TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
k-casein gene phylogeny of higher ruminants (pecora, artiodactyla).to assess phylogenetic relationships among the higher ruminants (infraorder pecora, order artiodactyla), we analyzed k-casein dna sequences, including 434 nucleotides of the fourth exon. the higher ruminant families bovidae, cervidae, giraffidae, and antilocapridae each have monophyletic k-casein sequences. maximum parsimony and distance analyses identify giraffidae as a sister group to either cervidae or a bovidae-cervidae clade and antilocapridae as a sister group to a bovidae-cervidae-giraffi ...19968899730
distinct and overlapping expression patterns of ligands for eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases during mouse embryogenesis.recent studies have implicated eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands in restricting or stimulating the movement of cells and axons. members of these large families of receptors and ligands fall into two major binding specificity classes, in which the gpi-anchored subgroup of ligands can each bind to all members of a subgroup of receptors, whereas the transmembrane ligands interact with a distinct subgroup of receptors. analysis of expression patterns is therefore ...19968903354
determination of stability of brucella abortus rb51 by use of genomic fingerprint, oxidative metabolism, and colonial morphology and differentiation of strain rb51 from b. abortus isolates from bison and elk.brucella abortus rb51 and isolates from cattle, bison, and elk were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and standard techniques for biotyping brucella species, which included biochemical, morphological, and antigenic techniques, phage susceptibility, and antibiotic resistance. the objectives were to ascertain the stability of rb51 and to differentiate rb51 from other brucellae. genomic restriction endonuclease patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a uni ...19968904427
cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of a truncated cdna encoding red deer prolactin receptor: an alternative tyrosine residue mediates beta-casein promoter activation.this study reports the isolation and in vitro characterisation of a truncated cdna encoding the red deer long form prolactin receptor. the cdna sequence predicts a protein of 557 amino acids which differs from the rat sequence by a 3' truncation of the cytoplasmic domain located 34 residues before the stop codon. the deer sequence shares the regions of homology which are important for maintenance of structural and functional integrity, high affinity binding and signal transduction. however, the ...19968912807
net (erp/sap2) one of the ras-inducible tcfs, has a novel inhibitory domain with resemblance to the helix-loop-helix motif.the three ternary complex factors (tcfs), net (erp/ sap-2), elk-1 and sap-1, are highly related ets oncogene family members that participate in the response of the cell to ras and growth signals. understanding the different roles of these factors will provide insights into how the signals result in coordinate regulation of the cell. we show that net inhibits transcription under basal conditions, in which sap-1a is inactive and elk-1 stimulates. repression is mediated by the nid, the net inhibito ...19968918463
similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the elk subclass of eph receptors.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell surface bound ligands have been implicated in a number of developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and fasciculation, as well as patterning in the central nervous system. to better understand the complex signaling events taking place, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions between a subset of ligands, those that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of eph ...19968918835
central melatonin receptors in red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer display characteristic seasonal changes in appetite, growth, and reproduction which are mediated by the pineal hormone, melatonin, which provides a direct neuroendocrine transduction of the ambient photoperiod. to identify potential central sites of action for this hormone, [2(-125)i]iodomelatonin binding sites were localized and characterized within the cervine brain and pituitary by in vitro autoradiography. specific binding was distributed over a number of discrete regions of the bra ...19968921349
accumulation of cadmium and lead in red deer and wild boar at the veluwe, the netherlands. 19968933695
t cell responses to mycobacterium bovis in red deer, a large animal model for deer (cervus elaphus) represent an appropriate large animal model to study the immunology of tuberculosis, being naturally susceptible to mycobacterium bovis infection. cell-mediated immune responses were investigated in deer displaying protective- or disease-type reactions, following immunization with m. bovis bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) or infection with virulent m. bovis, respectively. t cell responses were measured as antigen-dependent cell proliferation and production of t cell growth ...19968934651
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activate a selective subset of rac/rho-dependent effector pathways.phosphatidylinositol 3'-hydroxyl kinase (pi 3-kinase) is activated by many growth factor receptors and is thought to exert its cellular functions through the elevation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate levels in the cell. pi 3-kinase is required for growth-factor induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton which are mediated by the gtpases rac and rho. recently, a role for rac and rho in regulating gene transcription has become evident.19968939609
map kinase-dependent transcriptional coactivation by elk-1 and its cofactor cbp.a plethora of signals induce the c-fos proto-oncogene via phosphorylation of the transcription factor elk-1 by map kinase. we show that the coactivator cbp cooperates with elk-1 to stimulate c-fos. elk-1 physically interacts with cbp, which is dependent on the transactivation domain of elk-1 but is independent of map kinase phosphorylation. however, functional cooperation between elk-1 and cbp requires phosphorylation of elk-1. importantly, a carboxy-terminal transactivation domain of cbp itself ...19968941362
elk and lerk-2 in developing kidney and microvascular endothelial assembly.eph family receptor tyrosine kinases direct neuronal cell targeting, bundling and intercellular aggregation activity, yet their role in mammalian kidney development has been unexplored to date. we recently identified expression of elk (eph-like kinase) receptors in cultured human renal microvascular endothelial cells (hrmec), and showed that elk mediates their in vitro assembly into capillary-like structures in response to the exogenous ligand, lerk-2. here we identify expression of the elk liga ...19968941926
biosynthesis, processing, and targeting of sphingolipid activator protein (sap )precursor in cultured human fibroblasts. mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent endocytosis of sap precursor.sphingolipid activator proteins (saps) are essential cofactors for the lysosomal degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains by acidic exohydrolases. sap-a, -b, -c, and -d derive from proteolysis of a 73-kda glycoprotein, the sap precursor. in the present publication, we studied the intracellular transport and the endocytosis of sap precursor in human skin fibroblasts. our data indicate that sap precursor bears phosphate residues on noncomplex carbohydrate chains linked t ...19968943309
similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the elk subclass of eph receptorsthe eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell surface bound ligands have been implicated in a number of developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and fasciculation, as well as patterning in the central nervous system. to better understand the complex signaling events taking place, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions between a subset of ligands, those that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of eph ...19968954633
eph family receptors and their ligands distribute in opposing gradients in the developing mouse retina.the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands can be divided into two specificity subclasses: the eck-related receptors and their gpi-anchored ligands, and the elk-related receptors and their transmembrane ligands. previous reports demonstrated that eck- and elk-related receptors in the retina distribute in high temporal-low nasal and high ventral-low dorsal gradients, respectively. while others have focused on complementary ligand gradients in the retinal axon target, the tectum ...19968954746
[detection of herpesvirus serum antibodies in red deer (cervus elaphus) imported into the czech republic].antibodies reacting in the virus-neutralisation test with bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr), were demonstrated in a herd of red deer (cervus elaphus) imported into the czech republic. sera from the same collection were later tested against a homologous virus, termed herpesvirus cervidae 1 (hvc-1), isolated from red deer in scotland. out of 165 imported animals, antibodies to bhv-1 were found in 68% and to hvc-1 in 71% of the animals. titre ...19968966967
in vitro responses of cervine macrophages to bacterial stimulants.the function of cervine (deer) mononuclear phagocytes is poorly defined. in the present study, the potential of cervine macrophages to generate phagocytic and immunoregulatory responses following stimulation with bacterial products was investigated. blood-derived macrophages of red deer were cultured in vitro with particulate stimulants (mycobacterium bovis bcg and staphylococcus aureus sac) or soluble stimulants (m. bovis ppd and escherichia coli lps), prior to assessment of phagocytic response ...19968969045
synergistic interactions between overlapping binding sites for the serum response factor and elk-1 proteins mediate both basal enhancement and phorbol ester responsiveness of primate cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoters in monocyte and t-lymphocyte cell types.cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection is nonpermissive or persistent in many lymphoid and myeloid cell types but can be activated in differentiated macrophages. we have shown elsewhere that both the major immediate-early gene (mie) and lytic cycle infectious progeny virus expression can be induced in otherwise nonpermissive monocyte-like u-937 cell cultures infected with either human cmv (hcmv) or simian cmv (scmv) by treatment with the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa). two mul ...19968970984
the p38 and erk map kinase pathways cooperate to activate ternary complex factors and c-fos transcription in response to uv light.we investigated the activation of c-fos transcription following uv irradiation, a 'stress' stimulus. in both hela tk- and nih 3t3 cells the serum response element is required for efficient uv-induced c-fos transcription, and in hela tk- cells the ternary complex factor (tcf) binding site contributes substantially to activation. consistent with this, uv irradiation activates lexa-tcf fusion proteins more strongly in hela tk- than in nih 3t3 cells. the tcf c-termini of the tcfs are substrates for ...19968978682
[changes in the number of deer louse-flies lipoptena cervi (hippoboscidae) in the forests of northwestern russia].long term observations of the abundance fluctuations of the deer louse-fly lipoptena cervi were carried out in forest areas of the leningrad, novgorod and pskov provinces in 1988-1995. the registration of the winged individuals was held in the period of the mass flight in august by the number of deer louse-flies attacking a collector man during 1 km of the pathway. the abundance of deer louse-flies was being high everywhere up to 1993, while it decreased by 8-29 times in 1994-1995. the reason of ...19968984438
chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types i, iia, iib, and x demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry.the annual regrowth of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration occurring in an adult animal. growth is initiated at the distal antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in some respects. however, there is some debate as to whether this process represents "true" endochondral ossification. as part of the characterization of the developmental process in pre-osseus antler tissue, we have studied, by in situ hybridization, the spatial expression of mrn ...19968850568
innervation and anesthesia of the antler pedicle in wapiti and fallow deer.the heads from 6 mature male wapiti and 8 mature male fallow deer were dissected to provide a description of the nerves supplying the antler pedicles. innervation in both species was found to resemble that of the red deer, with major contributions coming from the infratrochlear and zygomaticotemporal nerves. all heads displayed a dorsal branch from the auriculopalpebral nerve, but in only 2 wapiti and 3 fallow deer heads was this branch observed travelling to the pedicle. the dorsal branches of ...19968853883
regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.membrane depolarization of ng108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase iv (cam-kiv), as well as activation of c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk). to investigate whether the ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (erk, jnk, and p38) might be mediated by the cam kinase cascade, we have transfected pc12 cells, which lack cam-kiv, with constitutively active mutants of cam kinase kinase and/or cam-kiv (cam-kkc and cam-kivc, respectively) ...19968855261
urea-inducible egr-1 transcription in renal inner medullary collecting duct (mimcd3) cells is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.urea (200-400 milliosmolar) activates transcription, translation of, and trans-activation by the immediate-early gene transcription factor egr-1 in a renal epithelial cell-specific fashion. the effect at the transcriptional level has been attributed to multiple serum response elements and their adjacent ets motifs located within the egr-1 promoter. elk-1, a principal ternary complex factor and ets domain-containing protein, is a substrate of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) mitoge ...19968855340
a parentage evaluation test in north american elk (wapiti) using microsatellites of ovine and bovine origin.dna microsatellites originally detected in sheep and cattle are also detectable in north american elk (wapiti) using polymerase chain reactions. we have developed a parentage test in elk using eleven microsatellite markers that are highly polymorphic and informative.19968856904
structure and organization of the mouse elk1 the ets gene family of transcription factors, elk1 belongs to the subfamily of ternary complex factors (tcfs) which bind to the serum response element (sre) in conjunction with a dimer of serum response factors (srfs). in this communication we report the isolation of cdnas from the mouse elk1 gene, containing the full coding sequence homologous (87% identical) to the human gene, and the structure and organization of 22 kb of the mouse elk1 locus. the coding sequence is spread through 5 exons ...19968863747
contribution of both stat and srf/tcf to c-fos promoter activation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) is a hematopoietic growth factor that has been shown to support call proliferation in murine fibroblasts engineered to stably express both chains of the human gm-csf receptor (nih-gmr). because the proto-oncogene c-fos is believed to provide a link between short-term signals elicited at the membrane and long-term cellular response, we chose to study the mechanism of gm-csf-dependent cell regulation using c-fos promoter activity as a molec ...19968874187
selective response of ternary complex factor sap1a to different mitogen-activated protein kinase subgroups.mitogenic and stres signals results in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erks) and stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun n-terminal kinases (sapk/jnks), respectively, which are two subgroups of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. a nuclear target of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases is the ternary complex factor elk-1, which underlies its involvement in the regulation of c-fos gene expression by mitogenic and stress signals. a second ternary complex factor, sap1a ...19968876175
bidirectional signalling through the eph-family receptor nuk and its transmembrane ligands.receptor tyrosine kinases of the eph class have been implicated in the control of axon guidance and fasciculation, in regulating cell migration, and in defining compartments in the developing embryo. efficient activation of eph receptors generally requires that their ligands be anchored to the cell surface, either through a transmembrane (tm) region or a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (gpi) group. these observations have suggested that eph receptors can transduce signals initiated by direct cell- ...19968878483
exogenous interferon delays luteal regression in red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) by suppressing steroid-induced endometrial oxytocin sensitivity.three groups of intact hinds (n = 10-18) and one group of ovariectomized hinds were treated with progesterone by mean, of controlled internal drug releasing (cidr) devices for 13 days (device removal = day 0). group 1 served as controls; group 2 received injections of 4 mg recombinant bovine interferon-alpha,1 twice daily from days 13 to 21; group 3 was run with a stag from days 0 to 3, and all hinds were subsequently diagnosed pregnant; group 4 (ovariectomized) was treated with cidr devices and ...19968879504
effects of season and nutrition on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-i in male red and insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i are important components of the growth axis. we undertook to determine how plasma levels of these hormones altered with different seasonal and nutritional states in young male red deer to provide an insight into how the growth axis changes under these conditions. growth rate alters dramatically with season in male red deer, providing an opportunity to sample the same animals at two different growth rates within a short period of time. gh was measured eve ...19968593820
elk-1 can recruit srf to form a ternary complex upon the serum response element.the initial genomic response to serum growth factors is the transcriptional activation of a set of immediate-early genes. serum-induced transcriptional activation of several of these genes involves the formation of a ternary complex that includes the serum response factor (srf), a 62 kda ternary complex factor (tcf) and a serum response element (sre). tcf alone does not bind the sre of the protooncogene c-fos, but requires the prior assembly of the srf-sre binary complex for it to be recruited i ...19968614640
the conserved elk-homeodomain of knotted-1 contains two regions that signal nuclear localization.nuclear localization serves as a regulatory mechanism in the activity of several transcription factors. knotted-1 (kn1) is a homeodomain protein likely to regulate vegetative development in maize. at least twelve genes related to kn1 are known in maize and six in arabidopsis. ectopic expression of the maize, rice and arabidopsis kn1-related genes have been shown to alter cell fate determination. in this paper, we study the nuclear localization capabilities of the kn1 homeodomain and the proximal ...19968616227
signal transduction pathways regulated by mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase kinase induce cell death.mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase (mek) kinase (mekk) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates sequential protein phosphorylation pathways, leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk), including members of the jun kinase (jnk)/stress-activated protein kinase (sapk) family. in swiss 3t3 and ref52 fibroblasts, activated mekk induces cell death involving cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and dna fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. ...19968621725
phosphorylation-dependent formation of a quaternary complex at the c-fos sre.the rapid and transient induction of the human proto-oncogene c-fos in response to a variety of stimuli depends on the serum responses element (sre). in vivo footprinting experiments show that this promoter element is bound by a multicomponent complex including the serum response factor (srf) and a ternary complex factor such as elk-1. srf is thought to recruit a ternary complex factor monomer into an asymmetric complex. in this report, we describe a quaternary complex over the sre which, in add ...19968622654
multiple requirements for shptp2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined shptp2's function in growth factor signaling. overexpression of catalytically inactive shptp2 (ptp2cs) but not catalytically inactive shptp1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase activation and elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (egf) stimulation of 293 cells. an shptp2 mutant with both c-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (ptp2yf) was also without effect; mor ...19968622663
mkk3- and mkk6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway.the p38 mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. the detection of p38 map kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 map kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. to test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated mkk3 and mkk6, two map kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 map kinase. expression of activated mkk3 and mkk6 in cultured cells caused a ...19968622669
leptospira interrogans exposure in free-ranging elk in washington.exposure to one or more serovars of leptospira interrogans was observed in five of six sampled elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) killed in november 1993, from an isolated herd in southwest washington, usa (46 degrees 45'n, 123 degrees 6'w). in april 1994, exposure to l. interrogans serovars was documented in nine of 11 captured cow elk from the same herd. leptospires were not isolated from any of the exposed elk, and 10 of the 11 cows were pregnant. the high seroprevalence is evidence that exposur ...19968627923
seroprevalence of psoroptes sp. mites in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) as determined by kinetic elisa.western blots and a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were used to characterize and quantify the prevalence of antibodies to psoroptes sp. mites in elk (cervus elaphus) from nine herds in north america. sera from infested (n = 18) and non-infested (n = 22) elk were used to optimize test methodology and to define cut-off values for negative, suspect, and positive samples. among 357 samples, 35 (9.8%) of the animals were seropositive, 259 (73%) were negative, and 63 (18%) were susp ...19968627936
susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus) to experimental infection with anaplasma marginale and a. ovis.anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from domestic sheep to elk (cervus elaphus) and back to splenectomized sheep. no rickettsemias were detected but serum from three of seven experimentally inoculated elk developed anaplasma spp.-reactive antibody as measured by indirect immunofluorescence (iif) or by the rapid card agglutination and complement fixation assays. three elk were experimentally infected with a. marginale. the rickettsiae were detected in blood of these elk and caused disea ...19968627938
occupational asthma due to deer dander.the literature on allergy to deer is limited. the allergenic component remains to be identified.19968630715
selective interaction of jnk protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors.the jnk protein kinase is a member of the map kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. ten jnk isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. these protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the jnk1, jnk2 and jnk3 genes. the protein kinase activity of these jnk isoforms was measured using the transcription factors atf2, elk-1 and members of the jun family as substrates. treatment of cells with int ...19968654373
structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.a macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (north bohemia, czech republic). as was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. in all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently les ...19968655406
serum copper concentrations and clinical signs in red deer (cervus elaphus) during drought in central victoria. 19968660242
the genes encoding the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinase ligands lerk-1 (eplg1, epl1), lerk-3 (eplg3, epl3), and lerk-4 (eplg4, epl4) are clustered on human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 3.hek and elk are members of the eph-related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently, we isolated five cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands to hek and elk. because of the promiscuous nature of their binding, we have termed these proteins ligands of the eph-related kinases or lerks. the lerks can be divided into two subgroups by virtue of their sequence identity, binding properties, and mode of cell membrane attachment. for example, lerk-2 (eplg2, epl2) and lerk-5 (eplg5, epl5) are type 1 tr ...19968660976
the gene encoding lerk-7 (eplg7, epl7), a ligand for the eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, maps to human chromosome 5 at band q21 and to mouse chromosome 17.the eph-related receptors are the largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. recently, we and others have identified seven different, but related, cdnas encoding membrane-bound ligands for this family of receptors. one member, lerk-7, is attached to the cell membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage and has been found to be a ligand for the eph-family receptors hek, elk, eck, and rek. using pcr-based screening of human x rodent somatic cell hybrid dnas, we have assigned the gene th ...19968661153
forest planning in an oregon case study: defining the problem and attempting to meet goals with a spatial-analysis techniquefive major management goals were identified for the upper grande ronde river basin on the wallowa-whitman national forest in northeastern oregon: to produce high-quality fish habitat, to maintain elk habitat, to restore and maintain forest conditions within the natural range of viability, and to contribute to community economic stability. from the broad goals, specific goals for stream temperature, habitat effectiveness index (hei), habitat corridors, maintenance of land in late or old seral sta ...19968661622
studies on migration and orientation of elk (alces alces l. mammalia) 19968664839
primary care physicians' use of office resources in the provision of preventive assess (1) the extent to which office resources (eg, chart aids, educational materials, office staff) are used by primary care physicians in the provision of preventive care; (2) the characteristics of physicians associated with this use; and (3) the relationship of office resource use to reported preventive service provision.19968664998
xylazine and a xylazine/fentanyl citrate/azaperone combination in farmed deer. i: dose rate comparison.six 1-year-old farmed red deer were used to compare physiological and behavioural responses to a range of doses of 5% xylazine with or without the addition of 0.4 mg of fentanyl citrate and 3.2 mg of azaperone per ml. each deer was randomly assigned to one of six treatments: xylazine alone at 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg, the xylazinelfentanyl citrate/azaperone combination containing 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg of xylazine, or a sterile water control. injections were given intramuscularly in the anterior neck, ...199616031901
xylazine and a xylazine/fentanyl citrate/azaperone combination in farmed deer. ii: velvet antler removal and reversal combinations.three studies were undertaken on farmed red and red x wapiti deer to evaluate xylazine and a xylazine/fentanyl citrate/azaperone combination for velvet antler removal. in the first experiment, 30 1-2 year-old red and 25% red x wapiti deer whose velvet was to be removed were given either 5% xylazine alone at 0.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly or the same dose rate of a commercially available mixture of 5% xylazine with the addition of 0.4 mg of fentanyl citrate and 3.2 mg of azaperone per ml. ...199616031902
histological examination of the antlerogenic region of red deer (cervus elaphus) hummels.hummels are antlerless red deer stags. this abnormality has been attributed to poor feeding conditions which result in failure by the deer to grow complete pedicles. incomplete pedicles lack the potential to develop normal antlers. the histological examinations in this study showed that the rudimentary pedicles (5 mm and 15 mm in height) grown by the two hummels respectively were developed by intramembranous ossification. this is the way that the frontal lateral crests of normal deer are formed, ...199616031913
artificial insemination, hybridization and pregnancy detection in sika deer (cervus nippon ).artificial insemination (ai) was performed on sika hinds (cervus nippon ) receiving various dosages of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (pmsg; year 1: 0, 50 and 100 iu; year 2: 100 and 150 iu) and using semen collected from elk and 1 2 elk x 1 2 sika stags. the time from synchronization device removal (cidr vs norgestomet) to estrus was determined through observations of mounting activity. methods for pregnancy detection, serum progesterone (p4), estrone sulfate (e1s), pregnancy-specific protein ...199616727942
mandibular bone fluoride levels and occurrence of fluoride induced dental lesions in populations of wild red deer (cervus elaphus) from central europe.mandibular bone fluoride concentrations as well as frequency and intensity of fluoride-induced dental lesions were studied in four red deer populations from czechia and germany exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride. the degree of fluorosis in the permanent cheek teeth was recorded by a scoring system and the individual mandibles assigned to one of three categories (unfluorosed, slightly to moderately fluorosed, and markedly to severely fluorosed) on the basis of the tooth scores. ...199615091371
[identification of deer's foetus and its mixed drugs and flase drugs].in this paper, the traditional chinese materia medicas--the foetuses of sika deer, red deer and the one of sheep and ox are compared and identified on characters and dissecting characteristices. the comparion and identification table about charaeters and commodity shape drawings is attached.199712572462
natural infection of red deer with bovine tuberculosis.six bovine tuberculosis-free red deer hinds were introduced in october 1993 to a 1.8 ha enclosure, within a larger field study site known to contain tuberculous possums, and kept there for 9 months. a mycobacterium bovis-infected possum was found in the vicinity of the deer enclosure 3 weeks after the introduction. subsequently, a further eleven infected possums were found in the area. the deer were monitored by repeated composite antibody detection elisa and lymphocyte transformation assays for ...199716031943
persistent anthelmintic activity of topically administered ivermectin in red deer (cervus elaphus l.) against lungworms (dictyocaulus viviparus).a controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the persistent anthelmintic effect of ivermectin as a topical treatment at 500 microg/kg against induced infection with lungworm (dictyocaulus viviparus) in red deer (cervus elaphus). the results showed a highly significant (p <0.01) anthelmintic activity for at least 28 days against a newly acquired infection with dictyocaulus viviparus (>99% efficacy).199716031960
prolactin does not enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release in red deer deer stags have a seasonal pattern of insulin secretion that is characterized by both elevated basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release in summer compared with winter. since the seasonal timing of this pattern is similar to that of prolactin and growth rate, the objectives of this study were: first, to determine whether prolactin is associated with the enhanced secretion of insulin during the summer growth period, and second, to determine whether a chronic reduction in plasma prolactin l ...19978985669
plasma cortisol responses to remote adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) infusion in free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus).a remote infusion and blood collection device (dracpac) was used on free-ranging red deer stags to deliver i.v. a range of acth1-24 doses and collect blood for cortisol determination. in experiment 1, conducted in september, saline and 1, 4, and 16 iu acth/100 kg bodyweight were infused (n = 5-7 per treatment). in experiment 2 (november), 16 and 64 iu acth/100 kg were infused (n = 5 per treatment); and the response of animals to restraint was also assessed (n = 6). pre-infusion concentrations of ...19978985670
molecular mechanisms for somatostatin inhibition of c-fos gene expression.we reported previously that somatostatin inhibits the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos. accordingly, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which somatostatin inhibits c-fos gene expression. because growth factors activate c-fos through a region of its promoter known as the serum response element [sre; base pairs (bp) -357 to -276] we transfected rat pituitary adenoma cells (gh3) with plasmids containing the sre or the sre core fragment (bp -320 to -298) upstream of the lucifer ...19979142901
[changes in the placenta of the elk alces alces l. during pregnancy (morphometric research)].elk placentomes were studied during different stages of pregnancy using morphometry and optico-structural computerised analysis. histological sections and smears from the surface of placentome section were made for that. placentome were obtained from animals subjected to legal shooting in hunting districts of novosibirsk. the attention was focused on the examination of cellular elements that constitute a trophoblastic lining and on distribution of capillaries maximally close to trophoblast in ch ...19979156763
domain exchanges between knat3 and knat1 suggest specificity of the kn1-like homeodomains requires sequences outside of the third helix and n-terminal arm of the homeodomain.domain exchange constructs that traded regions surrounding the homeodomain were constructed for two kn1-like genes, knat1 and knat3, and introduced into arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the 35s camv promoter. the kn1-like homeodomain proteins all have the homeodomain located near the c-terminus of the protein, and also share a second conserved domain (the elk domain) immediately n-terminal to the homeodomain. progeny were scored for the appearance of the knat1 overexpression phenotype. ...19979161041
growth factor-induced transcription via the serum response element is inhibited by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.the effect of increased intracellular camp on mcf-7 breast cancer cell growth was examined by treating cells with either forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, or 8-[4-chlorophenylthio]-camp (8-cpt-camp), a camp analog. compared to cells maintained in control medium, treatment with either 1 or 10 microm forskolin decreased cell growth by 17% and 68%, respectively, whereas treatment with 250 microm 8-cpt-camp decreased cell growth by 29%. to determine whether this effect of camp on cell gr ...19979165004
the chiropractic outcome study: pain, functional ability and satisfaction with examine changes in pain experienced, changes in functional ability and degree of patient satisfaction with chiropractic care. patient characteristics influencing these parameters were also explored.19979168407
molecular characterization of the b-box protein-protein interaction motif of the ets-domain transcription factor elk-1.the ternary complex factor (tcf) subfamily of ets-domain transcription factors form ternary complexes with the serum response factor (srf) and the c-fos sre. extracellular signals are relayed via map kinase signal transduction pathways through the tcf component of the ternary complex. protein-protein interactions between tcfs and srf play an essential role in formation of this ternary complex. a 30 amino acid sequence encompassing the tcf b-box is sufficient to mediate interactions with srf. in ...19979171356
physiological responses of red deer (cervus elaphus) to conditions experienced during road transport.remote heart rate and blood sampling devices were attached to transported red deer stags to assess the effects of several road transport parameters on physiological responses associated with welfare. stocking density had a significant influence on heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations. heart rates of deer transported at a high density (0.38 m2 per 84 kg animal) were 10-13% higher than those of deer transported at medium (0.62 m2) or low densities (0.85 m2). lactate concentrations of anim ...19979177568
disturbances of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in fluorosed deer teeth: a scanning electron-microscopic study.structural changes resulting from fluoride-induced disturbances of the secretory stage of amelogenesis were studied in fluorosed dental enamel of ten permanent premolars and molars from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus). the fluorosed enamel exhibited surface hypoplasias of different depths and extents and an associated loss of its normal prism/interprism structure. the occurrence of such aprismatic enamel either was restricted to grossly accentuated and hypomineralize ...19979182607
yersinia enterocolitica promotes deactivation of macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, p38, and c-jun nh2-terminal kinase. correlation with its inhibitory effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.the enteropathogenic bacterium yersinia enterocolitica counteracts host defense mechanisms by interfering with eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. in this study, we investigated the mechanism by which y. enterocolitica prevents macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnfalpha) production. murine j774a.1 macrophages responded to y. enterocolitica infection by rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk), p38, and c-jun nh2-terminal ...19979188492
extensive splice variation and localization of the ehk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase in adult human brain and glial tumors.ehk-1 is a neuronal elk-related receptor tyrosine kinase which interacts with multiple, membrane-anchored ligands. recent experiments have suggested a role for some of these ligands in the formation of neuronal pathways. here, we report the isolation of human ehk-1 cdnas and the localization of the human ehk-1 gene to chromosome 4q12. six ehk-1 mrna splice variants encoding cell-surface receptors with catalytic domains were identified in adult human brain where a 120-kda ehk-1 protein predominat ...19979191074
the regulation of tcf transcription factors by map kinase cascades. 19979191197
the dengue virus nonstructural-1 protein (ns1) generates antibodies to common epitopes on human blood clotting, integrin/adhesin proteins and binds to human endothelial cells: potential implications in haemorrhagic fever pathogenesis.antibody responses generated by mice to the dengue-2 virus ns1 protein (d-2v ns1) were influenced by mhc class ii (i-a) haplotype but each antiserum cross-reacted with human fibrinogen, thrombocytes and endothelial cells. to investigate these findings, a highly avid subclone (mab 1g5.4-a1-c3) was selected from a parent hybridoma that secreted a monoclonal antibody (mab) specific for the native dimeric form of d-2v ns1. when mab reactions were compared using a panel of overlapping synthetic pepti ...19979191856
conditional expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) phosphatase mkp-1 preferentially inhibits p38 mapk and stress-activated protein kinase in u937 cells.phorbol ester tumor promoters, such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), are potent activators of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (erk2), stress-activated protein kinase (sapk), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) in u937 human leukemic cells. these kinases are regulated by the reversible dual phosphorylation of conserved threonine and tyrosine residues. the dual specificity protein phosphatase mapk phosphatase-1 (mkp-1) has been shown to dephosphorylate and inactivate e ...19979202001
blastocyst development and conceptus sex selection in red deer cervus elaphus: studies of a free-living population on the isle of rum.skewing of the sex ratio at birth occurs in red deer in response to dominance status, with dominant hinds giving birth to a higher proportion of male calves than subordinates. to investigate the physiological basis for this phenomenon, reproductive tracts were collected from red deer during a cull for management purposes carried out on the island of rum, scotland. blastocysts were flushed from the uterus and sexed by polymerase chain reaction using y chromosome-specific primers. concentrations o ...19979204371
descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in michigan, usa.a study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in michigan. this is the first description of cervid farming in the united states. data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from march 3 through june 28, 1993. completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) ...19979208449
the effect of formalin on rumen surface area in red deer.previously published studies have related the surface area of rumen wall to diet. the validity of studies that utilize preserved material depends upon the predictability of any change in rumen dimension brought about by preservation. changes in the surface are of different sections of the rumen wall of red deer (cervus elaphus) were monitored after immersion in 10% formal saline solution at room temperature for 2, 7 and 14 days. there was a high degree of variability (0-39.5%) in wall-area reduc ...19979210784
behavioral dominance and corpus luteum function in red deer cervus elaphus.times of the ovulatory lh surge and characteristics of the rise in circulating progesterone concentrations after ovulation in red deer hinds were investigated in relation to each animal's dominance status. observations were made during the 1992 (experiment 1) and 1993 (experiment 2) breeding seasons, while the same 12 hinds were held in a pen in the absence of a stag. ovulation was synchronized by administration of progesterone followed by luteolytic prostaglandin f2 alpha analogue. social statu ...19979213143
specific activation of a c-jun nh2-terminal kinase isoform and induction of neurite outgrowth in pc-12 cells by staurosporine.staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor, is known to mimic the effect of nerve growth factor (ngf) in promoting neurite outgrowth. to elucidate the mechanism by which staurosporine induces neurite outgrowth in pc-12 cells, we performed an in-gel kinase assay using myelin basic protein as a substrate, and found that staurosporine induced the activation of a kinase with an apparent molecular mass of 57 kda. the dose of staurosporine required to activate this kinase was consistent with that requi ...19979218464
activation of the novel stress-activated protein kinase sapk4 by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated by skk3 (mkk6); comparison of its substrate specificity with that of other sap kinases.a cdna was cloned that encodes human stress-activated protein kinase-4 (sapk4), a novel map kinase family member whose amino acid sequence is approximately 60% identical to that of the other three sap kinases which contain a tgy motif in their activation domain. the mrna encoding sapk4 was found to be widely distributed in human tissues. when expressed in kb cells, sapk4 was activated in response to cellular stresses and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a manner similar to other sapks. sapk4 was a ...19979218798
transmission of louping ill virus between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on mountain hares.most of the data on oral infection of ticks by louping ill virus have been obtained from experiments in which animals were infected by syringe inoculation with infectious material. using infected ticks to mimic the natural situation, we have demonstrated that louping ill (li) virus transmission can occur from infected to uninfected ixodes ricinus feeding in close proximity on mountain hares (lepus timidus). under these conditions the hares developed either low or undetectable viraemias. highest ...19979226648
melatonin receptors in red deer fetuses (cervus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus) exhibit highly seasonal rhythms in physiology and behaviour. the influence of photoperiod on the timing of these changes begins in utero where the fetus receives photoperiodic information via the diurnal pattern of maternal melatonin secretion. the potential sensitivity of deer fetuses to melatonin was ascertained by mapping specific receptors and characterizing them using 2-[125i]iodomelatonin and quantitative autoradiography in vitro. specific binding occurred from da ...19979227368
decreased potassium stimulates bone resorption.metabolic acidosis induces net calcium efflux (jca+) from cultured bone, in part, through an increase in osteoclastic resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic formation. in humans provision of base as potassium (k+) citrate, but not sodium (na+) citrate, reduces urine ca (uca), and oral khco3 decreases bone resorption and uca in postmenopausal women. potassium deprivation alone leads to an increase in uca. to determine whether decreased extracellular k+ concentration ([k+]) at a constant ph, pc ...19979227639
juxtamembrane tyrosine residues couple the eph family receptor ephb2/nuk to specific sh2 domain proteins in neuronal cells.eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the control of axonal navigation and fasciculation. to investigate the biochemical mechanisms underlying such functions, we have expressed the ephb2 receptor (formerly nuk/cek5/sek3) in neuronal ng108-15 cells, and have observed the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins upon activation of ephb2 by its ligand, ephrin-b1 (formerly elk-l/lerk2). the activated ephb2 receptor induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 62-64 ...19979233798
calcium controls gene expression via three distinct pathways that can function independently of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (erks) signaling cascade.calcium ions are the principal second messenger in the control of gene expression by electrical activation of neurons. however, the full complexity of calcium-signaling pathways leading to transcriptional activation and the cellular machinery involved are not known. using the c-fos gene as a model system, we show here that the activity of its complex promoter is controlled by three independently operating signaling mechanisms and that their functional significance is cell type-dependent. the ser ...19979236230
lerk-7: a ligand of the eph-related kinases is developmentally regulated in the brain.the eph family is the largest subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (rtks). members of this subfamily display specific expression in the developing and adult brain. recently, cdnas encoding membrane bound ligands for these receptors have been identified which we have termed lerks (ligand for eph-related kinases). we report here the isolation of lerk-7 from a human fetal brain cdna library. lerk-7 encodes a protein of 228 amino acids and is anchored to the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinosit ...19979245480
detection of mycobacterium bovis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of cattle and elk by pcr amplification of an is6110 sequence specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms.a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made if a tissue has characteristic histopathologic changes and acid-fast organisms. however, definitive diagnosis requires culture and species identification of the causative mycobacterium, a process that takes several weeks to complete. the purpose of work reported here was to determine if formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues could be tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to provide a more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. nondecalcified t ...19979249162
radiometric culture of mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis from the feces of tule determine if mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis has persisted in tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) at point reyes national seashore (california, usa), 100 fresh fecal samples were collected. feces were cultured on a modified bactec 12b radiometric medium for detection of m. avium paratuberculosis. four samples, coming from two separate groups of elk tested positive for m. avium paratuberculosis. thus, a noninvasive technique was used to document the continued presence of m. avium paratuber ...19979249713
abnormal antler growth associated with testicular hypogonadism in red deer.a wild 5-yr-old red deer (cervus elaphus) was eulled from a privately owned herd because of deformed antlers, retained velvet and bilateral symmetrical testicular hypogonadism. the clinical and pathological changes seen in this deer were most consistent with congenital hypoplasia, but testicular atrophy was an alternative possibility for the etiology of their condition.19979249723
high sequence homology of the prp gene in mule deer and rocky mountain elk. 19979250209
insulin-like growth factor-i-mediated neurite outgrowth in vitro requires mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) induces neuronal differentiation in vitro. in the present study, we examined the signaling pathway underlying igf-i-mediated neurite outgrowth. in sh-sy5y human neuroblastoma cells, treatment with igf-i induced concentration- and time-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the type i igf receptor (igf-ir) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (erk) 1 and 2. these effects of igf-i were blocked by a neutralizing antibody against igf-ir. whereas igf- ...19979261137
why do animals repeat displays?both agonistic and sexual animal displays often involve more than one performance of some specific display action. since repetition is energetically costly there must be good reasons why a signaller should carry out such repetitive actions, rather than simply displaying once. we briefly review three different 'reasons' which arise from three different receiver assessment rules: when assessment is based on the average magnitude of all display actions so far, the reason for the repetition is to im ...19979268441
some haematological and immunological parameters of farmed deer in hungary.a haematological survey of farmed fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus) was carried out. in the winter period the red blood cell (rbc) count was 9.0 x 10(12)/l in adult fallow-does, and 6.1 x 10(12)/l in fawns. the haemoglobin (hb) level and mean corpuscular volume (mcv) were also significantly (p < 0.05) lower in fawns than in adult fallow deer. in blood samples taken from red deer in different physiological and nutritional periods, the stags showed the lowest mean rbc count in ...19979270131
formate and ethanol are the major products of glycerol fermentation produced by a klebsiella planticola strain isolated from red deer.the rumen contents of red deer (cervus elaphus) were used to isolate bacterial capable of fermenting glycerol. the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and phylogeny of one isolate were studied in detail. the isolate (dr3) was tentatively identified as a strain of the species klebsiella planticola as based on phenotypic characterization. the data obtained from 16s rrna sequence analysis showed that the deer rumen isolate dr3 was 99.7% similar to the type strain of kl. planticola (dsm 3069t), thu ...19979281820
hypoxia induces c-fos transcription via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.hypoxia is a pathophysiological condition that occurs during injury, ischemia, and stroke. it is characterized by a decrease of reactive oxygen intermediates and a change of the intracellular redox level. in tumors hypoxia is regarded as a trigger for enhanced growth and metastasis. here we report that in hela cells, hypoxic conditions induce the transcriptional activation of c-fos transcription via the serum response element. mutations in the binding site for the ternary complex factor elk-1 an ...19979287359
nuclear signalling by rac gtpase: essential role of phospholipase a2.rac, one member of rho family gtpases, stimulates c-fos serum response element (sre)-luciferase reporter gene in rat-2 fibroblast cells. by transient transfection analysis, we demonstrated that the activation of phospholipase a2 (pla2) and the subsequent production of arachidonic acid (aa) are essential for rac-induced c-fos sre activation, implying a critical role for pla2 in the rac-signalling pathway to the nucleus. either pretreatment with mepacrine, a specific inhibitor of pla2, or co-trans ...19979291101
effects of season, protein and nutritional state on glucose tolerance during an annual cycle of growth in young red deer stags.two hypotheses were tested in gonad-intact, young (aged 6-18 months), growing red deer stags during an annual growth cycle. first, that glucose clearance rate is faster during summer than during winter. secondly, that increased dietary protein availability will enhance winter growth. stags were randomly assigned into one of two groups: group 1 (n = 5) had 16% while group 2 (n = 6) had 48% of dietary protein naturally protected against fermentative degradation in the rumen. total crude protein an ...19979291838
[the finding of eimeria alces (eucoccidiida) in the elk alces alces of bryansk province].the microsporidia eimeria alces, arnastauskiene, 1971 has been recorded from fecal probes of elks (alces alces) in bryansk province. the oocyst measure 40.6 + 2.0 x x 28.6 + 1.0 mkm.19979304107
expression and localization of prolactin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in red deer ovary during the estrous cycle and this study, expression of the prolactin receptor (prl-r) gene in the ovaries of cycling and pregnant red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds was investigated. a 1.9-kilobase (kb) cdna encoding the cervine long-form prl-r was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from corpus luteum (cl) and liver poly(a)+ rna. northern hybridization revealed a major mrna transcript of 3.5 kb in both tissues. prl-r mrna transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization in 15-micron frozen secti ...19979314591
ets oncogene family.first member of ets gene family was discovered a decade ago by studying avian erythroblastosis virus, e26. this virus encodes a tripartite protein gag-myb-ets with a molecular weight of 135 kda. subsequently, a series of cellular ets genes were isolated (ets-1, ets-2, erg, elk-1, sap-1, pea-3, pu.1, fli-1, pok/yan, etv-1 etc.). these genes share sequence homology to e26 ets gene (v-ets or viral ets). ets genes are highly conserved in phylogenetically divergent species from drosophila to man. mam ...19979315229
net-b, a ras-insensitive factor that forms ternary complexes with serum response factor on the serum response element of the fos promoter.the ras signalling pathway targets transcription factors such as the ternary complex factors that are recruited by the serum response factor to form complexes on the serum response element (sre) of the fos promoter. we have identified a new ternary complex factor, net-b. we report the features of the net gene and show that it produces several splice variants, net-b and net-c. net-b rna and protein are expressed in a variety of tissues and cell lines. net-c rna is expressed at low levels, and the ...19979315625
growth hormone regulates ternary complex factors and serum response factor associated with the c-fos serum response element.for insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation by growth hormone (gh), the regulation of transcription factors associated with the serum response element (sre) located upstream of c-fos was examined. the sre can mediate induction of reporter expression in response to gh. for insight into the mechanism by which gh regulates transcription factors, regulation of sre-associated proteins by gh was examined. in nuclear extracts from 3t3-f442a fibroblasts, several sre-binding complexes were identif ...19979325329
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