receptors.a family of tyrosine kinase receptors related to the product of the eph gene has been described recently. one of these receptors, elk, has been shown to be expressed only in brain and testes. using a direct expression cloning technique, a ligand for the elk receptor has been isolated by screening a human placenta cdna library with a fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of the receptor. this isolated cdna encodes a transmembrane protein. while the sequence of the ligand cdna is uniq ...19948070404
c-fos transcriptional activity stimulated by h-ras-activated protein kinase distinct from jnk and erk.ras proteins exert their mitogenic and oncogenic effects through activation of downstream protein kinases. an important question is how ras-generated signals reach the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. ap-1, a heterodimeric complex of jun and fos proteins, which activates mitogen-inducible genes, is a major nuclear target of ras. ras can stimulate ap-1 activity by inducing c-fos transcription, a process which is probably mediated by the erk1 and -2 mitogen-activated protein (map) kina ...19948072547
diagnosis of elaphostrongylus cervi infection in new zealand red deer (cervus elaphus) quarantined in canada, and experimental determination of a new extended prepatent period.a modified baermann assay was used to recover dorsal-spined, first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi from feces and lungs of red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) from three of four herds imported from new zealand into canadian quarantine facilities. tests done on a series of fecal collections showed that larval output from infected red deer was low and sporadic, casting doubt on the efficacy of the baermann assay to detect all infected individuals in the herds. the animals had passed repeated ...19948076289
transcriptional activation of the immediate early gene pip92 by serum growth factors requires both ets and carg-like elements.pip92 is an immediate early gene that is transcriptionally activated in mouse 3t3 fibroblasts upon treatment with serum growth factors or the tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. here we show that a 73-base pair pip92 promoter fragment located between base pairs 1231 and 1158 upstream of the transcription start site is sufficient to mediate transcriptional activation. this promoter fragment contains two binding sites for transcription factors of the ets family and a low affinity ...19948083220
heterogeneity of ternary complex factors in hela cell nuclear extracts.ternary complex factors (tcfs) interact with the serum response factor and dna containing the c-fos serum response element to form a ternary complex that mediates induction of c-fos. tcf activities were partially purified from hela cell nuclear extracts by dna-cellulose and anion-exchange chromatography followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. four different protein spots (p60tcf, p62tcf, p62.5tcf, and p64tcf) show renaturable tcf activity. one, p62tcf, was indistinguishable from the ets ...19948083237
clustered organization of krüppel zinc-finger genes at xp11.23, flanking a translocation breakpoint at oatl1: a physical map with locus assignments for znf21, znf41, znf81, and elk1.the znf21, znf41, and znf81 genes encode krüppel-type zinc-finger proteins (zfps) and have previously been mapped to chromosome xp. published data describing the clustering of zfp genes on human autosomes led us to investigate the organization of znf21, znf41, and znf81 on the x chromosome. rodent-human hybrid analysis sublocalized all three genes to xp22.11-p11.23. znf21, znf41, and znf81 were then shown to segregate within a series of yacs (95 to 730 kb) containing known markers at xp11.23, su ...19948088786
a 1.8-mb yac contig in xp11.23: identification of cpg islands and physical mapping of ca repeats in a region of high gene density.the genes araf1, syn1, timp, and pfc are clustered within 70 kb of one another, and, as reported in the accompanying paper (j. knight et al., 1994, genomics 21: 180-187), at least four more genes map within 400 kb: a cluster of krüppel-type zinc finger genes (including znf21, znf41, and znf81) and elk-1, a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. this gene-rich region is of particular interest because of the large number of disease genes mapping to xp11.23: at least three eye diseases (retinitis ...19948088827
genomic organization and chromosomal localization of mouse eplg2, a gene encoding a binding protein for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk.the human gene eplg2 (eph ligand-2) encodes a potential ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk. high sequence conservation between the human and the rat cdnas and developmentally regulated expression of the rat gene suggest that the protein encoded by eplg2 plays an important role in mammalian development. to facilitate analysis of the physiological role of the protein, we have cloned and characterized a 24-kb region of mouse genomic dna containing the mouse homologue of eplg2 (eplg2), incl ...19947896266
strontium-90 in antlers of red deer: an indicator of environmental contamination by strontium-90.the sampling procedures in connection with a very sensitive analytical method are described. results from different areas in austria are presented and an interpretion of the results is attempted. some findings are in accordance with measurements from other substances, some are not. the differences most probably depend on several factors like soil type, precipitation, migration of strontium-90, concentration of stable strontium and calcium. no significant rise in the concentration could be found ...19947839120
rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv 1) using the polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay based on primers from the viral gi glycoprotein gene detected 3 fg pure bhv-1 dna, 0.1-1.0 tcid50 or a single infected cell. no amplification was observed with dna from bhv-2, bhv-3, bhv-4, ohv-1 or ohv-2. however, a fragment of the correct size was amplified using dna from herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, red deer and goats. the pcr assay was able to detect virus in nasal swabs up to 14 days after experimental infection of cattle and there was a good ...19947839585
the role of regulated phosphorylation in the biological activity of transcription factors srf and elk-1/sap-1.the promoters of many genes whose expression is rapidly and transiently increased upon growth factor or mitogen stimulation of susceptible cells harbor a common regulatory element, the serum response element (sre). the transcription factors that interact with the sre of these immediate-early genes are being intensively studied so as to elucidate the signal transduction cascades that link cell surface receptors to the sre, and to determine the mechanisms by which signal-dependent phosphorylation ...19947847828
mapping of the human sap1 (srf accessory protein 1) gene and sap2, a gene encoding a related protein, to chromosomal bands 1q32 and 12q23, respectively.sap1, sap2, and elk1 form a related subgroup of ets-domain proteins that can form ternary complexes with the transcription factor srf at the c-fos serum response element (sre). sap1 was identified by a genetic screen for proteins interacting with srf expressed in yeast, and sap2 by its homology with sap1; elk1 was previously identified by its homology to the ets domain. cdna probes were used to isolate cosmid and phage clones harboring genes encoding sap1 and sap2. these clones were subsequently ...19947851904
nuclear import of serum response factor (srf) requires a short amino-terminal nuclear localization sequence and is independent of the casein kinase ii phosphorylation site.serum stimulation of resting cells is mediated at least in part at the transcriptional level by the activation of numerous genes among which c-fos constitutes a model. serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre) with an accessory protein p62tcf/elk-1. both proteins are the targets of multiple phosphorylation events and their role is still unknown in the amino terminus of srf. while the transcriptional activation domain has been mapped between ami ...19947699002
susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. in a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from p. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. alveolar macrophag ...19947760482
dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and their relation to cortisol in red deer (cervus elaphus).adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone, its sulphate and, in comparison, cortisol in serum were determined over two periods in red deer. the hormone levels were determined in hinds farmed from their births, captured in adulthood, and in fawns reared under farm conditions with their mothers or under artificial farm conditions without their mothers. in addition, steroid levels were studied in stags under farm conditions in and after the breeding season. investigation of animals for their potent ...19947894886
expression and developmental regulation of ehk-1, a neuronal elk-like receptor tyrosine kinase in brain.protein tyrosine kinases are pivotal in central nervous tissue development and maintenance. here we focus on the expression of ehk-1, a novel elk-related receptor tyrosine kinase. ehk-1 gene expression is observed in the developing and adult central nervous system and is highly regulated throughout development at both the messenger rna and protein levels. three messenger rna transcripts of 8.5, 5.9 and 5.1 kb are detectable in the rat brain and a variety of splice possibilities have been identif ...19947898646
erp, a new member of the ets transcription factor/oncoprotein family: cloning, characterization, and differential expression during b-lymphocyte development.the ets gene family encodes a group of proteins which function as transcription factors under physiological conditions and, if aberrantly expressed, can cause cellular transformation. we have recently identified two regulatory elements in the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (igh) enhancer, pi and microb, which exhibit striking similarity to binding sites for ets-related proteins. to identify ets-related transcriptional regulators expressed in pre-b lymphocytes that may interact with either the ...19947909357
binding of an ets-related protein within the dnase i hypersensitive site of the her2/neu promoter in human breast cancer cells.promoter elements accounting for her2 (c-erbb-2/neu) overexpression were searched for in several human breast cancer cell lines (mda-453, bt-474, zr-75-1, mcf-7) known to express constitutively a 30-fold range in her2 transcripts per gene copy. her2 overexpressing cells showed a single prominent dnase i hypersensitive site near a conserved and hitherto unrecognized ets response element (gaggaa), located 38 bases down-stream from the caat box and directly 5' of the tata box in the human her2 prom ...19947914192
involvement of growth factor receptors in the mammalian uvc response.irradiation of hela cells with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (uvc) induces the modification and activation of the preexisting transcription factors c-fos-c-jun (ap-1) and tcf/elk-1, as well as the protein synthesis independent transcriptional activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes. this response to uvc is mediated via obligatory cytoplasmic signal transduction, involving ras and raf, src, and map kinases. the uvc response is inhibited by prior down-modulation of growth factor receptor sign ...19947923365
refined mapping of the human ets-related gene elk-1 to xp11.2-p11.4, distal to the oatl1 region.the gene for human elk-1, an ets-related transcription factor, has previously been localized to a region that lies on the short arm of chromosome x and that is involved in specific chromosomal translocations associated with synovial sarcoma and renal adenocarcinomas. we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization and a panel of tumor-derived somatic cell hybrids to refine the localization of elk-1, in particular with regard to the rearrangements in these tumors. elk-1 has been assigned to xp11. ...19947927346
culture isolation and partial characterization of a babesia sp. from a north american elk (cervus elaphus).three north american yearling elk (cervus elaphus) died with clinical symptoms suggestive of babesiosis. babesia sp. organisms similar in morphology to b. odocoilei of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were observed in giemsa-stained blood films from one of the elk. continuous cultures of the parasite were established. antiserum raised against the elk babesia sp. isolate was compared to b. odocoilei specific antiserum in an immunofluorescent antibody assay; we found evidence of differen ...19947933298
experimental infections of eimeria wapiti and e. zuernii-like oocysts in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) calves.four rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) 10 to 14 wk of age each were inoculated orally with a mixture of 50,000 sporulated oocysts of an eimeria zuernii-like apicomplexan (70%) and e. wapiti (30%). maximum numbers of oocysts per gram of feces (opg) in each elk ranged from 985 to 15,517, but all calves remained healthy and clinical signs of coccidiosis were not observed. the prepatent period for e. zuernii was 8 days and the patent period approximately 37 days, with a maximum mean (+/- se) recov ...19947933299
bot fly larvae (cephenemyia jellisoni) as a cause of neurologic signs in an elk.in june 1993, a yearling female elk (cervus elaphus) near john day, oregon (usa) was observed twice over a four week period with signs of neurologic disease including weakness, walking in circles with an uncoordinated gait and disorientation. the elk was shot, and the head and neck were examined grossly for parasites and lesions. thirty-five second and third instar larvae of cephenemyia jellisoni were recovered from an encapsulated space in the nasopharyngeal area dorsal to the soft palate. larv ...19947933300
[wegener's granulomatosis].wegener's granulomatosis (wg) is a multiorgan disease with a predilection for the upper airways (e: ear, eye, nose, throat) and lower airways (l: lung) and the kidneys (k):elk classification. typical histological features of wg include inflammation of small and medium sized vessels, necrosis and granuloma formation. the histological findings of wg are divided into 4 stages ie, i: degeneration ii: acute inflammation iii: granulation iv: scar. the recognition of the association between c (proteina ...19947933591
lerk-2, a binding protein for the receptor-tyrosine kinase elk, is evolutionarily conserved and expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern.we have isolated and characterized cdna clones that encode the rat homologue of a binding protein, lerk-2, for the receptor tyrosine kinase, elk. the cdnas contain an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides capable of encoding a protein 345 amino acid residues in length. the nucleotide sequence of the present clones is > 90% identical to the previously identified human lerk-2 cdna, and the predicted proteins encoded by the rat and human clones are identical at 95% of amino acid residues. recombin ...19947936648
an abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 north american elk (cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. the prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tube ...19947954222
electron spin resonance assessment of susceptibility of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) to oilseed rape (brassica napus) poisoning.ex vivo studies have been carried out on roe and red deer erythrocytes using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. free radical formation in cells challenged with the brassica-derived haemolysin, dimethyldisulphide, was measured using spin trapping techniques. significantly greater amounts of radical were trapped in the roe deer cells which may relate to differences in the antioxidant profile of the two genotypes. results suggest that roe deer have a greater risk of developing oilseed rape poiso ...19947956119
serum-regulated transcription by serum response factor (srf): a novel role for the dna binding domain.the transcription factors serum response factor (srf) and ternary complex factor (tcf) form a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). we show that in nih3t3 cells tcf binding is required for regulated transcription in response to stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate (pma), but not by whole serum. we constructed a novel transcriptionally inactive sre variant whose serum-regulated activity can be partially restored by overexpression of srf in the absence of bound tcf. activa ...19947957108
net, a new ets transcription factor that is activated by ras.ras signaling appears to be mediated in part by transcription factors that belong to the ets gene family. to identify downstream targets for the ras signal transduction pathway, we have used ras-transformed mouse fibroblasts to isolate a new member of the ets gene family, net. net has sequence similarity in three regions with the ets factors elk1 and sap1, which have been implicated in the serum response of the fos promoter. net shares various properties with these proteins, including the abilit ...19947958835
ras/map kinase-dependent and -independent signaling pathways target distinct ternary complex factors.transcriptional activation of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1 by extracellular signals appears to be mediated by ternary complex factors (tcfs). in bac-1 macrophages, growth factor stimulation leads to the retardation of protein-dna complexes containing distinct tcfs. one tcf is recognized by elk-1 antisera, whereas the other is immunologically related to sap-1. the appearance and decay of hyperphosphorylated tcf/elk-1-containing complexes after stimulation coincide with the activation ...19947958858
the genomes of the animal papillomaviruses european elk papillomavirus, deer papillomavirus, and reindeer papillomavirus contain a novel transforming gene (e9) near the early polyadenylation site.we report that the genomes of reindeer papillomavirus (rpv), european elk papillomavirus (eepv), and deer papillomavirus (dpv) contain a short conserved translational open reading frame (orf), e9, which is located between the e5 orf and the early polyadenylation site. in rpv, dpv, and eepv, e9 orfs have the potential to encode extremely hydrophobic polypeptides of approximately 40 amino acids. in mouse c127 cells transformed by eepv and rpv, there exists a unique, abundant mrna species of approx ...19947966628
ligands for eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases that require membrane attachment or clustering for activity.the eph-related transmembrane tyrosine kinases constitute the largest known family of receptor-like tyrosine kinases, with many members displaying specific patterns of expression in the developing and adult nervous system. a family of cell surface-bound ligands exhibiting distinct, but overlapping, specificities for these eph-related kinases was identified. these ligands were unable to act as conventional soluble factors. however, they did function when presented in membrane-bound form, suggesti ...19947973638
effect of changing daylength on the diurnal pattern of intake and feeding behaviour in penned red deer (cervus elaphus).voluntary food intakes by 12 housed red deer hinds were recorded during six 2-week periods between april and november. diurnal patterns of intake and feeding activity were measured by weighing food at either 5-min (april, may and june) or 1-min intervals (july, september and november). at each time of the year, mean rates of food intake, amount of feeding activity and frequency of feeding bouts were significantly greater during periods of daylight than during darkness. food intake rate and feedi ...19947979338
electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease.we report here the electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease (cdw), a progressive and fatal neurological disorder of wild ruminants characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ultrastructural findings included membrane-bound vacuoles in neuronal elements, increased number of glial filaments, dystrophic neurites, numerous neuritic plaques, hirano bodies ...19947982031
regional distribution of estradiol receptors in growing antlers.this study of estrogen receptors (er) was carried out to confirm their presence and to determine their localisation in antler bones. partially grown antlers were amputated from red deer (cervus elaphus) stags, the skin removed, and samples taken of periosteum, cartilaginous tissue including perichondrium, and bone. capacity and binding of free er in the samples were calculated by scatchard analysis of data obtained from a radioreceptor assay which utilised [3h]estradiol as tracer. high affinity ...19947985211
lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the raf-1/map kinase pathway. a putative role for raf-1 in the induction of the il-1 beta and the tnf-alpha genes.bacterial lps is a potent macrophage activator. the early steps in lps signal transduction involve the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a number of kinases of the src family, and inhibition of this pathway causes a severe impairment in the production of the cytokines tnf-alpha and il-1 beta. we find that lps-induced macrophages activation also involves the raf-1 kinase, a key component in mitogenic signal transduction. treatment of bac-1.2f5 macrophages with lps causes phosphorylation ...19947989771
thyroid hormones are required for the expression of seasonal changes in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.experiment 1, from 6 july 1990 (winter) to 8 november 1990 (spring), examined the effect of an early elevation of plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the expression of seasonal changes in 20-month-old stags. four stags were injected subcutaneously with 1 mg thyroxine (t4) daily, and four with vehicle only. plasma t4 concentration was elevated by injection of t4; the mean concentration 24 h after injection was 192 +/- 31 nmol l-1 compared with 58 +/- 5 nmol l-1 in controls on 21 september. h ...19947991787
oxytocin stimulates uterine prostaglandin f2 alpha secretion in red deer cervus elaphus.the prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue cloprostenol stimulates ovarian secretion of oxytocin in red deer hinds and père david's deer hinds, as in cattle and sheep, but the response of the uterus to administered oxytocin has not been studied in deer. in the present experiment, oxytocin administered intravenously caused an increase in circulating concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin f2 alpha from 186 +/- 35 to 404 +/- 34 pmol l-1 within 5 min; concentrations in saline-treated hinds w ...19947991799
inhibition of v-raf-dependent c-fos expression and transformation by a kinase-defective mutant of the mitogen-activated protein kinase erk2.receptor-bound growth factors elicit intracellular signals that lead to the phosphorylation and activation of numerous intracellular kinases and transcription factors with consequent changes in patterns of gene expression. several oncogene products are able to mimic these signals, resulting in cell transformation and proliferation. for example, the introduction of oncogenic forms of raf-1 kinase into fibroblasts induces transformation and leads to the constitutive expression of, among others, th ...19948007980
sedation of wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) with medetomidine and the influence on some haematological and serum biochemical variables.medetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist, was tested for the sedation of wild boar (sus scrofa) (n = 6) and red deer (cervus elaphus) (n = 7). the effectivity of this drug and the dose required for handling, blood sampling, and minor surgery were established for both species. in addition the effect of medetomidine sedation on haematological and serum biochemical variables was studied. all animals used were clinically normal females aged approximately 1.5 years. the minimal dose required to sedate a wild ...19948009823
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish deer.to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in the most common species of danish deer, blood samples were collected from roe deer (capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (dama dama), and red deer (cervus elaphus). a total of 156 blood samples were collected primarily from hunts in three areas of denmark from november 1990 to december 1991. presence of deer igg antibodies to the borrelia burgdorferi strain dk ecm 1 were shown by an indirect immunofluorescence assay at serum titre ...19948011306
seasonality in digestion and rumen metabolism in red deer (cervus elaphus) fed on a forage diet.six adult castrated male red deer (cervus elaphus), fitted with rumen cannulas, were offered chaffed lucerne hay ad lib. during winter and summer, with voluntary food intake (vfi) being respectively 59 and 89 g dry matter intake (dmi)/kg bodyweight 0.75 per d. the same animals were also offered the same feed during summer, with intake restricted to that of winter vfi. the apparent digestibility of gross energy (0.60) or fibre (0.41) and the total capacity (volume) of the rumen were unaffected by ...19948011605
functional divergence of the map kinase pathway. erk1 and erk2 activate specific transcription factors.growth factor-receptor interactions at the cell surface eventually leading to the transcriptional activation of immediate early genes is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (map kinase/mapk) cascade. here we show that overexpression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (erk1) cdna, encoding p44mapk, results in the activation of elk-1, the serum response factor accessory protein. we also show that overexpression of erk2, encoding p42mapk, activates myc, but not elk-1. therefore ...19948013639
effect of exogenous gonadotrophins on oestrus, the lh surge and the timing and rate of ovulation in red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer hinds (n = 38) were treated in the breeding season with five different gonadotrophin regimens to investigate the temporal relationship between oestrus, ovulation and the lh surge. all hinds were treated with progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release (cidr) devices to synchronize oestrus. the five treatments were as follows: treatment 1, controls; treatments 2, 3 and 4, 1200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (pmsg) was administered i.m. 72 h before cidr device withdr ...19948021874
influence of prenatal photoperiod on postnatal reproductive development in male red deer (cervus elaphus).male red deer calves, whose mothers had been kept for the last 14 weeks of gestation in long days (18 h light:6 h dark) (group l, n = 7) or short days (6 h light:18 h dark) (group s, n = 5), were kept in constant intermediate daylength (12 h light:12 h dark) from birth to 75 weeks of age. both groups showed the same live-weight gain. mean plasma lh concentrations were higher in group l than in group s from birth to 20 weeks of age (averaging 1.55 versus 0.48 ng ml-1, p < 0.001), from 21 to 45 we ...19948021883
superovulation in red deer (cervus elaphus) and père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), and fertilization rates following artificial insemination with père david's deer semen.two comparative studies were undertaken using adult, female red and père david's deer to examine the ovulatory response of these animals to a superovulation regimen and fertilization rates following inter- and intraspecific laparoscopic insemination. in expt 1 six père david's deer and 12 red deer hinds were treated during the breeding season with an intravaginal progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release device (cidr) for 14 days, with 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin ( ...19948021886
[parasitic arthropods from some species of wild mammals from middle pomerania].a total of 109 mammals belonging to 3 wild species: cervus elaphus, capreolus capreolus and sus scrofa were examined post mortem after delivery by hunters to the warehouses of the "jägerprodukt" company in sławno and osowo, and of the "las" company in sławsko (middle pomerania, poland). three species of ectoparasites were collected: ixodes ricinus, lipoptena cervi and haematopinus apri. the highest frequency and the highest index of infestation with ectoparasites were observed in cause of c. ela ...19948023500
a comparison of lungworm faecal larval counts and trichostrongyloid faecal egg counts between red deer (cervus elaphus) and red deer x wapiti f1 hybrids.to determine if breed differences in susceptibility to trichostrongyloid and lungworm infection exist, two groups of weaner deer containing seven red deer and red deer x wapiti f1 hybrids were compared using faecal egg counts and faecal larval counts. all animals were run on the same pasture at the same time and treated with the same anthelmintics at the same time. results indicated that there were significant differences between red deer and red deer x wapiti hybrids, with red deer having highe ...199416031758
osteochondrosis associated with copper deficiency in young farmed red deer and wapiti x red deer hybrids.osteochondrosis is reported in association with copper deficiency in young red deer and wapiti x red deer hybrids on eight deer farms throughout new zealand. on two farms, more than 30% of fawns were affected. affected animals were lame, often had one or more swollen joints, and in some cases had an abnormal "bunny-hopping" gait or "cow-hocked" stance. lesions were most common in the carpal, tarsal, stifle and hip joints, and were usually bilateral. defects in articular cartilage ranged from loo ...199416031764
diagnosis of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in new zealand red deer (cervus elaphus) using a composite blood test and antibody assays.a blood test for tuberculosis in deer was developed as an ancillary test to clarify the status of skin test-positive deer, with non-specific sensitisation following exposure to saprophytic mycobacteria. the blood test incorporates the measurement of the relative humoral and cellular immunological responses to mycobacterium bovis and m. avium antigens to provide a composite test with high levels of sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (>98%). the specificity of the test has allowed it to be used in ...199416031775
methods for pregnancy determination and the effects of body condition on pregnancy status in rocky mountain elk (cervus elephus nelsoni ).the objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of transrectal ultrasonography and serum progesterone (p(4)), estrone sulfate (e(1)s) and pregnancy-specific protein b (pspb), without prior knowledge of reproductive status, in detecting pregnancy in elk cows. in addition, body weight and body condition score (bcs) were determined to assess whether body condition affects pregnancy status in elk cows. twenty-five elk cows were sampled during the early rut (period 1) and after the rut ...199416727613
successful in vitro culture of early cleavage stage embryos recovered from superovulated red deer (cervus elaphus).three separate embryo culture systems were evaluated for their ability to support development of early cleavage stage red deer (cervus elaphus ) embryos: ligated sheep oviducts (treatment a); cervine oviduct epithelial monolayer in tcm 199 + 10% deer serum (treatment b); synthetic oviduct fluid + 20% human serum at 7% o(2) atmosphere (treatment q. in addition, 2 superovulation protocols were compared for their efficacy in producing early cleavage stage embryos. twenty red deer (2 to 7 yr old) we ...199516727724
mycobacterium avium infection in a farmed deer herd.tuberculous lesions were identified over a 2-year period in 36 clinically normal red deer from a single herd. the lesions were only present in the retropharyngeal lymph nodes and lymph nodes draining the intestinal tract, indicating infection by the oral route. mycobacterium avium was isolated from 27 of 29 lesions examined by bacterial culture. grossly and histologically, the lesions were indistinguishable from those caused by mycobacterium bovis. dna restriction endonuclease analysis revealed ...199516031791
osteochondrosis, skeletal abnormalities and enzootic ataxia associated with copper deficiency in a farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) herd.a red deer herd of 150 mixed-age hinds, 48 stags and 102 weaners was identified as severely copper deficient during an observational study of 15 deer farms in the lower north island of new zealand during 1992 and 1993. severe lameness was observed in nine weaners in 1992 (8.8% prevalence) and 15 in 1993 (12% prevalence). typical abnormalities included swollen hocks and carpal joints and outward rotation of hind legs with hocks touching. at postmortem examination, there were epiphyseal fractures ...199516031812
dominance hierarchies in cattle and red deer (cervus elaphus): their possible relationship to the transmission of bovine tuberculosis.a behavioural study was conducted to assess the dominance structure of cattle and deer herds and to assess the possible relationship of dominance to the risk of becoming infected with bovine tuberculosis. five groups of cattle containing newly identified intradermal tuberculin test reactors were evaluated to determine the dominance hierarchy, and then exposed to sedated possums to assess the response of reactors and non-reactors. eighty-six percent of the tuberculin test-positive cattle were amo ...199516031870
integration of map kinase signal transduction pathways at the serum response element.the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily of ets-domain transcription factors bind with serum response factor (srf) to the serum response element (sre) and mediate increased gene expression. the tcf protein elk-1 is phosphorylated by the jnk and erk groups of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases causing increased dna binding, ternary complex formation, and transcriptional activation. activated sre-dependent gene expression is induced by jnk in cells treated with interleukin-1 and by erk afte ...19957618106
a consensus insulin response element is activated by an ets-related transcription factor.insulin increases expression of somatostatin-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) constructs 10-fold and thymidine kinase-cat constructs 5-fold in gh4 cells. these responses are similar to our previously reported data on insulin-increased prolactin-cat expression. they are also observed in hela cells and are thus not cell type specific. the evidence suggests that the insulin responsiveness of these genes is mediated by an ets-related transcription factor. first, linker-scanning mutations and/ ...19957499246
application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for differentiation of vaccine strain rb51 from field isolates of brucella abortus from cattle, bison, and elk.restriction endonuclease patterns of genomic fragments separated by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to differentiate brucella abortus strain rb51, a rifampin-resistant mutant of the standard virulent strain 2308, from other brucellae. results were compared with results obtained by use of standard methods for characterizing brucellae. electrophoretic patterns of the atcc type strains allowed identification of the strains to the level of species. genomic profiles of b abortus bio ...19957771697
assignment of the gene (eplg2) encoding a high-affinity binding protein for the receptor tyrosine kinase elk to a 200-kilobasepair region in human chromosome xq12. 19957774950
outbreaks of yersiniosis caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis in farmed cervids.yersiniosis, caused by yersinia pseudotuberculosis, was diagnosed in 25 deer submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratories of the ontario ministry of agriculture and food from 8 farms in ontario, canada, over the 4-year period of january 1990 to december 1993. the organism was cultured, usually in large numbers, from the intestines and, less frequently, mesenteric lymph nodes and/or the spleen of 13 red deer (cervus elaphus), 6 elk (c. e. canadiensis), 4 fallow deer (dama dama), and 2 red ...19957779969
a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase. structure, expression, and regulation.mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase lies at the convergence of various extracellular ligand-mediated signaling pathways. it is activated by the dual-specificity kinase, map kinase kinase or mek. map kinase inactivation is mediated by dephosphorylation via specific map kinase phosphatases (mkps). one mkp (mkp-1 (also known as 3ch134, erp, or cl100)) has been reported to be expressed in a wide range of tissues and cells. we report the identification of a second widely expressed mkp, termed mkp- ...19957782322
calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a ras- and elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase.enhanced levels of cytoplasmic ca2+ due to membrane depolarization with elevated levels of kcl or exposure to the ca2+ ionophore ionomycin stimulate serum response element (sre)-dependent transcription in the pheochromocytoma cell line pc12. by using altered binding specificity mutants of transcription factors that bind to the sre, it was demonstrated that in contrast to treatment with purified growth factors, such as nerve growth factor, the serum response factor (srf), but not elk-1, mediates ...19957791774
cloning and sequencing of expressed drb genes of the red deer (cervus elaphus) mhc.the expressed major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii drb genes of 50 unrelated deer were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of drb exon 2. deer, like other mammals, have at least one highly polymorphic mhc class ii drb gene. thirty-four different sequences were identified. most of the variation in amino acid composition occurred at positions that have been shown to form the peptide binding site (pbs). eighteen deer-specific substitutions ...19957797262
ras-dependent and -independent pathways target the mitogen-activated protein kinase network in macrophages.mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) are activated upon a variety of extracellular stimuli in different cells. in macrophages, colony-stimulating factor 1 (csf-1) stimulates proliferation, while bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) inhibits cell growth and causes differentiation and activation. both csf-1 and lps rapidly activate the mapk network and induce the phosphorylation of two distinct ternary complex factors (tcfs), tcf/elk and tcf/sap. csf-1, but not lps, stimulated the formation of ...19957799956
expression of an amphibian homolog of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases is developmentally regulated.in order to study the function of tyrosine kinase receptors during xenopus development, we have isolated xek (xenopus elk-like kinase), a tyrosine kinase receptor, which shows significant homology to rat elk and chicken cek5, members of the eph family. xek exists as a maternally expressed mrna which decreases in expression at the mid blastula transition and reappears at late neurulation in xenopus. xek mrna is expressed at higher levels in the anterior and dorsal regions of embryonic stages 16, ...19957700636
sap1a is a nuclear target of signaling cascades involving erks.the ets protein sap1a has been shown to interact with the c-fos serum response element upon recruitment by the serum response factor. we demonstrate that sap1a is a nuclear protein stimulating transcription via the c-fos serum response element, and additionally via an ets binding site independently of the serum response factor. however, transactivation has only been observed under conditions leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erks). the transcriptional a ...19957700646
light and electron microscopy studies on onchocerca jakutensis and o. flexuosa of red deer show different host-parasite interactions.adult filariae of two intranodular onchocerca species of red deer (cervus elaphus) were examined at the ultrastructural level. in all, 90 nodules of o. flexuosa and 20 nodules of o. jakutensis were studied by histology. o. jakutensis caused cystic and pus-filled nodules in which the female and male worms were motile. female worms possessed a thick cuticle and a well-developed somatic musculature. the basal lamina of the muscular syncytia was connected with the transhypodermal fibers through long ...19957724516
nonamplifying alleles at microsatellite loci: a caution for parentage and population studies.while genotyping wild red deer (cervus elaphus) at microsatellite loci for paternity assignment, we found three loci (maf65, bovirbp and celjp23) with segregating nonamplifying alleles. nonamplifying alleles were detected through mismatches between known mother-offspring pairs and by significant deviations from hardy-weinberg equilibria. in a wide range of molecular ecology application, and especially in parentage assignment, the possible existence of undetectable alleles must be taken into acco ...19957735527
mandibular bone fluoride accumulation in wild red deer (cervus elaphus l.) of known age.mandibular bone fluoride concentration and its relation to age were studied in a sample of 39 red deer of known age (between 2 and 18 years) from an area not exposed to increased fluoride deposition (harz mountains, germany). bone fluoride level ranged from 208 to 1026 ppm dry weight and was positively correlated with age (r = 0.808, p < 0.001), the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation being higher in younger individuals. this indicates that during the period of skeletal growth, fluoride uptak ...19957735899
organic osmolytes in the kidney of domesticated red deer, cervus elaphus.the cortex, inner and outer medulla, and papilla of kidneys of domestic red deer were analysed. in hydrated animals the urine concentration was found to be 672 +/- 45 mosm.l-1. the medullary and papillary regions of the kidney were rich in the osmolytes betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine (gpc), inositol and sorbitol, all of which showed a steep rise in concentration from cortex to papilla. the kidney was rich in free amino acids, in particular taurine, glutamate (+glutamine), glycine and alanine, ...19957735901
parapoxvirus of red deer: evidence for its inclusion as a new member in the genus parapoxvirus.there are three accepted members of the parapoxvirus genus, orf virus (ov), papular stomatitis virus (psv), and pseudocowpox virus (pcv). ov is maintained in sheep and goats and psv and pcv in cattle. restriction endonuclease profiles of the dna derived from representatives of these established members of the genus were compared with profiles from a parapoxvirus recently isolated from red deer. in no case did the profile of this latter virus (dpv) resemble those generated from the other parapoxv ...19957747456
role of steroids in antler growth of red deer stags.a series of six studies were carried out in red deer stags to test hypotheses concerning the importance of steroid control of velvet antler growth and to investigate mechanisms by which these hormones exert their effects. medroxyprogesterone acetate (mpa) an lh inhibitor administered to stags during hard antler caused premature antler casting, reduced subsequent antler weight and caused a reduction in the lh and testosterone responses to gnrh. in two separate studies blockade of testosterone rec ...19957884386
effects of unilateral cranial sympathectomy either alone or with sensory nerve sectioning on pedicle growth in red deer (cervus elaphus).in a previous study (li et al. [1993], j. exp. zool., 267:188-197) sensory nerve sectioning had no effect on the timing of pedicle growth. the aim of the present study was to determine whether sensory nerve sectioning in conjunction with sympathectomy would influence pedicle growth. twelve intact male red deer calves were allocated to treatment before any pedicle growth as follows: 1) unilateral sensory nerve removal (usx, n = 5), 2) unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (sgx, n = 4), or 3 ...19957884387
erk phosphorylation potentiates elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation.induction of the human c-fos proto-oncogene by mitogens depends on the formation of a ternary complex by p62tcf with the serum response factor (srf) and the serum response element (sre). we demonstrate that elk-1, a protein closely related to p62tcf in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the map kinase family, erk1 and erk2. phosphorylation of elk-1 increases the yield of ternary complex in vitro. at least five residues in the c-terminal domain of elk-1 are phosphorylated upon growth ...19957889942
characterization of the elk-1 ets dna-binding domain.the ets domain family of transcription factors is comprised of several important proteins that are involved in controlling key cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, and development. one such protein, elk-1, regulates the activity of the c-fos promoter in response to extracellular stimuli. elk-1 is representative of a subgroup of ets domain proteins that utilize a bipartite recognition mechanism that is mediated by both protein-dna and protein-protein interactions. in this study ...19957890710
a new gene mapping resource: interspecies hybrids between père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (cervus elaphus).three male f1 hybrids between père david's deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. the pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. we examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (type i) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved dna probes. two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loc ...19957768446
stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women.the relationship between stressful life events and psychological status in black south african women was explored, using a semistructured interview that consisted of a demographic questionnaire; the xhosa life event scale (xles; swartz, elk, teggin, & gillis, 1983), which comprises mainly personal stressors; the township life event scale (tles; bluen & odesnik, 1988), which comprises mainly sociopolitical stressors; and the general health questionnaire (ghq, goldberg, 1972, 1978). the participan ...19957564304
ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinases hek and elk: isolation of cdnas encoding a family of proteins.hek is a member of the eph subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases whose members include elk, hek2, sek, eph and eck among others. using a soluble form of hek consisting of the extracellular region of the receptor fused to the fc domain of human igg1 and an expression cloning strategy, we have isolated two different but related cdnas from the human t-lymphoma line hsb-2 that encode ligands for hek. the cdnas encode proteins of 238 and 201 amino acids (44% amino acid identity) that are anchored to ...19957838529
red deer antlers as biomonitors for lead contamination. 19958520137
forensic identification of ungulate species using restriction digests of pcr-amplified mitochondrial dna.a survey of mitochondrial d-loop variation in 15 species of ungulates was conducted via amplification by the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. this survey included moose (alces alces), caribou (rangifer tarandus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (o. h. columbianus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), waipiti (cervus elaphus), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), stone's she ...19958522926
the ets-domain transcription factors elk-1 and sap-1 exhibit differential dna binding specificities.the ets dna-binding domain is conserved amongst many eukaryotic transcription factors. ets-domains bind differentially to specific dna sites containing a central gga trinucleotide motif. the nucleotides flanking this motif define the binding specificity of individual proteins. in this study we have investigated binding specificity of the ets-domains from two members of the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily, elk-1 and sap-1. the ets dna-binding domains of elk-1 (elk-93) and sap-1 (sap-92) se ...19958524663
one known sarcocystis species and two found for the first time in red deer and wapiti (cervus elaphus) in europe.three species of sarcocysts from indigenous red deer and captive wapiti (cervus elaphus, cervidae) were characterized by means of light and electron microscopy. two of them were found in this intermediate host species for the first time. comparison of the literature and our results led to the conclusion that the three sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) should be provisionally designated as s. cf. grueneri, s. cf. capreolicanis and s. cf. hofmanni.19958528304
one known sarcocystis species and one found for the first time in fallow deer (dama dama).sarcocysts of free-ranging indigenous fallow deer (dama d. dama) from northeast germany and captive persian fallow deer (dama dama mesopotamica) from the zoo berlin-friedrichsfelde were described using the transmission electron microscope. two sarcocystis species (sporozoa, sarcocystidae) were found in d. d. dama, one of them already known, the other new for this host. the known species was also found in d. dama mesopotamica. comparing the literature, former own findings in roe deer, red deer or ...19958528305
biochemical analysis of sh2 domain-mediated protein interactions. 19958531711
embryo brain kinase: a novel gene of the eph/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family.a new gene belonging to the eph/eck/elk receptor tyrosine kinase family has been cloned from mouse brain. the gene maps to mouse chromosome 4. in the adult brain it is expressed exclusively and abundantly in the hippocampus. we propose to name it ebk (embryo brain kinase), as in situ hybridisation shows expression in many parts of the developing mouse brain. the most abundant expression is in the subcommissural organ, and the earliest expression is in the forebrain neural folds, in rhombomeres 2 ...19958541219
serum response element and flanking sequences mediate the synergistic transcriptional activation of c-fos by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and cholera toxin in akr-2b cells.12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa) and cholera toxin have been shown previously to act synergistically to stimulate traverse of g0-g1 and entry into s phase in quiescent mouse fibroblasts. these agents also have a synergistic effect on the induction of the endogenous c-fos gene, as well as a transfected reporter construct containing the mouse fos promoter/enhancer region from -397 to +1 cloned upstream of luciferase. a detailed mutational analysis of the c-fos-regulatory region revealed ...19958547224
activation of ternary complex factor elk-1 by stress-activated protein kinases.the mammalian response to stress results in the activation of stress-activated protein kinases (also known as cjun n-terminal kinases; sapks or jnks), which are a sub-group of the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase family. the sapks are involved in the upregulation of activity of the transcription factor ap-1 by post-translational modification of two of its components, cjun and atf2. ap-1 activity can also be elevated by increased expression of the fos protein, a further ap-1 component. elk- ...19958548291
isolation of lerk-5: a ligand of the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases.hek and elk are members of the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently we isolated four cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands to hek and elk [beckman et al. (1994) embo j. 13, 3757-3762; kozlosky et al. (1995) oncogene 10, 299-306]. because of the promiscuous nature of their binding, we have termed these proteins ligands of the eph-related kinases or lerks. a search of genbank revealed an expressed sequence tag (est) with homology to the lerks. using this est as a probe, we hav ...19958559144
pasteurellosis in elk (cervus elaphus): dna fingerprinting of isolates. 19958560727
plant compositional constituents affecting between-plant and animal species prediction of forage intake.the purpose of the study was to identify plant compositional constituents that influence forage intake. emphasis was put on the ratio in vitro digestibility of organic matter (ivdom):ndf because preliminary work with cattle and a limited number of forages showed the ratio to account for more variation in intake than either ivdom or ndf alone. the compositional constituents were tested in intake prediction models using local and published data (n = 302) on grass pastures, silages, hays, straws, l ...19958567482
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