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experimental infection of some north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep with mycobacterium paratuberculosis: clinical and bacteriological findings.mycobacterium paratuberculosis originally isolated from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) with spontaneous paratuberculosis was used to orally inoculate rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) fawns, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawns, bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid lambs, and domestic lambs. all experimentally exposed animals became infected. during the first year of infection, hybrid and domestic sheep were able to control the in ...19836644916
simple in vivo method for determining calcium and phosphorus content of the metacarpus of red deer using radiography. 19836649368
genetic differentiation in four european subspecies of red deer (cervus elaphus l.).red deer representing the four different european subspecies cervus elaphus atlanticus, c. e. elaphus, c. e. germanicus, and c. e. scoticus were examined for allozyme variability at 35 enzyme loci. the proportion of polymorphic loci within populations (p) ranged from 0 to 13.8 per cent and the average heterozygosity (h) from 0 to 3.6 per cent. these estimates are within the range previously observed among mammalian species. significant allele frequency differences were found both within and betw ...19836668220
nutrition and lactational control of fertility in red deer. 19836681867
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
[anatomy of the skull of red deer and roe-deer]. 19836857641
influence of some sedative drugs on the appetite of red deer. 19836857983
haemorheological studies of the sickle cell phenomenon in european red deer (cervus elaphus).it was demonstrated that the appearance of sickle-shaped erythrocytes can be induced by oxygenating the blood of european red deer (cervus elaphus). the process was reversible. blood cell counts with the exception of a slight reduction in red cell number and protein fractions did not show any abnormal values. the blood, which was examined at least 18 h after sampling, exhibited considerable deviations of blood gas values. in addition, highly significant haemorheological changes due to the sickle ...19836871477
pathology of spontaneous and experimental infection of north american wild ruminants with mycobacterium paratuberculosis.spontaneous paratuberculosis was studied in free-ranging and captive bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), and rocky mountain goats (oreamnos americanus). lesions of paratuberculosis in these species resembled the disease in domestic sheep and goats. mycobacterium paratuberculosis cultured from bighorn sheep was used to orally infect bighorn x mouflon (ovis musimon) hybrid sheep, elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). clinical pa ...19836879954
myxofibrosarcoma in a roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti). 19836879958
european elk papillomavirus: characterization of the genome, induction of tumors in animals, and transformation in vitro.the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) genome was cloned in the bamhi cleavage site of the pbr322 vector. the cloned genome was used for construction of a physical map, employing restriction endonucleases bamhi, bglii, hindiii, pvuii, saci, and xhoi. the sequence homology between the eepv and bovine papillomavirus type 1 genomes was elucidated by performing hybridizations in different concentrations of formamide. sequence homology could only be revealed under less stringent conditions, i.e., tm ...19836312094
ocular disease in red deer calves associated with a herpesvirus infection. 19836194610
home range and activity patterns of male red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.from 1978 to 1981 in the bavarian alps (southern west germany) the home range and activity patterns of nine male red deer have been studied using radio-telemetry. the home range patterns definetely change with age. younger stags first follow the patterns of their mothers, then often emigrate from these home ranges and establish new ones elsewhere. except for the change in range at about 2(1/2) years of age, these patterns seem to be very constant in both spatial as well as seasonal position and ...198328310585
volatile compounds from the red deer (cervus elaphus) secretion from the tail gland.the major volatile, organic compounds secreted by the tail gland of the red deer (cervus elaphus) have been identified as phenol,m-cresol, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, ethylphenol, dimethyl sulfone,o-cresol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. the secretion from ten dead and three live animals was investigated, those from the live ones over a period of time. there were variations in the relative amounts of the identified compounds, but no correlation of the variations with ...198324407458
conservation of repetitive dna sequences in deer species studied by southern blot transfer.the cervidae show one of the largest variations in chromosome number found within a mammalian family. the five species of the deer family which are the subject of this study vary in chromosome number from 2n = 70 to 2n = 6. digestion with the restriction enzymes ecori, hpaii, haeiii and mspi reveals that there is a series of highly repetitive sequences forming similar band patterns in the different species. to obtain information on the degree of homology among these conserved sequences we isolat ...19846330373
endocrine control of antler growth in red deer stags.observations of body weight, testis size, antler status, plasma testosterone and prolactin were made on 12 red deer stags during their first 2 years of life. six of the stags were fed to appetite throughout the study (group a) and 6 were fed a 70% restricted diet during each winter (group b). in addition 6 of the stags , 3 from each group, were studied in more detail; lh and testosterone were measured either after a single injection of lh-rh or in samples taken at frequent intervals over a perio ...19846374134
[winter feeding or autumn feeding of game animals?].a literature review of seasonal changes in metabolism and food intake and the accumulation of energy deposits (fat) during the natural mast period in autumn is linked to the results of feeding trials with roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) using supplementary feeding and/or planted crops to simulate the mast which is missing in conifer forests planted mainly for timber production. the results indicate that autumn mast simulation is more physiological and effective in re ...19846388030
induction of early rutting in male red deer (cervus elaphus) by melatonin and its dependence on lhrh.eight red deer stags, 2 control, 3 control-immunized (i.e. a low titre of lhrh antibodies after active immunization 2 years earlier) and 3 superior cervical ganglionectomized, were given a s.c. implant of melatonin in may at the nadir of the sexual cycle; 5 other stags remained untreated. all the melatonin-treated animals shed the velvet-like skin from the antlers in june or july at least 1 month before the untreated controls, and had an early increase in blood plasma testosterone concentrations ...19846392544
cadmium/zinc relationships in kidney cortex and metallothionein of horse and red deer: histopathological observations on horse kidneys.cadmium and zinc were determined in kidney cortex of 63 horses and 51 red deer (cervus elaphus). cadmium and zinc were also determined in protein fractions obtained by sephadex chromatography of kidney cortex from 10 horses and 4 red deer. histopathological parameters in kidney cortex of horses were compared to cadmium content. the metal contents (on wet weight basis) in kidney cortex of the horses were 0.31 +/- 0.22 mmole cd/kg (range 0.03-1.21) and 0.63 +/- 0.17 mmole zn/kg (range 0.36-1.23). ...19846510395
[intrinsic oxygen affinity: the primary structure of a ruminantia hemoglobin: methionine in betana2 of a pecora, the northern elk (alces alces alces)].the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains of hemoglobin from the northern elk (alces alces alces) have been determined. the sequence was compared with the bovine chains. the oxygen affinity regarding the primary structure of the beta-chains is discussed.19846510898
fluoride toxicosis in wild ungulates.to compare the occurrence of chronic fluoride toxicosis in wild and domestic animals in selected areas of utah, idaho, montana, and wyoming, deer, elk, and bison bones and teeth were collected for evaluation. vegetation and drinking water samples also were collected, so that potential sources of fluoride could be evaluated. deer, elk, and bison were found to be susceptible to the adverse effects of ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride. teeth and bones were primarily affected with character ...19846511570
stercorarian trypanosomes from deer (cervidae) in germany.twenty of 35 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), eight of 12 red deer (cervus elaphus), and nine of 21 fallow deer (cervus dama) but none of four moose (alces alces) examined from april to november 1983 were infected with trypanosomes. morphometric data of the bloodstream trypomastigotes from the three deer species differed significantly. this appears to be the first report of stercorarian trypanosomes from cervidae in the old world and the first description of representatives of the subgenus megatr ...19846512728
levels of trace elements in liver from norwegian moose, reindeer and red deer in relation to atmospheric deposition. 19846524572
serum levels of testosterone precursors, testosterone and estradiol in 10 animal species.blood levels of testosterone precursors, i.e. pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, androstendione, dhea, and delta 5-androstendiol as well as testosterone and estradiol are measured in 10 animals each of 10 different species. the determination is done by radioimmunoassay with steroidspecific antibodies. precursors of the delta 5-pathway (dhea, androstendiol) are low in the red deer, dog, cat, rat and guinea pig. precursors of the delta 4-pathway (progesterone, 17-hydroxproge ...19846540697
effect of feeding melatonin to red deer (cervus elaphus) on the onset of the breeding season.four non-lactating red deer hinds kept in natural light were each given orally 5 mg melatonin daily in the afternoon from 1 june to 5 october. the time difference between melatonin administration and sunset was 5.5-6 until the end of august, thereafter gradually decreasing to 3.5 h. onset of oestrous cyclicity occurred in late august and early september, 2-8 weeks in advance of control hinds. a stag given 10 mg melatonin daily shed the antler velvet on 18 july, 4 weeks earlier than untreated sta ...19846542590
biochemical characteristics of erythrocyte sorbitol dehydrogenase from selected mammals.the erythrocyte sorbitol dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.14) activity, regarding its action on sorbitol oxidation to fructose, was studied in 19 species of mammals, showing a striking variability, with high activity in rodents. enzyme activity was studied against other polyols, namely xylitol, inositol, manitol and dulcitol. most animals showed activity against all the polyols studied, but hamster and red deer only presented activity on sorbitol and xylitol. michaelis-menten constant determinations for ...19846697697
relationships between seasonal changes in serum testosterone concentrations, scrotal circumference and sperm morphology of male wapiti (cervus elaphus).one 2-year-old and 4 adult (greater than 3 years old) wapiti were studied throughout 1 year. serum testosterone concentrations, scrotal circumference and % normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate peaked around september. testosterone levels fell sharply by november, but scrotal circumference declined less sharply and normal sperm production occurred until march. there were indications of a secondary peak in these values around february-march.19846699808
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
influence of winter feed restriction and summer compensation on skeletal development in red deer stags (cervus elaphus).the influence of two planes of nutrition (unrestricted and 70 per cent restricted during the winter) on skeletal development as illustrated by the metacarpus was studied in 12 red deer stag calves. at approximately three-monthly intervals from january 1978 when the stags were seven months old, until august 1979 when the stags were 26 months old, radiographs of the right metacarpus were taken. from the resultant radiographs, diaphyseal length, diaphyseal breadth, breadth of mineralised bone, cort ...19846718818
comparative anatomical and topographic studies of the salivary glands of red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (cervus dama), and mouflon (ovis ammon musimon)--ruminantia: cervidae, bovidae.the salivary glands of red deer, fallow deer, and mouflon were investigated macroscopically as to their topographic situation and relationship, as to their specific structure including their ducts and to their relative weight. these findings were compared with those from domestic ruminants and were related to the morphophysiological specialisation of other portions of the ruminant digestive system and to their function. the relative size of all salivary glands decreases from red deer via fallow ...19846724282
trypanosomes in cervidae in germany.trypanosoma cervi kingston et morton, 1975 was demonstrated in 2 fallow deer (dama dama) in 1976, and in 10 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and one red deer (cervus elaphus) in spring 1983. the infected deer originated from the vicinity of hannover, germany.19846730781
local resource competition and the evolution of male-biased sex ratios.in many mammalian species, maturing males disperse from their natal groups, while females remain near their places of birth. if sources are limited locally, related females may be forced to compete with one another for access to resources, while mature males will compete primarily with unrelated individuals in non-natal groups. clark (1978) suggested that under such circumstances the extent of competition among females could be reduced if females uniformly skewed the sex ratio of their offspring ...19846748687
microradiographic and polarized light study of red deer root dentin with special reference to occurrence of giant tubules.radiolucent bands following the course of the dentinal tubules were observed in sections of undemineralized roots of permanent red deer incisors. some of these bands, previously unreported in mammalian root dentin, contained giant tubules similar to those described earlier by the author in the coronal dentin of this animal. the root giant tubules initiated with funnel-shaped orifices at the border of the pulpal cavity and, generally, terminated in the peripheral dentin, whereas a few penetrated ...19846589733
scanning electron and incident light microscopy of giant tubules in red deer dentin.incisal and cuspal teeth from red deers 2 1/2-6 1/2 yr of age were used in this study. incident light microscopy was used for screening of the specimens with respect to presence of orifices and exposures of giant tubules. scanning electron microscopy (sem) was used for study of structural details. for sem the specimens were pretreated with a 1% solution of naclo for 2 or 20 h. one specimen was in addition exposed to a 35% solution of phosphoric acid for 30 s. two teeth received no pretreatment. ...19846591364
red deer regional dietetic services program.the regional dietetic services program coordinated by the red deer regional hospital centre is described. the program became a reality in june 1978, in response to requests for professional dietetic assistance from the rural hospitals located in central alberta. the program objectives were defined, standards were determined, duties and responsibilities of red deer regional hospital centre (the 'agency') and the 'user' hospital were clarified, and a yearly contract was established. the dietetic c ...198410268687
mission effectiveness study identifies, reinforces values.when the congregation of alexian brothers recommended that its sponsored institutions evaluate their mission effectiveness, the alexian brothers medical center, elk grove village, il, developed a study of patient and constituent perceptions. the purpose was to assess the degree to which the alexian mission guided the institution's performance. survey instruments included a survey of patient care perceptions and a questionnaire administered to alexians, alexian comembers, professional and support ...198410268698
pathogenicity of o. circumcincta, o. ostertagi and h. contortus in weanling stag fawns (cervus elaphus).groups of four stag fawns, weighing 51 +/- 0.8 kg, were-infected with 30,000 larvae of one of three nematode parasites: o.circumcincta, o.ostertagia, or h.contortus. a further four remained as control. individual feed intake, body-weight, faecal egg count and plasma pepsinogen concentration were measured during seven weeks after infection. only infection with h.contortus caused significant elevation of pepsinogen concentration to 380ml/ l and consistent depression of feed intake (15%). worm egg ...198416031015
comparison of yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine and doxapram antagonism of xylazine sedation in deer (cervus elaphus).trials were conducted to test the ability of yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine and doxapram given by intravenous injection to antagonise xylazine sedation in red deer (cervus elaphus). yohimbine produced the best and most consistent result. the mean time taken for 34 animals to stand spontaneously after receiving yohimbine (0.2 to 0.25 mg/kg) was 2 minutes 25 seconds and this occurred, on average, 33 minutes after the initial doze of xylazine. control deer took 67 and 104 minutes on average to stand af ...198416031017
potential wildlife sources of yersinia pseudotuberculosis for farmed deer (cervus elaphus).during 1982 and 1983 15 serotype i, 6 serotype ii, 1 serotype iii and 3 untyped strains of yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated from 675 apparently normal small mammals and birds from the invermay farm and nearby rubbish tip with the following prevalence rates: feral cats 27.8%, norway rats 8.6%, mice 5.5%, hares 3.8% rabbits 1.9% ducks 5.3%, sparrows 2.3%, seagulls 2.3% and starlings 1.7%. for rabbits a significantly higher prevalence of infection was found in the autumn/winter period (4.8 ...198416031024
leptospirosis associated with serovars hardjo and pomona in red deer calves (cervus elaphus).four red deer calves (cervus elaphus) died with severe nephritis apparently associated with infection by leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. the sera of 12 in-contact red deer calves were examined for leptospiral agglutinins and nine showed titres to pomona consistent with recent infection. two also showed titres of 1:100 to serovar hardjo. the urine of five of these in-contact calves was examined periodically over a period of nine months. all were initially leptospiruric, four being infected ...198416031052
the isolation of yersinia sp. from feral and farmed deer faeces.faecal samples from clinically normal farmed red deer, wapiti, fallow deer; and feral red deer and white tail deer were examined for members of the genus yersinia. from 922 samples 176 strains of y.enterocolitica, 56 strains of y.frederiksenii, 29 strains of y.kristensenii, eight strains of y.intermedia, and seven strains of y.pseudotuberculosis were isolated. high isolation rates of yersinia sp. were recorded from some farms. two herds had isolation rates of 33.3% and 36.8%. sixteen strains of ...198416031058
serological responses of farmed red deer to a vaccine against leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and pomona.six adult, female, red deer were vaccinated with a hardjo-pomona vaccine followed by a second vaccination four weeks later and thereafter, at yearly intervals for two years. serological responses were determined at intervals using a standard microscopic agglutination test. increased responses to hardjo were observed in two deer which were seropositive to this serovar before vaccination compared to those which were initially seronegative. some initially seronegative deer developed titres to hardj ...198416031070
a possible cause for the 'pink-eye-like' condition in red deer. 198416031072
blood coagulation parameters in clinically normal intensively farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (dama dama).reference ranges for five parameters of blood coagulation were established in clinically normal farmed fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). storage of plasma at -15 degrees c resulted in small increases in activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt) for both species, and in the one stage prothrombin time (ospt) of fallow deer, between days 1 and 30. these times were then stable between days 30 and 60. the fibrinogen levels of fallow deer plasma showed a small apparent increase ...198516031096
efficacy and pharmacokinetics of febantel and ivermectin in red deer (cervus elaphus).a trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of fehantel and ivermectin in six month-old red deer calves (c. eluphus). five calves received febantel by mouth at 7.5 mg/kg, five received a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at 200 microg/kg and five were controls. all calves were killed seven days later and total lung and gastrointestinal worm counts carried out. febantel was 85 and 99.8% efficient in removing immature and mature dictyocaulus viviparus, respectively, and ...198516031188
mycobacteria isolated from deer in new zealand from 1970-1983.mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 504 deer from 1970 to 1983. it was first isolated from feral red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand in 1970, and from farmed deer in 1978. cervine tuberculosis has emerged as a significant problem in farmed deer and in 1983 m.bovis was found on 40 different farms. thirty-five isolates of mycobacterium avium-intracellulare have been cultured from deer but were associated with clinical disease in only four cases. mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, mycobacterium ...198516031192
taphonomy and herd structure of the extinct irish elk, megaloceros giganteus.fossils of the late pleistocene elk megaloceros giganteus from ballybetagh bog, near dublin, ireland, indicate that males segregated from females during winters. the segregation implies seasonal rutting and polygynous mating and is consistent with the idea that large antlers functioned for social display. within male groups, winterkill was the chief cause of death and was highest among juveniles and small adults with small antlers. there is no evidence to support the popular conception that heav ...198517790237
fascioloides magna: occurrence in saskatchewan and distribution in canada.infection with fascioloides magna, the large american liver fluke, was diagnosed in two moose (alces alces) and six wapiti (cervus elaphus) from central saskatchewan. this is believed to be the first record of the parasite in the province. fecal samples collected from wild wapiti at five sites in the commercial forest zone in saskatchewan contained eggs believed to be those of f. magna. trematode eggs were not found in feces from five captive herds of wapiti in the province, nor in samples from ...198517422561
red deer regional hospital centre, red deer, alberta. 198510274849
effects of normal and pathologic eardrum impedance on sound pressure in the aided ear canal: a computer simulation.reported herein are results of computer simulations of aided sound spectra in ears with normal and pathologic eardrum impedance. the computer technique used in this study has been reported elsewhere [d. p. egolf, d. r. tree, and l. l. feth, j. acoust. soc. am. 63, 264-271 (1978)]. consequently, to develop reader confidence in the computer scheme, its application to real ears was first tested. this was accomplished by (1) comparing computed spectral data with in-the-ear measurements and (2) compa ...19853840499
electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin.a topographical description of the concentration profiles of ca, p, mg, zn, f, s, and k in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. the concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. a downward slope of the ca, p and mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. marked elevations of the zn profiles, modest elevations of the f profiles, and in a few instances of the s profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavit ...19853856926
electron probe study of coronal dentin in red deer.a topographic description of the concentration profiles of ca, p, mg, zn, f, s and k in coronal dentin of red deer is given. the concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. an area along the mesiodistal axis of the crowns showed lower concentrations of ca and p and higher concentrations of mg than the surrounding bulk of dentin. the inner dentin revealed downward slopes of the ca, p and mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity, whereas the zn, f and usually also the s prof ...19853864213
inhalant allergy to wild animals (deer and elk).we studied 15 highly atopic persons with historic and/or skin test evidence of allergy to deer or elk. all 15 were also reactive to domestic animal danders (dog, cat, or horse). twelve patients had elevated ige antibody levels to deer hair/dander and six patients had elevated ige antibody levels to elk hair/dander. elevated ige antibody levels to serum or urine from deer or elk were found in six persons. by using individual patient sera in rast inhibition experiments we showed that ige antibodie ...19853875300
insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) antler-stimulating hormone?we have investigated the possibility that igf-1 may play a role in the regulation of antler development. plasma igf-1 concentrations were measured throughout the first period of development of the pedicle and first antler of red deer (cervus elaphus) to determine whether a relationship existed between growth of antler cartilage (velvet antler) and igf-1. we report that plasma levels of igf-1 are significantly elevated during the velvet antler growing phase relative to the other phases of pedicle ...19853881250
faecal bacteria of wild ruminants and the alpine marmot.faecal samples from 60 red deer (cervus elaphus), 13 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 7 chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), 41 alpine marmot (marmota marmota) and soils mixed with deer faeces from the stelvio national park were examined for campylobacter sp. and salmonella sp. with negative results. the same material, especially deer faeces, was a habitat highly suitable for yersinia sp.: y. enterocolitica (two biotypes) was isolated twice, y. kristensenii (two serotypes) was isolated 19 times, y. fre ...19853898557
the role of wild north american ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.published reports of brucella abortus infections in wild north american ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. bison (bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. most elk (cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. deer (odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (antilocapra americana), moo ...19853908724
systemic mycosis in scottish red deer (cervus elaphus).the pathological features of 10 cases of systemic infection of young red deer by fungi morphologically identified as phycomycetes are described. the most frequently affected organs were the kidneys, followed by liver and central nervous system. the fungi stimulated an acute pyogenic inflammatory reaction and a phagocytic giant cell response. vasculitis with thrombosis and spread of fungi to the surrounding tissue was a common finding. culture was attempted in 4 cases; one yielded absidia, 2 aspe ...19853915751
ultrastructure of the cysts of sarcocystis grueneri from cardiac muscle of reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus).cysts of sarcocystis grueneri from cardiac muscle of reindeer (rangifer tarandus) in norway were examined by transmission electron microscopy. the limiting unit membrane of the cyst proper formed regularly spaced invaginations into the cyst at numerous sites coinciding with interruptions in the underlying osmiophilic layer. the primary cyst wall formed numerous strip-like, sinuous protrusions, which were 30-40 nm thick, 150-300 nm wide and up to 4.5 microns long, and were running in parallel wit ...19853922150
lung, heart and liver lesions in adult red deer: a histopathological survey. 19853928084
advancement of reproductive activity, seasonal reduction in prolactin secretion and seasonal pelage changes in pubertal red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) subjected to artificially shortened daily photoperiod or daily melatonin treatments.prepubertal red deer hinds were subjected to shortened daily photoperiod (8 h light per day, n = 3) or a daily (afternoon) melatonin injection (n = 4) for 83 days starting on 8 january, 2 weeks after the summer solstice. compared with control hinds (n = 3) these treatments caused premature moulting of summer pelage, reduced serum prolactin concentrations to barely detectable levels about 34 days earlier than usual and advanced the date of mating. calves were born earlier (p less than 0.005) in t ...19853968657
energy requirements for the penetration of heads of domestic stock and the development of a multiple projectile.the forces and kinetic energy required to penetrate the isolated heads of calves, adult beef cattle, sheep and red deer with a metal probe the same diameter as the bore of an experimental pistol were determined. approximately 16 and 127 joules were required to penetrate the heads of adult sheep and cattle, respectively. using these data a 10 g projectile, consisting of 49 lead pellets and a lead disc in a polyethylene sleeve, was constructed. this projectile, when fired by a charge sufficient to ...19853976138
larvae of elaphostrongylus cervi in the deer of scotland.protostrongylid larvae were recovered from the faeces or lungs of red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (rangifer tarandus) in scotland during 1981. typical protostrongylid first-stage larvae were also recovered from possible intermediate hosts, the grey field slug (agriolimax reticulata) and the white-soled slug (arion fasciatus). all these protostrongylid larvae were microscopically identical to those of the nematode elaphostrongylus cervi. despite careful sear ...19853992820
a comparative study of the hyoid bone (os hyoides) of 6 ruminant species (ruminantia scopoli, 1777).the shape, position and measurements of the hyoid bone of 6 small and medium-sized european ruminant species of different feeding types as classified by hofmann (1976), (rose deer, mouflon, sheep, red deer, fallow deer and goat) were fully described. a comparison with other domestic species was carried out, the most characteristic species differences were shown and the results were expressed in 9 figs. and 1 table. the basic structural plan of the hyoid bone is found to be similar in all species ...19853993965
serologic prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bison, and elk in montana.serum samples from 2,539 cattle, 649 sheep, 123 goats, 413 pigs, 93 bison, and 56 elk from montana were examined for antibody to toxoplasma gondii in the sabin-feldman dye test or the modified agglutination test (mat). cattle, bison, and elk serum samples were treated with 0.2 m-mercaptoethanol before examination in mat. in the dye test, 13.2% of sheep, 5.0% of pigs, and 22.7% of goats had antibody at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:16. in the mat, 3.2% of cattle, 3.1% of bison, and non ...19853997650
pharmacokinetics of oxfendazole in red deer (cervus elaphus).the pharmacokinetics of oxfendazole (ofz) in red deer (cervus elaphus) was examined. ofz, administered per os at 4.53 mg kg-1, was extracted in ether from plasma and identified and concentrations estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography. irrespective of whether the animals were fed concentrates indoors as pellets or grass while on pasture, ofz was absorbed rapidly. concentrations of ofz in plasma reached maxima within 20 hours (0.83 and 1.005 mg litre-1 respectively) and were undetectabl ...19854001561
elaphostrongylus cervi cervi in the central nervous system of red deer (cervus elaphus) in scotland. 19854013046
transmission of a malignant catarrhal fever-like syndrome to sheep: preliminary experiments.the transmission of a malignant catarrhal fever-like syndrome to sheep is reported. fetal sheep between 40 and 66 days gestation were inoculated intravenously with viable cells either from a red deer with clinical malignant catarrhal fever or from rabbits with the disease. of the 21 fetuses in the experiment only five were born live and of these four developed clinical signs similar to malignant catarrhal fever in other species and died or were killed 10, 16, 47 and 175 days after birth. the fif ...19854038811
plasma concentrations of progesterone in female red deer (cervus elaphus) during the breeding season, pregnancy and anoestrus.concentrations of progesterone in peripheral plasma of red deer hinds were basal (less than 1 ng/ml) during lactation/seasonal anoestrus, but increased abruptly at the onset of the breeding season. lactating hinds (n = 19) started ovarian cycles 10 days later (p less than 0.01) and conceived 16 days later (p less than 0.001) than did 13 weaned hinds. there was no evidence, from plasma progesterone values, of silent oestrus at the start of the season. progestagen/pmsg treatment induced early ovul ...19854045825
native-like folding intermediates of homologous ribonucleases.the mechanism of the slow refolding reactions of four different pancreatic ribonucleases from ox, sheep, red deer, and roe deer has been investigated. refolding kinetics of these proteins were very similar. in particular, a native-like intermediate, in, was shown to be populated on the slow refolding pathway of all ribonucleases. we conclude that, similar to the stability of the folded proteins, the pathway of slow refolding has been conserved despite the differences in amino acid sequence and t ...19854052370
regrowth of amputated velvet antlers with and without innervation.the influence of removing portions of the growing antler of yearling red deer stags on subsequent regeneration of the antler in the same season was studied. the influence of the innervation of the antler on such regeneration was the subject of a further study. when the top 0.5-1 cm was removed from antlers 9-17 cm long, growth was slightly reduced in that season. when the antler/pedicle length was reduced to 6-10 cm in antlers 16-38 cm long, branched antlers regrew in 11 out of 13 cases provided ...19854056676
reversal of the effects of xylazine and xylazine/ketamine in red deer. 19854060545
lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep.the efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o virginianus), bighorn x mouflon (o musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or p ...19854073642
immobilization of free-ranging desert bighorn sheep, tule elk, and wild horses, using carfentanil and xylazine: reversal with naloxone, diprenorphine, and yohimbine. 19854077657
cleft palate in a tule elk calf. 19854078990
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
[ethmoid tumors in moose and roe deer].ethmoid tumors are expansively-infiltratively growing tumors of carcinomatous or sarcomatous nature, deriving from the mucous membrane of the ethmoid bone. in sweden, such tumors were found in 35 elks (alces a. alces) and 4 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) during the years 1947-1982, that means a frequency of about 1 and 0.1 per cent, respectively of the investigation material. however, in the free living elk and roe deer population, the frequency might be much lower. the tumors were malign, exten ...19852993995
a cutaneous fibropapilloma from a red deer (cervus elaphus) associated with a papillomavirus.a cutaneous fibropapilloma was found on a scottish red deer (cervus elaphus), and a papillomavirus was isolated from it. the virus appeared to be related to bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv1) or type 2 (bpv2) because: (i) it cross-reacted in peroxidase-antiperoxidase tests with antisera raised against these virions; (ii) bpv1 and bpv2 dnas cross-hybridized to the red deer papillomavirus in situ; and (iii) bpv1 and/or bpv2 dna cross-hybridized to the red deer papillomavirus dna on southern blots ...19852997076
reversal of xylazine in red deer. 19853001997
[wild ungulates as a food source for ixodid ticks in belorussia].the stock rise of elk, roe and boar up to 24.2, 20.8, and 29.3 thousand heads, respectively, increased their role as hosts of imaginal developmental stages of ixodes ricinus and dermacentor pictus. elk plays an especially important role as the host of i. ricinus (the index of ticks abundance--7.31, the index of saturation--176.9). the indices of saturation of i. ricinus imagos on roe and boar are 96.5 and 73.1, respectively. d. pictus imagos parasitise, in general, board (the index of ticks abun ...19852931663
naturally occurring parasitic bronchitis in red deer: effect of vaccination using live bovine lungworm vaccine.fifteen red deer calves were put to pasture in two groups, at the same set stocking rates, one group of 10 and one of five, in separate but adjoining enclosures likely to be carrying infective stage larvae of dictyocaulus naturally parasitising the red deer of scotland. the group of 10 had been vaccinated with a live, bovine lungworm oral vaccine; the group of five had not. results did not indicate any advantage to the vaccinated deer in weight gain or general health but they excreted fewer dict ...19862943074
preliminary observations on lungworms in farmed and feral red deer (cervus elaphus) in denmark.deer farming is on its increase in denmark. based on experiences from other countries, lungworm infection is expected to cause severe problems in farmed deer. therefore, in the present paper, which is the first one to deal with pathogens in danish deer farms, the faecal larval excretion in red deer is examined.19862944072
skeletal development in ruminants: further data on sexual dimorphism in elk (alces alces). 19862953201
organization and expression of the transforming region from the european elk papillomavirus (eepv).the nucleotide sequence of the early (transforming) region from the european elk papillomavirus (eepv) double-stranded dna has been determined together with flanking regions. the established sequence, which is 5732 bp long, shows that the genome of eepv is closely related to the previously sequenced bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) and deer papillomavirus (dpv) genomes. seven open reading frames (orfs), designated e1-e7, were identified in similar positions as in the bpv-1 genome. the e1 and ...19863034730
papillomavirus dna associated with pulmonary fibromatosis in european elks.multiple beadlike fibromas have been observed in the lungs of european elks bearing cutaneous fibromas and fibropapillomas. dna extracted from the lung fibromas was found to contain multiple copies of unintegrated european elk papillomavirus dna, indicating an association between pulmonary fibromatosis and papillomavirus. no virus particles were observed in the tumor tissue by electron microscopy. histological examination revealed that the lung fibromas had a morphology similar to that of cutane ...19863005617
antagonism of xylazine hydrochloride with yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine in captive wapiti.eight captive wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were injected with xylazine hydrochloride on two occasions during march and april 1984. animals were grouped into a modified latin square design and were given either successive injections of yohimbine hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine (4-ap) to antagonize the sedative effects of xylazine hydrochloride or permitted an unantagonized recovery. induction times ranged from 3 to 26 min with excited and wild animals requiring a supplementary dose. time unt ...19863005668
experimental infection of red deer (cervus elaphus) and cattle with a herpesvirus isolated from red deer. 19863006321
prevalence of herpesvirus infection in british red deer and investigations of further disease outbreaks.a serological survey of the prevalence of a new herpesvirus isolated from red deer (cervus elaphus), tentatively designated herpesvirus of cervidae type 1 (hvc-1), has shown that the virus is widespread in free-living and farmed red deer. neutralising antibodies were detected in hill deer culled at three different locations in the north of scotland, in farmed deer on five of eight scottish farms and in four of 12 groups of english farmed or park deer. fifty-eight of 145 (40 per cent) hill deer, ...19863008405
herpesvirus in red deer. 19863012852
dna cloning and hybridization in deer species supporting the chromosome field theory.the cervidae show the largest variation in chromosome number found within any mammalian family. the eight species of deer which are the subject of this study vary in chromosome number from 2n = 70 to 2n = 6. three species of bovidae are also included since they belong to a closely related family. digestion of nuclear dnas with the restriction endonucleases hae iii, hpa ii, msp i, eco ri, xba i, pst i and bam hi reveals that there is a series of highly repetitive sequences forming similar band pa ...19863022841
a progressive spinal myelinopathy in beef cattle.ataxia of the hind limbs in nine calves was associated with degenerative lesions in spinal white matter and neuronal chromatolysis in red nucleus, spinal grey matter and various nuclei of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum. the clinical signs and lesions were similar to those observed in enzootic ataxia of red deer and occurred predominantly in calves of the murray grey breed. the pathogenesis appears to involve a primary defect in central nervous system myelin with progressive myelin loss pri ...19863946053
[functional morphology and microarchitecture of the circumcaudal organ of cervus elaphus and c. nippon]. 19863827811
a radiographic study of skeletal growth and development in fetal red deer. 19863594166
[sarcocystis alceslatrans (apicomplexa) from a palaearctic elk (ruminantia)].sarcocysts from a palaearctic moose have been studied for the first time by light and electron microscopy. because of coincidences in morphology of the cysts, especially of the cyst wall structure and the cystozoides, with the north american species sarcocystis alceslatrans dubey, 1980, they are assigned to this species.19863096168
prostaglandin (pgf2 alpha)-induced parturition in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).prostaglandin pgf2 alpha seems to act satisfactorily as a birth inducing agent in red deer (cervus elaphus). the progress of actual delivery and lactation in the experiments of induced parturition corresponds with observations from natural conditions. the pattern of response time to the birth inducing agent agrees with experience from domesticated species, being longest in females with the least developed fetuses. complications such as those reported from practice with induced parturition in dom ...19862869897
epidermal growth factor from deer (cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler.epidermal growth factor (egf)-like activity was isolated for the first time from the submaxillary gland (smg) and the velvet antler of red deer (cervus elaphus) by a combination of sephadex gel or deae-sephacel and imac columns in succession. the semipurified cervine egf-like activity (cegf), with specific activity of 4.7 ng/micrograms protein from the velvet tissues, can generate a completely parallel competitive binding curve against mouse egf in both radioreceptor assay (rra) and radioimmunoa ...19863493947
prevalence of neutralizing antibody to jamestown canyon virus (california group) in populations of elk and moose in northern michigan and ontario, canada.blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) harvested in michigan's northern lower peninsula, from moose (alces alces) relocated from ontario's algonquin provincial park to michigan's upper peninsula, and from moose from michigan's isle royale national park. sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to california serogroup viruses, in particular jamestown canyon (jc), la crosse/snowshoe hare (lac/ssh), and trivi ...19863503129
toxicosis in tule elk caused by ingestion of poison hemlock. 19863505971
[visions or hallucinations. evidence of the black elk, "medicine man" of the sioux]. 19863635270
induction of early breeding in red deer (cervus elaphus) by melatonin.lactating (n = 12) and non-lactating (n = 6) red deer hinds and one stag at pasture were given concentrates (500 g/head) containing melatonin (5 mg/head) daily at 16:00 h from 18 june to 16 october. the stag shed the antler velvet and started rutting 5 weeks ahead of untreated stags, and hinds had their first oestrus and ovulation of the breeding season in mid-september, 5 weeks in advance of control lactating (n = 9) and non-lactating (n = 5) hinds. treated hinds were allowed to mate with the t ...19863754582
malignant catarrhal fever: experimental transmission of the 'sheep-associated' form of the disease from cattle and deer to cattle, deer, rabbits and hamsters.attempts to transmit malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) from 16 bovine cases of the 'sheep-associated' form of the disease are described. on two occasions disease was transmitted to bovine calves but transmission to red deer (cervus elaphus) was not achieved. in addition, mcf was transmitted from one experimentally affected calf to a rabbit and on another occasion directly to rabbits with material from a field case which failed to transmit to a bovine calf or red deer. subsequently each of these is ...19863764105
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