PMID(sorted descending)
identity of rumen fluke in evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. a total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. based on the its-2 rdna locus plus flanking 5.8s and 28s sequences (its-2+), fluke eggs were identifie ...201425127736
early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer.the evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. there is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. here, we test this prediction in male red deer (cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. we show that males which had larger harems and thereby alloca ...201425122226
novel combinations of nalbuphine and medetomidine for wildlife immobilization.we formulated novel drug combinations of nalbuphine hcl and medetomidine hcl (nalmed), with or without azaperone tartrate, for use in immobilizing rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and potentially for other wildlife species. using the lowest tested nalbuphine dose (0.3 mg/kg) that produced sedation in elk, we initially evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (nalmed-a) for immobilizing adult elk. based on initial success, we then conducted follow-up trials to ...201425121404
response of red deer stags (cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common deer stags (cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. while common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars ...201425119193
blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by ixodes ricinus.the presence of ixodes ricinus and their associated borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of i. ricinus. questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are known to occur. presence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dna was examined in a fraction of the collected ticks. larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were found on the three large grazers. red deer had the hig ...201425113977
spatio-temporal variability of bovine tuberculosis eradication in spain (2006-2011).in this study we analyzed the space-time variation of the risk of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in cattle between 2006 and 2011. the results indicated that at country level, there were no significant temporal changes between years, but, at county level btb evolution was more heterogeneous. in some counties, between some years, the prevalence and the incidence of the disease was higher as compared to the global rate in the rest of the counties of spain. the analysis of potential risk factors indicate ...201425113586
identification of velvet antler by random amplified polymorphism dna combined with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis.mitochondrial dna of velvet antler was amplified with random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) technique and the pcr products were detected with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis to establish a rapd-hpce method used for identifying the authenticity of velvet antler or it counterfeits. factors that could affect the pcr amplification and capillary electrophoresis were optimized. under the optimized conditions, namely, 20 mmol l(-1) nah2po4-na2hpo4-2 mmol l(-1) edta buffer solution [0.8% (w/ ...201625103424
a new way to integrate selection when both demography and selection gradients vary over time.when both selection and demography vary over time, how can the long-run expected strength of selection on quantitative traits be measured? there are two basic steps in the proposed new analysis: one relates trait values to fitness components and the other relates fitness components to total fitness. we used one population projection matrix for each state of the environment together with a model of environmental dynamics, defining total fitness as the stochastic growth rate. we multiplied environ ...201025089083
red deer antler extract accelerates hair growth by stimulating expression of insulin-like growth factor i in full-thickness wound healing rat order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, sprague-dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. at specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days), the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. at post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around ...201225049617
spent mushroom substrate influences elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) hematological and serum biochemical parameters.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spent mushroom substrate (sms) derived from pleurotus eryngii on the hematological and biochemical blood properties of elk. a total of 18, two and three-year-old elk were fed three different levels of sms (0, 15 and 20%) in a corn-wheat bran diet for 80 days. the results indicated significantly high levels of blood monocytes, hemoglobin (hb), and hematocrit (hct) in elk fed 15% or 20% sms (p<0.05) compared to control animals. serum blood ...201225049569
habituating to handling: factors affecting preorbital gland opening in red deer calves.the preorbital gland plays not only an olfactory role in cervids but also a visual one. opening this gland is an easy way for the calf to communicate with the mother, indicating hunger/satiety, stress, pain, fear, or excitement. this information can be also useful for farm operators to assess how fast the calves habituate to handling routines and to detect those calves that do not habituate and may suffer chronic stress in the future. thirty-one calves were subjected to 2 consecutive experiments ...201425035243
ecosystem scale declines in elk recruitment and population growth with wolf colonization: a before-after-control-impact approach.the reintroduction of wolves (canis lupus) to yellowstone provided the unusual opportunity for a quasi-experimental test of the effects of wolf predation on their primary prey (elk--cervus elaphus) in a system where top-down, bottom-up, and abiotic forces on prey population dynamics were closely and consistently monitored before and after reintroduction. here, we examined data from 33 years for 12 elk population segments spread across southwestern montana and northwestern wyoming in a large scal ...201425028933
use of acepromazine and medetomidine in combination for sedation and handling of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (ursus americanus).we opportunistically evaluated a combination of acepromazine maleate and medetomidine hcl for use in sedating rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (ursus americanus) as an alternative to scheduled drug combinations. this combination was safe and effective with limitations inherent in its sedative rather than anesthetic properties.201425014907
bioserotypes and virulence markers of y. enterocolitica strains isolated from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus).free-living animals are an important environmental reservoir of pathogens dangerous for other animal species and humans. one of those is yersinia (y.) enterocolitica, the causative agent of yersiniosis--foodborne, enzootic disease, significant for public health. the purpose of the study was to identify bioserotypes and virulence markers of y enterocolitica strains isolated from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) obtained during the 2010/2011 hunting season in north-east ...201424988858
positioning the red deer (cervus elaphus) hunted by the tyrolean iceman into a mitochondrial dna the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and north-african/sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. however, little is known about the genetics of the alpine populations and no mitochondrial dna sequences from alpine archaeological specimens are available. here we provide the first mitochondrial ...201424988290
long-term dynamics of bluetongue virus in wild ruminants: relationship with outbreaks in livestock in spain, 2006-2011.wild and domestic ruminants are susceptible to bluetongue virus (btv) infection. three btv serotypes (btv-4, btv-1 and btv-8) have been detected in spain in the last decade. even though control strategies have been applied to livestock, btv circulation has been frequently detected in wild ruminant populations in spain. the aim of the present study is to assess the role for wild ruminants in maintaining btv after the vaccination programs in livestock in mainland spain. a total of 931 out 1,914 (4 ...201424940879
the date of antler casting, age and social hierarchy relationships in the red deer stag.a five-year observation of social interactions and the antler cycle of the stag was performed in the "white" red deer population in the žehušice game reserve, czechoslovakia. the results indicate that the antler casting time of individual stags was dependent primarily on social status and that the influence of age was of secondary importance. the more dominant the stag, the earlier antler casting occurred. the stags of higher social status also tended to shed velvet earlier, although this relati ...198024925506
babesia spp. in european wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. we aimed to assess the role of european free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. edta blood was collected from 222 roe deer (capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (cervus e. elaphus), 267 alpine chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 alpine ibex (capra i. ibex) from all over switzerland and analysed by pcr ...201424925474
cardiac responses in alarmed red deer transmitters were used to record the ecg signals of young red deer calves (cervus elaphus) when they were exposed to various stimuli which elicited the immobility or "freezing" response. when the calves were exposed to stimuli likely to occur in the deer's natural habitat, the heart rate decreased by 25 to 85% of the pre-exposure rate. the calves displayed a more pronounced bradycardia during their first days of life than at a later age. there are also indications that repeated exposure to ...197924924982
effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (dama dama) venison.the effect of pelvic and achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and ph and core body temperature measured. twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. venison from fallow deer and red d ...201424922603
carriage of staphylococcus aureus by free-living wild animals in spain.the presence of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus (mssa) was analyzed in different free-living wild animals to assess the genetic diversity and predominant genotypes on each animal species. samples were taken from the skin and/or nares, and isolates were characterized by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. the proportion of mssa carriers were 5.00, 22.93, 19.78, and 17.67% in eurasian griffon vulture, iberian ibex, red deer, and wil ...201424907325
spatial organization of female groups in red deer (cervus elaphus l.).the spatial organization of female groups in red deer was studied in the periods before and after the rut, in a study area located in the central sierra morena (córdoba, spain). the study was carried out in terms of age-sex classes, and was based on direct observation and video recording. movement order proved to be linear, and highlighted the role of the mature hind as group leader and potential group protector. two tendencies were found in the calf: to place itself behind the adult female, and ...198724897255
analyzing stereotypy in red deer alarm postures by means of informational redundancy.the variability in duration and form or red deer (cervus elaphus ) alarm postures was studied. 18 variables of form were measured from photographic sequences and stereotypy calculated by means of informational redundancy (ir). comparisons between stereotypy estimates obtained by ir and those provided by the widely used coefficient of variation proved to match each other well. durations showed less stereotypy than configurational variables as measured by coefficient of variation. some implication ...198724896867
molecular identification of theileria parasites of northwestern chinese cervidae.theileria and babesia protozoan parasites are transmitted mainly by tick vectors. these parasites cause heavy economic losses to the live-stock industry, as well as affecting the health of wild animals in parasite-endemic areas. identification of infectious agents in wild animals is not only crucial for species preservation, but also provides valuable information on parasite epidemiology. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in northwestern china to assess the prevalence of blood pa ...201424885179
characterization of rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (sus scrofa), red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus).rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. the presence of r. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. in this study we characterized r. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). this is the first description of r. equi strains isolated from tissues of the cervidae. all isolates were initially recognized as ...201424878324
statistical evaluation of a commercial neospora caninum competitive elisa in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta.neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. in the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. however, there are a number of s ...201424861013
cross-amplification of nonspecific microsatellites markers: a useful tool to study endangered/vulnerable species of southern andes deer.thirty-nine microsatellite loci that are highly conserved in red deer, sika deer, reindeer, soay sheep, and other artiodactyls were tested in two vulnerable and endangered neotropical deer (pudu: pudu puda and huemul: hippocamelus bisulcus) with the aim of producing a standardized set of markers that can be used successfully in noninvasive samples from these species. we also compared these nonspecific loci against eight polymorphic loci that were recently developed for huemul to determine whethe ...201424841651
efficacy of a low-dosage combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (bam) to immobilize rocky mountain elk.we compared dosages of a combination of sedatives, which included butorphanol tartrate, azaperone tartrate, and medetomidine hcl (bam) in captive adult rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). all three bam dosages (low, medium, and high) effectively immobilized elk and produced an adequate level of sedation in all subjects. induction times were similar among the three groups (mean ± sd: low=6.9 ± 1.1 min; medium=6.3 ± 0.9 min; high=4.7 ± 1.3 min). most elk became hypoxemic regardless of bam ...201424807358
antimicrobial resistant bacteria in wild mammals and birds: a coincidence or cause for concern?the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (amr) is a growing concern to public and animal health. the contribution attributable to wildlife remains unclear. in this study two unrelated wildlife species herring gulls (larus argentatus) and a hybrid deer (cervus elaphus x cervus nippon) were investigated for the presence of escherichia coli expressing an amr phenotype.201424795805
toxic (pb, cd, hg) and essential (fe, cu, zn, mn) metal content of liver tissue of some domestic and bush animals in ghana.accumulation of toxic metals in liver, a rich natural source of essential elements, can present health risks to regular consumers of liver. a total of 35 fresh liver samples of cow, sheep, goat, pig, grass-cutter (thryonomys swinderianus), giant rat (cricetomys gambianus), red deer (cervus elaphus), chicken and antelope (antilocapra americana) were obtained from three different markets in accra and kumasi, ghana. samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and an automatic mercury ...200824784805
origin of dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) on elk in the yukon, canada.winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) on elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) have recently increased in numbers in the yukon, canada, potentially posing risks to other indigenous host species in the region. to evaluate the regional source of winter ticks in the yukon, we sequenced one nuclear (its-2) and two mitochondrial (16srrna and coi) genes, and genotyped 14 microsatellite loci from 483 winter tick specimens collected across north america. we analyzed genetic variation across the geographic and ...201424779459
toxoplasma gondii in sympatric wild herbivores and carnivores: epidemiology of infection in the western alps.toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that is able to infect almost all warm blooded animals. in europe, the domestic cat is the main definitive host. worldwide, 6 billion people are infected with this parasite. the goal of our research is to evaluate the prevalence of t. gondii infection in wild animals from a previously unsampled area in northern italy where 0.1% of women seroconvert during pregnancy each year.201424766665
red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours.models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. one such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. we tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous ...201424765578
genotyping of anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from poland for selected genes.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogen of vertebrates which invades granulocytes. the potential reservoirs of anaplasma include game animals and small mammals. the aim ofthis study was to gain insight into the variability ofnucleotide sequences of ribosomal and selected protein-coding genes (anka, msp4 and the groesl heat-shock protein operon) present in isolates of a. phagocytophilum collected from wild ruminants (cervus elaphus and capreolus capreolus) in pol ...201424745148
complete mitochondrial genome of cervus elaphus songaricus (cetartiodactyla: cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.complete mitochondrial genome of tianshan wapiti, cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region. the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (mp) and bayesian inference (bi) methods. mp and bi phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. the monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well suppo ...201624725059
partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. in addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. one possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of ...201424722396
mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and cervids acquire most of their essential minerals through forage consumption, though occasionally seek other sources to account for seasonal mineral deficiencies. mineral sources occur as natural geological deposits (i.e., licks) or as anthropogenic mineral supplements. in both scenarios, these sources commonly serve as focal sites for visitation. we monitored 11 licks in rocky mountain national park, north-central colorado, using trail cameras to quantify daily visitation indices (d ...201424711146
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern red deer (cervus elaphus xanthopygus).the complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern red deer, cervus elaphus xanthopygus, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. the entire genome is 16,416 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. the overall base composition of the northeastern red deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of a, 24.3% of c, 28.9% of t and 13.5% of g. a termination-associated sequenc ...201624708113
the symbiotic intestinal ciliates and the evolution of their hosts.the evolution of sophisticated differentiations of the gastro-intestinal tract enabled herbivorous mammals to digest dietary cellulose and hemicellulose with the aid of a complex anaerobic microbiota. distinctive symbiotic ciliates, which are unique to this habitat, are the largest representatives of this microbial community. analyses of a total of 484 different 18s rrna genes show that extremely complex, but related ciliate communities can occur in the rumen of cattle, sheep, goats and red deer ...201424703617
concentrations of trace elements in american alligators (alligator mississippiensis) from florida, usa.concentrations of 28 trace elements (li, mg, al, v, cr, mn, fe, co, ni, cu, zn, ga, as, se, rb, sr, mo, ag, cd, in, sn, sb, cs, tl, hg, pb, and bi) in the livers of juvenile and adult american alligators inhabiting two central florida lakes, lake apopka (la), and lake woodruff national wildlife refuge (lw) and one lagoon population located in merritt island national wildlife refuge (minwr; nasa), were determined. in juveniles from minwr, concentrations of nine elements (li, fe, ni, sr, in, sb, h ...201424698170
aqueous extract of red deer antler promotes hair growth by regulating the hair cycle and cell proliferation in hair follicles.deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. we aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. the backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4 °c or 100 °c and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1 ml/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. the mice skin quantitative hair growth pa ...201424695964
[the importance of wildlife as reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bavaria--first results].the use of antimicrobial agents is responsible for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. nevertheless, multiresistant bacteria have been found in animals that have never been exposed to antimicrobial agents. wild animals that are carriers of methicillin-resistant organisms represent a hazard since they can transmit their bacteria to other animals and to humans. in the hunting season 2009/2010 nasal swabs of 98 red deer and 109 wild boars were examined for the presence of met ...201424693658
consequences of a refuge for the predator-prey dynamics of a wolf-elk system in banff national park, alberta, canada.refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. we examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. wolves (canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in north america, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. we examined the influence of a refuge on elk (cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in banff n ...201424670632
hepatitis e virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in poland.hepatitis e is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis e virus (hev). since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous hev infections in human and animal in poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the hev seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. no hev antibodies were found in any ...201524655475
reliable discrimination of 10 ungulate species using high resolution melting analysis of faecal dna.identifying species occupying an area is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. faecal dna is a potentially powerful method for identifying cryptic mammalian species. in new zealand, 10 species of ungulate (order: artiodactyla) have established wild populations and are managed as pests because of their impacts on native ecosystems. however, identifying the ungulate species present within a management area based on pellet morphology is unreliable. we present a method that enables ...201424637802
levels of infection, pathology and nodule size of onchocerca flexuosa (nematoda: onchocercidae) in red deer (cervus elaphus) from northern spain.between 2005 and 2007, the presence of onchocerca flexuosa (wedl, 1856) was discovered and investigated in 110 red deer (cervus elaphus) shot in the riaño regional hunting reserve, in the province of león (north-western spain). nodules containing o. flexuosa were located in the dorsal region and flanks of the deer. these were collected and measured, and some adult parasites were extracted from the nodules and identified by morphology and by obtaining mitochondrial 12s rdna sequences, which were ...201524622346
intra- and interspecific differences in diet quality and composition in a large herbivore community.species diversity in large herbivore communities is often explained by niche segregation allowed by differences in body mass and digestive morphophysiological features. based on large number of gut samples in fall and winter, we analysed the temporal dynamics of diet composition, quality and interspecific overlap of 4 coexisting mountain herbivores. we tested whether the relative consumption of grass and browse differed among species of different rumen types (moose-type and intermediate-type), w ...201424586233
observations on the phenotypic relationships between anti-carla salivary iga antibody response, nematode infection levels and growth rates in farmed red (cervus elaphus) and wapiti hybrid deer (cervus elaphus canadensis).nematode parasites are one of the most significant production limiting factors in farmed deer in new zealand. one long term strategy to reduce reliance on anthelmintics is to select deer that develop resistance to parasites. it has been shown in sheep that secretory antibody (iga) in the saliva against a carbohydrate larval antigen (carla) on infective larvae (l3) of a wide range of gastro-intestinal nematodes protects against reinfection. this paper describes a longitudinal slaughter study unde ...201424582525
antler length of yearling red deer is determined by population density, weather and early red deer, yearling antler length is a largely nutrition-mediated phenotypic character, and is therefore sometimes used as an indirect estimate of range quality and population condition. however, the parameters affecting yearling antler length have been little studied. we analyse the contributions of density, weather and maternal effects on yearling antler length of 581 individual stags born 1970-1996 on the isle of rum (scotland). we show that antler length is a good measure of yearling condi ...200124577649
greece: a balkan subrefuge for a remnant red deer (cervus elaphus) population.a number of phylogeographic studies have revealed the existence of multiple ice age refugia within the balkan peninsula, marking it as a biodiversity hotspot. greece has been reported to harbor genetically differentiated lineages from the rest of balkans for a number of mammal species. we therefore searched for distinct red deer lineages in greece, by analyzing 78 samples originating from its last population in parnitha mountain (central greece). additionally, we tested the impact of human-induc ...201424558101
wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.gastrointestinal (gi) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. we hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant gi nematodes between livestock farms. adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. principal components ...201424552838
population density and small-scale variation in habitat quality affect phenotypic quality in roe deer.we tested for fine-scale spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality in a roe deer (capreolus capreolus) population in the chizé reserve located in western france by measuring spatial variation in the availability and plant nitrogen content of principal and preferred plant species. there were significant differences in habitat quality within the reserve: the principal food plants in spring and summer occurred more frequently in the oak woodland in the north than in the beech woodland in the south o ...200124549909
wherefrom and whereabouts of an alien: the american liver fluke fascioloides magna in austria: an overview.the giant liver fluke fascioloides magna, an invasive species originating from north america, was recorded in austria in the wild for the first time in 2000. since then, various data concerning the epidemiology in snail intermediate hosts and cervid final hosts have been reported. galba truncatula acts as snail intermediate host, and red deer, roe deer and fallow deer act as final hosts. g. truncatula is abundant throughout the region, especially along muddy shores of slow-flowing branches of th ...201424535172
piroplasmosis in wildlife: babesia and theileria affecting free-ranging ungulates and carnivores in the italian alps.piroplasmosis are among the most relevant diseases of domestic animals. babesia is emerging as cause of tick-borne zoonosis worldwide and free-living animals are reservoir hosts of several zoonotic babesia species. we investigated the epidemiology of babesia spp. and theileria spp. in wild ungulates and carnivores from northern italy to determine which of these apicomplexan species circulate in wildlife and their prevalence of infection.201424533742
pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in western alberta: does transmission route matter?in southwestern alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. to assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (ma ...201424517283
constructing str multiplexes for individual identification of hungarian red deer is the most valuable game of the fauna in hungary, and there is a strong need for genetic identification of individuals. for this purpose, 10 tetranucleotide str markers were developed and amplified in two 5-plex systems. the study presented here includes the flanking region sequence analysis and the allele nomenclature of the 10 loci as well as the pcr optimization of the deerplex i and ii. ld pairwise tests and cross-species similarity analyses showed the 10 loci to be independently i ...201424512288
reversible immobilization of free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus) with xylazine-tiletamine-zolazepam and atipamezole.forty-eight free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus) were immobilized with xylazine (x) and tiletamine-zolazepam (tz) by dart injection during winter 2008 in norway. a follow-up study in five animals during winter 2010 included arterial blood samples analyzed with a portable clinical analyzer in the field. thirty-five of 48 animals were effectively immobilized and 13 required a second dart. mean ± sd doses were 2.89 ± 0.45 mg x/kg and 2.89 ± 0.45 mg tz/kg in calves and 2.97 ± 0.66 mg x/kg and 1.91 ...201424506427
isolation of mycobacterium caprae (lechtal genotype) from red deer (cervus elaphus) in italy.during tuberculosis (tb) surveillance, 53 hunted red deer (cervus elaphus) were collected to determine whether tb was present in free-ranging animals from an italian alpine area. samples (lungs, liver, intestine, and lymph nodes) were cultured and analyzed by real-time pcr assay carried out directly on tissue. mycobacterium caprae was isolated from small granulomatous, tuberculosis-like lesions in the liver of a 12-yr-old female. identification of suspect colonies was done by pcr restriction fra ...201424499334
severe hoof disease in free-ranging roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in southwestern washington, usa.reports of free-ranging roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) with abnormal hooves and lameness increased significantly in southwestern washington, usa, during winter 2008. in march 2009 we examined five severely affected elk with clinical lameness from this region to characterize hoof lesions, examine the general health of affected elk, and potentially identify etiologies causing hoof disease. three clinically normal elk from an adjacent but unaffected region were also collected as normal c ...201424484504
dances with anthrax: wolves (canis lupus) kill anthrax bacteremic plains bison (bison bison bison) in southwestern montana.bacillus anthracis, the cause of anthrax, was recovered from two plains bison (bison bison bison) cows killed by wolves (canis lupus) in montana, usa, without associated wolf mortality in july 2010. this bison herd experienced an epizootic in summer 2008, killing ∼ 8% of the herd, the first documented in the region in several decades. no wolf deaths were associated with the 2008 event. surveillance has continued since 2008, with research, ranch, and wildlife personnel diligent during summer. as ...201424484485
campylobacter infection in wild artiodactyl species from southern spain: occurrence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility.a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the occurrence of campylobacter species and to identify potential associated risk factors for wild artiodactyl species in southern spain. campylobacter species were isolated in 55 of 363 (15.2%) faecal samples. campylobacter was identified in faeces from wild boar (49/126; 38.9%), red deer (5/179; 2.8%) and mouflon (1/13; 7.7%) but not from fallow deer (0/45). the isolated campylobacter species were identified as c. jejuni (2 isolates; 3.6%), c. co ...201424462184
use of stable isotopes to identify dietary differences across subpopulations and sex for a free-ranging generalist herbivore.carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tissues can be used to understand plants consumed by various taxa, but can they provide additional information about consumers? values of δ(13)c and δ(15)n were assessed from tissue of free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) occupying disparate habitats of mixed prairie-oak savannah that contained c3 agricultural crops in a c4-dominated landscape and in key plants consumed by elk. muscle and hoof samples were collected from female and male elk in two subpopulations (for ...201424450704
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis).the complete mitochondrial genome of the tarim red deer, cervus elaphus yarkandensis, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. the entire genome was 16,351 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region, all of which were arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. the overall base composition of the northeast sika deer's mitochondrial genome was 33.3% of a, 24.4% of c, 28.9% of t and 13.4% of g. a termination-associated sequence an ...201624438284
interspecies comparison of chlorinated contaminant concentrations and profiles in wild terrestrial mammals from northwest poland.the aim of this study was to determine residual polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue of wild terrestrial mammals coming from the same area in northwest poland and to compare the organochlorine content and profile between species. the study was performed on five mammalian species, including omnivores (badger, wild boar, raccoon dog) and herbivores (roe deer, red deer). the obtained results show that the levels of residues of most of the analyzed com ...201424430167
evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across europe.tuberculosis (tb) caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis (m. bovis) and other closely related members of the m. tuberculosis complex (mtc) infects many domestic and wildlife species across europe. transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. by determining the level of tb hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. we undertook a quantitative review of tb ha ...201424423727
volatile compounds from the red deer (cervus elaphus) secretion from the tail gland.the major volatile, organic compounds secreted by the tail gland of the red deer (cervus elaphus) have been identified as phenol,m-cresol, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, ethylphenol, dimethyl sulfone,o-cresol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. the secretion from ten dead and three live animals was investigated, those from the live ones over a period of time. there were variations in the relative amounts of the identified compounds, but no correlation of the variations with ...198324407458
what cues do ungulates use to assess predation risk in dense temperate forests?anti-predator responses by ungulates can be based on habitat features or on the near-imminent threat of predators. in dense forest, cues that ungulates use to assess predation risk likely differ from half-open landscapes, as scent relative to sight is predicted to be more important. we studied, in the białowieża primeval forest (poland), whether perceived predation risk in red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boar (sus scrofa) is related to habitat visibility or olfactory cues of a predator. we us ...201424404177
climate and environmental change drives ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. in the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data.201424401487
testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the p. balsamifera - p. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [septoria musiva].hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. this pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). we examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid populus host ge ...201324386379
do red deer stags (cervus elaphus) use roar fundamental frequency (f0) to assess rivals?it is well established that in humans, male voices are disproportionately lower pitched than female voices, and recent studies suggest that this dimorphism in fundamental frequency (f0) results from both intrasexual (male competition) and intersexual (female mate choice) selection for lower pitched voices in men. however, comparative investigations indicate that sexual dimorphism in f0 is not universal in terrestrial mammals. in the highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic scottish red deer cerv ...201324386312
schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, france, 2010-2012.schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in european domestic and wild ruminants. we investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from september 2010 through march 2012 among wildlife in france. deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%.201424377838
acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of rhipicephalus microplus (acari: ixodidae) collected from red deer (cervus elaphus) in the mexican the neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. in mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in r. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. in this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in r. microplus collected f ...201424365245
host and pathogen dna identification in blood meals of nymphal ixodes ricinus ticks from forest parks and rural forests of poland.dna analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. the recognition of host species for tick larvae and the reservoirs of borrelia, rickettsia and anaplasma species were simultaneously carried out by analysis of the blood meals of 880 questing nymphal i. ricinus ticks collected in forest parks of szczecin city and rural forests in northwestern poland that are endemic areas for lyme borreliosis. the ...201324352572
seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.we tested for seasonal differences in cougar (puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the southern yellowstone ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. we recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars se ...201324349498
use of ethanol extract of mycobacterium bovis for detection of specific antibodies in sera of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) with bovine tuberculosis.bovine tuberculosis (btb) in wildlife species poses a threat to domestic livestock in many situations. control programs for btb in livestock depend on testing and slaughtering the positive animals; however, the currently available diagnostic tests often have poor specificity. in our previous study, we developed a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for another mycobacterial disease - johne's disease, using surface antigens of mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis ...201324341485
the first detection of nematodes ashworthius sidemi in elk alces alces (l.) in poland and remarks of ashworthiosis foci limitations.ashworthius sidemi, a nematode belonging to the family of trichostrongylidae, is a primary parasite of the asian deer, mainly sika deer (cervus nippon), with which it was introduced to ukraine, as well as slovakia, the czech republic and france. migrating red deer carried this parasite from neighboring countries to polish territory. until now, in poland, this parasite has been recorded in european bison, red deer, roe deer and fallow deer. as a result of post-mortem examinations of 10 elk, 2 of ...201324338312
faunal record identifies bering isthmus conditions as constraint to end-pleistocene migration to the new world.human colonization of the new world is generally believed to have entailed migrations from siberia across the bering isthmus. however, the limited archaeological record of these migrations means that details of the timing, cause and rate remain cryptic. here, we have used a combination of ancient dna, 14c dating, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, and collagen sequencing to explore the colonization history of one of the few other large mammals to have successfully migrated into the americas at this t ...201424335981
identification multiplex assay of 19 terrestrial mammal species present in new identification assay has been developed that allows accurate detection of 19 of the most common terrestrial mammals present in new zealand (cow, red deer, goat, dog, horse, hedgehog, cat, tammar wallaby, mouse, weasel, ferret, stoat, sheep, rabbit, pacific rat, norway rat, ship rat, pig, and brushtail possum). this technique utilizes species-specific primers that, combined in a multiplex pcr, target small fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. each species, except hedgehog, produce ...201324310859
effects of monoterpene odors on food selection by red deer calves (cervus elaphus).the response of red deer calves (cervus elaphus) to the odors of sitka spruce (picea sitchensis) and lodgepole pine (pinus conforta) needles and five monoterpene constituents of their essential oils was measured by simple two-choice feeding trials. all odors were significantly rejected (p < 0.05) except sitka spruce and lodgepole pine by females and sitka spruce and alpha-terpineol by males. females had a stronger dislike of all odors except lodgepole pine than males. rejection of monoterpene od ...198724302236
farm-level risk factors for the occurrence, new infection or persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds from south-central spain.eradication of tuberculosis (tb) in cattle is a priority in the eu. however, and despite the resources invested, tb eradication is still a goal yet to be accomplished. as a consequence, the identification of risk factors contributing to tb transmission and persistence is key to a better understand and, ultimately, more cost-effectively control and eradicate this complex zoonotic disease worldwide. this study aimed to identify the factors contributing to the tb occurrence, new infection, and pers ...201424299905
supporting nursing educators to improve retention. red deer college introduces faculty navigators. 201324288876
anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from voles and shrews exhibit specific anka gene sequences.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative bacterium that replicates obligate intracellularly in neutrophils. it is transmitted by ixodes spp. ticks and causes acute febrile disease in humans, dogs, horses, cats, and livestock. because a. phagocytophilum is not transmitted transovarially in ixodes spp., it is thought to depend on reservoir hosts to complete its life cycle. in europe, a. phagocytophilum was detected in roe deer, red deer, wild boars, and small mammals. in contrast to roe deer, ...201324283328
the relationship between body-mass and puberty in young red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds: evidence of early-life effects on permissive live-weight thresholds.this study, based on the analysis of growth and reproductive records of 6158 young red deer hinds, tested the hypothesis that the nutritional environment in early life influences the permissive body mass threshold for puberty at around 16 months of age. live-weight at 3 months (i.e. weaning weight) was a proxy for their nutritional environment between birth and weaning, live-weight at 14 months was the indicator of pre-mating body mass, and pregnancy status at 18-19 months was a proxy for entry ...201324280634
a randomised controlled trial of silirum vaccine for control of paratuberculosis in farmed red deer.a randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of silirum vaccine in control of paratuberculosis in young farmed deer was carried out in 2008-2009 in six new zealand herds with a history of clinical disease. vaccination with silirum was carried out in four-month-old deer, and vaccinates (n=1671) and controls (n=1664) were weighed at vaccination and at 8 and 12 months old, when faecal samples were collected from 125 vaccinates and 123 controls on five farms. deer were slaughtered between 11 ...201324277915
clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures.current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. the objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation.201324267379
sex-related differences in body condition and serum biochemical parameters in red deer (cervus elaphus) naturally infected with mycobacterium bovis.although mycobacterium bovis infection is commonly reported in red deer (cervus elaphus), potential differences in the effects of infection on male and female animals in terms of body condition and clinical biochemistry have not been reported. between november 2000 and january 2006, serum and biometrical data were collected post-mortem from 88 red deer. m. bovis-infected deer, particularly males, were typically older, heavier and in poorer body condition than uninfected animals. serum triglyceri ...201324262346
assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. the present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, tg(cerprp)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. tg(cerprp)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted bse resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and bse from catt ...201424257620
environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in poland.population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. in this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental ...201324244044
fast and efficient dna-based method for winter diet analysis from stools of three cervids: moose, red deer, and roe deer.effects of cervid browsing on timber production, especially during winter, lead to economic losses in forest management. the aim of this study was to present an efficient dna-based method which allows qualitative assessment of the winter diet from stools of moose (alces alces), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), and red deer (cervus elaphus). the preliminary results of the diet composition of the three cervids from poland were also presented with a special emphasis on moose. the electropherograms o ...201324244041
sarcocystis species in red deer revisited: with a re-description of two known species as sarcocystis elongata n. sp. and sarcocystis truncata n. sp. based on mitochondrial cox1 a previous investigation, five sarcocystis species were described from norwegian red deer and believed to be conspecific with species occurring in either reindeer or moose based on sarcocyst morphology and nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal dna unit. the aim of the present study was to characterize numerous isolates of these sarcocyst types at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene (cox1) in order to corroborate or refute previous species designations of sarcocystis ...201424230915
a survey of tularemia in wild mammals from fennoscandia.a total of 2696 wild mammals from fennoscandia were surveyed for tularemia. francisella tularensis was not detected in livers/spleens or kidneys from any of the 1992 small rodents captured in norway and denmark as judged by one or more of the following methods: cultivation, immunofluorescence microscopy and inoculation in laboratory mice. serologic examination of 704 wild mammals from norway, finland and sweden demonstrated 11 cases of antibody titers. agglutinating antibodies were demonstrated ...197724228959
effect of predator odors on heart rate and metabolic rate of wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis).we measured the heart rate (hr) and oxygen consumption ([formula: see text]) of wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) before, during, and after presentation of biologically irrelevant odors (pentane, thiophene, and a perfume), artificial predator odors (an ether extract of cougar feces, and pdt, a compound found in mustelid anal gland secretion), stale predator odors (dog feces and urine and fox urine, kept at ambient temperature for a few weeks), and fresh predator odors (wolf, coyote, and cougar ...199624227589
pigmented chin papillomas in red (cervus elaphus)  x wapiti (cervus canadensis) stags associated with a novel papillomavirus.lesions were observed on the chins of two 2- to 3-year-old red (cervus elaphus)  x wapiti (cervus canadensis) stags from the lower north island of new zealand during velvet removal.201424224490
multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at hanford.environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the u.s. department of energy's hanford site in southeastern washington for almost 50 years. objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. in 1989, measured hanford site perimeter concentrati ...199324220840
why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. however, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. we present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the iberian red deer. we focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) wha ...201424220797
blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the french flies can mechanically transmit besnoitia besnoiti, the agent of bovine besnoitiosis. although previously limited to enzootic areas, especially the french pyrenees mountains, bovine besnoitiosis is now considered a re-emerging disease in western europe. to improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern french pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures whose main domestic ungulates were cattle, a ...201424210525
the importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations.population abundance data vary widely in quality and are rarely accurate. the two main components of error in such data are observation and process error. we used bayesian state space models to estimate the observation and process error in time-series of 55 globally distributed populations of two species, cervus elaphus (elk/red deer) and rangifer tarandus (caribou/reindeer). we examined variation among populations and species in the magnitude of estimates of error components and density depende ...201324201239
temporal trend of tuberculosis in wild ungulates from mediterranean spain.tuberculosis (tb), a chronic disease caused by infection with the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is endemic in wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in south-central spain. understanding the temporal dynamics of this chronic infection requires long time series data collection over large areas. the aim of this paper was to identify the determinants of tb prevalence and severity in both species in ciudad real province, spain, from 2000 to 2012. study variables included manageme ...201324171854
oral squamous cell carcinoma in a red deer (cervus elaphus).we describe the pathomorphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 13-yr-old, free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus) in lower saxony, germany.201424171568
the occurrence of demodex kutzeri bukva, 1987 (acari, demodecidae) in red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in poland.the occurrence of demodex kutzeri bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern poland (masurian lake district) and 25 from southern poland (lower silesia). the total prevalence of infestation in red deer by d. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. parameters of infestation for red deer from northern poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). d ...201324171302
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