TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts.the variability of two fitness-related phenotypic traits (body weight and a mandibular skeletal ratio) was analysed among cohorts and age-classes of red deer in norway. phenotypic variation among cohorts was pronounced for calves, yearlings and reproductively mature adults. fluctuations in cohort-specific mean body weights and skeletal ratios of adults correlated with global climatic variation in winter conditions influenced by the north atlantic oscillation while cohorts were in utero. red deer ...19979332016
gastrin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate regulate the human histidine decarboxylase promoter through raf-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-related signaling pathways in gastric cancer cells.gastrin stimulates transcription of the human histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene through binding to the g-protein-coupled cholecystokinin-b/gastrin receptor. we have explored the possibility that mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades play a role in mediating the effects of gastrin on transcription in a gastric cancer (ags-b) cell line. gastrin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma) treatment of ags-b cells was found to increase the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of extracellular sig ...19979341140
a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study of hypomineralization and hypoplasia in fluorosed dental enamel of deer.mineral content and distribution of fluorosed and unfluorosed (control) dental enamel of roe deer and red deer cheek teeth were analyzed using digital backscattered electron (bse) imaging of pmma-embedded specimens. compared to the controls, the fluorosed enamel exhibited various aberrations resulting from a fluoride-induced disturbance of the processes involved in enamel formation. thus, the presence of surface hypoplasias and an enhancement of the incremental pattern in the fluorosed enamel ar ...19979341947
expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing velvet antler of the red deer cervus elaphus.antlers are organs of bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer. in addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate. nerves must grow at up to 1 cm/day. the control of this rapid growth of nerves is unknown. we examined the relative expression of neurotrophin-3 (nt-3) mrna in the different tissues of the growing antler tip and along the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft of the red deer cervus elaphus, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polym ...19979343309
characterization of the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase allozymes in the deer cervus elaphus.the cdna sequences for cu,zn superoxide dismutase from two cervus elaphus subspecies, north american wapiti and european red deer, were determined. the derived amino acid sequences showed two differences: residue 8 was leu in wapiti and met in red deer and residue 25 was his in wapiti and asn in red deer. the extra positive charge at position 25 in the wapiti isoform accounted for its greater mobility towards the cathode during non-denaturing electrophoresis, a procedure widely used in the genet ...19979345726
activation of the c-fos sre through sap-1a.tcfs, which are members of the ets family of transcription factors, are recruited to the serum response element (sre) in the c-fos promoter by srf. these ets proteins, which are substrates for the map kinases, are direct targets of the ras/map kinase signal transduction pathway. in this paper, we demonstrate that one of the tcfs, sap-1a, displays a significant level of autonomous binding to the sre ets box. in contrast to previous observations, deletion of the srf binding domain did not modulate ...19979349499
characterisation of the human cd30 ligand gene structure.the gene for the human cd30 ligand was molecularly cloned, sequenced and characterised. the gene structure consisted of four exons and three intervening introns spaced over 17.1 kb of genomic dna. the 5' flanking region of the cd30l gene was sequenced and analysis of the region revealed the presence of several regulatory regions including a poly-dt element directly upstream from the transcription start site and consensus sequences for ap4, ik2, mzf1, e47 and elk/cets1. the absence of a canionica ...19979349718
isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from elk calves with diarrhea.this is the first report of the isolation of a coronavirus from elk calves. two fecal samples from elk calves with diarrhea were shown to be positive for coronavirus-like particles by electron microscopy, and the particles were propagated in the human rectal tumor-18 cell line. after 24 h, syncytia were observed, and cell culture supernatants from both samples showed hemagglutinating activity with mouse erythrocytes. cells infected with both elk coronavirus (ecv) isolates reacted with z3a5, a mo ...19979350763
cross-cascade activation of erks and ternary complex factors by rho family proteins.mitogens promote cell growth through integrated signal transduction networks that alter cellular metabolism, gene expression and cytoskeletal organization. many such signals are propagated through activation of map kinase cascades partly regulated by upstream small gtp-binding proteins. interactions among cascades are suspected but not defined. here we show that rho family small g proteins such as rac1 and cdc42hs, which activate the jnk/sapk pathway, cooperate with raf-1 to activate the erk pat ...19979351825
molecular mechanisms for the growth factor action of gastrin.we have previously observed that gastrin has a cholecystokinin b (cck-b) receptor-mediated growth-promoting effect on the ar42j rat pancreatic acinar cell line and that this effect is paralleled by induction of expression of the early response gene c-fos. we undertook these experiments to elucidate the mechanism for induction of c-fos and the linkage of this action to the trophic effects of gastrin. gastrin (0.1-10 nm) dose dependently induced luciferase activity in ar42j cells transfected with ...19979357832
sequencing analysis of prion genes from red deer and abnormal isoform of the prion protein (prp) appears to be the agent responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse). the normal isoform of prp is host-encoded and expressed in the central nervous system. the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the uk and the incidence of prion-related diseases in other animals could indicate that ruminants are highly susceptible to infection via ingestion of prion-contaminated food. sequence analysis of prp gene open read ...19979358067
camp activates map kinase and elk-1 through a b-raf- and rap1-dependent pathway.cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) has tissue-specific effects on growth, differentiation, and gene expression. we show here that camp can activate the transcription factor elk-1 and induce neuronal differentiation of pc12 cells via its activation of the map kinase cascade. these cell type-specific actions of camp require the expression of the serine/threonine kinase b-raf and activation of the small g protein rap1. rap1, activated by mutation or by the camp-dependent protein kinase pka, is a ...19979094716
reversion of ras- and phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c-mediated transformation of nih 3t3 cells by a dominant interfering mutant of protein kinase c lambda is accompanied by the loss of constitutive nuclear mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.the transformed phenotype of v-ras- or bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase c (pc-plc)-expressing nih 3t3 cells is reverted by expressing a kinase-defective mutant of protein kinase c lambda (lambdapkc). we report here that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk)-1 and -2 are constitutively activated in v-ras- and pc-plc-transformed cells in the absence of added growth factors. interestingly, the activated erks were exclusively localized to the cell nucleus. consiste ...19979111071
role of p38 and jnk mitogen-activated protein kinases in the activation of ternary complex factors.the transcription factors elk-1 and sap-1 bind together with serum response factor to the serum response element present in the c-fos promoter and mediate increased gene expression. the erk, jnk, and p38 groups of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases phosphorylate and activate elk-1 in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. in contrast, sap-1 is activated by erk and p38 map kinases but not by jnk. the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (il-1) activates jnk and p38 map kinases and ...19979111305
the red deer (cervus elaphus) contains two expressed major histocompatibility complex class ii dqb genes.the highly variable second exons of the red deer (cervus elaphus) major histocompatibility complex (mhc) dqb genes were cloned and sequenced. eight different expressed dqb sequences were isolated from four unrelated red deer. either two or three different dqb sequences were isolated from each individual, demonstrating that more than one dqb gene is expressed in red deer. this is consistent with other ruminant, which also have multiple expressed copies of the dqb gene. the sequences ranged in sim ...19979124708
role of rho gtpase in the endothelin-1-induced nuclear signaling.binding of endothelin-1 (et-1) to its heterotrimeric g protein-coupled receptors stimulates various signaling cascades involving the activation of phospholipase c-beta, phospholipase d, protein kinase c (pkc), tyrosine kinases, ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (camks), and ras, a small molecular weight g-protein, but, the role of rho gtpase remains unclear. in this project, we examined whether rhoa contributes to the et-1-induced signaling cascade to c-fos sre activation in rat-2 fibroblast cell ...19979125136
convergence of map kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor sap-1a.the serum response element (sre), which is pivotal for transcriptional up-regulation of the c-fos protooncogene, is constitutively occupied by a protein complex comprising the serum response factor and a ternary complex factor (tcf). phosphorylation of the tcfs elk-1 and sap-1a by the erk and jnk subclasses of map kinases triggers c-fos transcription. we demonstrate here that elk-1 is barely activated by a third subclass of map kinases (p38), most likely because the critical residues ser383 and ...19979130707
survey of free-ranging elk from wyoming and montana for selected pathogens.from december 1991 through january 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to yellowstone national park (ynp), wyoming (usa), after tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between december 1991 and january 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. lesion ...19979131561
synthesis of early pregnancy factor using red deer (cervus elaphus) as a delayed implantation model.this study measured serum early pregnancy factor (epf) in pregnant red deer (cervus elaphus) and ascertained whether epf synthesis is associated with implantation.19979013310
impaired induction of c-fos/c-jun genes and of transcriptional regulatory proteins binding distinct c-fos/c-jun promoter elements in activated human t cells during aging.the activation of transcriptional factor c-fos/c-jun ap-1 is essential for normal t cell responsiveness and is often impaired in t cells during aging. in the present study, we investigated whether aberrancies in the regulation of c-fos/c-jun at the mrna or protein level might underlie the age-associated impairments of ap-1 in human t cells. whereas t cells from young subjects stimulated with cross-linked anti-cd3epsilon mab okt3 plus pma or with the lectin pha plus pma demonstrated considerable ...19979015187
activation of the sap-1a transcription factor by the c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk) mitogen-activated protein kinase.ternary complex factors (tcfs) bind to the serum response element in the c-fos promoter and mediate its activation by many extracellular stimuli. some of these stimuli activate the erk subclass of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) that target the tcf sap-1a. we show that sap-1a is also phosphorylated by the stress-activated jnk subclass of mapks leading to stimulation of both c-fos serum response element and e74-site-dependent transcription in rk13 cells. several jnk-1 phosphorylation si ...19979020136
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
activation of stress-activated protein kinase-3 (sapk3) by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated via sapkk3 (mkk6); comparison of the specificities of sapk3 and sapk2 (rk/p38).stress-activated protein kinase-3 (sapk3), a recently described map kinase family member with a wide-spread tissue distribution, was transfected into several mammalian cell lines and shown to be activated in response to cellular stresses, interleukin-1 (il-1) and tumour necrosis factor (tnf) in a similar manner to sapk1 (also termed jnk) and sapk2 (also termed p38, rk, csbp and mxi2). sapk3 and sapk2 were activated at similar rates in vitro by sapkk3 (also termed mkk6), and sapkk3 was the only a ...19979029150
the drosophila erg k+ channel polypeptide is encoded by the seizure locus.the eag family of k+ channels contains three known subtypes: eag, elk, and erg. genes representing the first two subtypes have been identified in flies and mammals, whereas the third subtype has been defined only by the human herg gene, which encodes an inwardly rectifying channel that is mutated in some cardiac arrhythmias. to establish the predicted existence of a drosophila gene in the erg subfamily and to learn more about the structure and biological function of channels within this subfamil ...19978994042
distinct ras effector pathways are involved in fc epsilon r1 regulation of the transcriptional activity of elk-1 and nfat in mast cells.activation of ras gtpases is a conserved feature of antigen receptor signaling, including fc epsilon r1 activation of mast cells. antigenic cross-linking of the fc epsilon r1 on mast cells results in secretion of allergic mediators and induction of immediate early and cytokine genes. here we examine the role of ras in coupling the fc epsilon r1 to transcriptional regulation. the transcription factors elk-1, an immediate early gene regulator and the nuclear factor of activated t cells (nfat), in ...19978996240
effects of the duration of lairage following transportation on the behaviour and physiology of farmed red deer.eight groups of five farmed red deer were transported by road for three hours, after which they were either slaughtered immediately (to) or held in lairage for three, six or 18 hours (t3, t6 and t18). liveweight loss increased with lairage time but hot carcase weight was unaffected. deer spent much of the initial period in lairage standing stationary in 'alert' postures. after eight to 10 hours the proportions of time spent in various postures (standing stationary, moving and lying down) were si ...19979004474
fli1 and ews-fli1 function as ternary complex factors and elk1 and sap1a function as ternary and quaternary complex factors on the egr1 promoter serum response elements.the ets gene products are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins that contain a highly conserved and structurally unique dna binding domain, termed the ets domain. several ets proteins bind to dna as monomers, however it has been shown that the dna binding activity is enhanced or modulated in the presence of other factors. by differential display and whole genome pcr techniques, we have recently shown that the erg1 gene is a target for ets proteins. the egr1 promoter contains multiple e ...19979010223
density-related changes in sexual selection in red sexually dimorphic mammals, high population density is commonly associated with increased mortality of males relative to females and with female-biased adult sex ratios. this paper investigates the consequences of these changes on the distribution of male breeding success, the intensity of competition for females and the opportunity for sexual selection. after the red deer (cervus elaphus l.) population of the north block of rum (inner hebrides) was released from culling, female numbers rose ...19979364790
the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is the major elk-1 phosphatase.the transcription factor elk-1 is a component of ternary complex factor and regulates gene expression in response to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. phosphorylation of the c-terminal domain of elk-1, especially at serine 383, is important for its transactivation activity. recently mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase have been demonstrated to be elk-1 kinases. however, ...19979367995
documenting the educational content of morning document the educational content of a pediatric morning report and to determine if it represents a curriculum.19979369878
ultrasonographic monitoring of antral follicle development in red deer (cervus elaphus).ovarian follicular dynamics were monitored in 12 surgically modified red deer hinds (ovaries adhered to vaginal wall) by transvaginal real-time ultrasonography during the luteal cycle, anoestrus and induction of superovulation. all 12 hinds showed evidence of regular luteal (plasma progesterone) cyclicity during the breeding season, although luteal tissue was not observed on the ultrasonograms. during the normal luteal cycle (14-22 days) total numbers of follicles > 3 mm did not vary significant ...19979370972
biomechanical implications of mineral content and microstructural variations in cortical bone of horse, elk, and sheep calcanei.artiodactyl and perissodactyl calcanei have been recently introduced as models for examining bone for mechanically mediated adaptation. we have reported substantial regional variations in cortical bone microstructure and mineral content within the same cross-section of mule deer calcanei. in part, these variations may be adaptations accommodating the customary presence of predominantly tension, compression, and shear strain modes in mutually exclusive cortical locations. calcanei from skeletally ...19979372164
two naturally occurring insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain mutants provide evidence that phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation alone is not sufficient for the mediation of insulin's metabolic and mitogenic effects.we have recently reported (1) that two naturally occurring mutants of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain, arg-1174 --> gln and pro-1178 --> leu (gln-1174 and leu1178, respectively), both found in patients with inherited severe insulin resistance, markedly impaired receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation, with both mutant receptors being unable to mediate the stimulation of glycogen synthesis or mitogenesis by insulin when expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells. however, these mutations ...19979374504
restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mycobacterium bovis isolates from captive and free-ranging animals.mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle, captive elk, and free-ranging mule deer and coyotes were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. dna extracted from each isolate was digested with restriction endonucleases alui and pvuii. dna probes used for southern hybridizations were a 37-base oligonucleotide and a 123-base-pair sequence specific for the insertion sequence is6110 and a plasmid, ptbn12, which contains a polymorphic gc-rich repetitive sequence present in s ...19979376427
genetic analysis of père david's x red deer interspecies hybrids.interspecies hybrids provide unique opportunities for fundamental genetic analyses and for genetic improvement of farmed deer. we have bred f1 hybrids by artificial insemination of red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) with semen from père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus). the male and female f1 père david deer x red deer hybrids were fertile and in matings with red deer have produced over 300 viable backcross hybrids. dna was collected from the backcross progeny as an international reference panel ...19979378910
sambar deer (cervus unicolor) x red deer (c. elaphus) interspecies hybrids.the artificial insemination of 400 red deer hinds with sambar deer semen resulted in 31 pregnancies at day 40 (24 at day 100) and the birth of four calves. only one female calf was born alive. the artificial insemination of 10 sambar deer hinds with red deer semen resulted in five pregnancies at day 40, of which none went to term. gel electrophoresis of three blood proteins confirmed the live calf as the first documented sambar deer x red deer hydrid. g-banded karyotypes were consistent with the ...19979378911
functional inactivation of signalling molecules via transdominant negative mutants. 19979386981
rhob encoding a uv-inducible ras-related small gtp-binding protein is regulated by gtpases of the rho family and independent of jnk, erk, and p38 map kinase.the small gtpase rhob is immediate-early inducible by dna damaging treatments and thus part of the early response of eukaryotic cells to genotoxic stress. to investigate the regulation of this cellular response, we isolated the gene for rhob from a mouse genomic library. sequence analysis of the rhob gene showed that its coding region does not contain introns. the promoter region of rhob harbors regulatory elements such as tata, caat, and sp1 boxes but not consensus sequences for ap-1, elk-1, or ...19979388198
phosphorylation of recombinant n-syndecan (syndecan 3) core protein.the cytoplasmic domain of the syndecan family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans is punctuated by the presence of four regularly spaced tyrosine residues. in this report, we explore the possibility of whether the four tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of n-syndecan (syndecan 3) are potential substrates for phosphorylation by a tyrosine kinase. bacterially expressed elk kinase was used to phosphorylate a series of bacterially expressed n-syndecan fusion proteins. our results clearly demon ...19979388509
vitreous humor analysis for selected biochemical parameters from cervids in idaho.vitreous humor and liver samples were collected from hunter-harvested elk (cervus elaphus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in idaho (usa). concentrations of calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, urea nitrogen and selenium were determined and evaluated according to species, age, gender, geographic location, and time elapsed following death. vitreous humor analysis yielded reliable biochemical information for < or = 96 hr subsequent to the death of the animal. vitreous potassium concentration ...19979391961
fascioloidiasis in game-ranched elk from montana.the distribution of fascioloides magna in game-ranched elk and the potential for spread of the parasite through movement of infected animals was examined in montana (usa). fecal samples (n = 448) collected from captive elk on 29 game ranches were examined for eggs of f. magna by fecal sedimentation. eggs were detected in elk on 5 ranches. this suggests that f. magna has been translocated by infected game-ranched elk. the wide distribution of snail intermediate hosts for f. magna in montana indic ...19979391977
c-jun nh2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors.regulatory proteins are often ubiquitinated, depending on their phosphorylation status as well as on their association with ancillary proteins that serve as adapters of the ubiquitination machinery. we previously demonstrated that c-jun is targeted for ubiquitination by its association with inactive c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk). phosphorylation by activated jnk protects c-jun from ubiquitination, thus by prolonging its half-life. in the study reported here, we determined the ability of jnk to ...19979405416
nuclear hormone receptor antagonism with ap-1 by inhibition of the jnk pathway.the activity of c-jun, the major component of the transcription factor ap-1, is potentiated by amino-terminal phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 (ser-63/73). this phosphorylation is mediated by the jun amino-terminal kinase (jnk) and required to recruit the transcriptional coactivator creb-binding protein (cbp). ap-1 function is antagonized by activated members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. recently, a competition for cbp has been proposed as a mechanism for this antagon ...19979407028
inhibition of map kinase blocks insulin-mediated dna synthesis and transcriptional activation of c-fos by elk-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.insulin-stimulated dna synthesis, map kinase (mapk) activity and c-fos expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) was blocked by the mapk inhibitor pd 98059. regulation of c-fos expression by the transcription factor elk-1 at the serum response element (sre) is dependent on its phosphorylation by mapk. pd 98059 also suppressed insulin-induced elk-1 transcriptional activity through the sre. these data show that mapk plays a critical role in both insulin-mediated growth and elk-1-dependent ...19979409734
fluoride content and mineralization of red deer (cervus elaphus) antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions.fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus content as well as ashpercentage and ash density of primary antlers and pedicle bones were studiedin nine yearling red deer stags from a fluoride polluted region in northbohemia (czech republic) and in nine control animals from two uncontaminatedareas in west germany. fluoride levels in antlers (845 +/- 257 mgf-/kg ash, mean +/- sd) and pedicles (1,448 +/- 461 mgf-/kg ash) of the n-bohemian specimens exceeded that of thecontrols (antlers: 206 +/- 124 mg f-/kg as ...19979069201
study of gene regulation by nf-kappa b and ap-1 in response to reactive oxygen intermediates.reactive oxygen intermediates (rois), such as hydrogen peroxide or superoxide, are an evolutionarily ancient threat to all organisms. exposure of bacteria to rois initiates a genetic program that coordinates the production of novel proteins with protective functions. this genetic response is mediated by regulatory proteins that have the potential to initiate transcription of genes when the levels of the rois increase. in plant cells, a variety of viral pathogens increase hydrogen peroxide produc ...19979073573
hypobiosis in the ostertagids of red deer and the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole against abattoir survey was carried out during the 1991 to 1992 slaughter season to examine the structure of the ostertagid populations in red deer. most of the animals were 15- to 22-month-old stags, but there were also hinds on two occasions and calves on one. ostertagids of mixed species were present in all of the animals, and 43 of 120 (35.8 per cent) stags and 10 of 17 (58.8 per cent) hinds, but no calves, also carried small numbers of trichostrongylus axei. most animals carried adult and develo ...19979061873
antioxidants as well as oxidants activate c-fos via ras-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2 and elk-1.intracellular reactive oxygen intermediate (roi) levels play an important role in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. apart from causing oxidative stress and damage, roi changes differentially activate gene expression. however the proto-oncogene encoding the ap-1 transcription factor subunit c-fos is induced by both prooxidants and antioxidants. here, the transcription factor elk-1 is identified as being responsible for c-fos serum response element (sre) induction in respon ...19979063444
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
[a focus of dermacentor reticulatus kept by red and fallow deer in animal husbandry (kosewo, poland)].focus of dermacentor reticulatus has been found on the area of fenced cervides farm. very frequent occurrence of d. reticulatus on plants of red and fallow deer pens indicates that these animals in farm conditions are good hosts of adult forms of this tick. on pens of red deer the number of ticks caught on plants was considerable greater than on pens of fallow deer. however, proportion of males in spring and autumn populations of ticks caught on fallow deer pens was considerable greater than on ...19979424941
lactate dehydrogenase quantification and isoenzyme distribution in physiological response to stress in red deer (cervus elaphus).as a contribution to the description of the physiological response to stress in red deer (cervus elaphus), the potential use of the intracellular glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and its isoenzyme ldh-5, as a marker of muscle damage was assessed. the distribution of ldh isoenzymes within red deer tissues was similar to that shown in other ruminants: tissue characterisation showed isoenzyme ldh-5 to be particularly associated with skeletal muscle. high plasma concentrations of creat ...19979429243
functional role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in gastric acid secretion.epidermal growth factor (egf) has acute inhibitory and chronic stimulatory effects on gastric acid secretion. because a cascade of intracellular events culminating in the activation of a family of serine-threonine protein kinases called extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erks) is known to mediate the actions of egf, we undertook studies to explore the functional role of the erks in gastric acid secretion. erk2 was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates of highly purified (> 95%) gastr ...19979435551
physiological effects of hunting red deer (cervus elaphus).when red deer (cervus elaphus) were hunted by humans with hounds the average distance travelled was at least 19 km. this study of 64 hunted red deer provides the first empirical evidence on their state at the time of death. blood and muscle samples obtained from hunted deer after death were compared with samples from 50 non-hunted red deer that had been cleanly shot with rifles. the effects on deer of long hunts were (i) depletion of carbohydrate resources for powering muscles, (ii) disruption o ...19979447728
[enzootic spinal ataxia in fallow and wild red deer in upper bavaria].since 1993 several cases of spinal ataxia occurred in adult red and/or fallow deer in four farms in southern bavaria. the disease based on a secondary copper deficiency due to a high level of molybden and a low level of copper content in the feed. some of the animals suffer from a severe disturbance of motion. in most cases the animals are shot at the beginning of illness. histologically the most important lesions are in the spinal cord consisting mainly in a bilateral symmetric degeneration of ...19979451765
cloning and characterisation of the gene encoding red deer (cervus elaphus) growth hormone: implications for the molecular evolution of growth hormone in mammals the structure of pituitary gh is generally strongly conserved, indicating a slow basal rate of molecular evolution. however, on two occasions, during the evolution of primates and of artiodactyls, the rate of evolution has increased dramatically (25- to 50-fold) so that the sequences of human and ruminant ghs differ markedly from those of other mammalian ghs. in order to define further the burst of gh evolution that occurred in artiodactyls we have cloned and characterised the gh gene ...19979460647
effect of pregnancy and exogenous interferon on synchronous pulsatile release of oxytocin and luteolytic prostaglandin f2 alpha in red deer (cervus elaphus).three experiments were carried out to investigate the secretion of luteolytic hormones in red deer hinds during the oestrous cycle, early pregnancy and after administration of interferon, the putative pregnancy recognition signal. three groups of hinds (n = 8-9 per group) were treated with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices for 13 days (device withdrawal = day 0). group 1 (n = 9) served as controls; group 2 (n = 8) received injections of 4 mg ...19979462299
epizootiology of sarcoptic mange in a population of cantabrian chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica parva) in northwestern may of 1993, an epizootic of sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei) was detected in the chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica parva) population of the cantabrian mountains in northwestern spain. the epizootic initially spread across an area inhabited by some 1600 chamois. mortality was lower than reported for other populations of ungulates. the maximum number of animals were affected from february to may. four red deer (cervus elaphus) and a roe deer (capreolus capreolus), were diagnosed with sarcoptic m ...19979477502
embryo development and placentome formation during early pregnancy in red deer.early embryo development and placentome formation were assessed in red deer between days 27 and 55 of gestation. uteri were collected from 12 pregnant hinds in which mating was observed following a synchronized oestrus, and the tissues retained for measurements and histological processing for light microscopy. twelve embryos were recovered with mean embryo weights increasing from 0.02+/-0.01 g at day 27 to 7.56+/-1.39 g at day 55 of gestation. similarly, crown-rump lengths increased from 5.7+/-0 ...19979623493
deer and their parasites: disease or coexistence?the occurrence of different parasites in roe (capreolus capreolus), and red deer (cervus elaphus) were examined during the period 1972-1995. deer shot at random or found dead were examined and parasitological status of a farmed red deer herd has been observed regularly. age, carcass weight, physical condition and pathological features were checked or measured. of the parasites, 38 species in roe and 18 in red deer were identified and at least 11 of them were shared by both hosts. none of them se ...19979802083
differential induction of dna-binding activities following cd19 cross-linking in human b lineage cells.the b cell-specific cell surface molecule cd19 is expressed at all stages of b cell development, including normal plasma cells, and mediates signal transduction via interaction with cytoplasmic effector proteins. cross-linking cd19 on early human b lineage cells induces the formation of a cd19/vav/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase complex, tyrosine phosphorylation of cd19 and vav, and activation of the ras pathway. to further explore the ramifications of cd19 signaling, the current study examined wh ...19979548490
seasonal patterns of luteal cyclicity in young red deer (cervus elaphus) and sambar deer (cervus unicolor).seasonal onset of pubertal ovulation and incidence of luteal cyclicity was assessed from plasma progesterone profiles over 15 months for tame red deer (n = 7) and sambar deer (n = 7) hinds. seasonal responses to photoperiod were determined from plasma prolactin profiles. all red deer attained puberty at 17-18 months of age in may-june and expressed 3-6 luteal cycles of length 20.0+/-10.4 days (mean+/-s.e.m.) over 52-102 days. six sambar deer attained puberty at 7-19 months of age, between august ...19979551662
[studies on cell signaling immunomodulated murine peritoneal suppressor macrophages: lps and pma mediate the activation of raf-1, mapk p44 and mapk p42 and p38 mapk].monocytes-macrophages which serve as host immune cells to kill pathogens can often be "activated" after exposing to viruses, bacteria, cytokines as well as chemical substances, however, it is paradoxical that highly activated macrophages can be induced to become the suppressor ones by live microbes, microbial products, tumor, and autoimmune disease, although the mechanism remains unknown. our previous experimental studies have shown that immuno-suppressor activities of suppressor macrophages on ...199710684111
[character and uv spectral identification of deer's heart].in this paper, the fresh and dried hearts of cervus nippon and c. elaphus are identified on character, fluorescence and uv spectra. the alcohol extract of the blood of the deer's hearts has mininum absorption at uv 310 nm.199712572451
the fossil monocot limnobiophyllum scutatum: resolving the phylogeny of lemnaceae.more than 200 specimens of limnobiophyllum scutatum (dawson) krassilov have been recovered from lacustrine claystones in the paleocene paskapoo formation near red deer, alberta. the plant was a floating, aquatic angiosperm with helically arranged, ovate leaves attached in small rosettes. rosettes are interconnected by stolons and bear simple adventitious roots as well as larger branching roots that appear to have vascular tissue. leaves are pubescent, aerenchymatous, with 12-14 campylodromous pr ...199721708589
eph family receptors and ligands in vascular cell targeting and assembly.members of the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases determine neural cell aggregation and targeting behavior, functions that are also critical in vascular assembly and remodeling. among this class of diverse receptors, epha2 (eck) and ephb1 (elk) represent prototypes for two receptor subfamilies distinguished by high-affinity interaction with either glycerophosphatidylinositol (gpi)-linked or transmembrane ligands, respectively. epha2 participates in angiogenic responses to tumor necrosis fac ...199721235905
determination of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence for red deer (cervus elaphus) and the differentiation of closely related deer meats.the cytochrome b gene sequence for red deer was determined using the dye terminator cycle sequencing method and used for identification of deer meat in meat and meat products. red deer showed a similarity of 94.1, 84.0, 81.1, 85.5 and 85.6% to sika deer (cervus nippon), bovine, pigs, sheep and goats, respectively. to differentiate the deer meat, oligonucleotide primers rd-1(5'-tcatcgcagcactcgctatagtacact-3'), rd-2(5'-atctccaagtaggtctggtgcgaataa-3') were designed for the region of the cytochrome ...199822060620
cohort variation in male survival and lifetime breeding success in red deer.we investigated cohort differences in the lifetime breeding success and survival of male red deer cervus elaphus l. in an increasing population on the isle of rum, scotland. there were significant differences in survival through different stages of the life span between 15 cohorts of males, ranging between: 0.26-1.00, calf survival through first winter; 0.56-1.00, yearling survival; 0.44-0.94, adult survival. this variation in survival was related to environmental conditions in the cohorts' year ...199826412376
short- and long-term effects of winter and spring weather on growth and survival of red deer in norway.populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) in norway have increased continuously over the last decades. we tested the possible effects of climate and increase in population size on the survival rates and body condition of individuals in one of the northernmost populations of red deer in europe. based on 678 individuals of known age marked between 1977 and 1995, we estimated annual survival rates, the probabilities of being harvested and the recapture probability according to sex, age, year, winter ...199828307518
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) belong to a group of degenerative neurological disorders collectively known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). the group also includes scrapie of sheep and goats, kuru of humans, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk and transmissible encephalopathy of mink. these fatal diseases cause behavioural changes, alterations of sensation, changes in mental state and ataxia. the typical pathology is no ...199810326298
interaction of transcription factors with serum response factor. identification of the elk-1 binding surface.serum response elements (sres) play important roles in transforming extracellular signals into specific nuclear responses. the sre-binding protein, serum response factor (srf), plays a pivotal role in this process. several transcription factors have been shown to interact with srf and thereby create distinct complexes with different regulatory potentials. the ets domain transcription factor elk-1 is one such protein and serves to integrate distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades at sr ...19989553110
rap1 mediates sustained map kinase activation induced by nerve growth factor.activation of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase (also known as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, or erk) by growth factors can trigger either cell growth or differentiation. the intracellular signals that couple growth factors to map kinase may determine the different effects of growth factors: for example, transient activation of map kinase by epidermal growth factor stimulates proliferation of pc12 cells, whereas they differentiate in response to nerve growth factor, which acts partl ...19989560161
nucleotide sequence heterogeneity in the small subunit ribosomal rna gene variable (v4) region among and within geographic isolates of theileria from cattle, elk and white-tailed deer.the phylogenetic relationships among fourteen isolates of benign theileria spp. infecting cattle, elk and white-tailed deer were studied by nucleotide sequence comparisons of the variable (v4) region (200 nucleotides) of the small subunit ribosomal rna gene. included were six korean bovine, one japanese bovine, three north american bovine, and four north american cervine isolates. the ssu rrna gene from each isolate was amplified, cloned, and the v4 region fragment sequenced. seven different nuc ...19989566093
pre-transport loading of farmed red deer: effects of previous overnight housing environment, vehicle illumination and shape of loading race.the behaviour of farmed red deer was studied while they were being loaded on to a transporter. in experiment 1, the effects of previous overnight housing conditions (indoors, at a space allowance of either 4 or 8 m2 per deer, or in an outdoor raceway) on the ease of loading were investigated. the number of attempts required to load the deer was not significantly affected by their housing conditions or their sex, but there was a significant increase in the number of attempts required after the fi ...19989569479
microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.the fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. we explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (cervus elaphus) born on the isle of rum between ...19989569667
detection of growth factors and proto-oncogene mrna in the growing tip of red deer (cervus elaphus) antler using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr).deer antler is a unique mammalian organ that has an annual cycle of regeneration. the antler grows very rapidly from the tip at up to 1 cm/day in red deer for a 90- to 120-day period. it is hypothesised that locally produced growth factors are required to control and stimulate this growth. the tip of the growing antler from animals whose antlers had been growing for 30, 60, or 90 days was dissected into four zones: epidermis/dermis, reserve mesenchyme, precartilaginous, and cartilaginous. total ...19989571767
meningeal worm evokes a heterogeneous immune response in elk.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a neurotropic nematode of ungulates in eastern north america. lack of an effective diagnostic test increases the concern of translocating potentially infected ungulates into western north america, where p. tenuis does not occur naturally. in an attempt to identify serodiagnostic molecules, we determined (1) whether elk (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with p. tenuis produce antibodies against infective larvae or adult worms, and (2) if sera ...19989577781
is prolactin a gonadotrophic hormone in red deer (cervus elaphus)? pattern of expression of the prolactin receptor gene in the testis and epididymis.this study investigated the pattern and site of expression of the prolactin receptor gene in the testis and epididymis of red deer collected during the breeding season (n=3). ribonuclease protection assays using 50 microg total rna and a 300 bp [32p]-labelled antisense crna probe, generated from the extracellular domain of the red deer prolactin receptor, confirmed the expression of the receptor in both the testis and epididymis; a higher level of prolactin receptor mrna was detected in the epid ...19989584832
omasal anatomy in new zealand red and fallow deer: an exploratory multivariate analysis.we measured the weight and volume of omasae, and the number, weight and area of omasal laminae from wild fallow (cervus dama), and wild and farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) whose diet, as indicated by rumen content, was known. a multivariate analysis yielded two principal components, interpreted as indices of overall omasal size and laminar leafiness. the second component showed significantly greater variance in wild red deer than in farmed red or wild fallow deer. deer feeding on a mixed diet o ...19989591369
immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic lesions associated with elaeophora elaphi parasitism in red deer (cervus elaphus).this study was based on the immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic lesions caused by elaeophora elaphi in 15 red deer. in eight animals filariae were found in branches of the portal vein. "web-like" endophlebitis (15 cases), lymph nodule-like thrombi associated with filarial debris (12 cases) and fibrinous thrombi (three cases) were also observed in the portal vein. multifocal granulomatous hepatitis (six cases) and lymph nodule-like tissue (three cases) were found in the liver parenchy ...19989595352
sex identification of elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) using the polymerase chain reaction.we have developed a pcr-based protocol to determine the gender of tissue samples originating from elk (cervus elaphus canadensis), moose (alces alces) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). the technique simultaneously amplifies a conserved region of the sex-determining gene on the y-chromosome (sry) and a region of the fragile x mental retardation gene (fmr-1). the multiplex nature of this protocol allows the determination of gender using the sry marker with the fmr-1 marker providing ...19989608686
[transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals].transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals are known for centuries. in particular scrapie in sheep and goats occurs worldwide; it spreads as a natural disease and is genetically controlled. chronic wasting disease (cwd) in the united states (wyoming and colorado) also spreads as natural disease among free ranging and captive elk and mule deer. in contrast, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of mink in fur producing farms is caused by contaminated feed; the source of this food cont ...19989611347
interleukin-1beta-induced rat pancreatic islet nitric oxide synthesis requires both the p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases.interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) is cytotoxic to rat pancreatic beta-cells by inhibiting glucose oxidation, causing dna damage and inducing apoptosis. nitric oxide (no) is a necessary but not sufficient mediator of these effects. il-1beta induced kinase activity toward elk-1, activation transcription factor 2, c-jun, and heat shock protein 25 in rat islets. by western blotting with phosphospecific antibodies and by immunocomplex kinase assay, il-1beta was shown to activate extracellular signal-regul ...19989614146
fluid shear stress activation of egr-1 transcription in cultured human endothelial and epithelial cells is mediated via the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.the primary response transcription factor, early growth response-1 (egr-1), is rapidly activated by a variety of extracellular stimuli. egr-1 binds to a sequence found in the promoters of genes involved in vascular injury, such as pdgf-a and tissue factor, and trans-activates their expression in endothelial cells in response to fluid shear stress. here we show that egr-1 mrna is increased after 30 min of flow in human aortic endothelial cell and hela cell cultures. transient transfection of hela ...19989616225
monoclonal antibody f89/160.1.5 defines a conserved epitope on the ruminant prion protein.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders occurring in humans, mink, cats, and ruminant herbivores. the occurrence of novel transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in cattle in the united kingdom and europe and in mule deer and elk in parts of the united states has emphasized the need for reliable diagnostic tests with standardized reagents. postmortem diagnosis is performed by histologic examination of brain sections from affe ...19989620413
comparative scanning electron microscopy of third-instar hypoderma spp. (diptera: oestridae).scanning electron microscope study of third-instar larvae of four species of hypoderma revealed differences among species in the pattern of spination, spine morphology and morphology of the spiracular plates. these observations identify characters that enable the differentiation of hypoderma actaeon and h. diana, parasitizing red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe, and provide additional characters for differentiating h. bovis and h. lineatum parasitizing cattle.19989622372
effects of thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement on seasonal reproduction in the red deer hind.two experiments were conducted to test whether thyroid hormones are required for the cessation of the breeding season in female red deer. in expt 1, 16 mature hinds were allocated early in the breeding season (may) to the following groups: thyroidectomized (thx), thyroidectomized and treated with subcutaneous thyroxine implants which increased plasma tri-iodothyronine to physiological concentrations (thx + t4), or euthyroid controls. plasma progesterone concentrations consistent with oestrous cy ...19989861164
microsatellite variation in scandinavian cervidae using primers derived from bovidae.the possibility of using microsatellite primers developed in bovidae to amplify microsatellite markers in cervidae was surveyed by using 75 microsatellite primer sets of bovine, ovine or caprine origin to analyse dna from moose, red deer, reindeer and roe deer from scandinavia. on average for the four cervids, approximately 50% of the ovine/caprine primer pairs amplified a specific pcr product, compared to only 16% of the bovine primers. approximately 50% of both ovine/caprine and bovine primers ...19989868926
evaluation of genetic variability in introduced populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) using dna fingerprinting. 19989868929
lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from sierra morena mountains (andalusia, spain). 19989871001
estimation of energy expenditure in free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) with the doubly-labelled water expenditure was estimated using the doubly-labelled water (dlw) method in summer in five free-living adult, non-pregnant, non-lactating, red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds (weight 107.3 (se 0.9) kg; age 6 (se 1) years) on lowland pasture under typical farming conditions. climatic conditions were monitored throughout the experiment. errors due to 2h losses in ch4 and faeces were calculated from previous estimates of stoichiometries. ch4 production, fractionated water loss, urinary n and o2 co ...19989875066
expression of a tyrosine phosphorylated, dna binding stat3beta dimer in bacteria.the signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat) proteins deliver signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. an n-terminally truncated fragment of murine stat3beta, stat3betatc (127-722), was produced in bacteria. stat proteins must be specifically phosphorylated at a single tyrosine residue for dimerization and dna binding. therefore, stat3betatc was coexpressed with the catalytic domain of the elk receptor tyrosine kinase. stat3betatc was quantitatively phosphorylated by this ki ...19989877182
pathological bone changes in the mandibles of wild red deer (cervus elaphus l.) exposed to high environmental levels of fluoride.a macroscopic, microscopic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the pathological bone changes of the mandibles of wild red deer (n = 61) exhibiting severe dental fluorosis. the animals originated from a highly fluoride polluted area in central europe (ore mountains and their southern foreland, czech-german border region) and constituted 11.2 % of the studied red deer sample (n = 545) from this area. pathologically increased wear and fracture of fluorosed teeth caused a variety ...19989877298
phylogeny of wapiti, red deer, sika deer, and other north american cervids as determined from mitochondrial deer (cervus elaphus) are divided into three subspecific groups; the first group includes seven subspecies from europe and northern africa, the second group includes seven subspecies from central asia, and the third group includes nine subspecies from eastern asia, siberia, and north america. recognition of the north american wapiti as a species has been denied on the basis of morphological similarity with red deer and the circumpolar distribution of c. elaphus. sika deer (c. nippon), which ...19989878235
postmortem assessment of sperm characteristics of the red deer during the breeding season.this study examined the effect of male age, time lapse between death of individual and collection of its sperm, breeding season (1993, 1995, or 1996), and testicle sampled (left or right) on the cell quality of spermatozoa obtained postmortem from the epididymis of red deer stags (cervus elaphus hispanicus). a total of 142 sperm samples obtained from 71 free-ranging individuals shot during the breeding season were used to investigate these effects. the spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda ep ...19989805148
epizootic of paratuberculosis in farmed elk.after multiple cases of chronic diarrhea and weight loss in a farmed elk herd, 3 yearlings and 1 adult elk with similar clinical signs were euthanatized and necropsied. gross and histologic evidence of paratuberculosis were found in the yearlings. evidence of serum antibody to mycobacterium paratuberculosis was detected in the 2 elk with the most disseminated infection. acid-fast organisms were isolated from multiple organs in all 4 elk and identified as m paratuberculosis by dna probe. thirty-f ...19989810391
[malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in indian gauer (bos gaurus gaurus) and javan banteng (bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the munich zoo at that time. in the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of mcf occurred sporadically at the zoo in european and american bison (bison bonasus, b. bison' bison, b. bison athabascae), elk (alces alces), red deer (cervus e ...19989810608
growth hormone stimulates phosphorylation and activation of elk-1 and expression of c-fos, egr-1, and junb through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2.growth hormone (gh), a major regulator of normal body growth and metabolism, regulates cellular gene expression. the transcription factors elk-1 and serum response factor are necessary for gh-stimulated transcription of c-fos through the serum response element (sre). gh stimulates the serine phosphorylation of elk-1, thereby enabling elk-1 to mediate transcriptional activation. the contribution of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (mek)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) p ...19989813041
ehrlichia spp. in cervids from california.blood samples from six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 15 black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus), and 29 elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were assayed for human monocytic and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dna sequencing, and serology to determine whether or not cervids are involved in the maintenance of these potential human pathogens in california (usa). the deer were sampled in august to october 1992-95. the 29 tule elk from point reyes n ...19989813842
serosurvey for antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever-associated viruses in free-living and captive cervids in germany.a total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-associated viruses (mcfv) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa). eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against mcfv. among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (cervu ...19989813848
oestrosis in red deer from spain.a survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (cervus elaphus) in southern spain was conducted. the parasites involved were the larvae of pharyngomyia picta and cephenemyia auribarbis (diptera:oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. there were low d ...19989813856
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