PMID(sorted descending)
reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a new zealand deer farm.a study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (fecrt), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. the control group averaged 12 ...201424144515
coxiella burnetii shedding by farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of q fever. currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human q fever cases. however, a human case of q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with c. burnetii and ascertain the implicat ...201524127840
organochlorine compound residues in muscle of wild boar (sus scrofa l.) and red deer (cervus elaphus l.): effects of age and sex.twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the czech republic. the concentration of ddt and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while pcbs and hch were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. the concentrations of ddt and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. pcb 153 and p,p'-dde were ...201324097284
determination of the parameters of the parasitic stage in ixodes ricinus females.ixodes ricinus is a tick commonly found on human and animals and of great medical and veterinary importance. the aim of the study was to determine the parameters of different stages of feeding in ixodes ricinus females.201324069846
loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding in kashmir red deer (cervus elaphus hanglu) of dachigam national park, jammu & kashmir, india.hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu), the eastern most subspecies of red deer, is now confined only to the mountains in the kashmir region of jammu & kashmir state of india. it is of great conservation significance as this is the last and only hope for asiatic survivor of the red deer species in india. wild population of free ranging hangul deer inhabiting in and around dachigam national park was genetically assessed in order to account for constitutive genetic attributes of hangul population using mi ...201324060051
spatial and temporal interactions between livestock and wildlife in south central spain assessed by camera traps.the diversification of livestock farms into hunting estates in south central spain (scs) may impede the success of mycobacterium bovis eradication programmes by facilitating transmission between wildlife and livestock. in this observational study we aimed to provide information of relevance about the nature and frequency of interactions (observed visits to study points) between livestock (cattle and domestic pigs) and wildlife (wild boar and red deer). the study was conducted in an extensive cat ...201324050782
detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (cervus elaphus) in croatia.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is a growing public health concern in central and northern european countries. even though tbe is a notifiable disease in croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as tbe virus prevalence in ticks or animals. the aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of tbe virus in ticks removed from red fox (vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern croatia ...201424035586
serosurvey for schmallenberg virus in alpine wild ungulates.because schmallenberg virus (sbv) was first reported in domestic ruminants in northern italy in february 2012, we conducted a serosurvey to assess the presence of sbv-specific antibodies in free-ranging alpine ruminants. the tested serum samples were from chamois (23) and red deer (352) hunted from 2007 to 2013. all of the serum samples collected through september, 2012, tested negative, whereas a single chamois serum and 21 red deer sera taken during the 2012-2013 hunting season tested positive ...201424034277
validation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism panel for parentage testing of farmed red deer behaviour prevents the accurate physical matching of dams to fawns and, therefore, breeders have to rely on dna-based parentage testing. a panel consisting of 100 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, with an average minor allele frequency of 0.25, was able to resolve 92% of fawns to both parents. in comparison, an existing 12-marker microsatellite panel was able to resolve 68% of fawns to both parents. when excluding dam dna information, the single nucleotide polymorphism panel match ...201424033517
trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in yellowstone.we explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (canis lupus), elk (cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (ursus arctos) in yellowstone national park. we hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. after wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in ...201424033136
zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of dois irmãos, northeast brazil.thirty-eight taxa of zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (tapirus terrestris), camel (camelus bactrianus), horse (equus caballus), deer (cervus elaphus), agouti (dasyprocta aguti), donkey (equus asinus), llama (llama glama) and waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the reserva ecológica de dois irmãos located in recife, state of pernambuco, northeast brazil. the samples were collected on a monthly basis from june 2005 to may 2006, taken to the laboratory an ...201124031609
sperm population structure and male fertility: an intraspecific study of sperm design and velocity in red deer.sperm design and velocity play key roles in influencing sperm performance and, therefore, can determine fertilization success. several interspecific studies have demonstrated how these features correlate, and it has been hypothesized that selection may drive changes in these sperm traits. here, we examine the association between sperm design and swimming velocity in a study conducted at an intraspecific level in iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus). we addressed how the structure of diff ...201324025739
social dominance is associated with individual differences in heart rate and energetic response to food restriction in female red expenditure is a key mechanism underlying animal ecology, yet why individuals often differ in metabolic rate even under identical conditions remains largely unexplained. individual variation in metabolism might be explained by correlations with other behavioral and physiological traits, with individual syndromes having environment- or state-dependent costs and benefits to fitness. we tested whether social rank within herds of female red deer is associated with individual differences in re ...201323995483
orf virus infection in a hunter in western austria, presumably transmitted by game.a variety of animals host parapoxviruses. orf virus is prevalent in sheep and goats in the tyrol region of austria and northern italy. zoonotic infections in humans mostly occur after occupational exposure. we report here a case of a hunter with a typical orf lesion (contagious ecthyma) on the finger, with no history of direct contact with domestic animals. three weeks previously he had been hunting chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and cut his finger while handling a carcass. parapoxvirus infection ...201423995221
the anti-osteoporotic effect of velvet antler polypeptides from cervus elaphus linnaeus in ovariectomized rats.the deer velvet antler is well known for its traditional medicinal value, and is widely used in the clinic. it is recorded in the compendium of materia medica that the deer velvet antler replenishes vital essence and strengthens the bone.201323993908
landscape level variation in tick abundance relative to seasonal migration in red deer.partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. the main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being th ...201323951125
a case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (cervus elaphus).a 22-month-old, female red deer (cervus elaphus) was submitted to the university of minnesota veterinary diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (cwd) testing. the deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in cwd-positive elk and experimentally infected red ...201323950558
survey of bluetongue virus infection in free-ranging wild ruminants in 2006, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) was detected for the first time in central europe. measures to control the infection in livestock were implemented in switzerland but the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could be a maintenance host for btv-8. furthermore toggenburg orbivirus (tov), considered as a potential 25th btv serotype, was detected in 2007 in domestic goats in switzerland and wild ruminants were considered a potential source of infection. to assess prevalences ...201323941229
wildlife-vehicle collisions in croatia--a hazard for humans and animals.wildlife-vehicle collisions (wvc) have increased and now there is a world-wide problem related to significant mortality of wildlife, habitat fragmentation, change in behavior and even disappearance of local endangered populations. along with these deleterious effects on wildlife, wvc can also result in injuries and deaths of humans. during the three-year monitoring, a total of 7,495 wildlife-vehicle collisions were recorded, including mainly roe deer (73%), while other species were less frequent ...201323941001
late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of european red deer (cervus elaphus l.).the pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. how individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. for the european fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial times and expanded northwards during interglacials, including the present interglacial (holocene). here, we test this model on the red deer (cervus elaphu ...201323927498
animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: lessons from a yellowstone elk herd.migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside yellowstone national park, usa. we attribute this decline to a long ...201323923485
resource partitioning by ungulates on the isle of rhum.this paper describes the seasonal changes in vegetation community use by red deer, cattle, goats and ponies on the isle of rhum, scotland. during the winter, when food resources were of low abundance and digestibility, the ungulates showed extensive resource partitioning. during the summer, when resource availability and digestibility was high, the grazing species, red deer, cattle and ponies congregated on the vegetation communities which contained high biomasses of a high quality resource, mes ...198923921404
estimating resource selection with count data.resource selection functions (rsfs) are typically estimated by comparing covariates at a discrete set of "used" locations to those from an "available" set of locations. this rsf approach treats the response as binary and does not account for intensity of use among habitat units where locations were recorded. advances in global positioning system (gps) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatiotemporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in rs ...201323919165
getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the scottish highlands by managing red deer.high deer populations threaten the conservation value of woodlands and grasslands, but predicting the success of deer culling, in terms of allowing vegetation to recover, is difficult. numerical simulation modeling is one approach to gain insight into the outcomes of management scenarios. we develop a spatially explicit model to predict the responses of betula spp. to red deer (cervus elaphus) and land management in the scottish highlands. our model integrates a bayesian stochastic stage-based m ...201323919137
giardia prevalence in wild cervids in poland.a total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of poland. specimens were taken from 65 fallow deer (dama dama), 61 red deer (cervus elaphus), 50 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and five moose (alces alces). giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from the red deer and in two samples from the roe deer. although this study has demonstrated that giardia infection is remarkably rare in wild cervids, it should be emphasized that there are large populations of ...201223914615
molecular detection of theileria sp. zs to4 in red deer (cervus elaphus) and questing haemaphysalis concinna ticks in eastern austria.theileria spp. are intracellular protozoa transmitted by ixodid ticks. t. parva and t. annulata are highly pathogenic and responsible for serious disease in domestic ruminants in tropical and subtropical countries. however, asymptomatic findings of theileria sp. in wild ungulates lead to the suggestion that wild ruminants play a role as reservoirs for these piroplasms. in a game enclosure in eastern austria (federal county of burgenland), piroplasms were detected with molecular analysis in blood ...201323896062
gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.this study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (git) of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. git development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (ct) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. a group of five animals were repeatedly ct scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of ...201323867068
habitat monitoring in the wider countryside: a case study on the pursuit of innovation in red deer management.policy frameworks for protected areas, such as the eu habitats directive, ensure that environmental monitoring takes place to assess the condition of these sites. however, this monitoring rarely extends to the wider countryside, and there is no obligation for private landowners to detect trends in habitat condition. using the diffusion of innovations model as an analytical framework we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews to consider the uptake of habitat impact assessment methods th ...201323860380
methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in spain.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. the aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mrsa in free-living wild animals. samples from red deer (n=273), iberian ibex (n=212), eurasian griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in spain between june 2008 and november 2011 were analyzed. characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-l ...201323846031
bovine brucellosis in wildlife: using adaptive management to improve understanding, technology and suppression.eradication of brucellosis from bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) populations in the greater yellowstone area is not possible with current technology. there are considerable uncertainties regarding the effectiveness of management techniques and unintended effects on wildlife behaviour and demography. however, adaptive management provides a framework for learning about the disease, improving suppression techniques, and lowering brucellosis transmission among wildlife and to cattle. sin ...201323837383
integrating ecology with management to control wildlife brucellosis.bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem have long been infected with brucella abortus. the continued culling of large numbers of yellowstone bison to reduce the risk of brucellosis transmission to cattle could negatively affect long-term conservation. a desirable management objective is to reduce the level of b. abortus infection while conserving wildlife populations. identifying the ecological factors that influence immune suppression and vulnerabilityt ...201323837381
an ecological perspective on brucella abortus in the western united states.after a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the united states, namely, montana, wyoming and idaho. this increase is coincidentwith increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. cattle vaccination is ongoing in the ...201323837367
risks of brucella abortus spillover in the greater yellowstone area.recurrent spillover of brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the greater yellowstone area (gya) has prevented the united states from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. while the brucellosis prevalence in wild, fre ...201323837366
surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in susceptible wildlife and domestic ungulates in southeast of bulgaria following a fmd case in wild boar.following a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) case of serotype o in wild boar in southeast of bulgaria, notified in january 2011 and eleven fmd outbreaks in livestock, a control and eradication plan according to the eu legislation was implemented. based on the epidemiological considerations a "cordon sanitaire" along the border to turkey, consisting of a defined infected area (1240 km(2)) and two areas of risk (2160 km(2)) was established. within these areas a total of 812 wild boar, 68 roe deer, 7 r ...201323830685
sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer.the interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. to test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer-182 males and 1 ...201323819112
first serosurvey of besnoitia spp. infection in wild european ruminants in spain.besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and b. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. however, both besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodie ...201323790546
spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ixodes ricinus ticks in norway.understanding the variation in prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, lbs) and anaplasma phagocytophilum (causing tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) in ticks is vital from both a human and an animal disease perspective to target the most effective mitigation measures. from the host competence hypothesis, we predicted that prevalence of lbs would decrease with red deer density, while prevalence of a. phagocytophilum would incr ...201323786850
molecular phylogeography of tick-borne encephalitis virus in central order to obtain a better understanding of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) strain movements in central europe the e gene sequences of 102 tbev strains collected from 1953 to 2011 at 38 sites in the czech republic, slovakia, austria and germany were determined. bayesian analysis suggests a 350-year history of evolution and spread in central europe of two main lineages, a and b. in contrast to the east to west spread at the eurasian continent level, local central european spreading patterns ...201323784447
babesia odocoilei infection in a saskatchewan elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) 8-year-old female elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) cow, presented for chronic severe weight loss and unthriftiness, was diagnosed with babesia odocoilei infection based on blood smear evaluation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and dna sequence analysis. subsequently, velvet antler from a male that died acutely on the same farm was also pcr positive for babesia spp. both animals originated from a game ranch of saskatchewan-bred and -raised animals with no known history of tick exposure, but w ...201323780934
high elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested colorado moose.infection with elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (alces alces). of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout colorado, usa, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bci]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bci=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis ...201323778618
evaluation of transmission of brucella abortus strain 19 in bison by intravaginal, intrauterine, and intraconjunctival inoculation.bovine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium brucella abortus, is endemic in bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in the area of yellowstone national park, usa. two strategies have been proposed to reduce the risk of transmission of disease in bison: remote vaccination with the vaccine rb51, and the use of immunocontraception of bison to decrease shedding of organisms from infected females. the frequent occurrence of venereal transmission in bison would complicate eith ...201323778600
correlation of tbe incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in slovenia.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. the tbe virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed tbe foci. the formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. the present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. we were able to ...201323776668
early detection of chronic wasting disease prions in urine of pre-symptomatic deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of captive and free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp), elk (cervus elaphus nelsonii) and moose (alces alces shirasi). unlike in most other prion diseases, in cwd prions are shed in urine and feces, which most likely contributes to the horizontal transmission within and between cervid species. to date, cwd ante-mortem diagnosis is only possible by immunohistochemical detection of protease resistant prion protein (prp (sc) ) in tonsil or recto-anal muco ...201523764839
a two-years' survey on the prevalence of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium caprae in red deer (cervus elaphus) in the tyrol, austria.a survey of 143 hunter-harvested red deer for tuberculosis was conducted in an alpine area in western austria over two subsequent years. there, single tuberculosis cases caused by mycobacterium caprae had been detected in cattle and red deer over the preceding decade. the area under investigation covered approximately 500 km(2), divided into five different hunting plots. lymph nodes of red deer were examined grossly and microscopically for typical tuberculosis-like lesions and additionally by mi ...201223762580
linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. we evaluated the non-consumptive effects (nces) of an active predator, the grey wolf (canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the greater yellowstone ecosystem. when wolves approached within 1 km, elk in ...201323750905
effects of feed supplementation on mineral composition, mechanical properties and structure in femurs of iberian red deer hinds (cervus elaphus hispanicus).few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. we examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. contents of ca, p, mg, k, na, s, cu, fe, mn, se, zn, b and sr, young's modulus of elasticity (e), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis ( ...201323750262
long-term density-dependent changes in habitat selection in red deer (cervus elaphus).understanding how habitat selection changes with population density is a key concept in population regulation, community composition and managing impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. at low density, it is expected that individuals select habitats in terms of their preference, but as population density increases, the availability of resources per individual declines on preferred habitats, leading to competition which forces some individuals to exploit less preferred habitats. using spa ...201323719900
experimental chronic wasting disease in wild type vm mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was first confirmed in the republic of korea in 2001, and subsequent cases were diagnosed in 2004, 2005 and 2010. the experimental host range of cwd includes ferrets, several species of voles, white-footed mice, deer mice and syrian golden hamsters. in addition, cwd was transmitted to the transgenic mous ...201323708962
molecular characterization of trypanosoma (megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (bos taurus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) in the united the united states, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated trypanosoma (megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from trypanosoma (m.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. phylogenetic studies of the megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated tthi and tthii, with several genotypes within each. however, to date there is very limited genetic data for t. theileri, and none for th ...201323683651
roaring high and low: composition and possible functions of the iberian stag's vocal repertoire.we provide a detailed description of the rutting vocalisations of free-ranging male iberian deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus, hilzheimer 1909), a geographically isolated and morphologically differentiated subspecies of red deer cervus elaphus. we combine spectrographic examinations, spectral analyses and automated classifications to identify different call types, and compare the composition of the vocal repertoire with that of other red deer subspecies. iberian stags give bouts of roars (and more ...201323667678
cloning and characterization of new transcript variants of insulin-like growth factor-i in sika deer (cervus elaphus).insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) is a multi-promoter gene that has complex biological functions and plays an important role in cell differentiation and proliferation, animal growth and metabolism. igf-i function is of particular importance in embryonic development. in this study, 5' and 3' race techniques were used to clone full-length cdna of the igf-i gene from the deer liver for the first time. six transcript variants were identified: class-1-ea, class-1-eb, class-1-ec, class-2-ea, class- ...201323665126
genetic epidemiology of sarcoptes scabiei in the iberian wolf in asturias, spain.during the last decades, attempts have been made to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptes scabiei, and to detect and clarify the differences between isolates from different hosts and geographic regions. two main phenomena have been described: (i) host-taxon derived-sarcoptes mite infection in european wild animals (revealing the presence of three separate clusters, namely herbivore-, carnivore- and omnivore-derived sarcoptes populations in europe) and (ii) prey-to-predator sarcoptes ...201323664709
[analysis on nutritional component of cervus elaphus products].to investigate nutrient values in the cervus elaphus, so as to provide a scientific basis for choosing products by businesses and consumers.201323654109
disentangling herbivore impacts on populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in canada's aspen parkland.ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (populus tremuloides michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the northern great plains. we used a controlled herbivory study in the parklands of western canada to comp ...201323649757
the origin of the giant liver fluke, fascioloides magna (trematoda: fasciolidae) from croatia determined by high-resolution melting screening of mitochondrial cox1 haplotypes.the high-resolution melting (hrm) method, recently optimized as a reliable technique for population study of the european fascioloides magna populations, was applied to determine an origin of f. magna individuals from croatia. the structure and frequency of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (439 bp; cox1) haplotypes of 200 croatian flukes coming from 19 red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) livers were screened and compared with recently determined reference samples of f. magna from all e ...201323609601
effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction.tuberculosis (tb) is endemic in eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in south central spain, where evidence suggests transmission to domestic cattle. known risk factors for tb at the interface between livestock and wild ungulate species include density and spatial overlap, particularly around waterholes during summer. we evaluated the effectiveness of selective exclusion measures for reducing direct and indirect interaction between extensive beef cattle and wild ungulate ...201323602337
cervus elaphus papillomavirus (cepv1): new insights on viral evolution in deer.we identified a novel papillomavirus (cepv1) in a fibropapilloma of a 1.5 year old male red deer (cervus elaphus) shot in the italian alps in brescia province. pv particles were first observed by electron microscopy and pv dna was then identified by pcr using degenerate primers. subsequently we cloned the entire genome and determined its complete sequence. cepv1 genome is 8009 bp long and contains all 9 orfs and the long untranslated regulatory region characteristic for delta-papillomaviruses. p ...201323578708
severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in patagonia.the puyehue-cordon caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of argentina in june of 2011. tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. to evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in september-november 2012. we show that tephra ...201323568911
efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cow elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a reliable antemortem test is needed to understand the ecology of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). we measured the ability of antemortem biopsy samples from the rectal mucosa to detect the abnormal prion protein associated with cwd (prp(cwd)), the relationship between test results from the obex and rectal biopsies at varying stages of cwd progression, and the prevalence of cwd in free-ranging elk from rocky mountain national park, colorado, usa. we sampled and place ...201323568902
phylogenetic relationships among sarcocystis species in cervids, cattle and sheep inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene.coccidian parasites in the genus sarcocystis have a two-host life cycle, and have traditionally been identified on the basis of morphological features of the sarcocyst stage in their intermediate hosts. additional molecular species identification, delimitation and phylogeny of sarcocystis spp. have been based mainly on the nuclear ssrrna gene. this gene is well suited for discrimination between more distant species but less so for closely related species. the objective of this study was therefor ...201323542092
ixodes ricinus infestation in free-ranging cervids in norway--a study based upon ear examinations of hunted animals.prevalence, abundance and instar composition of ixodes ricinus as found on one ear collected from 1019 moose (alces alces), red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus), shot during hunting (august-december) 2001-2003, are reported. the animals originated from 15 coastal municipalities (cm), seven municipalities bordering to coastal municipalities (bcm) and four inland municipalities (im), in norway, between latitudes 58-66° n. i. ricinus occurred endemically in all cm and bcm up ...201323541678
incidence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat.the objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o-groups, responsible for the majority of e. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 stec o-groups (o26, o45, o103, o111 ...201323512921
global gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages from red deer (cervus elaphus) genotypically resistant or susceptible to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) can cause a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, johne's disease (jd), in ruminant animals. this study has explored the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to this disease in red deer breeds previously confirmed to express polarised phenotypes by experimental infection trials and following natural infection. monocyte-derived macrophage cultures were obtained from uninfected red deer selected for either a resistant or susceptible p ...201323454067
demodex acutipes bukva et preisler, 1988 (acari, demodecidae)--a rare parasite of red deer (cervus elaphus l.).two species of demodectic mites were described in the red deer cervus elaphus, including demodex kutzeri, which had also been found in other species of the cervidae family in austria, germany, czech republic, poland and north america. whereas the other species, d. acutipes, had been previously known from only one finding in the czech republic. the present research included skin samples taken in winter 2012 from thirty red deer in northern poland. demodex acutipes (prevalence 20%, mean intensity ...201223444799
association between mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and lymph node size in new zealand farmed deer (cervus elaphus).to develop and validate criteria for identification of abnormal lymph nodes (ln) at commercial slaughter, for the purpose of national surveillance for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) in new zealand farmed deer. this included estimation of the predictive value of abnormal ln for map infection; a standard circumference cut-point for measurement of abnormal ln; and identification of risk factors associated with increasing ln circumference.201323442016
prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) with grossly normal mesenteric lymph estimate the prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in farmed deer with no gross post-mortem evidence of map infection slaughtered in new zealand, and to assess predictors of infection.201323441922
sensitivity, specificity and level of agreement of meat inspector detection of abnormal lymph nodes of farmed deer (cervus elaphus) in new assess the sensitivity (se), specificity (sp) and level of agreement in the detection of abnormal deer mesenteric lymph nodes (mln) by official assessors (meat inspectors) for the purpose of slaughter premise surveillance for johne's disease in new zealand farmed deer.201323441889
comparison of ranging behaviour in a multi-species complex of free-ranging hosts of bovine tuberculosis in relation to their use as disease sentinels.sentinel species are increasingly used by disease managers to detect and monitor the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in wildlife populations. characterizing home-range movements of sentinel hosts is thus important for developing improved disease surveillance methods, especially in systems where multiple host species co-exist. we studied ranging activity of major hosts of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in an upland habitat of new zealand: we compared home-range coverage by ferrets (mustela furo), wild ...201323433406
red deer (cervus elaphus) as a host for the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus (acari: ixodidae) in yucatan, mexico.rhipicephalus microplus is the most economically important cattle tick in the mexican tropics. wild ungulate species, including red deer (cervus elaphus), are gaining popularity in diversified livestock ranching operations in mexico. however, there is no information available on the susceptibility of red deer to infestation with the cattle tick, r. microplus, under hot, subhumid tropical conditions in mexico. biological data on r. microplus as an ectoparasite of cattle and red deer in a farm in ...201323423423
anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern norway.infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern norway. previous experimental work has shown that a. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. to address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between a. phagocy ...201323414797
bluetongue dynamics in french wildlife: exploring the driving forces.bluetongue (bt) was monitored in wildlife in france during two consecutive years corresponding to contrasting incidence rates in livestock: in 2008 at the peak of domestic outbreaks and in 2009 when very few outbreaks were observed. the disease status of 2 798 ruminants comprising 837 red deer (cervus elaphus) was explored using elisa test on serum and real-time rt-pcr test on blood or spleen. a large proportion of red deer were seropositive and positive to rt-pcr in 2008, but also in 2009 (sero ...201423414427
forensic dna barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.animal horns (ahs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. but now parts of ahs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. the contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. w ...201323409064
elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.identifying the ecological dynamics underlying human-wildlife conflicts is important for the management and conservation of wildlife populations. in landscapes still occupied by large carnivores, many ungulate prey species migrate seasonally, yet little empirical research has explored the relationship between carnivore distribution and ungulate migration strategy. in this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (canis lupus) habi ...201223387126
prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of shiga-toxin producing escherichia coli (stec), little information is available concerning the role of salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. in large game species. we evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (n=574) and carcasses (n=585) sampled from red deer (n=295), wild boar (n=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (n=9). animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. salmo ...201323384892
[the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes during the contest season].the objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes undergoing heavy physical loads during the contest season. it was shown that the use of such preparations promotes correction of humoral characteristics reflecting the development of iron-deficient conditions.201323373295
inferring spatial memory and spatiotemporal scaling from gps data: comparing red deer cervus elaphus movements with simulation models.1. increased inference regarding underlying behavioural mechanisms of animal movement can be achieved by comparing gps data with statistical mechanical movement models such as random walk and lévy walk with known underlying behaviour and statistical properties. 2. gps data are typically collected with ≥ 1 h intervals not exactly tracking every mechanistic step along the movement path, so a statistical mechanical model approach rather than a mechanistic approach is appropriate. however, compariso ...201323351042
surveillance of bovine tuberculosis and risk estimation of a future reservoir formation in wildlife in switzerland and liechtenstein.bovine tuberculosis (btb) caused by mycobacterium bovis or m. caprae has recently (re-) emerged in livestock and wildlife in all countries bordering switzerland (ch) and the principality of liechtenstein (fl). comprehensive data for swiss and liechtenstein wildlife are not available so far, although two native species, wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus), act as btb reservoirs elsewhere in continental europe. our aims were (1) to assess the occurrence of btb in these wil ...201323349839
an improved high yield method to obtain microsatellite genotypes from red deer antlers up to 200 years old.analysis of dna from older samples, such as museum specimen, is a promising approach to studying genetics of populations and ecological processes across several generations. here, we present a method for extracting high quality nuclear dna for microsatellite analysis from antlers of red deer (cervus elaphus). the genotyping of individuals was based on nine microsatellite loci. because the amount of dna found in antlers was high, we could reduce the amount of sample and chemicals used and shorten ...201323347507
innate immune markers that distinguish red deer (cervus elaphus) selected for resistant or susceptible genotypes for johne's disease.while many factors contribute to resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease, a major component is the genotype of the host and the way in which it is expressed. johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting ruminants and is caused by infection with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map). we have previously identified red deer breeds (cervus elaphus) that are resistant; have a low rate of map infection and do not progress to develop johne's disease. in ...201323347398
expression of immunoregulatory genes and its relationship to lead exposure and lead-mediated oxidative stress in wild ungulates from an abandoned mining area.lead (pb) is a highly toxic metal that can induce oxidative stress and affect the immune system by modifying the expression of immunomodulator-related genes. the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between pb exposure and the transcriptional profiles of some cytokines, as well as the relationship between pb exposure and changes in oxidative stress biomarkers observed in the spleen of wild ungulates exposed to mining pollution. red deer and wild boar from the mining area s ...201323344983
first detection of echinococcus granulosus g1 and g7 in wild boars (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in romania using pcr and pcr-rflp techniques.the epidemiological status of ce in our country places romania into the top of the european countries and among the first countries worldwide. two hundred ninety wild animals (267 wild boars, 21 red deer and 2 mouflons) hunted in a private ground from bihor county from western romania were the subject of the necropsy in january 2012.out of 290 wild animals, 35 were positive during necropsy for hydatic cysts and from these, 33 wild boars and 2 red deer had hydatic cystsonly in the liver parenchym ...201223332123
simulating retention of rare alleles in small populations to assess management options for species with different life histories.preserving allelic diversity is important because it provides the capacity for adaptation and thus enables long-term population viability. allele retention is difficult to predict in animals with overlapping generations, so we used a new computer model to simulate retention of rare alleles in small populations of 3 species with contrasting life-history traits: north island brown kiwi (apteryx mantelli; monogamous, long-lived), north island robins (petroica longipes; monogamous, short-lived), and ...201323330669
serosurvey for antibody to deerpox virus in five cervid species in oregon, usa.five cervid species in oregon, usa were tested with a serum neutralization assay for antibody to deerpox virus (dpv). none of the 50 elk (cervus elaphus ssp. roosevelti and nelsonii) had detectable antibody. prevalence of antibody to dpv in the remaining species was: 52% (n=55) in black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 32% (n= 59) in mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus), and 36% (n=50) in columbian white-tailed deer (o. virginianus leucurus), with an overall antibody prevalence of 40.2 ...201323307387
the modification and evaluation of an elisa test for the surveillance of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is often used to test wildlife samples for mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection. however, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. a literature review was performed to document the current use of map serum elisa in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. we then modified and evaluated a commercial elisa kit (idexx mycobacterium paratuberculosis antibody test kit) for use with species for whic ...201323302439
balancing income and cost in red deer management.this paper presents a bioeconomic analysis of a red deer population within a norwegian institutional context. this population is managed by a well-defined manager, typically consisting of many landowners operating in a cooperative manner, with the goal of maximizing the present-value hunting related income while taking browsing and grazing damages into account. the red deer population is structured in five categories of animals (calves, female and male yearlings, adult females and adult males). ...201323262406
chronic effects of lead (pb) on bone properties in red deer and wild boar: relationship with vitamins a and we study the occurrence of abnormalities on bone tissue composition and turnover mechanisms through the pb-mediated disruption of vitamins a and d in wild ungulates living in a lead (pb)-polluted mining area. red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) from the mining area had significantly higher liver and bone pb levels than controls, which were associated with the depletion of liver retinyl esters and the corresponding increase of free retinol levels both in deer and boar from t ...201323262069
extranodal follicular lymphoma in the lung of a free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus).a hunted free-ranging female red deer (cervus elaphus) from a region near the nahuel huapi national park, northern patagonia, argentina, had a focally extensive peribronchial lymphoid proliferative lesion in the lung characterized by formation of multiple follicles, with prominent germinal centers lacking mantle zone cells and antigen-related polarity. on examination of immunohistochemically stained tissues, a predominance of b cells (cluster of differentiation [cd]20 positive) with only a few s ...201323242668
effects of humans on behaviour of wildlife exceed those of natural predators in a landscape of fear.human disturbance can influence wildlife behaviour, which can have implications for wildlife populations. for example, wildlife may be more vigilant near human disturbance, resulting in decreased forage intake and reduced reproductive success. we measured the effects of human activities compared to predator and other environmental factors on the behaviour of elk (cervus elaphus linnaeus 1758) in a human-dominated landscape in alberta, canada.201223226330
the anatomy of vocal divergence in north american elk and european red deer.loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in cervus species. european red deer (cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas north american elk (cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. the larynx is sexually dimorphic in red ...201323225193
a foreign invader or a reclusive native? dna bar coding reveals a distinct european lineage of the zoonotic parasite schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. orientobilharzia turkestanicum ()).natural foci of schistosoma turkestanicum (syn. orientobilharzia turkestanicum) has been identified in the gemenc forest regions of hungary utilising red deer as the definitive host. in order to identify the origins of this parasite in europe standard dna bar coding techniques were employed to sequence fragments of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed region (its) from 10 individual adult male worms. phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum likelihood p ...201323220360
importance and mitigation of the risk of spillback transmission of mycobacterium bovis infection for eradication of bovine tuberculosis from wildlife in new zealand.introduced brushtail possums (trichosurus vulpecula) are wildlife maintenance hosts for mycobacterium bovis in new zealand, often living sympatrically with other potential hosts, including wild red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus). population control of possums has been predicted to eradicate tuberculosis (tb) from new zealand wildlife ; however, there is concern that long-lived m. bovis-infected deer could represent a ‘ spillback’ risk for tb re-establishment (particularly when possum populations ...201323211646
[sacrocystis hjorti lesions in hunted red deer in switzerland].in meat samples from 2 hunted red deer (cervus elaphus) of different origins (region ilanz, region filisur) large-scale greenish tissue discolorations with a gelatinous change of fascia were observed and diagnosed as eosinophilic fasciitis. sarcocystis hjorti, a recently described sarcocystis species in red deer and moose in norway, was found as the causing agent. foxes are regarded as final hosts in the development cycle of this parasite. factors leading to such cases of eosinophilic fasciitis ...201223188766
detection and characterization of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in game meat and ready-to-eat meat products.a total of 142 samples of game meat and ready-to-eat meat products from red deer and wild boar were analysed in order to assess the presence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). shiga-toxin encoding genes (stx genes) were detected by pcr in 36 (25.4%) of the samples and stec was isolated from 8 (5.6%) of the same samples. none of the samples tested positive for e. coli o157:h7. four different serotypes were found among the 8 stec isolates, with serotype o27:h30 being predominant (62 ...201223177058
epizootic spread of schmallenberg virus among wild cervids, belgium, fall 2011.schmallenberg virus was detected in cattle and sheep in northwestern europe in 2011. to determine whether wild ruminants are also susceptible, we measured antibody seroprevalence in cervids (roe deer and red deer) in belgium in 2010 and 2011. findings indicated rapid spread among these deer since virus emergence ≈250 km away.201223171763
elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high-elevation drainages.heavy herbivory by ungulates can substantially alter habitat, but the indirect consequences of habitat modification for animal assemblages that rely on that habitat are not well studied. this is a particularly important topic given that climate change can alter plant-herbivore interactions. we explored short-term responses of small mammal communities to recent exclusion of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) in high-elevation riparian drainages in northern arizona, where elk impacts on vegetatio ...201323163813
evidence of anaplasma phagocytophilum in game animals from slovenia.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis in mammalian hosts including humans. wild animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with a. phagocytophilum among wildlife in slovenia. serum samples (n = 376) from the most important game species [red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), wild boar (sus scrofa), chamois (rupicapra ...201223160026
validating methods for estimating endocranial volume in individual red deer (cervus elaphus).comparing brain sizes is a key method in comparative cognition and evolution. brain sizes are commonly validated by interspecific comparisons involving animals of varying size, which does not provide a realistic index of their accuracy for intraspecific comparisons. intraspecific validation of methods for measuring brain size should include animals of the same age and sex to ensure that individual differences can be detected in animals of similar size. in this study we compare three methods of m ...201323137587
multilocus genotyping of giardia duodenalis isolates from red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) from poland.a total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of poland. giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from red deer and in two samples from roe deer. fragments of the beta-giardin (bg) triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes were successfully amplified from the giardia isolate obtained from red deer, whereas only amplicons of bg and gdh were obtained from giardia isolates derived from two roe deer. the result of genotyping an ...201223136805
[reduction of plant fibers in the digestive tract of the moose and the red deer].a comparative study of the reduction of plant fibers moving in the digestive tract of nine red deer (cervus elaphus) and six moose (alces alces) was made. in the winter season, the character of fiber reduction in the moose and the red deer was similar. in the deer obtained in the early autumn, the relative concentration of small-sized fractions was significantly higher. a sharp decrease in the share oflarge-sized fibers was observed in the omasum as compared to the rumen and the reticulum. it wa ...201623136740
discovery of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing escherichia coli among hunted deer, chamois and ibex.the aim of the present study was to assess for the first time the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing escherichia coli in the wild animal ecosystem in switzerland. fecal samples of 84 red deer, 64 roe deer, 64 chamois, and 27 ibex were investigated. one sample from a roe deer tested positive for esbl-producing e. coli. the isolate harboured blactx-m-1 and tested negative for both blatem and blashv. based on these results low occurrence of esbl-producing enterobacte ...201223117989
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