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genetic polymorphism of erythrocyte diaphorase in red deer, cervus elaphus l.nadh diaphorase polymorphism was identified in red deer erythrocyte lysates using starch gel electrophoresis and activity staining. the inheritance of the polymorphism was consistent with predictions of autosomal codominant inheritance of two alleles dia1f and dias. in new zealand's four main feral red deer populations (n = 188) the dia1f allele frequency ranged from 0.491 to 0.985. a sample of north american wapiti (n = 42) was monomorphic for the dia1f allele.19921416251
spatial flexibility in ternary complexes between srf and its accessory proteins.we investigated the sequence requirements for ternary complex formation by the transcription factor srf and its ets domain accessory factors elk-1 and sap-1. ternary complex formation is specified by an srf consensus site cc(a/t)6gg and a neighbouring ets motif (c/a)(c/a)gga(a/t), which is contacted by elk-1/sap-1. both the spacing of these sequences and their relative orientation can be substantially altered with little effect on the efficiency of ternary complex formation. efficient ternary co ...19921425594
purification, partial characterization, and heterologous radioimmunoassay of growth hormone (cgh) in red deer.red deer growth hormone (cgh; 3.3 mg) was purified from an aqueous extract of seven pituitary glands (4.01 g wet weight) by preparative gel filtration on sephadex g-100, gel filtration on sephadex g-100 sf, and anion exchange chromatography on deae-sepharose cl-6b. purified cgh gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight under reducing conditions of 20,000 da and gave a single peak on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ...19921426952
relationship between the onset of oestrus, the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone and ovulation following oestrous synchronization and superovulation of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).the timing of ovulation relative to the onset of oestrus and the preovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone (lh) was studied in red deer following treatments to synchronize oestrus and induce either a monovulatory or superovulatory response. mature hinds (n = 36) were allocated randomly to two mating groups (n = 16 + 20), with respective treatments staggered by 4 weeks during the 1990 rut (march-april). each hind was treated with an intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing (cidr)-type s de ...19921432958
elk-1 domains responsible for autonomous dna binding, sre:srf interaction and negative regulation of dna binding.the ets oncogene superfamily consists of a family of sequence-specific dna-binding transcriptional activator proteins. we have previously identified, cloned and characterized one of the divergent ets-related members elk-1 and shown that it codes for a sequence-specific dna-binding transcriptional activator. we have also shown that elk-1 forms srf (serum response factor) dependent ternary complex with sre (serum response element), similar to p62tcf. in this report, we have mapped the dna-binding ...19921437156
affinity purification of histidine-tagged proteins transiently produced in hela cells.in order to produce eukaryotic proteins in a functional state, it is often necessary to use eukaryotic instead of prokaryotic expression systems. we have designed vectors which can be employed to express either n- or c-terminally histidine-tagged proteins in transiently transfected eukaryotic cells. the histidine tag allows the rapid enrichment of these proteins by metal chelate affinity chromatography in a native and functional state. yields of up to 5 micrograms protein/5 x 10(7) cells were ac ...19921446830
mycobacterium bovis infection in north american elk (cervus elaphus).a naturally occurring outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in captive wild elk (wapiti) in montana was confirmed by mycobacteriologic examination. twenty-eight of 143 elk responded to m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd) tuberculin injected intradermally in the cervical region (sct). the results of comparative cervical tuberculin skin tests conducted within 9 days of sct revealed greater responses to m. bovis ppd tuberculin than to m. avium ppd tuberculin in 23 of 28 elk responding. a ...19921457545
gross and microscopic lesions of naturally occurring tuberculosis in a captive herd of wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado.a mycobacterium bovis-infected herd of captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado was depopulated after lesions of bovine tuberculosis were confirmed in 8 of 10 tuberculin skin test reactors. of the 43 animals > 1 year of age, 26 had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 had microscopic lesions of tuberculosis, and 23 had acid-fast bacilli associated with the lesions. lungs and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most frequently affected sites. most lesions grossly and microscop ...19921457546
on the use of succinylcholine in elk. 19921474674
studies on the blood of fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus): haematology, red cell enzymes, metabolic intermediates and glycolytic rates.1. blood samples were obtained from fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). basic haematology, red cell enzymes, and metabolic intermediates and the glycolytic rate of the red cells incubated with different substrates were measured. 2. the major findings were (i) the activity of glucose phosphate isomerase was notably high in the red blood cells of the red deer; (ii) red deer cells also utilized adenosine more efficiently than those of fallow deer and (iii) red cells of both speci ...19921478069
big game species identification by deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) probes.species identification is important in many big game forensic science cases but cannot always be accomplished because of the lack of adequate techniques. the authors have developed deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) probes for elk, deer, and antelope by isolating highly repeated satellite sequences. these dna probes distinguish among deer, elk, and antelope, although not between different species of deer. because of the high number of sequence copies per genome, these probes are extremely sensitive, re ...19921500901
the ets gene family.ets proteins have a conserved dna-binding domain and regulate transcriptional initiation from a variety of cellular and viral gene promoter and enhancer elements. some members of the ets family, ets-1 and ets-2, cooperate in transcription with the ap-1 transcription factor, the product of the proto-oncogene families, fos and jun, while others, elk-1 and sap-1, form ternary complexes with the serum response factor (srf). certain ets gene family members possess transforming activity while others a ...19921502727
genetic polymorphism of plasminogen and vitamin d binding protein in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).genetic polymorphism was detected in the red deer (cervus elaphus l.), plasma proteins, plasminogen (plg) and vitamin d binding protein (gc) using antiserum to human proteins. the affinity of the antisera to deer plasma was less than 10% that of a human standard but they bound specifically to proteins of molecular weight expected for gc and plg. three codominant alleles of gc and five of plg were observed. in a set 124 farmed deer calves and their parents, six calves had genotypes which were not ...19921503269
seasonal variation in venison quality of mature, farmed red deer stags in new zealand.two studies involving 20 red deer (cervus elaphus) stags were conducted to determine the effects of season on venison quality. in each study, five sexually mature red deer stags were slaughtered immediately preceding the rut (autumn) and five were slaughtered after the rut. stags slaughtered postrut had lower carcass weights (25 to 30%) than those slaughtered prerut. average bodywall thickness measurements above the 12th rib (an indicator of fat thickness) were approximately 31 mm prerut compare ...19921526907
requirement of thyroid function for the expression of seasonal reproductive and related changes in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.the effect of thyroid function on regulation of seasonal reproduction was investigated in three red deer stags thyroidectomized (thx) in summer (january 1988) in comparison with five thyroid-intact controls. responses of luteinizing hormone (lh) and testosterone to a bolus injection of 10 micrograms gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) were tested in july, october, december, february and april. blood samples were collected at weekly intervals from december 1987 to june 1989 for measurement of ...19921552486
cryptosporidiosis in newborn red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer calves dying at 24 to 72 hours old were infected with cryptosporidia. the clinical signs were extreme depression and weakness, but they did not consistently have diarrhoea. one calf was severely uraemic, and evidence from subsequent cases suggested that cryptosporidium infection in very young red deer calves may result in terminal uraemia. the possibility of intrauterine infection is considered. the factors which could have predisposed to the outbreak of infection were investigated; the ...19921561743
[comparative studies of the hair of pudu pudu and european red deer].the awn and the fur hair of pudu were investigated. values of the length are between 14 and 56 mm for the awn hair, and 9 to 36 mm for the fur hair. hair thickness--especially at the thickest point--ranges from 140 to 236 microns for the awn hair and from 19 to 106 microns for the fur hair. the values of the cuticle scales are between 12 and 18 microns for the length and between 41 and 66 microns for the width. the shape of the scales is rectangular in the basal three quarters (r) and becomes cr ...19921585995
r51163 as a sedative for handling and transporting plains bison and wapiti.forty captive wapiti (cervus elaphus) and thirty-two bison (bison bison bison) were tested in april and october 1988, respectively, for their response to the sedative r51163. treatment animals were injected with either 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg of r51163/kg and then observed for 72 hr. behavior was significantly altered by the drug. hyperactive, aggressive, and milling behavior was characteristic of treated wapiti and they were extremely dangerous and reared when hind quarters were touched. although t ...19921602574
a comparison of serological relationships among five ruminant alphaherpesviruses by elisa.using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays the cross reactivity of bovine herpesvirus-1.1, bovine herpesvirus-1.2, caprine herpesvirus-2, cervine (red deer) herpesvirus-1 and rangiferine (reindeer) herpesvirus-1 has been examined using rabbit hyperimmune antisera and convalescent cattle and red deer field sera. significant cross-reactivity among all the five viruses was demonstrated. a detailed analysis showed that: (1) the two bovine herpesviruses are most closely related, (2) the cervine, caprin ...19921605741
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
effects of melatonin implants on insulin-like growth factor 1 in male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags have a seasonal pattern of growth, alternating between periods of summer weight gain and winter weight loss that are influenced by photoperiod and by exogenous melatonin. a seasonal pattern of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, also influenced by photoperiod, underlies the seasonal growth pattern. the present studies aimed to determine the influence of exogenous melatonin, administered at various times of the year, on plasma igf1 in adult red deer stags in new zealand at 45 degr ...19921624090
elk-1 protein domains required for direct and srf-assisted dna-binding.the ets-related elk-1 protein can bind to purine-rich dna target sites in a sequence specific fashion and, in addition, can form a ternary complex with the c-fos serum response element (sre) and the serum response factor (srf). we demonstrate that elk-1 can readily interchange between its different interaction partners. the amino terminal ets-domain of elk-1 was shown to be necessary and sufficient for direct dna-binding activity. for ternary complex formation with the sre and srf, both the elk- ...19921630903
creep fracture in bones with different stiffnesses.creep fracture experiments were used to examine the differences in time to fracture of bones with very different young's moduli (bovine bone and red deer antler) and the implications of these differences for the 'cumulative-damage' model of caler and carter [j. biomechanics 22, 625-635 (1989)] for bone fracture. using normalised stress as the explanatory variable, the slopes of the distributions agreed quite well with that of caler and carter for human bone. however, antler took far longer to fr ...19921733979
a divergent ets-related protein, elk-1, recognizes similar c-ets-1 proto-oncogene target sequences and acts as a transcriptional activator.the ets oncogene superfamily consists of a family of sequence-specific dna-binding proteins that activate transcription. we have previously identified two new members of the ets oncogene superfamily, namely elk-1 and elk-2. in this report we show that the recombinant elk-1 protein expressed in bacteria, like the c-ets-1 proto-oncogene, binds in a sequence-specific manner to moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, e74 target sequences and the pea3 motif (polyoma enhancer), but does not ...19921741166
occurrence of fumonisin in forage grass in new zealand.fumonisin b(1) (fb(1)) was isolated from samples of forage grass originating in paddocks associated with an idiopathic disease of canadian wapiti and wapiti-red deer hybrids characterized by "ill thrift" and liver dysfunction. four of 40 samples contained 1, 3, 6, and 9 ppm (micrograms per gram) of fb(1) and 4, 0.5, 2, and 0.5 ppm, respectively, of the methyl ester of fb(1). analyses were done by ion spray mass spectrometry and confirmed by both fast atom bombardment (solids probe) and mass spec ...199216348778
behavioural and heart rate responses to velvet antler removal in red deer.heart rate and behaviour during and following velvet antler removal were monitored in yearling red deer stags to determine the extent to which this procedure was perceived by the deer to be aversive. nine stags normally kept at pasture were habituated over 5 weeks to the following daily handling procedure. each deer was fitted with a harness containing a heart rate monitor. it was then allowed to run through a fixed course in a deer yard, restrained for 40 s in a mechanical deer crush, and then ...199216031658
red urine from red deer grazed on pure red clover swards.twenty-four red deer hinds with their calves were released on to a newly established pure red clover sward and, 2 days later, red staining of the tail, perineum and hocks was observed. this was presumed to be of urinary origin. observation of micturition showed that when urine was passed, it was a normal straw colour but it turned scarlet-red about 1 hour after exposure to air. midstream urine remained the normal colour when held under a pure nitrogen atmosphere immediately after micturition, bu ...199216031683
electrical stunning of red deer (cervus elaphus).eighteen of 23 red deer (cervus elaphus) at a deer slaughtering premises were successfully stunned with an apparatus modified from that normally used to stun sheep. the five unsuccessful electrical stuns were associated with poor head restraint and poor head contact by the electrodes. the median stunning current was 0.9 a, and in the majority of cases the duration of stunning was less than 1 second. the signs of the electrically induced epileptiform seizures in the deer were dissimilar to those ...199316031710
efficacy of slow-release albendazole capsules in controlling lungworms and gastro-intestinal nematodes in red deer (cervus elaphus).one hundred and fifteen young red deer (cervus elaphus), heavily infected with lungworm (dictyocaulus viviparus) and lightly infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes, were divided into three groups. one group of 50 animals was treated with one adult sheep dose of a slow-release albendazole capsule, another group of 50 was dosed orally five times with liquid albendazole and 15 were left as untreated controls. the capsule eliminated faecal lungworm larvae during the 103-day trial period. there wa ...199316031711
a difference in abomasal ph between canadian wapiti affected with chronic illthrift and unaffected deer.the ph of abomasal fluid from five purebred canadian wapiti which were diagnosed with chronic illthrift ("fading") was found to be elevated compared to ten clinically normal red and hybrid (wapiti x red) deer. the average abomasal ph of the affected elk was 6.3, compared to 2.5 for the unaffected red and hybrid deer.199316031714
mycobacterium bovis in elk in alberta. 199317424216
forelimb amputation in a red deer. 199317424260
ehk-1 and ehk-2: two novel members of the eph receptor-like tyrosine kinase family with distinctive structures and neuronal expression.we have identified two novel members of the eph rtk family, termed ehk (eph homology kinase) -1 and -2. compared to the amino acid sequences of various eph family members, ehk-1 and ehk-2 are closest to the sek and cek-4/mek-4/hek kinases, and both are more similar to the elk kinase than they are to the eck or eph kinases. analysis of ehk-1 cdnas from various brain libraries reveals alternatively spliced transcripts that can encode five different forms of ehk-1 transmembrane proteins. by contras ...19937504232
[biodiversity and similarity between the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants].the analysis of the bibliografical information concerning to the nematode parasite communities of domestic and wild ruminants, permitted to obtein the following values of maximum diversity index, bovidae: 4.88 bits; cervidae: 4.33 bits and cameliae: 3.69 bits. the highest values of this index within each family of host wee 5.75 bits. 5.49 bits and 4.32 bits for ovis aries (bovidae), capreolus capreolus (cervidae), lama pacos and camelus dromedarius (camelidae), respectively. the families of para ...19937483967
mitochondrial trna(thr) and trna(pro) sequences from three deer species: odocoileus hemionus, cervus elaphus, and cervus nippon. 19937688119
identification of protein-tyrosine kinase genes preferentially expressed in embryo stomach and gastric cancer.for identification of the protein-tyrosine kinases that are expressed in embryo stomach and gastric cancer, a 16-day rat embryo stomach and two human gastric cancer cdna expression libraries were screened with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. eight cdnas encoding protein-tyrosine kinase were isolated, and northern blot analysis revealed that five out of eight clones were highly expressed in rat embryo stomach, but not in adult rat stomach. from nucleotide sequence analysis, these five cdnas wer ...19937688222
the nosology of wegener's granulomatosis utilizing the elk format augmented by c-anca. 19938296609
noninvasive electrodes for electrocochleography in the chinchilla.this study compares noninvasive vs invasive electrodes for electrocochleography in chinchillas. summating potential (sp) amplitude, action potential (ap) amplitude, and ap threshold, recorded with five types of noninvasive electrodes, were compared with simultaneous bulla recordings. noninvasive electrodes included a needle electrode over the bulla, gold tiptrode (etymotic research, elk grove village, ill), enhancer i (nicolet instrument corp, madison, wis), coats (lifetech inc, austin, tex) ele ...19938318207
hormones and hair growth: variations in androgen receptor content of dermal papilla cells cultured from human and red deer (cervus elaphus) hair follicles.many hair follicles produce different types of hair in response to environmental changes or the mammals age, that are translated to the follicle by hormones. androgens cause many changes, such as transforming vellus follicles producing insignificant hairs on the face to terminal beard ones at puberty or the reverse on the scalp. in male red deer the breeding season rise in androgens causes the annual production of a mane on the neck that is lost during the spring. because the dermal papilla situ ...19938326143
pharyngeal bot flies (oestridae) from sympatric wild cervids in southern spain.the prevalence of 2 species of pharyngeal bot flies parasitizing sympatric wild ungulates from southern spain is given. pharyngomyia picta was found in all red deer and fallow deer whereas cephenemyia auribarbis was found in 59% of fallow deer and 81% of red deer examined. the mean number of p. picta larvae was 3-6 times more than that of c. auribarbis larvae. these data suggest that red deer are more heavily parasitized than fallow deer and that they are predominantly infested with p. picta lar ...19938331487
analysis of the dna-binding and transcriptional activation functions of human fli-1 protein.three of the ets oncogene superfamily members v-ets, spi-1/pu.1 and fli-1, have been shown to be directly involved in retroviral-mediated acute erythroleukemias. the fli-1 gene was found to be rearranged in 75% of the erythroleukemias induced by friend murine leukemia virus (f-mulv), suggesting that it could play a key role in cellular transformation. we have previously isolated and characterized the human fli-1 gene and have found it to be highly homologous (80%) to the human erg-2 gene. human ...19938336942
elk-1 proteins are phosphoproteins and activators of mitogen-activated protein kinase.mitogen-activated protein kinases (map kinases) or meiosis-activated myelin basic protein kinase (p44mpk) are known to be activated by a mechanism involving dual phosphorylation at both tyrosine and serine/threonine in response to many extracellular stimuli. there has been considerable speculation as to whether map kinases are autophosphorylated and activated by an upstream protein kinase (map kinase kinase) or an activator of autophosphorylation or both. here we report that the ets-related prot ...19938339245
genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily cervinae).the evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily cervinae (cervus, elaphurus, axis, and dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. we analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the cervinae were not monophyletic. the genus cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (c. elaphus ssp.), and sika (c. nippon) in one clade and sambar (c. unicolor) and ru ...19938340615
spiculopteragia spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) from red deer (cervus elaphus) in texas.specimens of spiculopteragia spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica were recovered from the abomasa of five of ten naturally infected red deer (cervus elaphus) in texas (usa). female specimens of spiculopteragia were present in all five animals. male specimens of s. spiculoptera and s. asymmetrica were present in one of five and three of five red deer, respectively. spiculopteragia spiculoptera has not previously been recognized in the united states and the present report constitutes the first records ...19938355362
characterization of megatrypanum trypanosomes from european cervidae.megatrypanum trypanosomes have been isolated from a number of different european cervidae, but on the basis of morphology it has not been possible to define the species to which these isolates belong. we isolated trypanosoma (megatrypanum) theileri from 10 cattle, and megatrypanum trypanosomes from 11 fallow deer (cervus dama), 9 red deer (cervus elaphus), and 4 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) by blood culture on a biphasic medium (nnn agar slopes). trypanosomes were propagated in schneider's dro ...19938355998
fibrils in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demonstrated in brain tissues of cwd-affected captive mule deer, rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. we now report on the presence of abno ...19938372644
the srf accessory protein elk-1 contains a growth factor-regulated transcriptional activation domain.the elk-1 and srf transcription factors form a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). growth factor stimulation rapidly induces a reversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of the ternary complex, accompanied by increased phosphorylation of the elk-1 c-terminal region and by the activation of a 42 kd cellular elk-1 kinase. phosphorylation of elk-1 in vitro by partially purified p42/p44 map kinase induces a similar reduction in ternary complex mobility but has little ef ...19938386592
pcr mediated detection of a new human receptor-tyrosine-kinase, hek 2.we have previously amplified cdna subfragments of protein-tyrosine-kinases (ptks) by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and specific sets of oligonucleotide primers derived from nucleotide sequences of their kinase domain. in this study we have used a more directed approach to identify new members of the eph/elk-family by pcr of human embryonic cdna: we utilized oligonucleotide primers specifically designed to a highly conserved n-terminal motif and the kinase region of eph/elk-ptks in rn ...19938397371
the 'individualization' of large north american mammals.the enforcement of wildlife laws and the captive breeding of threatened/endangered species requires the ability to identify individual animals. dna profiles of a variety of large north american mammals, birds, and fish were generated using ten different oligonucleotide probes. the probes tested were four multilocus probes [33.6, 33.15, je46, and (tgtc)5] and six 'human unilocus' probes [ms1 (d1s7), cmm101 (d14s13), ynh24 (d2s44), efd52 (d17s26), tbq7 (d10s28), and ms43 (d12s11). each of the prob ...19938400711
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
pedicle and antler development following sectioning of the sensory nerves to the antlerogenic region of red deer (cervus elaphus).sensory nerves supplying the deer antlerogenic region were sectioned about 60 days prior to pedicle initiation to determine the extent of neural influence on pedicle and first antler growth. our results from a combination of histological examination and immunohistochemical localization showed that all 12 antlerogenic regions were successfully deprived of sensory nerve supply, but in 10 of 12 cases there was partial regeneration during the experimental period. in the two cases where no sensory re ...19938409900
biological and biochemical activities of a chimeric epidermal growth factor-elk receptor tyrosine kinase.eph, elk, and eck are prototypes of a large family of transmembrane protein-tyrosine kinases, which are characterized by a highly conserved cysteine-rich domain and two fibronectin type iii repeats in their extracellular regions. despite the extent of the eph family, no extracellular ligands for any family member have been identified, and hence, little is known about the biological and biochemical properties of these receptor-like tyrosine kinases. in the absence of a physiological ligand for th ...19938413296
delta elk-1, a variant of elk-1, fails to interact with the serum response factor and binds to dna with modulated specificity.the ets oncogene superfamily codes for a family of transcriptional factors that are involved in gene regulation not only by autonomous dna binding but also by indirect dna binding through interaction with cellular factors. we have previously shown that a member of this superfamily, elk-1, is a sequence specific transcriptional activator, which forms a serum response factor (srf) dependent ternary complex with serum response element (sre) similar to p62tcf. we describe here an alternatively splic ...19938417810
disbudding of red deer stag calves to prevent antler growth.red deer stag calves aged five to seven months were disbudded with a standard cattle disbudding iron as a means of preventing antler growth and development. two sizes of iron, one 2.2 cm in diameter and one 1.5 cm in diameter, were compared at disbudding in november or january. disbudding in november and january with the 2.2 cm iron had success rates of 97 per cent and 92 per cent, respectively. treatment with the 1.5 cm iron was less effective at both times. there was no significant difference ...19938430483
[thiocyanate blood levels in roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and wild boar].the following serum levels of thiocyanate (scn-) were found in game: roe 6.6 +/- 4 mg/l, red deer 5.5 +/- 3.2 mg/l, fallow-deer 5.1 +/- 2.8 mg/l, and wild boar 4.8 +/- 4.5 mg/l (variation 0.6-32.6 mg scn-/l). these levels are distinctly higher than in domestic animals under stall-feeding with exception of mast calves which were fed milk-substitutes. the scn- serum level of calves, sheep and horses reach at pasturing nearly the level of game. the higher scn- serum level of cloven-hoof game resp. ...19938431200
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
a 27-mer oligonucleotide probe for the detection and measurement of the mrna for uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue of different species.1. data from rats, cattle, mice, rabbits and humans indicate considerable species heterogeneity in the sequence of the gene coding for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (ucp) in brown adipose tissue. a 27-base sequence of an exon region of the gene is, however, identical in rats and cattle; in mice, rabbits, and humans this same region shows only a single base difference from the sequence in rats and cattle. 2. a 27-mer oligonucleotide (3'-tggaagggcgacctgtggcggtttcag-5') complementary to the ...19938448986
paratuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in ireland.paratuberculosis was diagnosed in one 18-month-old and two 30-month-old hinds in a herd of 70 red deer (cervus elaphus) in ireland. loss of condition and intermittent diarrhoea were the main clinical findings. clumps of acid-fast organisms were found in the faeces of the three deer. post mortem examination of one deer showed a slight swelling and pallor of the intestinal tract and associated lymph nodes. histopathology showed a severe, granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, with extensive ce ...19938451813
nematode egg output and plasma concentration of ivermectin after its administration to red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).blood and faecal samples were analysed in a study to evaluate the use of ivermectin in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus elaphus). it was demonstrated that ivermectin, when used at 400 micrograms/kg bodyweight, proved to be more efficient than 200 micrograms/kg bodyweight although positive worm egg counts together with the isolation of lungworm (dictyocaulus species) larvae were recorded from hinds having received the anthelmintic at the higher dose.19938456547
functional analysis of a growth factor-responsive transcription factor complex.serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre) with an accessory factor, elk-1. we constructed altered-binding specificity derivatives of srf and elk-1 that form a ternary complex at a mutated, inactive sre; like elk-1, the elk-1 variant only binds its target as part of a ternary complex with srf. simultaneous expression of these srf and elk-1 derivatives restores serum-regulated activity to the mutated sre in transfected cells. efficient transcript ...19938477450
[occurrence of leptospira antibodies in the blood of game animals].the blood serum of game was examined for the presence of antibodies to leptospiras in 1987-1989. a total of 792 blood sera from animals belonging to 14 zoo-species were examined (tab. i). the blood serum of red deer (cervus elephus) was examined the most often within the group of animals, in 398 cases, i.e. 50.2%, followed by 165 blood sera of wild boar (sus scrofa), representing 20.8%, and by 136 blood sera of roedeer (capreolus capreolus), representing 18.6%. small numbers of blood sera of the ...19938488630
[microstructure of fossil mammalian bones from the rixdorfer horizon of weichsel-kaltzeit at niederlehme near königs wusterhausen (brandengurg)].the structure is reported of bones of glacial-period mammals, which were found in 1973 to 1989 in gravel-sandy soil of the fossiliferous layer "rixdorfer horizont" at niederlehme near königs wusterhausen. the findings, probably, date from one of the interstages of the glacial period "weichsel-kaltzeit" before the stage "brandenburger stadium". their embedding took place more than 20,000 years ago. changes of the deposit of bones and teeth from older sediments are not to exclude in the finding pl ...19938489038
occurrence and overlapping of pharyngeal bot flies pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis (oestridae) in red deer of southern spain.from 1985 to 1990, 372 red deer (cervus elaphus) from southern spain were examined for larvae of pharyngeal bot flies pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis. the infestation was related to age, sex and intensity of infection. fawns and adult deer (more than 5 years old) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence and intensity of infection than younger deer. conversely, no significant difference has been noted between sexes. ninety percent of deer were found to be infested. a simulta ...19938493758
heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from finnish elk in 1980-81 and 1990. 19938495060
diversionary role of hoofed game in the transmission of lyme disease spirochetes.to determine whether the presence of ungulates may inhibit transmission of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) while promoting the abundance of its european vector tick (ixodes ricinus), we compared the feeding density of subadult ticks on roe deer (capreolus capreolus), red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and wild sheep (ovis ammon) near berlin and in brandenburg state, germany. the prevalence of spirochetal infection in these ticks was compared with that in ticks s ...19938517488
isolation and characterization of srf accessory proteins.many genes which are regulated by growth factors contain a common regulatory element, the serum response element (sre). activation of transcription by the sre involves a ternary complex formed between a ubiquitous factor, serum response factor (srf), and a second protein, p62/tcf. we used a yeast genetic screen to isolate cdnas encoding a protein, sap-1, with the dna binding properties of p62/tcf. the sap-1 sequence contains three regions of homology to the previously uncharacterized elk-1 prote ...19938103935
genetic differentiation in populations of red deer, cervus elaphus, in denmark.samples from 282 specimens of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) representing eleven localities, were collected during two hunting seasons, 1986-87 and 1987-88. four polymorphic isozymes are investigated, and allelic distributions among the populations within an area or among areas are heterogeneous. the differentiation among the populations may be explained as a result of random genetic drift. a dendrogram reveals that seven of the nine populations from the peninsula of jutland are closely related.19938106262
the incidence of heavy metals and other toxic elements in big game tissues.the contents of heavy metals and non-metal elements (pb, cd, cu, zn, fe, mn, rb, ti, cr, se, sr) were analysed in red deer and wild boar tissues: kidneys, liver, muscles, bone. samples were collected in three sites during hunting seasons 1986/87 and 1987/88. the lead concentrations ranged from 0.8 microgram.g-1 (muscles) to 1.8 microgram.g-1 (kidneys), while cd levels ranged from 1.0 to 27.0 micrograms.g-1. the average levels of cu and zn in wild boar muscles were about 7.0 and 128 micrograms.g- ...19938108705
study on the partial purification of gonadotropins and thyrotropin from deer (cervus elaphus) pituitaries.deer pituitaries were extracted with tris-cl buffer and the extract was fractionated on concanavalin a-sepharose into an unadsorbed cona i fraction and an adsorbed cona ii fraction. the cona ii fraction was chromatographed on cm-cellulose to yield an unadsorbed cm i fraction and an adsorbed cm ii fraction. the cm i and cm ii fractions were then respectively subjected to ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose to give the resultant unadsorbed deae i and adsorbed deae ii fractions. the cona ...19938193586
the biology and molecular biology of scrapie-like diseases.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse's) are degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which naturally affect man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease [cjd], gerstmann-sträussler syndrome [gss], kuru), sheep and goats (scrapie), cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse]), mink (transmissible mink encephalopathy), mule deer, elk and antelope (chronic wasting disease). spongiform encephalopathies have also been diagnosed in captive species of zoo antelope and in domestic cats. mu ...19938219804
receptors for insulin-like growth factor-ii in the growing tip of the deer antler.insulin-like growth factor-ii (igf-ii) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays and affinity cross-linking studies. antler tips from red deer stags were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and cryogenically cut into sections. sections were incubated with radiolabelled igf-ii, with or without an excess of competing unlabelled igf-ii and analysed autoradiographically. radiolabelled igf-ii showed high specific bi ...19938228732
[long term survival of first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi (nematoda, metastrongyloidea) in a frozen state].faeces of red deer from biaƂowieza forest containing first stage larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi have been stored during five years in -20 degrees c. after this time 52% of the larvae survived. these larvae were fully alive and in experimentally infected snails helix pomatia developed to the infectious stage.19938237006
prevalence of bluetongue virus expression in leukocytes from experimentally infected ruminants.replication of bluetongue virus (btv) in leukocytes from the blood of sheep, cattle, elk, and mule deer inoculated with btv serotype 10 or 17 was assessed by immunocytochemical staining and dot blot northern hybridization to determine if differences in the prevalence of infection in this blood fraction might account for the differences in clinical disease among these species. viremia was confirmed by virus isolation in all inoculated animals. analysis of leukocytes with monoclonal antibodies spe ...19938239132
transcriptional activation domains of elk-1, delta elk-1 and sap-1 proteins.elk-1, an ets related gene codes for a sequence specific dna binding transcriptional activator which in association with serum response factor (srf) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (sre). recently the c-terminal region of both elk-1 and delta elk-1 proteins was shown to undergo phosphorylation by map kinases and function as an activator of map kinases. here we show that delta elk-1 and two other elk-1 related proteins sap-1a and sap-1b, like elk-1, can function as tra ...19938247551
real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and foetal ageing in fallow deer.three groups of 15 to 17 adult fallow does with some additional yearling does in 2 of the groups were treated to synchronize oestrous cycles, and mated. all does were scanned by ultrasound at 4 weeks of gestation and at weekly intervals from week 7 to week 14 of gestation. growth rates of 13 foetal and uterine characters, which have been used for ageing foetuses of red deer, were similar for adult and yearling does and among the 3 groups. transrectal ultrasound scanning was a reliable and accura ...19938257315
enzootic ataxia in red deer, cervus elaphus. 19938257325
a serologic survey for some bacterial and viral zoonoses in game animals in the czech republic.between 1986 and 1991, sera were collected from 33 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 24 red deer (cervus elaphus), four fallow deer (dama dama), two mouflon (ovis musimon), 34 wild boars (sus scrofa), and 48 hares (lepus europaeus) shot in two areas of the czech republic. collectively, the sera contained antibodies to coxiella burnetii (prevalence of 12%), francisella tularensis (4%), brucella spp. (2%), central european tick-borne encephalitis virus (8%), tahyna (california serogroup) virus (36%) ...19938258864
activation of ternary complex factor elk-1 by map kinases.ternary complex factors (tcfs), one of which is elk-1, have been implicated in mediation of c-fos induction. they have been shown to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) in vitro. we demonstrate that recombinant elk-1 is hyperphosphorylated in vivo upon joint overexpression of mapks and constitutively activated raf-1 kinase, the latter serving as an indirect in vivo activator of mapks. this phosphorylation is accompanied by a conformational change and results in an elev ...19938262053
multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at hanford.environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the u.s. department of energy's hanford site in southeastern washington for almost 50 years. objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. in 1989, measured hanford site perimeter concentrati ...199324220840
evidence for the promotion of aboveground grassland production by native large herbivores in yellowstone national park.we examined the effect of native large herbivores on aboveground primary production of nonforested habitat in yellowstone national park, wyoming. productivity of vegetation grazed by elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) was compared with that of ungrazed (permanently fenced) vegetation at four sites. two methods were used that, we believed, would provide the most accurate measurements under the different grazing regimes encountered in the study. production of ungrazed vegetation in perma ...199328313410
winter ecology of nonmigratory alpine red deer.in winter, red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) that are not receiving supplementary feeding emphasize and rely on energy-saving strategies. in severe winters with deep snow, they select a home-range habitat-windblown alpine pastures above the timberline-that meets the requirements of this strategy: a much lower sinking depth and good forage availability are due to patchy snow distribution, while the open area provides higher radiation, permits group formation and thus sociobiological wellbeing ...199328312946
feeding-patch choice by red deer in relation to foraging efficiency : an experiment.we tested the idea that ruminants allocate their feeding time to habitat patches in relation to foraging efficiency. we used five tame red deer (cervus elaphus) in an enclosure planted with four treatment of timothy grass (phleum pratense) differing in their stage of growth. older swards offered higher biomass but lower nutritional quality than younger swards. we observed time spent feeding in each treatment during each of seven trials. we measured goodness-of-fit between observed times and pred ...199328312938
characterization of sap-1, a protein recruited by serum response factor to the c-fos serum response element. 19948293474
pedicle and antler regeneration following antlerogenic tissue removal in red deer (cervus elaphus).the physiological control mechanisms underlying the histogenesis of the pedicle, which precedes antler growth, from the frontal bones of male deer are poorly understood. the aim of this study was to investigate the extent of pedicle/antler regeneration after removal (for histological evaluation) of the antlerogenic region or pedicle tissue during pedicle development to determine whether the subsequent pattern of regeneration could contribute to the understanding of pedicle histogenesis and the m ...19948207380
elk-1 proteins interact with map kinases.mitogen activated protein kinases (map) or extracellular signal regulated protein kinases (erk) are a family of protein serine/threonine kinases that are activated very rapidly in response to many extracellular stimuli. elk-1, an ets related gene codes for two transcriptional factors elk-1, which regulates c-fos transcription and delta elk-1, both of which are substrates for map kinases. a part of the c-terminal transcriptional activation domain (eta-2) which is common to both the proteins was p ...19948208531
heavy metal contamination in organs of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) and the effect on some trace elements.in order to determine the contamination level for cadmium (cd) and lead (pb) in free ranging red deer (n = 50) and wild boar (n = 118) in 'the veluwe', a nature reserve in the central part of the netherlands, concentrations of these metals were measured in liver and kidney. in addition relations between cd and pb concentrations and iron (fe), copper (cu) and zinc (zn) concentrations in these organs were studied. the levels of cd and pb in wild animals were higher than in farmed animals of the sa ...19948209228
occupational exposure to mycobacterium bovis infection in deer and elk in ontario.in late 1991, two herds of deer and elk were depopulated at a slaughtering plant in ontario, followed by processing of infected animals at a rendering plant. we conducted a questionnaire plus tuberculin skin-test survey of 104 exposed slaughtering and rendering plant workers, and government veterinarians and inspectors. overall, 17 participants were skin-test positive, one of 51 initially skin-test negative subjects tested a second time three months later became positive, consistent with the ris ...19947804937
[development of pcr tests for the detection of bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial viruses and pestiviruses].the development of pcr assays for detection of bhv-1, brsv, bvdv and another pestiviruses is summarized. a polymerase chain reaction assay based on primers selected from the viral gi glycoprotein gene detected 3 fg pure bhv-1 dna, 0.1-1.0 tcid50 or a single infected cell. no amplification was observed with dna from bhv-2, bhv-3, bhv-4, ohv-1 or ohv-2. however, a fragment of the correct size (468 bp) was amplified using dna from herpesviruses isolated from reindeer, red deer and goat. the pcr ass ...19947817501
'double-head' antlers in red deer cervus elaphus ssp. in which the antler cores survived the death of the cortex.an unusual case of spike antlers in male red deer is described in which the antler core apparently survived the partial mineralization of the cortex in the first rut and then in the next year supported a new, "antleroma-like" growth. on one side of the antler beam a "separation gap" developed between the living core and the dead cortex. on the opposite side a new growth of antler tissue was observed; this was made of spongious bone which in some areas partially resembled peruke-like growth and i ...19947819606
cells cultured from the growing tip of red deer antler express alkaline phosphatase and proliferate in response to insulin-like growth factor-i.deer antler growth provides a unique natural model of rapid and complete bone regeneration. in this study, the distal antler tips of male red deer (cervus elaphus) were collected post-mortem during the annual growth period (april-august), and an in vitro system established for the culture of cells from three regions; the inner layer of the perichondrium, the reserve mesenchyme and the cartilage zone. alkaline phosphatase (alp) expression by cultured cells, as demonstrated by enzyme histochemistr ...19947829985
the establishment of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus cervus).japanese sika deer (cervus nippon nippon) were introduced to scotland around 80 years (20 generations) ago. the sika phenotype is expanding its range and hybridizing extensively with native red deer (cervus elaphus) leading to the establishment of a hybrid zone. this zone is currently moving and cannot be considered to be at equilibrium. cervid genotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes were mapped across the sika phenotype range, using diagnostic protein isozymes, microsatellite nuclear dna markers ...19947834107
effects of insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) and igf-ii on the growth of antler cells in vitro.the effects of insulin-like growth factors -i and -ii (igf-i and -ii) on the growth of undifferentiated (fibroblast zone) cells from the growing tip of red deer velvet antlers and from cells 1.5 cm distal to the growing tip (cartilage zone) were investigated in primary cell culture. the addition of igf-i or igf-ii to the medium of cultures preincubated in serum-free medium for 24 h increased the rate of [3h]thymidine uptake in a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, with maximal stimulation ...19947836891
immunolocalization of the nuk receptor tyrosine kinase suggests roles in segmental patterning of the brain and axonogenesis.neural kinase (nuk) encodes a murine receptor-like tyrosine kinase belonging to the eph/elk/eck family. protein localization studies indicate that during early embryogenesis nuk is confined to the developing nervous system, where it marks segments along the axis of the neural tube in the hindbrain (rhombomeres r2, r3 and r5) and specific morphological bulges of the midbrain and forebrain. subcellular localization of nuk indicates that this receptor is concentrated at sites of cell-cell contact, ...19948134103
functional dissection of the transcription factor elk-1.the ternary complex factor elk-1 belongs to the ets oncoprotein family. we demonstrate that this transcription factor is localized predominantly in the nucleus, for which at least two regions of elk-1 are required. one of these regions is part of the n-terminal ets-domain, while the other encompasses amino acids 137-157. in conjunction with the ets-domain, which mediates autonomous binding of elk-1 to some dna target sequences, the conserved b-region is both necessary and sufficient for ternary ...19948134131
isolation and characterization of bsk, a growth factor receptor-like tyrosine kinase associated with the limbic system.neuronal degeneration has been shown to be involved in various neurological disorders. growth/trophic factors and their receptors are known to be important for the regeneration and survival of neurons. we report here the molecular cloning of a receptor-like protein tyrosine kinase, bsk, (for brain specific kinase). bsk is highly related to the eph/elk receptor-like kinase family members. northern blot analysis shows that it is expressed specifically in the brain, with no expression detected in a ...19948145300
concurrent sick building syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome: epidemic neuromyasthenia revisited.sick building syndrome (sbs) is usually characterized by upper respiratory complaints, headache, and mild fatigue. chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) is an illness with defined criteria including extreme fatigue, sore throat, headache, and neurological symptoms. we investigated three apparent outbreaks of sbs and observed another more serious illness (or illnesses), characterized predominantly by severe fatigue, that was noted by 9 (90%) of the 10 teachers who frequently used a single conference roo ...19948148452
the transcription factors elk-1 and serum response factor interact by direct protein-protein contacts mediated by a short region of elk-1.transcriptional induction of the c-fos gene in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation is mediated in part by a ternary nucleoprotein complex within the promoter consisting of serum response factor (srf), p62tcf/elk-1 and the serum response element (sre). both srf and p62tcf/elk-1 contact the dna and bind in a cooperative manner to the sre. in this study, we demonstrate that srf and elk-1 interact directly in the absence of the sre. a 30-amino-acid peptide from elk-1 (b-box) is both nece ...19948164681
some toxic and trace metals in big game hunted in the northern part of poland in 1987-1991.game animal meats (muscle, liver and kidneys) collected from different regions in northern part of poland in 1987-1991 were analysed for mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, zinc and iron. toxic mercury, cadmium and lead occurred in relatively low concentrations in muscle and organ meats, with the exception of lead in muscle and cadmium in kidneys, which were relatively more contaminated. the concentrations of essential trace metals in samples examined seemed to be natural. roe-deer contai ...19948178124
effects of exogenous melatonin on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality of adult female red deer (cervus elaphus).the effects of administration of exogenous melatonin to pregnant red deer hinds on prolactin secretion, lactogenesis and reproductive seasonality were studied. mature hinds (n = 23) were allocated to one of four treatments. hinds in treatment 1 (n = 6) each received two subcutaneous melatonin implants (regulin) at monthly intervals starting on 2 october, about 80 days before expected parturition. hinds in treatment 2 (n = 6) received similar treatment starting on 2 november, about 40 days before ...19948182577
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