Publications

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isolation of louping-ill virus from red deer (cervus elaphus). 1978208224
brucellosis in elk. ii. clinical effects and means of transmission as determined through artificial infections. 197899525
a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
[economic loss from parafascioloksiasis in elk]. 1978151372
sarcocystis in free-ranging herbivores on the national bison range.heart, esophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscle obtained from various herbivores on the national bison range were examined grossly for sarcocystis. sarcocystis was found in 81, 50, 50, and 13% of the mule deer, (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus), and bison (bison bison), respectively.1979110949
[comparison of the state of dental health in state farm workers at elk in 1974 and 1977]. 1979290471
enzootic ataxia in red deer. 1979294534
innervation and blood supply of the antler pedicle of the red deer. 1979295099
effects of season on the secretion of lh and testosterone in intact and castrated red deer stags (cervus elaphus).at 2--4 monthly intervals during the year blood samples were collected every 15 min for 6 h from 2 intact and 3 castrated red deer stags to study the relationship between season and the secretion of lh and testosterone. in the intact stags plasma lh and testosterone concentrations changed during the year; the lh levels were maximal in august during the phase of testicular redevelopment, while the testosterone levels were maximal from september to november coinciding with the time of peak testicu ...1979423165
[influenza a antibodies in deer and elk]. 1979456285
a summary of the prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.a total of 87 brains from harvested and collected wapiti and red deer (cervus spp.) were examined grossly and microscopically between 1973 and 1977 in a 2104 ha. preserve. prevalence of infection significantly increased from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975 (p less than .05). a decline to 47.7% in 1977 (p greater than .05) was not significant. however, the number of clinical cases was significantly higher in 1976-1977 (p less than .02) than previously reported in 1973-1975.1979459045
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally-infected elk.anaplasma marginale was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six intact adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with a. marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection, they became seropositive by the serum(srca) and plasma rapid card agglutination (prca) tests. blood from the experimentally-infected elk produced disease ...1979501840
yersiniae in the soil of an infected wapiti range.yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 10 of 121 soil samples from an area inhabitated by infected wapiti (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in northwest california. significantly (p less than 0.05) more soil samples from a forest habitat were infected, compared to soil samples from prairie habitats. soil was found infected with yersiniae only on dates for which rainfall in excess of 17 mm had occurred during the previous 7 days.1979522222
observations on circulatory adjustment in newborn reindeer and elk.haemodynamics of two reindeer (18 h and 4 days old) and one elk (1 week old) calves were studied by catheterization and angiography. early closure of foetal shunts, high cardiac output and large ejection fractions were observed in all three animals. pulmonary arterial blood pressure decreased to the full-grown level during the first days of life in the reindeer. electrocardiography showed cranial-orientated qrs vector in both species. the cardiovascular system of the cervidae is well developed a ...1979522523
evaluation of the anaplasmosis rapid card agglutination test for detecting experimentally infected elk.anaplasmosis was experimentally transmitted from cattle to elk to cattle. six non-splenectomized adult elk (cervus canadensis canadensis) that were inoculated with freshly collected heparinized blood from cattle chronically infected with anaplasma marginale became asymptomatic carriers. although the exposed elk did not develop clinical or hematologic evidence of infection they become seropositive by the serum and plasma rapid card agglutination (rca) tests. blood from the experimentally infected ...1979527345
retention time and digestibility of milled hay in sheep and red deer (cervus elaphus). 1979530995
maternal weight, reproduction, calf mortality and calf growth in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). 1979531015
experimental pneumonia in red deer (cervus elaphus l) produced by an ovine chlamydia.an isolate of chlamydia psittaci from ovine pneumonia produced extensive pneumonia in red deer after endobronchial inoculation. associated clinical signs lasting for several days included pyrexia, inappetance, increased pulse and respiration rate, and physical distress after handling, but no coughing or upper respiratory symptoms. histologically, an acute exudative reaction was present after two days, and an early proliferative response after seven days. both the clinical and pathological respon ...1979532073
[occurence of onchocerca tarsicola bain and schulz-key, 1974, in reindeer (author's transl)].onchocerca tarsicola is recorded from reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.). this parasite is originally described from red deer (cervus elaphus l.). there are indications that reindeer may not be the primary host of o. tarsicola: 1. reindeer is parasitized only by o, tarsicola whereas red deer, due to speciations, is carrying three related onchocerca species from the same line. 2. o. tarsicola, usually found along tendons distal of the tarsal and carpal joints, is in reindeer frequently found at aber ...1979539724
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 1. the cadmium content of winter grazing and the cadmium status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and moulons].the cd-determination of 10 different winter grazings for wild ruminants in seven different biotopes showed significant differences of the habitats resulting from the previous cd-emission of metallurgy smelting non-ferrous metals. the winter grazing of the tharandt forest and the harz mountains contained significantly more cd than that of the lower flaming hills, the western erzgebirge and the northern agrarian areas. the bark and the tips of conifer twigs, twigs of oak and mountain ash, bilberry ...1979547984
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 2. the manganese content of winter grazing and the manganese status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and mouflons].the winter grazing of wild ruminants on mantles of slate waste in the harz mountains and in gera county were richest in mn whereas those on mantles of granite waste in the erzgebirge were poorest. the flora of the shell-limestone, keuper and loess areas contains much less mn than that of those acid habitats. the mn-requirement of the wild ruminants grazing in the forests is met however, since bilberry plants (2,080 mg/kg), spruce twigs (984 mg/kg), spruce bark (827 mg/kg), oak twigs (791 mg/kg) ...1979547985
an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in red deer (cervus elephus).nine of 15 housed red deer developed an acute disease. six died and three were killed when severely affected. the clinical and post mortem changes suggested a diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) which was consistent with the pantropic lymphoproliferative histopathological lesions observed. attempts to isolate an agent or transmit the condition to cattle failed. the relation of the vasculitis to the pathogenesis of the disease and the susceptibility of red deer are discussed.1979572110
cardiac responses in alarmed red deer calves.radio transmitters were used to record the ecg signals of young red deer calves (cervus elaphus) when they were exposed to various stimuli which elicited the immobility or "freezing" response. when the calves were exposed to stimuli likely to occur in the deer's natural habitat, the heart rate decreased by 25 to 85% of the pre-exposure rate. the calves displayed a more pronounced bradycardia during their first days of life than at a later age. there are also indications that repeated exposure to ...197924924982
home range patterns of female red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.from 1976 to 1978, ten female red deer in the northern parts of the bavarian alps (southern west germany) were fitted with transmitter collars. seasonal movements, the home range patterns, and habitat utilization as a function of the habitat structure were examined. while some animals remained in the lowlands throughout the year, others move between two or even three different areas seasonally. the average size of the home range was 65 ha during winter, 167 ha in spring and autumn and 121 ha in ...198028309484
the date of antler casting, age and social hierarchy relationships in the red deer stag.a five-year observation of social interactions and the antler cycle of the stag was performed in the "white" red deer population in the žehušice game reserve, czechoslovakia. the results indicate that the antler casting time of individual stags was dependent primarily on social status and that the influence of age was of secondary importance. the more dominant the stag, the earlier antler casting occurred. the stags of higher social status also tended to shed velvet earlier, although this relati ...198024925506
isolation of bovine virus diarrhoea virus from a scottish red deer. 19806266120
dictyocaulus infection in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).post mortem examination of red deer calves on a deer farm situated on hill ground in north-east scotland revealed infection by a lungworm morphologically similar to dictyocaulus viviparus. trials were conducted to monitor the natural development of d viviparus infection in red deer, to investigate the value of a commercial lungworm vaccine and to evaluate methods of treating clinical cases. the findings indicate that the syndrome may be less apparent in red deer than it is in cattle, protection ...19806445622
lungworm and lice of the red deer (cervus elaphus) and the fallow deer (dama dama)--a review. 19806451822
coyote as a final host for sarcocystis species of goats, sheep, cattle, elk, bison, and moose in montana.tissues (1 kg) from sheep, goats, cattle, moose, bison, or elk naturally infected with sarcocystis species were fed to one to four sarcocystis-free coyotes and the number of sporocysts in feces and intestines were counted. all 12 coyotes fed naturally infected tissues shed sarcocystis in feces, with a prepatent period of 9 to 15 days. the four coyotes fed infected beef had 15, 25, 113, and 201 million sporocysts in their feces and intestines. the coyotes fed elk, moose, or bison had 2.5, 15, and ...19806778270
morphology of the mandibular and sublingual ganglion in the deer (cervus elaphus l. 1758). 19806982204
[survey of parasitoses of wild game animals in the ddr].a survey about the important parasites and parasitic diseases of the fair game animals in the gdr is given. here are of special importance: the coccidiosis of the hares, the sarcosporidiosis and the infection with lungworms and gastro-intestinal helminths of the wild ruminants and wildboars, the onchocercosis of the red deer and lastly the infection with skin warble, pharyngeal gad-fly larvae and louse-flies of the roe and red deer. the possibility of crosswise infection between domestic and gam ...19807011109
transmission of malignant catarrhal fever to rabbits.a farmed red deer in contact with a flock of lambing ewes developed malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). tissues from this deer were homogenised and inoculated into two rabbits one of which developed a febrile response on the 11th day. this rabbit was killed on the following day after developing conjunctivitis and hyperaemia of the nostrils. the condition was transmitted from this rabbit through a further three rabbit passes. of 21 rabbits inoculated 15 reacted after three to 29 days. the clinical a ...19807189075
[the larval development of dipetalonema rugosicauda (syn. wehrdikmansia rugosicauda) in the tick ixodes ricinus. ii. the development of dipetalonema rugosicauda in ixodes ricinus and investigations about the occurrence of the microfilariae in the roe deer (c. capreolus) (author's transl)].microfilariae of d. rugosicauda, which were taken up by nymphs of i. ricinus during their attachment on roe deers, developed in those ticks to infective larvae after two moults. the larval development lasted 56-67 days at 20-22 degrees c and occurred similar to other species of dipetalonema inclusive a sausage stage. during this time the nymphs moulted to adult ticks. adult females and males of i. ricinus collected in the area of biberach/riss, southern-germany, contained up to 12 infective larv ...19807189613
welcome to 7 elk street--home of dssny's office of government relations. 19806935562
[diffusion of helminth parasites of the digestive system and respiratory system in deer (cervus elaphus) of the la mandria regional park (piedmont)].a study was carried out on the diffusion of helminth parasites of liver, gastrointestinal system and bronchial system in 68 red deer (cervus elaphus) from regional park "la mandria" (piedmont, italy). the following species of nematodes were identified: trichostrongylus axei, spiculopteragia spiculoptera, rinadia mathevossiani, cooperia oncophora, cooperia pectinata, cooperia punctata, cooperia zurnabada, oesophagostomum venulosum, dictyocaulus eckerti, varestrongylus sagittatus. studies on some ...19807312394
seminoma in an elk (cervus canadensis). 19807361384
serum constituents of red deer (cervus elaphus).the concentrations of proteins, total bilirubin, calcium and inorganic phosphate and the activities of some enzymes were measured in the sera from 49 red deer. the results were analysed with respect to age, season and sex.19807375732
experimental toxoplasmosis in elk (cervus canadensis).one cow elk (approx 4 months pregnant) and one calf elk were each inoculated intraruminally with 10(5) infective oocysts of toxoplasma gondii. both animals were seronegative when inoculated, but became seropositive to t gondii. sabin-feldman dye test antibody titers in relation to day postinoculation were as follows: 1:1024, 1:1024, and 1:2048 (days 28, 69, and 73) for the calf; 1:2048, 1:128, and 1:128 (days 34, 69, and 73) for the cow; and 1:2546 (73 days after inoculation of the cow) for the ...19807406299
liver copper concentrations in red deer (cervus elaphus) and wapiti (c canadensis) in new zealand.concentrations of copper in livers from red deer (cervus elaphus) or wapiti (c canadensis) were measured and classified according to the age and species of the animals whether farmed or feral, the area from which they came and their sex. significant variations occurred with age, species, environment (farmed or feral) and area. mean liver copper concentrations (after logarithmic transformation) ranged from 356 mg/kg of fresh matter in fetus/neonate to 10.5 mg/kg in mature animals.19807414075
some serum constituents of fallow deer (dama dama).the concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, proteins and total bilirubin and the activities of some enzymes in the sera of 54 fallow deer are presented. electrophoresis of the serum proteins indicate that fallow deer have a single alpha-globulin whereas red deer have two.19807455339
toxoplasmosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in scotland.farming of red deer began in scotland in 1970 when an experimental nucleus was established on a hill farm in kincardineshire. from 1972 to 1977 sera from these animals were tested by the haemagglutination test (ha) and the sabin-feldman dye test (dt) for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii. overall, dye test antibodies (greater than or equal to 1/16) were detected in 32.5 per cent of sera and ha antibodies in only 9.8 per cent. on average 14.1 per cent of the deer tested in 1972, 197 ...19807455352
copper status of red deer on the island of rhum.the mean (+/- sd) liver copper level of 186 red deer (cervus elaphus) (87 stags and 99 hinds) on the island of rhum was 51.26 +/- 44.1 ppm dry matter. the level found in the south-east part of the island was significantly higher than elsewhere in hinds, but not in stags. levels below 20 ppm dry matter, comparable to those found in cases of enzootic ataxia in deer parks, occurred in 18 stags and 20 hinds. since enzootic ataxia has never been observed on rhum, it is deduced that low copper status ...19817324361
paratuberculosis in tule elk in california. 19817328012
investigations on a babesia isolated from scottish sheep.the pathognomic, serologic and morphometric identity of a babesia sp. recently isolated from sheep in argyllshire was studied. initially, problems were encountered due to the occurrence of eperythrozoon ovis as a contaminant of the isolate and treatment with neoarsphenamine failed to remove it. finally, a combination of oxytetracycline therapy and rapid passage allowed isolation of the babesia sp. and its preservation in the form of a glycerolized, infected blood stabilate. inoculation of the st ...19817329723
further studies on trypanosomes in game animals in wyoming ii.further studies on moose revealed trypanosomes in two captive moose (alces alces shirasi) and in 4 of 7 free-ranging moose in wyoming by blood culture. two free-ranging moose from utah were negative. one of two additional captive moose calves was positive for trypanosomes. trypanosomes also were detected in blood cultures of 8 of 39 american bison (bison bison) being brought into wyoming from nebraska. nineteen additional bison were negative for trypanosomes by blood cultures. identification of ...19817338978
keratitis in red deer. 19816947162
[loss of permanent teeth in the workers at the state farms in elk]. 19816949197
isolation of encysted toxoplasma gondii from musculature of moose and pronghorn in montana.pieces of skeletal muscle from 43 mule deer, 34 elk, 4 white-tailed deer, 21 pronghorn, 7 moose, and 2 bison were examined for toxoplasma infection, by the acid-pepsin digestion technique. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 1 moose and 1 pronghorn. the isolated strains of t gondii were of low virulence to mice.19817224306
brain tumors in two free-ranging elk in colorado. 19817253089
further observations on the induction of antler growth in red deer females. 19817262356
wegener's granulomatosis. long-term results of treatment.seventeen patients with wegener's granulomatosis are presented. the very complex clinical features are outlined. a recently suggested new classification (elk-classification) is applied. fourteen patients were treated with cytotoxic agents and steroids, 12 of these receiving 6-mercaptopurine. of the ten patients still alive, eight are in remission with treatment withdrawn in three cases. the duration of the treatment is discussed. the results are largely satisfactory, but the course of the diseas ...19817271127
the transmission of onchocerca tarsicola (filarioidea: onchocercidae) by odagmia ornata and prosimulium nigripes (diptera: simuliidae).onchocerca tarsicola is a subcutaneous filariid of the red deer living on the tendons of the radial-carpal and tibial-tarsal joints. its microfilariae concentrate mainly in the external ears. the extrinsic cycle of this parasite was investigated. in a hyperendemic area wild-caught odagmia ornata were dissected, as well as samples which had fed on a tame deer and been kept in the laboratory after the infecting blood-meal. about 3 to 5% of the flies were infected with larval stages of onchocerca t ...19817276502
diarrhea in young red deer associated with infection with cryptosporidium.in an outbreak of diarrhea among 82 artificially reared red deer calves, 56 developed the disease and 20 subsequently died. during the outbreak 80% of diarrheal and 50% of apparently healthy calves excreted cryptosporidial oocysts in feces. the coincidence of infection with crytosporidium and clinical diarrhea suggested a causal relationship. histologic examination of intestinal sections from a necropsied deer calf showed lesions consistent with field and experimental cryptosporidiosis in other ...19817276628
brucellosis in elk iii. serologic evaluation.the efficacy of the standard plate agglutination (spt), buffered brucella antigen rapid card (bba), rivanol (riv) and complement fixation (cft) tests was statistically evaluated and correlated with known brucellosis infections in elk. low titers on the spt were detected in artificially exposed mature cow elk 2 weeks postinoculation and other tests began detecting antibodies at 3 weeks. titers on all tests were detected as long as 4 years postinoculation. serologic response was similar in artific ...19816788962
detection of astrovirus in the faeces of red deer. 19816791371
studies in sarcocystis species. viii: sarcocystis and toxoplasma in red deer (cervus elaphus). 19816798514
characterization of a papilloma virus from the european elk (eepv). 19816266142
monoamine oxide activity in ox, elk and reindeer brains. 19816112098
morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to north america.the duodenal glands of the species examined (alces alces, ovis canadensis, cervus canadensis, oreamnos americanus, bison bison, antilocapra americana, odocoileus virginianas, odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. in one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. the ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. t ...19816171158
do the blood vessels of the antler velvet of the red deer have an adrenergic innervation?samples of antler velvet and pedicle skin of red deer were snap-frozen, freeze-dried and treated with hot formaldehyde vapour. sections (4 microns thick) were epi-illuminated with ultra-violet light. no blue-green fluorescence characteristic of adrenergic nerves was seen in sections from the antler velvet except in one castrate, although the blood vessels of the pedicle skin were well innervated. yellow fluorescence characteristic of 5-hydroxytryptamine was present in mast cells in the velvet. t ...19816911764
activity patterns of female red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.during 1976 to 1978 in the bavarian alps (southern west germany) the activity patterns of nine female red deer have been studied using radio-telemetry. the daily sum total of activity shows a marked annual cycle, ranging from about 7 h in winter to some 15 h in summer. it becomes obvious that the duration of activity during solar day, night and twilight is not only due to the length of these three periods but also varies independently in the course of the year. the daily pattern of activity reve ...198128309461
bluetongue virus in pregnant elk and their calves.two pregnant north american elk (cervus canadensis), in the 3rd and 4th months of gestation, were inoculated with bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) serotype 11. the virus was not isolated from the blood of the cows beyond postinoculation day (pid) 8, but was isolated from bone marrow and spleen samples obtained at necropsy on pid 190. although neither cow had overt clinical signs of bt infection, fluctuations in specific neutralizing btv antibody titers indicated viral replication. however, in 2 attem ...19826280527
presumptive adenoviral bronchiolitis in a red deer (cervus elaphus). 19826296208
infectivity of sarcocystis spp. from bison, elk, moose, and cattle for cattle via sporocysts from coyotes.bison bison (bison), cervus canadensis (elk), alces alces (moose), and bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised canis latrans (coyotes), sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection ...19826811717
plasma concentrations of lh, prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone in female red deer (cervus elaphus) during pregnancy.peripheral blood samples were collected throughout pregnancy from 11 red deer hinds. during the same period, 6 other hinds which mated but failed to produce calves were also sampled. pretreatment of some of these hinds included synchronization of oestrus alone (n = 3) or with injection of 1000 i.u. pmsg (n = 9). during early and mid-pregnancy, lh and prolactin were frequently undetectable. prolactin concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant hinds were high (greater than 250 ng/ml) in december- ...19827069664
hematologic and serum chemical values of adult female rocky mountain elk from new mexico and oklahoma.hematologic and serum chemical values were determined for two groups of adult female rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from new mexico and oklahoma. although considerable variation in values was observed between elk from the same group, the mean values from 16 of the 20 blood parameters tested were significantly different between the two groups. of these, the most significant variations were observed in values which were likely to be influenced by nutritional condition and health statu ...19827097884
the infectivity of some nematode parasites of reindeer (rangifer tarandus l.) and elk (alces alces l.) for cattle and sheep.cross infections were carried out by dosing parasite-free calves and lambs with third stage nematode larvae cultured from the faeces of reindeer and elk. two lambs each received 20,000 larvae from reindeer, and one lamb 20,000 larvae from elk. one calf received 50,000 larvae from reindeer and one 50,000 from elk. the animals were killed 28 days after infection. egg output did not differ significantly between the lambs nor between the calves, but in the lambs the output was much higher than in th ...19827113357
[the elk throat bot fly causing human ophthalmomyiasis]. 19827128490
effects of ration, season and animal handling on composition of bison and cattle blood.composition of ration and season of sampling markedly affected the composition of blood in six tamed bison (bison bison) steers and eight hereford cattle (bos taurus) steers. observed values extended reported ranges for albumin, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen (bun) in bison serum. there were several differences between species in blood composition. in particular, erythrocytic and bun values were higher in bison than in cattle. overall mean values for bison and cattle receiving experimental r ...19827131655
[polyarthritis caused by filariae in red deer]. 19827148216
an investigation of radionuclide concentrations in tissues of elk utilizing los alamos national laboratory land. 19827152921
spongiform encephalopathy of rocky mountain elk.a disease with striking clinical and pathologic similarities to the spongiform encephalopathies is described in six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) maintained in wildlife facilities in colorado and wyoming. clinical signs included behavioral alterations and progressive weight loss over a period of weeks or months. consistent microscopic lesions were limited to the central nervous system and characterized by widespread spongiform transformation of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuol ...19827154220
trypanosoma cervi from alaskan reindeer, rangifer tarandus.twenty-nine (64.4%) or 45 reindeer, rangifer tarandus, examined over a two-year period were infected with trypanosomes. trypomastigotes and dividing epimastigotes were found in the blood of fawns, cows, and bulls. morphometric analysis of bloodstream trypomastigotes from reindeer and comparison of these parasites with similar stages of trypanosomes from elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer from the continuous united states proved them conspecific; the trypanosomes from these members of the cerv ...19827175772
red deer endoparasites. 19827179704
[seasonal rhythm of the discharge of dictyocaulus viviparus, varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi larvae from the red deer (cervus elaphus)].the discharging of the first larvae of distyocaulus viviparus, varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi is regulated by a seasonal rhythm. this rhythm was studied in a deer population of 150 +/- 10 animals over a period of 4 years. the maximum discharges of d. viviparus are in may and june and those of the 2 other species are in the time from february to april. very good results of treatment were achieved with 3 x 7.5 mg and 5 x 3 mg fenbendazole/kg live weight against d. viviparus a ...19826211112
experimental infections with dictyocaulus viviparus in vaccinated and unvaccinated red deer.four of eight red deer calves which had been artificially reared and were lungworm free were vaccinated with bovine lungworm oral vaccine when eight weeks old; the other four were not vaccinated. three of each category were challenged daily with 500 dictyocaulus viviparus infective stage larvae per kg liveweight for 17 days when six months old while one in each category was left as an unchallenged control. the effects of challenge were monitored and all challenged deer and one control were kille ...19826215759
antler growth in male red deer (cervus elaphus) after active immunization against lh-rh.four sexually mature male red deer were actively immunized against lhrh and this caused 3 of the animals to cast their antlers prematurely in the autumn instead of the spring. development of new antlers was initiated after casting, but the effects on the antler cycle were variable and correlated with the antibody titre, only the animal with the highest titre developed antlers that resembled those of a castrate and remained 'in velvet' for more than 6 months. in october, when all the immunized de ...19826757419
red deer endoparasites. 19826897688
red deer data illuminate sexual selection. 198217802464
haemorrhagic enteropathies in red deer (cervus elaphus). 198216030822
blood constituents of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus): i. haematological values.approximately 100 farmed male and female red deer aged three months and over were blood-sampled and haematological parameters were measured. the deer were sampled by jugular venepuncture without tranquilization. mean values were haemoglobin (16.0 g/dl), packed cell volume (44.6%), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (35.8 g/dl), total plasma protein (66.0 g/l). fibrinogen (4.8 g/l) and white blood-cell numbers (5.80 x 10(9)/l). differential white blood-cell counts were neutrophils (53.9%) ...198216030838
infectious epiphysitis and valvular endocarditis in a red deer (cervus elaphus).a 10-month-old male red deer (cervus elaphus) was presented with severe lameness and enlargement of the fetlock areas of both front and one hind legs. radiographs demonstrated an epiphysitis and osteomyelitis of the distal metacarpal and metatarsal bones. post mortem revealed pus containing corynebacterium pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus in the lesions, and an accompanying valvular endocarditis of the right atrioventricular valve.198216030849
urolithiasis in a wild red deer (cervus elaphus) population.renal calculi were found in eight of 325 red deer kidney pairs examined, all eight were females and only one was infected in both kidneys. a further three deer badly infected with urolithiasis were found by chance, two were males. examples of the calculi found are illustrated to show their range of sizes and shapes. one calculus analysed for chemical composition comprised predominantly calcium carbonate.198216030852
a malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand.two case histories are presented to illustrate the clinical and pathological findings of a malignant catarrhal fever-like disease as seen in farmed red deer in new zealand. attention is drawn to the similarities with some exotic diseases and the suggestion is made that deer may act as a reservoir for the aetiological agent.198216030882
anaemia and deaths in red deer (cervus elaphus) fawns associated with heavy infestations of cattle tick (haemaphysalis longicornis).in late december/early january 1979/80, deaths occurred in 30 red deer (cervus elaphus) fawns. evidence is presented to suggest that these deaths most likely resulted from heavy infestations of ticks (haemaphysalis longicornis).198216030894
blood constituents of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). ii: biochemical values.approximately 80 farmed male and female red deer aged three months and over were blood sampled and biochemical parameters measured. the deer were sampled by jugular venepuncture without tranquillization. mean values recorded were serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (19.5 iu/l), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (43.0 iu/l), creatine phosphokinase (197.9 iu/l), plasma pepsinogen (0.91 iu/i), blood urea nitrogen (8.56 mmol/l), serum glucose (6.9 mmol/l), phosphorus (1.75 mmol/l), calcium (2.13 mmol/l) ...198316030903
experimental transmission of malignant catarrhal fever to red deer (cervus elaphus).malignant catarrhal fever was transmitted from affected to recipient red deer (cervus elaphus) using blood or lymphoid suspension as inoculum. incubation periods ranged from 11 to 26 days. the disease was also transmitted using lymphoid suspension stored overnight at 4 degrees c or at -70 degrees c for 8 months. the experimental disease was characterised by fever, depression, anorexia, diarrhoea and dysentry. the course of the disease was approximately 96 hours. major lesions consisted of acute ...198316030936
experimental tuberculosis in red deer (cervus elaphus).this study was designed to investigate experimental mycobacterium bovis infection of red deer (cervus elaphus). three intravenously inoculated deer (dose 10 microg-1000 microg) developed miliary tuberculosis of the lungs and all died within 28 days of being infected. no clinical illnesses were observed in four subcutaneously (dose 1 microg-1000 microg) and three intratracheally (dose 10 microg-100 microg) inoculated deer. at the conclusion of the experiment six weeks post inoculation, these seve ...198316030937
survey of internal parasitism and anthelmintic use in farmed deer.faecal samples and questionnaires from 115 and 130 farms respectively were used to survey the internal parasite status of the national deer herd and examine current drenching practices. the survey included farms with red deer and wapiti-red deer crosses (cervus elaphus), and fallow deer (dama dama). gastrointestinal nematode eggs were recorded from 84% of all farms, dictyocaulus viviparus larvae from 85% of all farms, and elaphostrongylus cervi larvae from 35% of the farms with c. elaphus. faeca ...198316030938
moniezia expansa in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). 198316030941
observations of a long-acting formulation of oxytetracycline in red deer (cervus elaphus).six nine-month-old red deer were injected intramuscularly with a long-acting injectable solution of oxytetracycline (terramycin-la, pfizer ltd) at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg. four similar control deer were injected with saline. there was no significant pain response to injection, and only minor palpable swellings at the injection site were observed in three oxytetracycline-treated and one control animal. no statistically significant changes in white blood cell numbers, blood fibrinogen, creatine ph ...198316030964
isolation of bacteroides nodosus from hoof lesions in a farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). 198316030972
male genitalia of red deer (cervus elaphus). 198316030982
histopathological findings in the lungs of scottish red and roe deer.histopathology on portions of lung collected from 34 red deer (cervus elaphus) and 15 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) between 1977 and 1981 revealed evidence of lungworm infestation in 16 red and 14 roe deer. in the red deer, dictyocaulus species, and the developmental stages of another parasite, believed to be elaphostrongylus cervi, were involved. dictyocaulus also affected the roe deer, but in them the major lesions were associated with protostrongylids. exudative bronchopneumonia, including t ...19836220510
failure to transmit sarcocystis species from ox, sheep, goats, moose, elk, and mule deer to raccoons. 19836408956
polarized light study of giant tubules in human and red deer coronal dentin.previously described giant tubules in human and red deer coronal dentin have been subjected to a study by polarized light microscopy. structure of the giant tubules was similar in both species. the lumen of each tubule was bordered by a 5-15-micrometers-thick collagenous mantle in which the fibers were orientate parallel to its long axis. in a circular dentin area encompassing the mantle, the course of the collagen fibers might be characterized as a winding of fibers around the cylindrical mantl ...19836574577
a light microscopical and microradiographic study of coronal dentin in red deer with special reference to the occurrence of giant tubules.the coronal dentin of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) was studied by light microscopy and microradiographyy. the material consisted of incisors from 10 animals, 2 1/2-6 1/2 years of age. sections in the long axes of the crowns in the buccolingual and mesiodistal planes were prepared, as well as transverse sections. a few crowns were also examined in toto. a system of giant tubules of the same type as in human dentin is described. it was, however, characterized by more regularity in the number and t ...19836574586
medicine--of the same ilk as the elk? 19836578431
folding of homologous proteins. the refolding of different ribonucleases is independent of sequence variations, proline content and glycosylation.the refolding kinetics of four different pancreatic ribonucleases have been compared. bovine and ovine rnaase contain 4 proline residues, red deer rnaase has 5 prolines, the enzyme from roe deer 6 prolines. despite the variation in the amount of prolines, all four proteins show a constant value of 20% fast refolding species uf. the extra proline residues of the deer enzymes do not increase the amount of slow refolding species us. consequently these residues may be non-essential for folding. desp ...19836620387
winter food restriction and summer compensation in red deer stags (cervus elaphus).twelve red deer stags (cervus elaphus) penned individually from weaning were fed on a concentrate diet. six stags received the diet to appetite throughout the study, and the other six were restricted to 70% of the intake of the first group during winter and then fed to appetite during summer. the winter-restricted stags showed remarkable compensatory growth during summer. compared with the unrestricted stags they showed greater food intake, greater daily live-weight gain and increased food conve ...19836639930
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