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belovsky's model of optimal moose size.belovsky's (1978) model for optimal size in moose is applied to red deer. criticisms are levelled at belovsky's model. in particular, the equation he derives relating net energy intake to body weight is shown to be fundamentally invalid. modifications are suggested using existing published information and an analysis of previously unpublished data on red deer stomach size as a function of body weight. i conclude that quantitative predictions of optimal body size are likely to be very difficult a ...19863796013
elaeophora elaphi n. sp. (filarioidea: onchocercidae) parasite of the red deer (cervus elaphus). with a key of species of the genus elaeophora.we described a new species of nematode filarioid (onchocercidae) parasiting the hepatic vessels of the red deer cervus elaphus. this new species is characterized by the number and disposition of the papillae on the genital area of the male, and the presence and characteristics of an "area rugosa" situated just in front of the ventral impair precloacal papilla. we discussed this new species, giving a key to the identification of all the known species of the genus elaeophora.19863813427
the existing and potential importance of brucellosis and tuberculosis in canadian wildlife: a review.as the campaign to eradicate bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) and tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in canadian livestock nears completion, the importance of extraneous sources of these diseases increases. this review summarizes the literature on brucellosis and tuberculosis in canadian wildlife species to determine existing and potential hosts. canadian caribou (rangifer tarandus) are reservoirs of brucella suis biotype 4 which is pathogenic in caribou, humans and muskoxen but reportedly ...198617422637
absence of a vitamin b12 weight gain response in two trials with growing red deer (cervus elaphus). 198616031239
carotid artery exteriorisation in the red deer.a technique for the surgical relocation of the carotid artery, to permit repeated percutaneous puncture, in red deer, is described. an incision was made through the skin distal to the ramus of the jaw parallel to and dorsal to the superficial jugular vein. the brachiocephalicus muscle was divided by blunt dissection to reveal the carotid artery. the carotid artery was dissected free of connective tissue and the vagus nerve and enclosed in a polythene prosthesis. the brachiocephalicus muscle was ...198616031243
dual infections of red deer (cervus elaphus) by leptospira interrogans serovars copenhageni and hardjo.on a property in the nelson district, blood and urine samples were taken from red deer (cervus elaphus) from which low (<1:100) antibody titres to serovar copenhageni and suspected leptospiral abortions had previously been reported. a total of 27 hinds were sampled. microscopic agglutination test (mat) titres in sera ranging from 1:32 to 1:128 were found in six animals. thirteen leptospiral isolations were made from nine of the 27 urine samples. four of these were typed as copenhageni and nine a ...198616031274
haemolytic disease associated with leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in red deer calves (cervus elaphus).three red deer calves (cervus elaphus) died with a haemolytic disease associated with infection by leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. infection within the herd was more prevalent than disease. sera from 16 herd mates were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (mat) and 12 had leptospiral titres, the majority to serovar pomona. a few calves had titres to balcunica and hardjo. urine was obtained for culture from six of these calves and serovar pomona was isolated from five with titres t ...198616031298
the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits: predictions of reaction norms for age and size at maturity.we used life-history theory to predict reaction norms for age and size at maturation. we assumed that fecundity increases with size and that juvenile mortality rates of offspring decrease as ages-at-maturity of parents increase, then calculated the reaction norm by varying growth rate and calculating an optimal age at maturity for each growth rate. the reaction norm for maturation should take one of at least four shapes that depend on specific relations between changes in growth rates and change ...198628556219
effects of monoterpene odors on food selection by red deer calves (cervus elaphus).the response of red deer calves (cervus elaphus) to the odors of sitka spruce (picea sitchensis) and lodgepole pine (pinus conforta) needles and five monoterpene constituents of their essential oils was measured by simple two-choice feeding trials. all odors were significantly rejected (p < 0.05) except sitka spruce and lodgepole pine by females and sitka spruce and alpha-terpineol by males. females had a stronger dislike of all odors except lodgepole pine than males. rejection of monoterpene od ...198724302236
spatial organization of female groups in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).the spatial organization of female groups in red deer was studied in the periods before and after the rut, in a study area located in the central sierra morena (córdoba, spain). the study was carried out in terms of age-sex classes, and was based on direct observation and video recording. movement order proved to be linear, and highlighted the role of the mature hind as group leader and potential group protector. two tendencies were found in the calf: to place itself behind the adult female, and ...198724897255
analyzing stereotypy in red deer alarm postures by means of informational redundancy.the variability in duration and form or red deer (cervus elaphus ) alarm postures was studied. 18 variables of form were measured from photographic sequences and stereotypy calculated by means of informational redundancy (ir). comparisons between stereotypy estimates obtained by ir and those provided by the widely used coefficient of variation proved to match each other well. durations showed less stereotypy than configurational variables as measured by coefficient of variation. some implication ...198724896867
effect of ivermectin and oxfendazole on shedding of larvae of the lungworm (dictyocaulus viviparus) by red deer (cervus elaphus).thirty eight newly weaned hinds were randomly allocated to one of two equal groups. one group received ivermectin, the other, oxfendazole at dose rates of 0.2 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg, respectively. all deer were drenched four times and were grazed on pasture. both anthelmintics reduced d. viviparus faecal larval counts to low levels 20 days after dosing, but the mean larval output and the proportion of deer shedding d. viviparus larvae at 27 and 33 days after treatment, were significantly lower in t ...198716031319
short interval intradermal skin testing in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) inoculated with mycobacterium bovis.two groups of 26 red deer (cervus elaphus) were tuberculin skin tested for 41 weeks at three and six week intervals respectively, except at 17 weeks when the internal was two and five weeks. seventeen weeks after the start of the experiment 36 deer were inoculated intratracheally with mycobacterium bovis, and the remaining 16 were run in-contact. at six weeks post inoculation, 35 of the 36 inoculated deer reacted to the skin test with a mean skin thickness difference (std) of 6.3 mm. in inoculat ...198716031352
parapoxvirus infections in new zealand farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).outbreaks of infection due to a parapoxvirus were reported on eight new zealand deer farms. scabby lesions were seen variably on the muzzle, lips, face, ears and neck of red deer (cervus elaphus) with morbidity rates reaching 100%. on three farms multifocal lesions were also present on the velvet. deaths were reported on two properties where the lesions were extensive and secondary bacterial infections had occurred. on one of these farms multifactorial disease was suspected. poxvirus particles w ...198716031369
changes in blood coagulation parameters of red deer (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with malignant catarrhal fever.changes in blood coagulation parameters were followed in four red deer (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) of deer. blood platelet counts, activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), one-stage prothrombin time (ospt), activated clotting time (act), plasma anti-thrombin iii (atiii) activity, fibrinogen degradation production (fdp) and fibrinogen levels were measured. inoculated deer became pyrexic after 17 or 19 days. thereafter they developed watery di ...198716031412
an outbreak of selenium responsive unthriftiness in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). 19873824858
melatonin lowers plasma prolactin levels in female red deer (cervus elaphus).the aim of the study was to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on circulating prolactin levels in red deer. melatonin was administered from 12 june 1984 (day 1) to lactating and non-lactating hinds in the feed daily at 1600 h, and to non-lactating hinds by a subcutaneous implant. average concentrations (ng/ml) of prolactin in plasma taken serially over 15-h periods were significantly higher for untreated hinds than for melatonin-treated animals on day 15 whether lactating (66- ...19873644887
phenotyping of individuals sensitive to suxamethonium. the cholinesterase research unit at the royal postgraduate medical school.four hundred and thirty blood samples from suxamethonium-sensitive individuals have been phenotyped by the cholinesterase research unit following its transfer from exeter to the hammersmith hospital. the distribution of genotypes has been shown to be similar to that found in exeter. screening for the elk and elj genes has not yielded any major differences in the gene frequencies of sensitive individuals, even during pregnancy. the uneven sex distribution of the patients, as well as other unusual ...19873651274
relationship of cheek tooth abrasion to fluoride-induced permanent incisor lesions in livestock.teeth from cattle, sheep, and horses that ingested various fluoride intakes and teeth from field studies of these species plus deer, elk, and bison were examined for abnormalities. approximately 99,000 animals in 322 herds were examined for fluorosis. from field studies, 988 cattle of various ages and with different degrees of dental fluorosis were slaughtered and necropsied. the severity of fluoride-induced mottling, hypoplasia, and abnormal abrasion of paired permanent incisor teeth was correl ...19873674560
roaring by red deer stags advances the date of oestrus in hinds.some male mammals call loudly and repeatedly during the breeding season. although the song of male birds is known to have effects on male-male competition, mate selection and ovulation, until now the loud calls of male mammals have been shown to affect only competition between males. although it has been suggested that loud calling could also serve to attract females, the possibility that it has a direct effect on reproduction in females has not previously been investigated for any mammal. here ...19873683584
cytogenetic studies on cervus elaphus. ii. synaptonemal complexes and nor activity during spermatogenesis.the activity of the nucleolus organizer regions (nors) in various stages of spermatogenesis of the red deer was studied with the silver staining technique. the ag-stainability of the nors, an indicator of the transcriptional activity of the r-rna genes, is present during the meiotic prophase until pachytene and is absent during the remainder of the meiotic prophase, to reappear during the first stages of spermiogenesis and then disappear again during the elongation phase of the spermatids. the d ...19873506531
nors, heterochromatin, and r-bands in three species of cervidae.chromomycin a3 banding of the chromosomes of three species of cervidae (red deer, fallow deer, roe deer) allows the demonstration of both centromeric constitutive heterochromatin and r-banding patterns useful for identifying all the chromosomes of a given karyotype. in all three species significant amounts of chromomycin-bright heterochromatin are present at the centromeres of all autosomes. the x chromosomes of all investigated species contained appreciable amounts of centromeric heterochromati ...19873584935
serological evidence of california serogroup virus activity in oregon.we wished to demonstrate evidence of the presence of california serogroup viruses in oregon and to test for the presence of certain other arboviruses in large ungulates. blood samples from black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus), and roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) from nine counties in oregon were tested by serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization for antibody to california serogroup viruses, including snowshoe hare, california encep ...19873586196
electron-microscopic observations on the female worms of six onchocerca species from cattle and red deer.the midbody regions of female worms of six onchocerca species (o. flexuosa, o. tarsicola, o. lienalis, o. gutturosa, o. armillata, o. gibsoni) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. the cuticular layering was rather similar in all species with the ridges built up by the cortical layers and the inner cuticular striations by the median or basal layers. differences in the epicuticular morphology were considerable. o. flexuosa and o. lienalis had a thin epicuticle without protuberances, t ...19873438294
bone morphometry and function: a comparison between cattle and european elk. 19873447465
long-term stimulatory effects of a continuous infusion of lhrh agonist on testicular function in male red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer stags were infused continuously with the lhrh agonist buserelin at 180-270 micrograms/day (1.2-1.8 micrograms/kg/day) for 72 days starting in late winter with the aim of suppressing reproductive function and inducing premature casting of the antlers. contrary to expectation, the treatment resulted in a long-term stimulation of testicular activity lasting at least 2 months; the increases in plasma concentrations of testosterone were associated with an increase in aggressive behaviour and ...19873110411
small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of giardia spp. and campylobacter spp.sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central washington cascade mountains were positive for giardia spp. trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the giardia duodenalis type. small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive anim ...19873310881
comparison of the serum amylases of farm animals.1. serum isoamylases with alpha-glucosidase activity from cattle, sheep, horses, goats, red deer, pigs and dogs were compared to one another. 2. the isoamylases from cattle and pigs were polymorphic. 3. in agarose gel electrophoresis the isoamylases behaved as alpha-1-globulins but in starch gel electrophoresis they were differentially retarded by affinity effects. 4. molecular weights were estimated: cattle (417,000); sheep (402,000); horses (420,000); goat (399,000); red deer (405,000); pigs ( ...19873322662
hypotensive compounds isolated from alcohol extract of the unossified horn of cervus elaphus l. var. xanthopygus milne-edwarg (rokujo). i. isolation of lysophosphatidyl choline as a hypotensive principle and structure-activity study of related compounds. 19873594677
demodex kutzeri sp. n. (acari: demodicidae), an identical parasite of two species of deer, cervus elaphus and c. nippon pseudaxis.reports on demodicid mites of the old world species of deer are reviewed and demodex kutzeri sp. n. (= d. cervi sensu kutzer and grünberg 1972; part.) described in all stages of the life cycle. the occurrence of d. kutzeri on two host species, cervus elaphus l., 1758 and c. nippon pseudaxis eydoux et souleyet, 1841 is reported and discussed as a rare phenomenon in the genus demodex.19873596397
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
epizootic vesicular stomatitis in colorado, 1982: some observations on the possible role of wildlife populations in an enzootic maintenance cycle.sera obtained from wild ungulates, carnivores, and rodents in colorado were tested for neutralizing (n) antibody against vesicular stomatitis, new jersey serotype (vsnj), virus to determine their involvement in the 1982 colorado vsnj epizootic in domestic animals. viremic and n antibody responses of two local rodent species to a 1982 colorado isolate of vsnj were determined in the laboratory. the rodents produced only weak viremias, but all developed n antibody. n antibody prevalences for vsnj i ...19873035241
the selection-arena hypothesis.the selection arena hypothesis offers one answer to a puzzling question. why do some organisms produce many more fertilized zygotes than are actually reared to hatching, birth, or release-then neglect, discard, resorb, or eat some of them, or allow them to eat each other? it makes four assumptions: (1) zygotes are cheap; (2) after conception the investment of parental time, energy, or risk into offspring continues; (3) offspring vary in fitness; (4) variation in offspring fitness can be identifi ...19872961604
reindeer papillomavirus transforming properties correlate with a highly conserved e5 region.a papillomavirus was isolated from the epithelial layer of a cutaneous fibropapilloma on a swedish reindeer (rangifer tarandus). reindeer papillomavirus (rpv) is morphologically indistinguishable from other papillomaviruses, but the restriction enzyme cleavage pattern of its genome is different. no sequence homology was detected between rpv dna and the dnas of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) and avian papillomavirus when hybridization was performed under stringent conditions. however, the r ...19872822949
latent herpesvirus infection in red deer: characterization of a specific deer herpesvirus including comparison of genomic restriction fragment patterns. 19872825490
cross-hybridization and relationships of various papillomavirus dnas at different degrees of stringency.cloned dnas of 21 different papillomaviruses which naturally infect mammals and one bird papillomavirus were compared for relative homology by southern blot hybridization. blots were carried out under low (tm-40 degrees), medium (tm-33 degrees), and high (tm-22 degrees) stringency conditions. at higher stringency, human papillomaviruses cross-hybridized with each other reflecting species-specific similarities. bovine papillomavirus types 1, 2, 5, european elk papillomavirus, and deer papillomavi ...19872832347
serological survey of herpesvirus infections in wild ruminants of france and belgium.the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovid herpesvirus 6 (bhv-6), herpesvirus of cervidae type 1 (hvc-1), reindeer herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 2 (bhv-2) and bovid herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was investigated in wild ruminants of france and belgium between 1981 and 1986. there were no animals serologically positive for bhv-4. antibodies against bhv-2 were demonstrated in roe deer (cervus capreolus) (less than 1%) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) (1%) in france. animals ...19882836635
serological survey for selected diseases in the endangered san joaquin kit fox (vulpes macrotis mutica).blood from endangered san joaquin kit foxes (vulpes macrotis mutica) inhabiting the elk hills naval petroleum reserve, kern county, and the elkhorn plain, san luis obispo county, california, was collected in 1981, 1982 and 1984 and sera were tested for antibodies against 10 selected pathogens. proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against pathogens were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981-1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis virus, 6% in 1981-1982 and 21% in 1984; canine di ...19882836636
serological comparisons of antigenically related herpesviruses in cattle, red deer and goats.serological comparisons were made using related herpesviruses from cattle (bovid herpesvirus 1), red deer (herpesvirus of cervidae 1) and goats (bovid herpesvirus 6) by virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the test samples comprised field sera from british cattle, red deer and goats and sera from experimentally infected or immunized animals. both the cervine and caprine viruses appeared to be more closely related to bovid herpesvirus 1 than they were to each other. cattle ...19882848356
genome of the european elk papillomavirus (eepv).the genome of the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) was found to be 8,095 base pairs (bp) long and its genetic organization was similar to that of other papillomaviruses. ten open reading frames (orfs), designated e1-e7 and l1-l3, were identified in the genome, all located on one strand. the presence of the l3 orf is rare among the papillomaviruses and to date has only been identified in the genomes of eepv, the deer papillomavirus (dpv) and the cottontail papillomavirus (crpv). the orf is well ...19882853484
comparison by experimental infections in cattle of a dictyocaulus species occurring naturally in red deer and a dictyocaulus of bovine origin.dictyocaulus species larvae were obtained from young red deer which had become infected on pastures considered to be carrying the dictyocaulus species indigenous to the red deer of scotland. these larvae were cultured to third stage and transmitted to five bovine calves. five other bovine calves were infected with third stage dictyocaulus viviparus larvae of bovine origin. microscopic appearances of both groups of larvae were indistinguishable and their lengths were similar. results indicated th ...19882968018
lester r. dragstedt 1893-1975. chronic ulcerative colitis. a summary of evidence implicating bacterium necrophorum as an etiologic agent.lester dragstedt was born in anaconda, montana, the son of swedish immigrant parents. his entire college and professional education took place at the university of chicago, where he received a b.s. degree in 1915, a master's degree in physiology in 1916, a ph.d. in physiology in 1920, and the m.d. degree (from rush) in 1921. his first academic appointment was as a physiologist at the state university of iowa. in 1925 dragstedt was recruited by dallas b. phemister to help design the new universit ...19883042305
tuberculosis in imported red deer (cervus elaphus).an outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in farmed red deer imported from an eastern european country is described. twenty-six of the 106 deer examined at autopsy were found to be infected and 19 had visible lesions of tuberculosis. single comparative intradermal tuberculin tests on 51 deer showed that the test had a specificity of 61.3 per cent and a sensitivity of 80 per cent relative to subsequent biological and cultural tests on tissues taken at autopsy. three hundred and seven ...19883043888
column-like structures following the course of dentinal tubules in bovine, red deer, and rat teeth.a material of bovine, red deer, and rat incisors was investigated, with emphasis on the bovine teeth. both ground sections and paraffin wax sections of demineralized material were used. the sections were investigated by ordinary and polarized light microscopy and contact microradiography. in the bulk of the dentin irregular column-like light structures, alternating with largely similar, but dark, columns, followed the course of the dentinal tubules from the pulpal border to just below the mantle ...19882462743
novel protein-tyrosine kinase cdnas related to fps/fes and eph cloned using anti-phosphotyrosine antibody.a rat brain lambda gt11 cdna expression library was screened with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody to identify recombinant clones that encode enzymatically active protein-tyrosine kinases. the inserts of two bacteriophage that gave positive signals were sequenced. both translation products possess sequence motifs characteristic of protein-tyrosine kinases. however, each polypeptide is distinct from previously described members of the tyrosine kinase family. the predicted product of the lambda b1 cl ...19882485255
meningoencephalitis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) caused by streptococcus zooepidemicus. 19883358286
blood biochemical reference values for farmed red deer.the activities and concentrations of 30 whole blood and plasma constituents including enzymes, substrates, electrolytes and vitamins were determined in samples from 91 clinically healthy farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds ranging in age from one to 15 years. the hinds were randomly selected from a herd maintained on a mixture of reseeded and permanent hill pasture at an experimental research station in north east scotland. the results were analysed statistically and the calculated means, sta ...19883363833
elevated plasma igf 1 levels in stags prevented from growing antlers.we have previously shown that plasma igf 1 concentration is positively correlated with the rate of antler growth and have proposed that igf 1 is stimulatory for antler growth in the red deer stag. therefore to partly resolve the question of whether the igf 1 was of circulating or local origin in relation to its effect on antler growth, we surgically prevented stags from growing antlers. we recorded significantly elevated plasma levels of igf 1 in the non-antlered stags compared with normal antle ...19883371270
the pathology of "sheep-associated" malignant catarrhal fever in the hamster.lesions induced in hamsters by inoculation with the "sheep-associated" agents of malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) isolated from a red deer (cervus elaphus), designated d/1 and of bovine origin (c/2), are described. clinical signs in hamsters inoculated with the d/1 isolate occurred as early as 13 days after infection although the mean incubation period in animals that developed signs was 27 days. increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present in the blood of clinically affected ...19883372751
borrelia infections of ruminants in europe.the occurrence of borrelia spirochaetes in cattle in the netherlands is reported for the second time, and in red deer and roe-deer in austria for the first time. it is postulated that these spirochaetes are borrelia burgdorferi rather than b. theileri. the reservoir role of ruminants in the epidemiology of human disease caused by b. burgdorferi in europe should be investigated.19883376412
[topography and structure of the stylohyoid muscle in mammals].topography and structure of the musculus stylohyoideus (msh) have been studied in 78 species of mammalia from 12 orders. the muscle in question has specific peculiarities not only in its position and fixation, but also in a great variability of its structure. the msh is not revealed in philander opossum, lagostrophus fasciatus, guinea pig, meriones eversmanni, rhombomys opimus, nyctereutes procyonoides, thos aureus, mastelidae. various pathways of development and different functional loading def ...19883408352
tuberculosis in red deer. 19883413948
tuberculosis in red deer. 19883413965
observations on the morphology of the hair follicle mites (acari: demodicidae) from cervus elaphus l., 1758 including description of demodex acutipes sp. n.morphology of demodex acutipes sp. n. and demodex sp. parasitizing the red deer, cervus elaphus l., 1758 is described and diagnostic characters of three demodex species from this host are compared.19883417202
ingestion of microfilariae from different sources by culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) through an artificial membrane.laboratory-hatched culicoides nubeculosus midges were membrane-fed on cattle blood containing various onchocerca microfilariae which had been isolated from the hides of red deer (cervus elaphus) and from australian and native german cattle. all microfilariae were ingested through the membrane except those of o. tarsicola, which were too large. onchocerca gibsoni and o. lienalis reached the thoracic musculature, but no further development occurred. microfilariae of o. flexuosa developed to the "s ...19883420793
[immobilization of red deer stags (cervus elaphus l.) using etorphine]. 19883136584
septicemic pasteurellosis in elk (cervus elaphus) on the united states national elk refuge, wyoming.septicemic pasteurellosis caused by pasteurella multocida is believed responsible for the deaths of 48 elk (cervus elaphus) on the national elk refuge near jackson, wyoming (usa) during 1986 and 1987. clinical signs included depression and salivation; necropsy findings included congestion and petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in lymph nodes, diaphragm, lungs and endocardium. pasteurella multocida was isolated from femur marrow of eight carcasses and a variety of tissues from eight others.19883143020
antler anomalies in tule elk.antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to point reyes, california (usa). these anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. the elk were judged deficient in copper. low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.19883193560
polymorphism and genetic control of erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the genus cervus.a study of 11 enzyme systems in blood samples of cervus dama, c. elaphus, c. nippon and hybrids c. elaphus x nippon has revealed an erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase polymorphism in the hybrid populations. genetic analysis suggests that this enzyme is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles, one specific for pure japanese sika deer, the other for pure red deer as well as for fallow deer, while both alleles have been found in the red x sika hybrids.19883207221
effect of physical restraint and xylazine sedation on haematological values in red deer (cervus elaphus).blood samples were taken from healthy red deer (cervus elaphus) using physical restraint or xylazine sedation. red and white cell and platelet parameters were measured using a technicon h6000/c analyser. lower circulating red cell mass, lymphocyte and platelet counts were found in sedated deer. mean red cell volume was significantly lower, probably due to the preferential sequestration of young red cells in the spleen. while the main cause of the observed differences is likely to be splenic cont ...19883212274
effects of chronic long-acting bromocriptine treatment on liveweight, voluntary food intake, coat growth and breeding season in non-pregnant red deer hinds.seventeen red deer hinds were housed in individual pens and from 28 february until 11 november were injected each week with vehicle (group a; n = 6) or 5 (group b; n = 6) or 12.5 mg (group c; n = 5) of a long-acting formulation of bromocriptine. liveweight and voluntary food intake (vfi) were recorded for each hind, and blood was collected for determination of progesterone, prolactin, tri-iodothyronine (t3) and cortisol concentrations by radioimmunoassay. treatment with the high dose of bromocri ...19883221154
[legal fundamentals and practical accomplishments of abattoir and meat research in mammalian game animals].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publication mainly dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter. the following publication deals with game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mufflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit) and also game such as the badger and the raccoon.19883222786
[the characteristic musculature of the pelvic limbs of pudu pudu (molina 1782)].the present study gives a topographic description of the muscles of the pelvic limb of pudu pudu (molina 1782). the tabular composed results are discussed together with findings in capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus, ovis aries, and capra hircus.19883224796
changes in blood content and histology during growth of antlers in red deer (cervus elaphus) and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels.antlers were removed sequentially from 18 mature red deer stags between 28 and 112 days after casting of the previous hard antlers and the blood volume determined and structure investigated histologically. one antler from each stag was removed during the growth phase, the other at velvet shedding. antler blood volume increased linearly, with increasing antler weight at a rate of 194 ml/kg between 28 and 91 days after casting but subsequently declined rapidly. a zone of mineralisation occurred be ...19883225223
the chernobyl accident. transport of radionuclides to man living in northern sweden.the pathways of 131i, 134cs and 137cs from the chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of västerbotten, sweden. reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137cs was 3-40 kbq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kbq/m2. multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131i ground deposition. the effective dose equivalent from 131i became low, less than 0.1 msv, as the cows were stabled. the 137cs activity concen ...19883233171
[analysis of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocytes of the hybrid f1 between red deer and sika deer]. 19883273670
plasma lh and testosterone responses to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in adult red deer (cervus elaphus) stags during the annual antler cycle.eight adult red deer stags were given an i.v. injection of synthetic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) on seven occasions at various stages of the antler cycle, namely hard antler in late winter, casting, mid-velvet growth, full velvet growth, antler cleaning and hard antler both during the rut and in mid-winter. the stags were allocated at random on each occasion to one of four doses, i.e. 1, 3, 10 or 95 micrograms gnrh. blood samples were taken before gnrh injection and for up to 2 h afte ...19883282020
measuring corporate culture to ensure mission fulfillment.ancilla systems, inc., elk grove village, il, developed a mission-based performance evaluation program to provide tangible evidence of mission fulfillment and ensure the provision of high-quality healthcare. the program--characteristics of service--translates the language of healthcare action and evaluates corporate culture to ensure that it fulfills the expectations of its sponsor. the nine characteristics of service are: respect for the dignity of all persons. orientation toward the family uni ...198810290848
white liver disease in goats.three field cases of ill-thrift, hepatic lipodystrophy and low tissue levels of vitamin b12 in young angora cross goats are reported. the cases meet the criteria for the diagnosis of white liver disease (wld) described for sheep. the hypothesis that wld is a metabolic consequence of cobalt/vit b12 deficiency in sheep and goats on a diet rich in propionate is developed, together with possible reasons for its occurrence in these species but not in cattle or red deer.198816031425
fluoride in mandibles and antlers of roe and red deer from different areas of england and scotland.fluoride concentrations were measured in mandibles of 112 male roe deer (capreolus capreolus) aged 1-6 years, from 5 localities in england and scotland; also in bone from sections cut in series from orbit to antler-top of 10 other roe deer. fluoride concentrations in mandibles were mostly within values expected from unpolluted areas, but approached those expected from moderately polluted areas at the upper end of their range, which extended from 43 to 901 microg g(-1). there were large variation ...198815092532
genetic variation and juvenile survival in red deer.the survival of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) calves to two years of age was examined in relation to electrophoretic variation in a population on the scottish island of rhum. survival was analyzed using logistic analysis in which the "phenotypic" factors birth weight, birth date, subdivision of the study area, cohort, and sex, which affect the probability of a calf's survival, were taken into account. all three polymorphic loci examined, mpi, idh-2, and trf (each with two detected alleles) are si ...198828581158
influence of packaging method and length of chilled storage on microflora, tenderness and colour stability of venison loins.sections of venison loins (ld) weighing approximately 300 g from 12 red deer (cervus elaphus) were packaged using four packaging methods: (a) vacuum packaging, (b) co(2) flushed using a nylon containment film (co(2)-nylon), (c) co(2) flushed using an ultra-high barrier containment film (co(2)-uhb), and (d) co(2) flushed using an aluminium foil laminate containment film (co(2)-foil) and stored for 1, 6, 12 and 18 weeks at 0°c. meat ph values were lower in all co(2) flushed meat packages (p<0·05) ...198822055411
resource partitioning by ungulates on the isle of rhum.this paper describes the seasonal changes in vegetation community use by red deer, cattle, goats and ponies on the isle of rhum, scotland. during the winter, when food resources were of low abundance and digestibility, the ungulates showed extensive resource partitioning. during the summer, when resource availability and digestibility was high, the grazing species, red deer, cattle and ponies congregated on the vegetation communities which contained high biomasses of a high quality resource, mes ...198923921404
packaging venison for extended chilled storage: comparison of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging containing 100% carbon dioxide.thirty red deer ( cervus elaphus ) stags were slaughtered at three deer slaughter premises (plants a, b, and c) to determine the effects of initial microbial flora on the quality of chilled venison loins stored using three packaging methods: vacuum packaging (vp), modified atmosphere packaging using an ultra-high barrier outer barrier film (co2-uhb), and modified atmosphere packaging using a dual aluminized polyethylene outer barrier film (co2-mpet), all of which were stored for 6, 12, and 18 we ...198931003357
changes in serum oestrone sulphate and progesterone levels of red deer hinds during pregnancy.serum oestrone sulphate (e1s) and progesterone (p) levels were recorded from six red deer hinds throughout the first two-thirds of gestation. e1s was generally undetectable until 30 days post conception when levels rose, peaking between 60 and 80 days, and fell to lower values between 80 and 170 days post conception. p levels rose after conception and remained elevated for the remainder of the study. this study indicates that in general the presence of measurable e1s levels in serum of hinds is ...198916031495
bodyweight and serum copper concentrations of farmed red deer stags following oral copper oxide wire administration.a diagnosis of secondary copper deficiency was established on a deer farm with a peat soil type, on the basis of confirmed enzootic ataxia in hinds, liver and serum copper concentrations and pasture and soil element analyses. seventy-four weaner stags were selected for a trial to investigate a growth response to copper supplementation. thirty-seven red and red x wapiti type stags were treated with 4g copper oxide wire particles at four months of age (april). a further 8g copper oxide wire was gi ...198916031533
the effect of oral oxidised copper wire on liver copper in farmed red deer.twenty-two weaner red deer stags grazed on a marginally copper-deficient property were used to evaluate the effect on liver copper levels of log oxidised copper wire particles given orally. the deer were assigned to two groups on the basis of pre-trial liver copper levels, and grazed together for the duration of the trial from march to october. liver biopsies were collected from treated and control deer on six occasions at monthly intervals and were analyzed for copper content. mean liver copper ...198916031534
selenium supplementation of young red deer (cervus elaphus).two selenium (se) supplementation trials were conducted in successive years involving a total of 70 red deer calves 3-15 months of age grazing pasture containing 30-57 ppb of se on a dry matter basis. the trials compared growth rate, whole blood se and glutathione peroxidase (gshpx) concentrations of calves which received periodic doses of oral se or a single injection of barium selenate (equivalent to 50 mg se) or no se supplementation. there were no significant weight gain differences between ...198916031548
superovulation and embryo recovery in red deer (cervus elaphus ) hinds.in two experiments, red deer hinds were synchronized with intravaginal progesterone and were given 4 d of treatment (3 d before progesterone withdrawal and 1 d after) with an ovine follicle stimulating hormone (fsh) preparation which had a claimed low level of luteinizing hormone (lh) contamination. in experiment 1, 12 hinds received one of four fsh levels by osmotic minipump. hinds were run with fertile stags, and laparotomy and embryo recovery were performed 9 d after progesterone withdrawal. ...198916726734
fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals.like a number of plants, some mammals commonly produce more progeny than they can afford to rear, terminating investment in some or even all of their offspring once the resources available for breeding are known. adaptive interpretations of juvenile wastage rely on the argument that the costs of gestation are small compared to those of feeding offspring. though energetic evidence supports this conclusion, it is unsafe to assume that the relative costs of gestation and lactation to the mother's s ...19892911365
elaphostrongylus cervi in danish wild red deer (cervus elaphus). 19892922906
integrated control of fascioloides magna infection in northern italy.the following study records ten years' experience in the control of fascioloides magna infection in a fenced area grazed by an overdense red deer population together with free-ranging cattle. during the winter 1977/78 mortality due to a "fascioloidosis-malnutrition syndrome" reduced the deer stock almost by half. control measures were aimed at combatting the fluke in the wild definitive host by the administration of medicated pellets. four flukicides were used over the years: rafoxanide, diamphe ...19892486993
snakebite in captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eight cases of snakebite occurred in seven of 11 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) during june and july 1987. severity of reactions to envenomation varied; affected elk presented with combinations of signs that included painful swelling restricted to the face and muzzle, submandibular edema, inspiratory dyspnea, epistaxis, frothy, blood-tinged nasal discharge, epiphora, anorexia and anxiousness or depression. we observed puncture wounds in only two cases. treatment consisted of ...19892503625
isolation of pilobolus spp. from the northern elk herd in yellowstone national park.pilobolus spp. were recovered from all fecal samples collected from an elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd in yellowstone national park (usa) with a high prevalence of dictyocaulus viviparus infection. pilobolus spp. have been shown to be important in the epizootiology of d. viviparus infections in cattle because these fungi aid in dissemination of larvae away from feces to areas where animals are more likely to ingest them, and protect larvae against dehydration and thus prolong survival. the sam ...19892523978
elk, tissue-specific ets-related genes on chromosomes x and 14 near translocation breakpoints.the myb-ets-containing acute leukemia virus, e26, transforms myeloblasts and erythroblasts in culture and causes a mixed erythroid and myeloid leukemia in chicks. genes (ets-1, ets-2, and erg) with variable relatedness to the v-ets oncogene of the e26 virus have been identified, cloned, and characterized in several species. two new members (elk-1 and elk-2) of the ets oncogene superfamily have now been identified. nucleotide sequence analysis of the elk-1 cdna clone revealed that this gene encod ...19892539641
identification of genetic variation between strains of bluetongue virus serotype 11 using cdna probes.recombinant plasmids containing inserts representing genome segments 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11, with tentative coding assignments for viral proteins p2, p5, ns1, ns2, and p6, respectively, have been used to study the genetic diversity within a btv serotype using northern blot hybridization. btv 11 strains were isolated in california, nevada, oklahoma, and mexico from elk, deer, and cattle. diversity was indirectly indicated in the btv 11 strains by comparisons of el ...19892543132
definition of an ets1 protein domain required for nuclear localization in cells and dna-binding activity in vitro.ets1 and ets2 are nuclear phosphoproteins which bind to dna in vitro and share two domains of strong identity. deletion analyses of each of these conserved regions in ets1 demonstrated that integrity of the carboxy-terminal domain, also conserved in the more distantly related elk and erg gene products, is essential for both nuclear targeting and dna-binding activity in vitro.19892555704
the nature of the unconventional slow infection agents remains a puzzle.unconventional slow infections are progressive transmissible degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. the human diseases belonging to this group are creutzfeld-jakob disease, kuru, and gerstmann-straussler syndrome. scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, and the recently discovered bovine spongiform encephalopathy are similar diseases found in animals. unusual characteristics of the unconventional slow infections clearly distinguish ...19892568119
erve virus, a probable member of bunyaviridae family isolated from shrews (crocidura russula) in france.an apparently new agent, provisionally named erve virus, was isolated in 1982 from tissues of three white toothed shrews, crocidura russula, trapped near saulges village in western france. results of virological and ultrastructural studies suggest that this virus belongs to the bunyaviridae family and is a bunyavirus-like agent. serosurveys indicate that erve virus had apparently a large geographical distribution in france and infects rodents, insectivores, wild boars (sus scrofa), red deer (cer ...19892570514
reproduction in the red deer female and the effect of oestrogens on the antler cycle and behaviour.red deer (cervus elaphus) is a seasonally breeding mammal. the season of reproduction is probably regulated by photoperiod. the rut and the majority of conceptions occur in october. if hind is not allowed to mate the oestrus is repeated at an interval of about 13.5 days. in captivity the mating season is more prolonged and the calving season is extended. the length of gestation is about 235 days. the fat % of milk varies between 6.6 and 17.4. a hind in good condition may attain puberty as 16.5 m ...19892603745
[legal regulations and practical application of studies of slaughtered game animals and their meat].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publications on the one hand dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mouflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892617520
melatonin can induce year-round ovarian cyclicity in red deer (cervus elaphus).from 17 february 1987 (day 1) to 5 june 1988 (day 475), 6 red deer hinds which had been in natural daylength (nl/m) and 6 hinds which had been in continuous artificial light for the previous month (cl/m) were each given melatonin (5 mg in feed) daily at 15:00 h. six controls (c) received unsupplemented feed. from day 1 all hinds were in natural daylight and ovarian cyclicity was assessed from plasma progesterone concentrations. group c first went into anoestrus on 15 march 1987 (day 27 +/- 9.2 ( ...19892621713
bone formation and body composition of european elk: an ontogenetic model.metapodial and femur measurements were gathered on 8 female and 12 male western european elk (alces alces [l. 1758] alces) skeletons in four osteological collections in scandinavia. additional variables such as carcass and bone weight as well as metacarpal measurements recorded on 43 females and 47 males hunted in central sweden were completed by metatarsal measurements available for 28 female and 29 male individuals of the same sample. these bones were divided into two gross age groups on the b ...19892627003
[harboring of helminth parasites by the european bison (bison bonasus l.) and deer (cervidae) in the białowieza forest].parasitological autopsy of 31 european bison , 9 red-deer and 3 roe-deer was made in białowieza forest in the period 1983-1988. together 20 species of nematodes were found, from them as much as 18 in bison , 6 in red-deer and 8 in roe-deer . the highest intensity and 100% of extensity was shown by nematodes from subfamily ostertagiinae. four species of this subfamily (o. leptospicularis, o. kolchida, s. boehmi i s. mathevossiani) have been permanently adapted by bison from cervids, however two s ...19892633504
lh and testosterone responses to gnrh in red deer (cervus elaphus) stags kept in a manipulated photoperiod.six red deer stags from age 4 months were kept in a light-proof room under an artificial photoperiod consisting of 5.5 cycles of alternate 2-month periods of 16 h light and 8 h dark (16l:8d) and 8l:16d. at 2 or 3 weekly intervals from 10 months of age through 4 cycles, the stags were anaesthetized with xylazine and challenged i.v. with 10 micrograms gnrh. blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and 10 and 60 min after injection. lh and testosterone concentrations were measured in all sam ...19892644427
diagnosis of pregnancy and prediction of fetal age in red deer by real-time ultrasonic scanning.sixteen pregnant red deer hinds were scanned using real-time ultra sound at regular intervals during the first 150 days of pregnancy. in the early stages of pregnancy, an intra-rectal linear array transducer was used but later in pregnancy the hinds were scanned externally with a sector scanner. pregnancy was determined from 30 days of gestation by intra-rectal scanning, and from 50 days by external scanning. with advancing age the size of the fetus increased, and linear regressions of size on a ...19892658297
rapid dwarfing of red deer on jersey in the last interglacial.the dwarfing of large mammals on islands occurred repeatedly in the pleistocene. elephants, deer, hippopotami and other species became dwarfed on islands in indonesia, the mediterranean, the east pacific and elsewhere. in most cases, the full-sized ancestral form can be recognized among the adjacent mainland fauna, but evolutionary rates cannot be estimated because the entry of the ancestor onto the island, and appearance of the dwarf form, are poorly dated. here i give the first example in whic ...19892685610
antibody to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) in hamsters experimentally infected with ahv-1 and the 'sheep-associated' agent of malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever was induced in four groups of hamsters by the inoculation of cells infected with either the c/500 isolate of alcelaphine herpes-virus-1 (ahv-1) or the sheep-associated agent derived from cattle, red deer or père david's deer. using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, antibody to ahv-1 was detected in sera of clinically affected animals of all four groups. the reaction of sera from hamsters affected with malignant catarrhal fever induced by ahv-1 caused diffuse cytopla ...19892687990
pulmonary mycosis in farmed deer: allergic zygomycosis and invasive aspergillosis.during 1988, pulmonary mycosis was diagnosed in four of 116 farmed deer examined on suspicion of tuberculosis. the histopathology showed allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in a red deer (cervus elaphus) and the agent was identified as a zygomycete, probably absidia corymbifera, by immunofluorescence staining. three fallow deer (dama dama) had invasive necrotizing mycotic pneumonia and progressive exudative mycotic alveolitis caused by aspergillus fumigatus. in the red deer, weakness due to paratu ...19892689623
identification of dorsal-spined larvae from free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) in southwestern manitoba, canada.dorsal-spined first-stage larvae recovered from feces of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) were passaged through snails (triodopsis multilineata) and two hand-raised white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 74 adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis were recovered from the fawns; no other protostrongylid nematodes were recovered. the study indicates that wapiti may be infected with natural infections of meningeal worm and pass larvae suitable for transmission to gastropod interme ...19892716114
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