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elk, tissue-specific ets-related genes on chromosomes x and 14 near translocation breakpoints.the myb-ets-containing acute leukemia virus, e26, transforms myeloblasts and erythroblasts in culture and causes a mixed erythroid and myeloid leukemia in chicks. genes (ets-1, ets-2, and erg) with variable relatedness to the v-ets oncogene of the e26 virus have been identified, cloned, and characterized in several species. two new members (elk-1 and elk-2) of the ets oncogene superfamily have now been identified. nucleotide sequence analysis of the elk-1 cdna clone revealed that this gene encod ...19892539641
identification of genetic variation between strains of bluetongue virus serotype 11 using cdna probes.recombinant plasmids containing inserts representing genome segments 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11, with tentative coding assignments for viral proteins p2, p5, ns1, ns2, and p6, respectively, have been used to study the genetic diversity within a btv serotype using northern blot hybridization. btv 11 strains were isolated in california, nevada, oklahoma, and mexico from elk, deer, and cattle. diversity was indirectly indicated in the btv 11 strains by comparisons of el ...19892543132
erve virus, a probable member of bunyaviridae family isolated from shrews (crocidura russula) in france.an apparently new agent, provisionally named erve virus, was isolated in 1982 from tissues of three white toothed shrews, crocidura russula, trapped near saulges village in western france. results of virological and ultrastructural studies suggest that this virus belongs to the bunyaviridae family and is a bunyavirus-like agent. serosurveys indicate that erve virus had apparently a large geographical distribution in france and infects rodents, insectivores, wild boars (sus scrofa), red deer (cer ...19892570514
[legal regulations and practical application of studies of slaughtered game animals and their meat].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publications on the one hand dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mouflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892617520
bone formation and body composition of european elk: an ontogenetic model.metapodial and femur measurements were gathered on 8 female and 12 male western european elk (alces alces [l. 1758] alces) skeletons in four osteological collections in scandinavia. additional variables such as carcass and bone weight as well as metacarpal measurements recorded on 43 females and 47 males hunted in central sweden were completed by metatarsal measurements available for 28 female and 29 male individuals of the same sample. these bones were divided into two gross age groups on the b ...19892627003
lh and testosterone responses to gnrh in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags kept in a manipulated photoperiod.six red deer stags from age 4 months were kept in a light-proof room under an artificial photoperiod consisting of 5.5 cycles of alternate 2-month periods of 16 h light and 8 h dark (16l:8d) and 8l:16d. at 2 or 3 weekly intervals from 10 months of age through 4 cycles, the stags were anaesthetized with xylazine and challenged i.v. with 10 micrograms gnrh. blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and 10 and 60 min after injection. lh and testosterone concentrations were measured in all sam ...19892644427
diagnosis of pregnancy and prediction of fetal age in red deer by real-time ultrasonic scanning.sixteen pregnant red deer hinds were scanned using real-time ultra sound at regular intervals during the first 150 days of pregnancy. in the early stages of pregnancy, an intra-rectal linear array transducer was used but later in pregnancy the hinds were scanned externally with a sector scanner. pregnancy was determined from 30 days of gestation by intra-rectal scanning, and from 50 days by external scanning. with advancing age the size of the fetus increased, and linear regressions of size on a ...19892658297
rapid dwarfing of red deer on jersey in the last interglacial.the dwarfing of large mammals on islands occurred repeatedly in the pleistocene. elephants, deer, hippopotami and other species became dwarfed on islands in indonesia, the mediterranean, the east pacific and elsewhere. in most cases, the full-sized ancestral form can be recognized among the adjacent mainland fauna, but evolutionary rates cannot be estimated because the entry of the ancestor onto the island, and appearance of the dwarf form, are poorly dated. here i give the first example in whic ...19892685610
[cesium 134 and 137 contamination of game killed in hesse].the amount of caesium 134 and 137 in hessian game hunted for food (556 animals) after the reactor accident at chernobyl was investigated. comparisons have been made before and after the accident. although there was only a very low level of contamination, the contamination rate of different species varied; on average, the red deer showed the highest activity (130 bq/kg). the level of caesium contamination was mostly influenced by the permanent habitat of the animals. the main influence was due to ...19902103661
cdna cloning and characterization of eck, an epithelial cell receptor protein-tyrosine kinase in the eph/elk family of protein kinases.a human epithelial (hela) cdna library was screened with degenerate oligonucleotides designed to hybridize to highly conserved regions of protein-tyrosine kinases. one cdna from this screen was shown to contain a putative protein-tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and subsequently used to isolate another cdna from a human keratinocyte library that encompasses the entire coding region of a 976-amino-acid polypeptide. the predicted protein has an external domain of 534 amino acids with a presumptive ...19902174105
genetic analysis of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase polymorphism in the genus cervus.a study of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in cervus dama, cervus elaphus, cervus nippon and cervus elaphus x cervus nippon hybrids has revealed a polymorphism of this enzyme system in cervus elaphus as well as in the hybrid population. genetic analysis suggests that this enzyme system is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles. the allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination between the hybrid population and the red deer population, whereas the fallow deer are fixed for th ...19902090010
contribution to knowledge of the morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the fallow deer (dama dama l.).as in the red deer, in the fallow deer embryo we found a number of ancestral structures reminiscent of relationships in other mammals, such as paraseptal cartilages, a septum nasi with trabecular widening, a lamina transversalis ant., a cart. ectochoanalis, a capsule wall with a roof and a lateral wall formed of a clearly distinguishable cart. parietotectalis and cart. paranasalis, an ethmoturbinale i projecting a long way rostrally and additionally, in the fallow deer, cart. paraseptales poster ...19902083886
the purification and characterisation of cervine igm and igg.a procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin g (igg) and immunoglobulin m (igm) from hyperimmune cervine serum. hybrids of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh). an immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. the antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by klh-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into igm and igg by ...19902075697
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the red deer (cervus elaphus l.).three stages of morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the red deer (cervus elaphus l.) were studied. many ancestral traits reminiscent of relationships in other mammals and even in reptiles were found, including a cart, ectochoanalis, paraseptal cartilages, the septum nasi and its ventral trabecular enlargement, a lamina transversalis ant., clear separation of the cart, parietotectalis and cart, paranasalis from each other and a crista semicircularis. a maxilloturbinale, was present, but not a ...19902210511
mammalian sex ratios and variation in costs of rearing sons and daughters.in red deer, the sex ratio of calves at birth (calculated as the proportion of calves born that are male) increases with the dominance rank of the mother, whereas opposite trends exist in several populations of macaques and baboons. here we show that the subsequent survival and reproductive success of subordinate female red deer is depressed more by rearing sons than by rearing daughters, whereas the subsequent fitness of dominant females is unaffected by the sex of their present offspring. by c ...19902300169
tuberculosis in domesticated deer (cervus elaphus): a large animal model for human tuberculosis.since the recent extensive domestication and farming of deer in new zealand, tuberculosis (tb) has presented a major health issue in farmed herds. the spectrum of disease pathology and immune reactivity in this naturally infected species represents a potentially valuable large animal model for the study of the underlying immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in mycobacterium bovis infection and its spread. a combination of laboratory assays for the detection of tuberculosis in deer ...19902203829
isoforms of the human ets-1 protein: generation by alternative splicing and differential phosphorylation.the ets-1 gene belongs to the ets gene family (ets-1, ets-2, erg, and elk) and is homologous to the v-ets oncogene found in the avian leukemia virus e26. the ets-1 gene products were characterized using a specific monoclonal antibody developed against a bacterially expressed v-ets protein. the ets-1 gene product in the human t-cell line cem was found to consist of at least six species: four major species with apparent molecular weights of 51 kda (p51), 48 kda (p48), 42 kda (p42), and 39 kda (p39 ...19902189104
a serological comparison of some animal herpesviruses.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) isolates (cooper-type strain 4975 and oxford) were compared in neutralization tests with the bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) isolate (85/16 tv) and the herpesviruses of red deer (d2839/1) and goats (e/ch). hyperimmune antiserum was prepared in rabbits against the plaque-selected viruses and endpoint and kinetic neutralization test were made. bhv-4 was clearly different from the other four viruses. the closely-related bhv-1 strains were also related in these tests to the ...19902170074
[dictyocaulus species, lungworms in cattle and deer in the netherlands].using recent descriptions of dictyocaulus species, all samples of lungworms in cattle were identified as d. viviparus, and all samples from roe deer, red deer and reindeer being identified as d. eckerti by the present authors. although cross infections between cattle and cervids are reported in the literature, these are not readily established. because of the different species and the small likelihood of cross infections cattle and cervids are not regarded as serious sources of lungworm infectio ...19902305391
real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and estimation of fetal age in farmed red deer.twenty-nine farmed red deer hinds two years of age or older were observed during mating in april, and the dates of oestrus and, or, mating were recorded. from may 28 to august 13, at approximately weekly intervals, the deer's uteri and associated structures were examined by rectal ultrasound using a 5 mhz transducer while the deer were held standing in a restraining device. the uterine diameter, amniotic sac diameters, crown-rump length, head length, nose length, chest depth, chest width and pla ...19902408225
effect of preslaughter experience on behaviour, plasma cortisol and muscle ph in farmed red deer.three groups of farmed red deer were shot in the field, three groups were slaughtered on the farm and three groups were transported to commercial slaughterhouses. the behaviour of the animals was observed and peripheral plasma cortisol concentrations were measured immediately after slaughter and neck muscle ph was measured 24 hours after slaughter. the deer could be handled and herded without agitation when only one unhindered direction was open to them and nothing in the environment caused alar ...19902309417
localization of cloned, repetitive dna sequences in deer species and its implications for maintenance of gene territory.the deer family shows the largest variation in chromosome number known in mammals (2n = 6 to 2n = 70). the drastic rearrangement of the chromosomes allows to test the prediction, based on the chromosome field theory, according to which dna sequences tend to occupy specific territories within the eukaryotic chromosome. nuclear dnas were isolated from eight deer and two bovidae species. these dnas were cleaved with the restriction enzymes eco ri and alu i. following eco ri digestion highly repetit ...19902361878
[the elk--the intermediate host of echinococcus granulosus in yakutia].the yakut elk is an obligatory intermediate host of e. granulosus (batsch, 1786). in this region, a mixed focus of hydatid echinococcosi causative agent with a dog-elk-dog pattern of circulation was revealed in the presence of a natural focus where the circulation pattern was wolf-elk-wolf.19902377142
[unusual metaplasia of the deer lung].a short description of metaplasia in the bronchioles of a red deer is given. the process is possibly started by aspiration and chronic irritation by larvae of cephenemyia stimulator.19902377988
comparative studies on megatrypanum trypanosomes from cervids.trypanosomes were isolated by culture from 2 out of 50 blood samples collected from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.) in northern sweden and from a blood sample from a moose (alces alces) from southern sweden. the parasites were indistinguishable morphologically from other trypanosomes reported from cervids, both as epimastigotes in axenic culture at 27 degrees c and as bloodstream-like trypomastigotes cultured on mammalian fibroblasts at 37 degrees c. surface carbohydrate and isoenzyme comparison ...19902382100
yersiniosis in farmed deer.samples from 77 chital (axis axis), 42 fallow (dama dama), 26 red (cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (cervus unicolor) were examined. yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. gross pathology in chital included a fibrinou ...19902222364
chromosomal evolution in cervidae.on the basis of chromosome data obtained on 30 species and 20 subspecies of cervidae, a report is submitted on the karyosystematics of this family. the primitive karyotype of cervidae may be inferred to be composed of 35 acrocentric pairs (2n = 70 fn = 70). during the phyletic evolution of this family different types of chromosome rearrangements were probably selected and the group may have differentiated karyologically into three branches: (1) the cervinae that fixed a centric fusion resulting ...19902249009
freemartinism in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).several mixed-sex twins were produced by red deer treated with progesterone and pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin. of seven females karyotyped, two were 68,xx/68,xy chimeras. one male had the same chimeric karyotype as its female co-twin. these are the first reported cases of freemartinism in deer.19902249475
survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in alberta, canada.during the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from alberta (canada) were collected for parasitological examination. most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 9 ...19902250321
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in white-tailed deer from michigan.dorsal-spined larvae in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan and pennsylvania were used as a source of larvae to infect a hand-raised white-tailed deer fawn. the fawn receive 200 third-stage larvae and passed dorsal-spined larvae in feces 66 days later. muscleworm (parelaphostrongylus andersoni), and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recovered at necropsy. two white-tailed deer and seven wapiti (cervus elaphus) exposed to larvae of ...19902250330
variation of some serum proteins in red deer, cervus elaphus l.various electrophoretic techniques, immunoblotting and inhibitions of trypsin and chymotrypsin were used to study the variability of serum proteins in farmed red deer, cervus elaphus l., of czechoslovakian origin. easily interpretable polymorphisms were observed in transferrin (variants a, b1, b2, c) and vitamin d binding protein, gc (variants d, f, i, s). great variability was observed in the protease inhibitors pi2, pi3, pi4, pi5, and pi8 and in unidentified zones in the vicinity of albumin, b ...19902268075
[seroepidemiologic studies of the distribution of respiratory syncytial virus in wild ruminants].sera from wild ruminants (302 roe, 39 red deer, 17 fallow deer, 1 mouflon) were tested for antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). 22 sera (6.1%) were positive: 20 roe, 1 red deer, 1 mouflon. the findings are discussed from the epizootiological point of view.19902078187
[the role of large wildlife in the maintenance of natural foci of tick-borne meningoencephalitis in northern croatia].between 1986-1988 sera from 245 game animals--37 roe deers, 102 red deers, 81 wild boars and 25 hares--shot in 8 different localities of nort croatia, a well-known nosoareal of tick-borne encephalitis, were tested for tbe virus heminhibiting antibodies. the following percentages of positive animals were found: 24, 39, 39 and 0% respectively. most of the animals examined, 180 of them, were shot in lowland woods of the commune of nasice and its surroundings. there the percentage of positive animal ...19902091443
hypodermosis in the red deer cervus elaphus in córdoba, spain.the prevalence of red deer hypodermosis and the life cycle of hypodermia diana brauer 1858 in three provinces of the south of spain, córdoba, jaen and ciudad real, were studied by inspecting 254, thirty-eight and thirty-five deer from each province respectively. the prevalence of infestations was: córdoba, 87.75%; jaen, 92.10%, ciudad real, 91.42%. from this we deduced an overall prevalence of 88.67%, comprising 88.23% in male deer and 89.96% in female deer. the intensity of the parasitism in 21 ...19902132996
the pineal gland of the red deer male. histology and ultrastructure with notes on the fallow deer and mouflon pineals.the most conspicuous morphological feature of the investigated red deer pineal gland was very deep pineal recess, covered with continuous layer of the ependymal cells. its branches (2-3) reached the distal part of the gland. the slight differences in pineal structure of sexually active and sexually inactive red deer were observed. relatively large pineal glands both of mouflon and fallow deer showed many common as well as different structural features.19902136651
accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of calving date in red deer using real-time ultrasound scanning.one hundred and sixty-two 18-month-old farmed red deer were used to test the accuracy of pregnancy detection and equations for predicting gestational age. deer ranging from 30 to 110 days gestation were examined by rectal ultrasonography using a 5 mhz transducer while they were standing. each scan was recorded on video tape for measurements of uterine diameter, amniotic sac diameters, crown-rump length, head length, head diameter, nose length, chest depth, chest width and placentome base-apex le ...19902180196
intestinal lesions resembling paratuberculosis in a wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).one of three feral rabbits from a colony on a hill grazing used to sustain farmed red deer in north-east scotland, had chronic intestinal lesions resembling paratuberculosis (johne's disease), but similar lesions were not found in 29 juvenile and adult rabbits killed subsequently on the same ground. acid- and alcohol-fast bacteria were observed in fixed tissues, but material for culture was not obtained from the affected rabbit, thus the species of mycobacterium involved was not identified. the ...19902394843
the use of isoelectric focusing to identify rhinoceros keratins.keratins represent the principal structural proteins of hair. they are also found in horn, nail, claw, hoof, and feather. hair and nail samples from human and canine sources and hair samples from mule deer, white tail deer, cat, moose, elk, antelope, caribou, raccoon, and goat were studied. parrot and goose feathers were also analyzed. keratins are polymorphic, and species differences are known to exist. proteinaceous extracts of deer and antelope antlers and bovine and rhinoceros horn were prep ...19901691773
effects of melatonin and a dopamine agonist and antagonist on seasonal changes in voluntary intake, reproductive activity and plasma concentrations of prolactin and tri-iodothyronine in red deer hinds.three experiments were conducted in the period between july and november with non-lactating red deer hinds to describe the effects of treatment with melatonin during this period on voluntary food intake (vfi), the onset of the breeding season, coat changes and plasma concentrations of prolactin and triiodothyronine (t3), and to examine whether prolactin mediated the observed effects. in experiment 1, eight animals were treated orally each day with either 10 mg melatonin at 16.00 h or 10 mg melat ...19902373977
a continuum of rehabilitative care. a day hospital extends patients' lifeline to the medical center.alexian brothers medical center in elk grove village, il, carries out its commitment to a continuum of care through the alexian brothers rehabilitation center and its physical rehabilitation day hospital. the day hospital treats patients who need rehabilitation but do not need around-the-clock hospitalization. the day hospital individualizes its intensive comprehensive, pulmonary, and arthritis programs. an important component of these outpatient programs is education and preventive techniques t ...199010107455
a pilot study of the efficacy of topical ivermectin against lungworm in young red deer (cervus elaphus).three groups of ten 4-month-old red deer (cervus elaphus) calves naturally infected with lungworm (dictyocaulus viviparus) were treated with either oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg), topical (pour-on) ivermectin (500 microg/kg) or oral oxfendazole (5 mg/kg). faecal larval counts for lungworm were undetectable or very low for 14 days after treatment with oxfendazole, 28 days after treatment with oral ivermectin and for 49 days after treatment with topical ivermectin. this pilot study suggests that ...199016031590
field evaluation of melatonin implants to advance the breeding season in 1-year-old farmed red deer hinds.the efficacy of controlled-release melatonin implants to advance the onset of the breeding season was assessed in 1-year-old red deer hinds on five commercial deer farms in various localities in the north island of new zealand. between 44 and 60 hinds in each of six herds were equally divided among treatment and control groups at each site. melatonin treatment commenced between 27 november and 16 december and was achieved by the subcutaneous administration of two 18 mg melatonin implants. three ...199116031611
effects of culture duration and time of gonadotropin addition on in vitro maturation and fertilization of red deer (cervus elaphus) oocytes.immature red deer (cervus elaphus) oocytes (n = 1208) were collected from 1 to 4 - mm diameter follicles on ovaries and then cultured for 16, 20, 24 or 28 h (groups i to iv) in tcm 199 supplemented with 10% fcs, 1 x 10(6) granulosa cells/ml and 1 microg/ml estradiol at 39 degrees c under 5% co(2) in air. gonadotropins (10 microg/ml, fsh and lh) were added to the culture medium at the start of culture (0 h) or after 6 h. approximately one-third of the oocytes were examined for maturation, and the ...199116726919
a brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western canada and the northwestern united states.in this paper i review diseases reported in both captive and free-ranging wapiti in western north america, with some reference to diseases in captive red deer in great britain, europe, new zealand, and eastern north america.with the exception of coronavirus in neonates, few viral agents are reported to cause serious disease losses in wapiti in north america at this time. bacterial diseases of current significance include brucellosis (focus in wyoming), clostridial diseases, coliform enteritis of ...199117423839
caesium concentration factors in wild herbivores and the fox (vulpes vulpes l).a selection of wild animals was sampled in the winter of 1986/87. the sites chosen for sampling were based on information obtained from survey carried out by the institute of terrestrial ecology in the spring and autumn of 1986. animals included deer, grouse, hares and rabbits, and foxes which were collected as a top carnivore in the food chain. variation in concentration of caesium between species from the same area was unpredictable; rabbits, for instance, never exceeded 200 bq kg(-1) (fresh w ...199115092137
increasing medicaid clients' access to care. church, state, and private providers collaborate.medicaid clients often have difficulty obtaining a physician referral and thus seek treatment for nonemergent conditions in hospital emergency rooms. a committee with representatives from alexian brothers health system, inc., elk grove village, il, and catholic charities of the archdiocese of chicago, rolling meadows, il, has collaborated with six other organizations to put an end to this misuse of the healthcare system in chicago's northwest suburbs. catholic charities physician referral servic ...199110109231
mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta, canada.human infection with mycobacterium bovis is rare in developed countries because of milk pasteurisation and the slaughter of infected cattle. an epizootic of m bovis infection in domesticated elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta, canada, which started in april, 1990, prompted us to seek human contacts of elk herds. there were 446 identified contacts, in 394 of whom tuberculin skin tests were done. of 81 contacts who were skin-test positive, 50 had been in contact with culture-positive animals. 6 of 10 ...19911682654
eek and erk, new members of the eph subclass of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases.we have identified human and rat dnas encoding two novel members of the eph subclass of putative receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. rat cdna clones encoding eek (eph- and elk-related kinase) were isolated from a brain cdna library probed with dna encoding the kinase region of the insulin receptor-related receptor. the predicted eek protein contains all the amino acid residues conserved in the catalytic domains of protein-tyrosine kinases and is most similar to two putative receptor protein-tyros ...19911648701
observations on the output of nematode eggs in faeces and on the subsequent pasture infestation with third stage larvae produced by a herd of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).more than 2900 faecal samples and 200 herbage samples were examined from january 1986 to january 1989 during a study of the host/parasite relationships of the gastrointestinal nematodes of a herd of farmed red deer in surrey. the pattern of faecal egg output from the hinds appeared to conform to a tri-modal distribution with peaks during spring, the periparturient period and late summer. third stage larvae were present on the herbage during every month. the new generation appeared in june but le ...19911801404
lipoptena cervi (diptera), a potential vector of megatrypanum trypanosomes of deer (cervidae).in three different areas in northern germany, hippoboscids were collected from red deer (cervus elaphus). typanosomatids were demonstrated in the midgut and hindgut of 9/37 lipoptena cervi. the trypanosomatids were morphologically similar to vector forms of the subgenus megatrypanum that had been found in tabanids at the same location 5 years previously. hippoboscids are therefore potential vectors of trypanosoma (megatrypanum) spp. that infect red deer.19911805220
human and experimental spongiform encephalopathies: recent progress in pathogenesis.the spongiform encephalopathies belong to the group of "slow virus infections" of the nervous system, characterized by a long incubation period, a protracted course and involvement of the nervous system with a lethal outcome. in contrast to the conventional virus infections, such as visna in sheep and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in humans, the etiological agent for the spongiform encephalopathies has not been clearly defined. the known forms in animals are scrapie in sheep a ...19911676992
antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated diseases: a pulmonologist's perspective.the development of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (anca) test has lent support to the concept of wegener's granulomatosis as a spectrum that may affect one or more of the major anatomic sites: upper respiratory tract (e), lung (l), or kidney (k). it is c-anca that has high specificity for wegener's granulomatosis (wg). the sensitivity is highest in the fully expressed wegener's triad, or elk, and less in local regional disease. it is possible that isolated manifestations such as epi ...19911867176
tuberculosis in domesticated red deer: comparison of purified protein derivative and the specific protein mpb70 for in vitro diagnosis.the use of a mycobacterium bovis-specific protein, mycobacterial protein bovis 70 (mpb70), was compared with complex, m bovis-derived purified protein derivative (bovine ppd), for its ability to improve the diagnostic precision of in vitro assays for tuberculosis in farmed deer. a combination of lymphocyte transformation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to differentiate between specific m bovis reactivity and crossreactivity due to sensitisation with saprophytic mycobacteri ...19911882133
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
spiculopteragia spiculoptera, s. asymmetrica and ostertagia leptospicularis from cervus elaphus in la pampa, argentina.the nematode species spiculopteragia spiculoptera, spiculopteragia asymmetrica and ostertagia leptospicularis were recovered from the abomasum of wild red deer, cervus elaphus, in the forest area of the semi-arid pampeana region of la pampa (argentina) for the first time. oesophagostomum venulosum and dictyocaulus spp. were also found.19911763487
ets-related protein elk-1 is homologous to the c-fos regulatory factor p62tcf.a key event in the response of cells to proliferative signals is the rapid, transient induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene, which is mediated through the serum response element (sre) in the fos promoter. genomic footprinting and transfection experiments suggest that this activation occurs through a ternary complex that includes the serum response factor (srf) and the ternary complex factor p62. interaction of p62tcf with the srf-sre binary complex requires a cagga tract immediately upstream of ...19911722028
erg, an ets-related gene, codes for sequence-specific transcriptional activators.e26 is a replication-defective avian acute leukemia virus which causes erythroblastosis and myeloblastosis in chickens. it carries two distinct oncogenes, v-myb and v-ets, both of which contribute to its transforming properties. several genes related to the ets oncogene (c-ets-1, ets-2, erg, elk-1, elk-2, pu.1/spi-1, e74 and fli-1) have been described. previously we have shown that the erg gene (ets-related gene) codes for at least two proteins (erg-1 and erg-2) because of alternative splicing a ...19911766675
interaction of red deer leucocytes with pasteurella haemolytica leucotoxin. 19912024415
use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.we have developed a modified elisa for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi (bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (elat). microtiter plates were coated with antigen of bb. the immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. the test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. we performed epidemiological studies with ...19912028231
ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and early pregnancy in red deer.thirty-five farmed red deer hinds two years of age or older were observed during mating in april and may and the dates of oestrus and, or, matings were recorded. from immediately before the breeding season and at approximately weekly intervals from the start of mating until all deer were 42 days pregnant, rectal ultrasonographic scans were taken using a 5 mhz linear transducer while deer were held standing in a restraining device. scans were recorded on video. the vagina and cervix were visible ...19912048270
type ii ostertagiosis in farmed red deer.a mild form of type ii ostertagiosis was recorded in a group of 12, 22-month-old red deer stags, slaughtered in an abattoir in april 1989. the animals appeared clinically normal but they were light and in rather poor condition. mixed ostertagid infections were present in very variable numbers. in the seven most heavily infected animals, 70 per cent of the worms were in the early fourth stage and assumed to be hypobiotic. in some animals the worms were maturing and in these there were lesions sim ...19912048271
effects of melatonin implants on reproductive seasonality of male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags were treated with melatonin implants in 2 experiments designed to examine the control of reproductive seasonality. in exp. 1, stags (n = 24) were allocated to 4 treatment groups: 2 groups were treated with 3 implants per stag each month from 8 november to 5 february (em) or 9 december to 5 february (lm), 1 untreated group of control stags remained with the melatonin-treated stags (cc) and the other untreated control group remained isolated (ic). melatonin treatment advanced the se ...19912056480
artificial insemination of red deer (cervus elaphus) with frozen-thawed wapiti semen.semen collected from wapiti (cervus elaphus) in canada in 1983 was frozen in two extenders. in 1988, the semen was used to inseminate 200 red deer hinds on 2 farms in new zealand. oestrus was synchronized in the hinds with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal devices (cidr); 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin was given to each hind on day 11. the cidrs were removed on day 12 at 20/h, as the numbers of the hinds were recorded. on day 14, 54-56 h after cidr removal, the hinds were brought ...19911920280
ectoparasites from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from wyoming.hides of nine elk, collected during the winter of 1986-1987 from the national elk refuge, wyoming (usa) were examined for ectoparasites. parasites recovered were mites, psoroptes sp. (five elk); lice, solenopotes ferrisi and bovicola (bovicola) longicornis (seven elk); and winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (nine elk). three elk with severe scabies had an estimated 0.6 x 10(6), 3.8 x 10(6) and 6.5 x 10(6) mites, respectively. densities of mites were much higher in skin regions with severe derm ...19911920665
characterization by restriction endonuclease analysis and seroagglutination of strains of mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intracellulare obtained from farmed deer.restriction endonuclease analysis and seroagglutination were used to characterize strains of mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium intracellulare (collectively, mai) recovered from 1 local herd and 2 imported shipments of red deer (cervus elaphus) that developed sensitization to bovine tuberculin during skin testing. a total of 31 mai strains were isolated from lymph node pools (head, thorax, abdomen, and peripheral regions) of 21 of 29 local deer. similarly, 15 mai strains were isolated from th ...19911849382
red deer, nematodes and anthelmintics. 19911858266
mycobacterium bovis infection in humans exposed to elk in alberta.the evidence of zoonotic transmission of m. bovis infection in the 1 veterinarian is confirmed by growth of the organism from his sputum 6 months after animal contact. the high rate of initial tuberculin reactivity and the skin test conversions of 6 persons in contact with culture-positive animals strongly suggest that further human infection has taken place. however, the lack of baseline testing on 48/81 test-positive individuals and the relatively high proportion of immigrants in some occupati ...19911841004
efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections of fascioloides magna in wapiti.fourteen free-ranging adult wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured in banff national park, alberta (canada) and held in captivity near edmonton. a 24% suspension of triclabendazole at doses of 30 to 100 mg/kg body weight was drenched into the rumen of eight females and four males. two male wapiti were used as untreated controls. animals were killed and examined at 4 (n = 3), 6 (n = 4), or 8 (n = 4) wk after treatment. efficacy was 90% against immature fascioloides magna collected 4 wk aft ...19911758025
the biochemical systematics of red and sika deer (genus cervus) in ireland.twenty enzyme loci were investigated using starch gel electrophoresis in managed populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (c. nippon) from ireland. the red deer, which originated from several european countries, were polymorphic (%p) at 25% of the loci examined and exhibited a mean heterozygosity (h) of 0.025. the sika, originally from japan, were introduced to ireland in very limited numbers. here, %p was 5% and h was 0.006. mean genetic distance (d) between these taxa was 0.160. ...19911816170
[pathologic changes in the lungs of deer spontaneously infected with nematodes from the protostrongylidae family].lungs of 30 animals of the red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) attacked by parasitic helminths were submitted to a histological examination, and the changes which were caused by the nematodes of protostrongylidae family were estimated. the lungworm varestrongylus sagittatus (mueller, 1891) creates hatching tubercles of a dark-red or yellow-green and even ochre colour. the lobular catarrhal bronchopneumonia is a histological correlate. in hatching tubercles there are located adult nematodes, ov ...19911771735
antimicrobial resistance and production of toxins in escherichia coli strains from wild ruminants and the alpine marmot.escherichia coli strains isolated from 81 fecal samples from red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreoulus capreoulus), chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and alpine marmot (marmota marmota) living in the stelvio national park, italy, were examined for antimicrobial resistance and production of toxic factors. direct plating of specimens on media containing antimicrobial drugs allowed us to isolate resistant strains of e. coli from 10 of 59 (17%) specimens examined by this technique. nine of 31 spec ...19912067054
temporal changes in lh and testosterone and their relationship with the first antler in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags from 3 to 15 months of age.blood samples were taken from six tame red deer stags at 3-15 months of age once a month from a jugular catheter every 30 min for 24 h to investigate hormonal secretion during puberty and during growth of the pedicle and first antler. all plasma samples were analysed for lh and testosterone concentrations and the resultant data were analysed using the pulsar pulse detection routine. in addition each stag was injected wih gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh; 20 ng/kg body weight) after the abov ...19911783890
transferrin polymorphism and genetic differentiation in cervus elaphus l. (european red deer) populations.a study of transferrin in 11 different european populations of cervus elaphus as well as in one cervus elephus x cervus nippon hybrid population has revealed a polymorphism of this protein. genetic analysis suggests that it is controlled by one gene locus with three codominant alleles. the allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination not only between the hybrid population and pure red deer but also between different continental red deer populations. comparison of the genotypic structures with ...19911757275
prostaglandin-induced secretion of oxytocin and prolactin in red (cervus elaphus) and pere david's (elaphurus davidianus) deer hinds: evidence for oxytocin of luteal origin.peripheral plasma concentrations of oxytocin in female red deer during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle (9.3 +/- 2.1 fmol/ml) exceeded those in the follicular phase (3.1 +/- 1.4) or during seasonal anoestrus (3.2 +/- 1.3). in both red and père david's deer hinds during the mid-luteal phase of the cycle, systemic administration of a luteolytic dose of the prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue, cloprostenol, caused the concentration of oxytocin in the peripheral circulation to rise. mean (+/- sem) ...19911936924
relationship between allozymes, heterozygosity and morphological characters in red deer (cervus elaphus), and the influence of selective hunting on allele frequency distribution.morphological characters in red deer (cervus elaphus), which serve as criteria for selective hunting, were examined in relation to electrophoretic variation in three populations from the vosges in eastern france. from the polymorphic loci examined, certain alleles at idh-2, me-1 and acp-1 showed significant associations with a special development of body and antler characters selected for by hunters. idh-2(125) was associated with larger hind foot length in females and a higher number of antler ...19911880046
phenotypic analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cattle and deer affected with "sheep-associated" malignant catarrhal fever.established lymphoblastoid cell lines with natural killer cell-like activity have been derived from cattle and deer affected with malignant catarrhal fever. they were examined phenotypically using monoclonal antibodies chosen for their cross-reactivity with peripheral blood lymphocytes from these species. cell lines established from three of four cattle were identified as cytotoxic/suppressor lymphocytes (cd4-/cd8+/t19-) whilst the other was shown to be of the helper cell phenotype (cd4+/cd8-/t1 ...19911683050
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
scanning electron microscopic observations on the development and structure of tooth enamel in cervidae (mammalia: ruminantia).enamel formation and structure were investigated in 102 developing or erupted teeth of roe, fallow and red deer. special attention was given to the topography of the forming enamel surface, the form, arrangement and course of enamel rods, its relation to interprismatic enamel and the occurrence of hunter-schreger-bands in the enamel. discussed are the significance of the enamel pattern for the identification of certain taxa and the adaptive value of cervidean enamel structures.19911759724
leptospirosis as a result of elk exposure. 19911948245
characterization of elk, a brain-specific receptor tyrosine kinase.the elk gene encodes a novel receptorlike protein-tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the eph subfamily. we have previously identified a partial cdna encompassing the elk catalytic domain (k. letwin, s.-p. yee, and t. pawson, oncogene 3:621-678, 1988). using this cdna as a probe, we have isolated cdnas spanning the entire rat elk coding sequence. the predicted elk protein contains all the hallmarks of a receptor tyrosine kinase, including an n-terminal signal sequence, a cysteine-rich extracellula ...19912017163
brown fat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adipose tissues of newborn reindeer.reindeer inhabit a severe arctic or subarctic environment, with the young born in early spring under adverse weather conditions. the extreme northern climate imposes a major thermal challenge to the newborn, and in the present study we have examined fetal, neonatal, and young (from 2 wk before birth to 16 mo postpartum) semidomesticated reindeer from northern finland for the presence of thermogenic brown adipose tissue. adipose tissues were removed, mitochondria were prepared, and the proteins w ...19912058749
evaluation of relationship between plasma fibrinogen concentration and tuberculin testing in red deer.after intradermal injection of bovine purified derivative (ppd), increases in plasma fibrinogen concentration and plasma viscosity developed in red deer (cervus elaphus) with a history of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis. serum haptoglobin concentrations were also found to increase under similar circumstances. the increases were reproducible and did not appear to be related to mustering, stress, or the handling associated with injection of ppd. a significant (p less than 0.05) direct r ...19912071482
is the "mammalian" brown fat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein present in adipose tissues of birds?1. mitochondria were isolated from the furcular, subcutaneous, abdominal, nape and lateral adipose tissue depots of five species of bird (pheasant, japanese quail, pigeon, house sparrow and great tit) acclimatized to the northern winter. 2. mitochondrial proteins were separated by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and probed for the presence of the 32,000-33,000 mr uncoupling protein characteristic of "mammalian" brown adipose tissue, using an anti-(g ...19911756620
spatial variability in the nutrient composition of populus tremuloides: clone-to-clone differences and implications for cervids.populus tremuloides, a clonal angiosperm, is a major food item for many temperate-region herbivores. clonal variation in chemical composition has potentially important implications for vertebrate herbivores because a single clone may be areally large and hence, may comprise a large part of available forage. the objectives of this study were: (1) to examine spatial variability in nutrient concentrations and quality within and among 24 clones of trembling aspen, and (2) to evaluate these differenc ...199128312739
countervailing selection in different fitness components in female red deer.in individually monitored red deer (cervus elaphus) living in the north block of the isle of rhum, scotland, juvenile survival is related to the genotype at the enzyme loci mpi and idh-2 (each with two alleles, f and s). to establish whether other fitness components also are related to genetic differences, we examined whether age at first breeding, fecundity, and adult survival of females were related to genotype at the same loci. fertility in females shot outside the study area was also analyze ...199128564077
wolf predation and snow cover as mortality factors in the ungulate community of the bialowieża national park, poland.wolf-ungulate interactions were studied in the pristine deciduous and mixed forests of the bialowieża national park in 1985-1989. the study period included two severe and two mild winters. the community of ungulates inhabiting bialowieża national park consisted of red deer cervus elaphus, 55% of all ungulates; wild boar sus scrofa, 42%; and roe deer capreolus capreolus, moose alces alces, and european bison bison bonasus, about 1% each. the average size of red deer groups increased from 2.7 (sd ...199228312267
characterization of sap-1, a protein recruited by serum response factor to the c-fos serum response element.we used a yeast genetic screen to isolate cdnas that encode a protein, srf accessory protein-1 (sap-1), that is recruited to the c-fos serum response element (sre) as part of a ternary complex that includes serum response factor (srf). sap-1 requires dna-bound srf for ternary complex formation and makes extensive dna contacts to the 5' side of srf, but does not bind dna autonomously. ternary complex formation by sap-1 requires only the dna-binding domain of srf, which can be replaced by that of ...19921339307
effects of melatonin implants on insulin-like growth factor 1 in male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags have a seasonal pattern of growth, alternating between periods of summer weight gain and winter weight loss that are influenced by photoperiod and by exogenous melatonin. a seasonal pattern of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1, also influenced by photoperiod, underlies the seasonal growth pattern. the present studies aimed to determine the influence of exogenous melatonin, administered at various times of the year, on plasma igf1 in adult red deer stags in new zealand at 45 degr ...19921624090
creep fracture in bones with different stiffnesses.creep fracture experiments were used to examine the differences in time to fracture of bones with very different young's moduli (bovine bone and red deer antler) and the implications of these differences for the 'cumulative-damage' model of caler and carter [j. biomechanics 22, 625-635 (1989)] for bone fracture. using normalised stress as the explanatory variable, the slopes of the distributions agreed quite well with that of caler and carter for human bone. however, antler took far longer to fr ...19921733979
molecular cloning of hek, the gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by human lymphoid tumor cell lines.we describe the molecular cloning of a receptor tyrosine kinase from a cell line (lk63) derived from a case of human pre-b-cell leukemia. we have previously shown that a monoclonal antibody (iiia4) raised against lk63 recognized a glycosylated, cell-surface 135-kda molecule (hek), which displayed tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. the hek protein was purified by using a iiia4 antibody column and both n-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were obtained. a 51-mer degenerate oligonucleotide ...19921311845
a divergent ets-related protein, elk-1, recognizes similar c-ets-1 proto-oncogene target sequences and acts as a transcriptional activator.the ets oncogene superfamily consists of a family of sequence-specific dna-binding proteins that activate transcription. we have previously identified two new members of the ets oncogene superfamily, namely elk-1 and elk-2. in this report we show that the recombinant elk-1 protein expressed in bacteria, like the c-ets-1 proto-oncogene, binds in a sequence-specific manner to moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, e74 target sequences and the pea3 motif (polyoma enhancer), but does not ...19921741166
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
elk-1 protein domains required for direct and srf-assisted dna-binding.the ets-related elk-1 protein can bind to purine-rich dna target sites in a sequence specific fashion and, in addition, can form a ternary complex with the c-fos serum response element (sre) and the serum response factor (srf). we demonstrate that elk-1 can readily interchange between its different interaction partners. the amino terminal ets-domain of elk-1 was shown to be necessary and sufficient for direct dna-binding activity. for ternary complex formation with the sre and srf, both the elk- ...19921630903
a comparison of serological relationships among five ruminant alphaherpesviruses by elisa.using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays the cross reactivity of bovine herpesvirus-1.1, bovine herpesvirus-1.2, caprine herpesvirus-2, cervine (red deer) herpesvirus-1 and rangiferine (reindeer) herpesvirus-1 has been examined using rabbit hyperimmune antisera and convalescent cattle and red deer field sera. significant cross-reactivity among all the five viruses was demonstrated. a detailed analysis showed that: (1) the two bovine herpesviruses are most closely related, (2) the cervine, caprin ...19921605741
requirement of thyroid function for the expression of seasonal reproductive and related changes in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.the effect of thyroid function on regulation of seasonal reproduction was investigated in three red deer stags thyroidectomized (thx) in summer (january 1988) in comparison with five thyroid-intact controls. responses of luteinizing hormone (lh) and testosterone to a bolus injection of 10 micrograms gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) were tested in july, october, december, february and april. blood samples were collected at weekly intervals from december 1987 to june 1989 for measurement of ...19921552486
[comparative studies of the hair of pudu pudu and european red deer].the awn and the fur hair of pudu were investigated. values of the length are between 14 and 56 mm for the awn hair, and 9 to 36 mm for the fur hair. hair thickness--especially at the thickest point--ranges from 140 to 236 microns for the awn hair and from 19 to 106 microns for the fur hair. the values of the cuticle scales are between 12 and 18 microns for the length and between 41 and 66 microns for the width. the shape of the scales is rectangular in the basal three quarters (r) and becomes cr ...19921585995
r51163 as a sedative for handling and transporting plains bison and wapiti.forty captive wapiti (cervus elaphus) and thirty-two bison (bison bison bison) were tested in april and october 1988, respectively, for their response to the sedative r51163. treatment animals were injected with either 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg of r51163/kg and then observed for 72 hr. behavior was significantly altered by the drug. hyperactive, aggressive, and milling behavior was characteristic of treated wapiti and they were extremely dangerous and reared when hind quarters were touched. although t ...19921602574
cryptosporidiosis in newborn red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer calves dying at 24 to 72 hours old were infected with cryptosporidia. the clinical signs were extreme depression and weakness, but they did not consistently have diarrhoea. one calf was severely uraemic, and evidence from subsequent cases suggested that cryptosporidium infection in very young red deer calves may result in terminal uraemia. the possibility of intrauterine infection is considered. the factors which could have predisposed to the outbreak of infection were investigated; the ...19921561743
variation amongst the neutralizing epitopes of bluetongue viruses isolated in the united states in 1979-1981.neutralizing epitopes present on field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17 were evaluated with a panel of polyclonal and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs). a total of 91 field isolates were evaluated, including 15 isolates of btv-10, 29 isolates of btv-11, 26 isolates of btv-13, and 21 isolates of btv-17. the viruses were isolated from cattle, goats, sheep, elk and deer in idaho, louisiana, nebraska and, predominantly, california, in the years 1979, 1980 and 19 ...19921379766
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