PMID(sorted descending)
genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial dna and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.velvet antlers are used medicinally in asia and possess various therapeutic effects. prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. additionally, antlers of the canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna, fluoresc ...201626094991
assessing nutritional parameters of brown bear diets among ecosystems gives insight into differences among habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. however, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (ursus arctos) diets among ...201526083536
solar radiation determines site occupancy of coexisting tropical and temperate deer species introduced to new zealand forests.assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. we tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to new zealand's temperate rainforests. we hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). since adult male ...201526061426
sequence analysis of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires in different ruminant species.bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. at the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (t2r) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of t2r gene sequences within different ruminant species. to accomplish this goal, we gathered a colle ...201526061084
fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in germany.after initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of fascioloides (f.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern bavaria, germany, at the border to the czech republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. in march 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. to monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from june 2012 to june 2013 inclusive. in addition, li ...201526054221
mitochondrial genomes of giant deers suggest their late survival in central europe.the giant deer megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating late pleistocene eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. we analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the swabian jura (baden-württemberg, germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. using hybridization capture in combination with next generation se ...201526052672
contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (cervus elaphus).northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. we investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. our results supp ...201526017492
use of androcoll-s after thawing improves the quality of electroejaculated and epididymal sperm samples from red deer.single layer centrifugation is a useful technique to select sperm with good quality. the use of selection methods such as androcoll could become an important tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to improve other artificial reproductive techniques such as sperm sex sorting, in vitro fertilization or ai. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single layer centrifugation with androcoll-s on the sperm quality of red deer sperm samples of two different origins, el ...201526002696
analysis of annual changes in the concentrations of selected macro- and microelements, thyroxine, and testosterone in the serum of red deer (cervus elaphus) stags.the aim of the study was to analyze seasonal changes in the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and selenium as well as thyroxine and testosterone in adult red deer stags. the highest testosterone concentrations (mean 6.29±4.36 ng/ml) were observed from the end of august to november, confirming an increase in testicular secretory activity during the mating season. the changes in thyroxine concentration show circannual rhythms, most likely related to changes in the air temperature. ...201525998797
prevalence and genetic diversity of rhodococcus equi in wild boars (sus scrofa), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in poland.rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover r. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of r. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe dee ...201525997952
framing the relationship between people and nature in the context of european conservation.a key controversy in conservation is the framing of the relationship between people and nature. the extent to which the realms of nature and human culture are viewed as separate (dualistic view) or integrated is often discussed in the social sciences. to explore how this relationship is represented in the practice of conservation in europe, we considered examples of cultural landscapes, wildlife (red deer, reindeer, horses), and protected area management. we found little support, for a dualistic ...201525997474
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in poland.little is known about the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in poland. meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) was tested for t. gondii antibodies using the multi-species id screen toxoplasmosis indirect kit (idvet, montpellier, france). antibodies to t. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% ci: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% o ...201525993468
investment in constitutive immune function by north american elk experimentally maintained at two different population densities.natural selection favors individuals that respond with effective and appropriate immune responses to macro or microparasites. animals living in populations close to ecological carrying capacity experience increased intraspecific competition, and as a result are often in poor nutritional condition. nutritional condition, in turn, affects the amount of endogenous resources that are available for investment in immune function. our objective was to understand the relationship between immune function ...201525992627
hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of peptides from red deer antlers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. to develop novel anti-diabetic drugs from nature sources has always been the focus of research. red deer (cervus elaphu linnaeus) antler is one of the most famous chinese traditional medicines. we found that the peptides of 5-10 kda from red deer antlers (prda) promoted the growth of cultured rat islet cells. the purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic actions of prda in vivo and purify a pure active peptide. we theref ...201525985857
anaplasma phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks and rodents in an urban and natural habitat in south-western slovakia.ixodes ricinus is the principal vector of anaplasma phagocytophilum, the ethiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in europe. anaplasmosis is an emerging zoonotic disease with a natural enzootic cycle. the reservoir competence of rodents is unclear. monitoring of a. phagocytophilum prevalence in i. ricinus and rodents in various habitat types of slovakia may contribute to the knowledge about the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in central europe.201525980768
a comparison of food habits and prey preference of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the russian far east.prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. we used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the russian far east. we also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. we collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. similar to previous stu ...201525939758
granuloma coinfection with mycobacterium bovis, mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in five hunted red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal.we report granulomatous lymphadenitis in red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal caused by coinfection with corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis, and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, as demonstrated by molecular methods.201525932668
factors affecting the ecology of tick-borne encephalitis in slovenia.recognition of factors that influence the formation of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) foci is important for assessing the risk of humans acquiring the viral infection and for establishing what can be done (within reasonable boundaries) to minimize that risk. in slovenia, the dynamics of the tbe vector, i.e. ixodes ricinus, was studied over a 4-year period and the prevalence of infection in ticks was established. two groups of tick hosts were investigated: deer and small mammals. red deer have bee ...201525918865
admixture of eastern and western european red deer lineages as a result of postglacial recolonization of the czech republic (central europe).due to a restriction of the distributional range of european red deer (cervus elaphus l.) during the quaternary and subsequent recolonization of europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial dna markers. in central europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of european red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. we used mitochondrial dna (control region and cytochrom ...201525918430
high prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) carrying the mecc gene in a semi-extensive red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) farm in southern spain.the objective was to determine the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in red deer of a semi-extensive farm and in humans in contact with the estate animals, and to characterize obtained isolates. nasal swabs of 65 deer and 15 humans were seeded on mannitol-salt-agar and oxacillin-resistance-screening-agar-base. isolates were identified by microbiological and molecular methods. antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined for 16 antibiotics by disk-diffusion and the presenc ...201525912021
parasite infections in red deer cervus elaphus from krakow area, southern poland.the study describes the parasitofauna of red deer cervus elaphus from kraków area (southern poland). the study was done in years 2011-2012 and included altogether 6 animals. five deer originated from the forest areas (hunted) and one came from the urban site (it died in a road accident). in addition to post-mortem examination, coproscopic analyses with sporulation were performed to define eimeria species diversity. the deer were infected with four species of nematodes: ashworthius sidemi, spicul ...201525911038
foot-and-mouth disease in red deer - experimental infection and test methods performance.the aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) test methods for use in red deer. ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the fmd virus (fmdv) o ukg 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). it tested ...201725907028
presence of hepatitis e virus in a red deer (cervus elaphus) population in central italy.hepatitis e is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis e virus (hev). in addition to humans, hev has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. in this study, we evaluated hev prevalence in a free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) population in central italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and rna in sera. a total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-hev igg. hev rna was detected in 10 of ...201725892400
vertical transmission of bartonella schoenbuchensis in lipoptena cervi.lipoptena cervi (diptera: hippoboscidae) is a hematophagous ectoparasite of cervids, which is considered to transmit pathogens between animals and occasionally to humans. the principal life stage that is able to parasitize new hosts is a winged ked that just emerged from a pupa. to facilitate efficient transmission of pathogens between hosts, vertical transmission from female deer keds to their offspring is necessary. we investigated vertical transmission of several vector-borne pathogens associ ...201525889985
report of theileria luwenshuni and theileria sp. rsr from cervids in gansu, china.theileria parasites are important tick-borne pathogens of animals and cause huge economic losses worldwide. here, we undertook to assess the prevalence of theileria spp. in cervids in gansu, china, based on pcr analysis and sequencing of the 18s rrna genes. molecular survey showed that theileria luwenshuni and theileria sp. rsr were frequently found in gansu cervids, and the prevalence of t. luwenshuni was 66.7% (n = 9, 6/9) in roe deer in zhengning county, 58.3% (n = 12, 7/12) in sika deer in n ...201525820647
development of an interspecies nested dose-response model for mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) causes chronic inflammation of the intestines in humans, ruminants, and other species. it is the causative agent of johne's disease in cattle, and has been implicated as the causative agent of crohn's disease in humans. to date, no quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) for map utilizing a dose-response function exists. the objective of this study is to develop a nested dose-response model for infection from oral exposure to map utiliz ...201525809926
country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the bohemian forest ecosystem?the bohemian forest ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. two large, contiguous national parks (one in germany and one in the czech republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. we used the standing cr ...201525781942
prevalence of hepatitis e virus in populations of wild animals in comparison with animals bred in game enclosures.hepatitis e virus (hev) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. in this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of hev rna by qrt-pcr. hev rna was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). the sequence relationship between hev isolates ...201525771162
milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. these are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for november 2014 from sac consulting: veterinary services (sac c vs).201525748187
molecular identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum by duplex high-resolution melt analysis and subspecies-specific real-time pcr.accurate identification of mycobacterial species and subspecies is essential to evaluate their significance and to perform epidemiological studies. the subspecies of mycobacterium avium have different attributes but coincide in their zoonotic potential. our knowledge about m. avium subsp. silvaticum is limited, since its identification is uncertain. mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and m. avium subsp. silvaticum can be discriminated from each other based only on phenotypic characteristics, as th ...201525740770
adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. we investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover ...201425709834
the lévy flight foraging hypothesis: forgetting about memory may lead to false verification of brownian motion.the lévy flight foraging hypothesis predicts a transition from scale-free lévy walk (lw) to scale-specific brownian motion (bm) as an animal moves from resource-poor towards resource-rich environment. however, the lw-bm continuum implies a premise of memory-less search, which contradicts the cognitive capacity of vertebrates.201325709823
parapoxvirus (ppv) of red deer reveals subclinical infection and confirms a unique species.parapoxvirus (ppv) infections are of worldwide importance, particularly in sheep and goat herds. owing to the zoonotic potential of all ppv species, they are a permanent threat to human health as well. the virus is also known to affect wildlife, as reported for pinnipeds, red deer and several other wild ruminants. ppvs found in red deer have been claimed as a unique species according to certain genomic features. so far infection of wildlife has been recognized because of clinical manifestation s ...201525701822
red deer as maintenance host for bovine tuberculosis, alpine estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009-2012 hunting seasons. free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in austria.201525695273
complete mitochondrial genome of a wild alashan red deer (cervus elaphus alxaicus).the complete mitochondrial genome of a wild red deer from helan mountain, china was sequenced and annotated newly. the total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,428 bp, with a base composition of 33.3% a, 28.8% t, 24.4% c and 13.5% g, and it contains 12s rrna gene, 16s rrna gene, 22 trna genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region.201625693699
sexual segregation in north american elk: the role of density dependence.we investigated how density-dependent processes and subsequent variation in nutritional condition of individuals influenced both timing and duration of sexual segregation and selection of resources. during 1999-2001, we experimentally created two population densities of north american elk (cervus elaphus), a high-density population at 20 elk/km(2), and a low-density population at 4 elk/km(2) to test hypotheses relative to timing and duration of sexual segregation and variation in selection of re ...201525691992
pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of kashmir red deer (cervus elaphus hanglu) in india.the hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the indian subcontinent. despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the department of wildlife protection in jammu & kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. the hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the dachi ...201525671567
prion amplification and hierarchical bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids. immunohistochemistry (ihc) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical cwd that are important to understanding cwd transmission and ecology. we assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to improve detection of cwd prior ...201525665713
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia of red deer and sika deer in gansu, china in 2013.anaplasma and ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in gansu, china to assess the prevalence of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis and sequencing of 16s rrna or msp genes. pcr revealed that the prevalence of anaplasma ovis, anaplasma bovis and anaplasma platys of the qilian mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the preval ...201625660960
establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).to investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep gin at a rate of 327l3/kg bodyweight. the lsmean (se) establishment rates (%) for haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta, cooperia curticei, trichostrongylus spp. and oesophagostomum+chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0 ...201525657087
novel sequence types of chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in switzerland.chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), ibex (capra ibex), chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (cervus elaphus), and birds. this identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. to begin to address this question, we employed a c. ...201525647593
antimicrobial resistance in wildlife: implications for public health.the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (amr) bacteria in natural environments is a major concern with serious implications for human and animal health. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of amr escherichia coli (e. coli) in wild birds and mammalian species. thirty faecal samples were collected from each of the following wildlife species: herring gulls (larus argentatus), black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus), lesser black-back gulls (larus fuscus), hybrid deer spe ...201525639901
protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation in sperm of a rare red deer, tarim wapiti (cervus elaphus yarkandensis).high efficiency of in vitro capacitation of deer sperm has not yet been achieved as low sperm penetration rates were reported in in vitro fertilization studies. our main goal in this study was to identify the changes of frozen-thawed sperm of the rare red deer tarim wapiti (cervus elaphus yarkandensis) and detect the effect of bovine serum albumin (bsa), serum, and heparin on the protein tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed sperm. the frozen-thawed sperm of tarim wapiti was suspended in imp ...201525638741
vegetation changes associated with a population irruption by roosevelt elk.interactions between large herbivores and their food supply are central to the study of population dynamics. we assessed temporal and spatial patterns in meadow plant biomass over a 23-year period for meadow complexes that were spatially linked to three distinct populations of roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) in northwestern california. our objectives were to determine whether the plant community exhibited a tolerant or resistant response when elk population growth became irruptive. pla ...201525628868
susceptibility of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. to determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and dist ...201525615837
avoiding toxic levels of essential minerals: a forgotten factor in deer diet preferences.ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. however, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than na in diet preferences. moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. the aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. we determined minera ...201525615596
the power of oral and nasal calls to discriminate individual mothers and offspring in red deer, cervus most species, acoustical cues are crucial for mother-offspring recognition. studies of a few species of ungulates showed that potential for individual recognition may differ between nasal and oral contact calls.201525610491
composition and biological activities of slaughterhouse blood from red deer, sheep, pig and cattle.animal blood is a large-volume by-product of the meat industry. besides blood meal fertiliser, blood is marketed for human consumption as a supplement. minimal comparative work on slaughterhouse animal blood fractions has been carried out. in this study, slaughterhouse deer, sheep, pig and cattle blood parameters were compared. some blood constituents were determined. fractionated blood was assessed for antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, oxygen radical scaven ...201625581344
characteristics of spermatozoa and reproductive organs in relation to age and body weight in swedish moose (alces alces).knowledge of the reproductive biology of game species is vital for sustainable management. in moose (alces alces), research in reproductive characteristics has focused on the female, whereas there are few studies in male moose. the aim of the present study was to investigate sperm morphology and chromatin integrity (scsa), and their relationships with testicular and epididymal features, as well as temporal aspects with respect to the hunting season. in total, 143 male moose aged 1.5-11.5 years w ...201525576030
a geographic cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in moose (alces alces) in norway.three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) in free-ranging moose (alces alces) were diagnosed in lesja, norway, december 2008-february 2010. the diagnosis was based on pcr identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) dna (n = 3) and typical histopathologic lesions (n = 1). to study the possibility of subclinical or latent mcf virus (mcfv) infection in this moose population and in red deer (cervus elaphus), we examined clinically normal animals sampled during hunt ...201525574807
constant hepatitis e virus (hev) circulation in wild boar and red deer in spain: an increasing concern source of hev zoonotic transmission.hepatitis e is a viral zoonosis that affects multiple hosts. the complete dynamics of infection in wildlife are still unknown, but the previous fact facilitates the maintenance and circulation of the virus, posing a risk to human health in the case of meat consumption from susceptible animals. in spain, it has been shown how domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife (i.e. wild boar and red deer) clearly interact in hunting farms, generating a complex epidemiological situation in terms of interspecies p ...201625571944
spiculopteragia asymmetrica infection in cervus elaphus from iran.spiculopteragia asymmetrica is a gastrointestinal nematode frequently found in the abomasum of cervids. during december and february 2010, two red deer were died in semeskandeh sanctuary in mazandaran province. moreover, five live deer from mentioned area were treated by ivermectin and collected feces of these animals were used for assessment helminthes infection by parasitological methods. several nematodes were recovered in abomasums and in fecal samples of treated animals. number of worms rec ...201425568698
time-dependence of ¹³⁷cs activity concentration in wild game meat in knyszyn primeval forest (poland).wild game meat samples were analysed from the region of the podlasie province (knyszyn primeval forest). (137)cs content in meat was determined by gamma spectrometry in 2003 (33 samples), 2009 (22 samples) and 2012 (26 samples). the samples were collected in the autumn of 2003, 2009 and 2012 and were compared with data from 1996. mean concentrations of (137)cs in the respective years were as follow: 42.2 bq kg(-1), 33.7 bq kg(-1) and 30.5 bq kg(-1), respectively. on the basis of mean values of ( ...201525559242
interaction effects between weather and space use on harvesting effort and patterns in red deer.most cervid populations in europe and north america are managed through selective harvesting, often with age- and sex-specific quotas, with a large influence on the population growth rate. less well understood is how prevailing weather affects harvesting selectivity and off-take indirectly through changes in individual animal and hunter behavior. the behavior and movement patterns of hunters and their prey are expected to be influenced by weather conditions. furthermore, habitat characteristics ...201425558369
unmanned aircraft systems for studying spatial abundance of ungulates: relevance to spatial epidemiology.complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. low cost unmanned aircraft systems (uas) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts' distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. in this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (tb) in the ungulate community of doñana national park (south-western spain) by mod ...201425551673
long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the eurasian lynx.due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. however, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. to elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the eurasian lynx, lynx lynx throughout north-eastern europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial dna control region and y chromos ...201425551216
the content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (cervus elaphus) from poland.the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of pb, cu, zn, rb, cs, sr and ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of poland (south-western and north-eastern). the data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (icp-ms) method ...201525548020
leptospira spp. infection in wild ruminants: a survey in central italian alps.leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease diffused worldwide, and wildlife species are commonly considered to be important epidemiological carriers. four-hundred and forty-one serological and 198 renal samples from red deer, roe deer and chamois collected in the province of sondrio were analysed using the microscopic agglutination test and histopathologic examination. positive serological findings were found only in 15 red deer and 19 positive serologic reactions were recorded. the most fre ...201425546066
dna left on browsed twigs uncovers bite-scale resource use patterns in european ungulates.fine-scale resource use by large herbivores is often difficult to quantify directly. this is particularly true for browsing ungulates due to the challenges in observing shy subjects in forested environments of low visibility. as a consequence we know relatively little about resource use by diverse browsing ungulates. when browsing, ungulates leave behind saliva on the browsed twig that includes their dna, which can be used to identify the species that was responsible for browsing the twig. we us ...201525543852
cross-sectional study of schmallenberg virus seroprevalence in wild ruminants in poland at the end of the vector season of view of recurrent schmallenberg virus (sbv) infections all over europe between 2011 and 2013, a lively scientific debate over the importance of the sylvatic transmission cycle of the virus has emerged. the study presents results of serosurvey which included wild ruminants representing species of red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), european bison (bison bonasus), fallow deer (dama dama), mouflon (ovis orientalis musimon) hunted or immobilized at 34 different locations of ...201425528665
modeling wood encroachment in abandoned grasslands in the eifel national park - model description and testing.the degradation of natural and semi-natural landscapes has become a matter of global concern. in germany, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitat types but have suffered heavily from changes in land use. after abandonment, the course of succession at a specific site is often difficult to predict because many processes interact. in order to support decision making when managing semi-natural grasslands in the eifel national park, we built the woods-model (woodland successio ...201425494057
ixodes ricinus (ixodidae), an occasional phoront on necrophagous and coprophagous beetles in europe.for ticks, phoretic behaviour using insects associated with vertebrates might offer an alternative strategy to host-seeking. here we report for the first time the presence of immature stages of the most widespread tick species in western europe, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), on three beetle species belonging to families silphidae and geotrupidae (coleoptera). specimens were collected while performing fieldwork surveys on insect diversity during the peak of tick's questing behaviour, in july ...201525491290
prevalence of subtilase cytotoxin-encoding subab variants among shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains isolated from wild ruminants and sheep differs from that of cattle and pigs and is predominated by the new allelic variant subab2-2.subtilase cytotoxin (subab) is an ab5 toxin produced by shiga toxin (stx)-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains usually lacking the eae gene product intimin. three allelic variants of subab encoding genes have been described: subab1, located on a plasmid, subab2-1, located on the pathogenicity island se-pai and subab2-2 located in an outer membrane efflux protein (oep) region. subab is becoming increasingly recognized as a toxin potentially involved in human pathogenesis. ruminants and cattl ...201525488108
new insights into mycobacterium bovis prevalence in wild mammals in portugal.a survey to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis in wild mammals in portugal was conducted by testing samples from hunted animals and those found dead between 2009 and 2013. in this study, we investigated 2116 wild mammals. post-mortem examinations were performed, and tissues were collected from wild mammals representing 8 families and 11 different species, with a total of 393 animals analysed. cultures were performed, and acid-fast isolates were identified by pcr. tissues were also s ...201625484245
variation of spermatogenic and sertoli cell number detected by fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) in iberian red deer during and out of the breeding season.the aim of the present study was to evaluate spermatogenesis in iberian red deer, a short-day seasonal breeder, using the fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) technique. reports on spermatogenesis in deer are limited and here, for the first time, fnac has been used to evaluate changes in such physiological process during and out of the breeding season. testes were collected from 51 stags from november 2010 to february 2011. the sertoli index and spermatic index were significantly higher during ...201525483787
spatial-temporal trends and factors associated with the bluetongue virus seropositivity in large game hunting areas from southern epidemiological study was carried out to determine the spatial-temporal trends and risk factors potentially involved in the seropositivity to bluetongue virus (btv) in hunting areas with presence of red deer (cervus elaphus). a total of 60 of 98 (61.2%; ci95% : 51.6-70.9) hunting areas sampled presented at least one seropositive red deer. antibodies against btv were detected in juvenile animals during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 to 2013/2014 in 15 of 98 (15.3%) hunting areas, which indicate ...201625482024
pre-orbital gland opening during aggressive interactions in rusa deer (rusa timorensis).the opening of the preorbital gland in cervids has a visual meaning and is frequently associated with agonistic and/or stress related situations. apart from in red deer, this behaviour has scarcely been studied and the range of situations when it may occur remains unclear. in this study we report the unusual case of preorbital gland opening in rusa deer, rusa timorensis, associated to direct aggressive agonistic interaction (biting/kicking) between two adult hinds. this case observed in tierpark ...201525481309
genetic differentiation among 6 populations of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in poland based on microsatellite dna polymorphism.recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the cervidae family. a common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is dna analysis, which allows for direct determination of the differences and changes within a group of animals. because the analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in different cervidae populations revealed considerable genetic variability in individual populations, it was important to test a set of marke ...201425475981
radiocaesium levels in game in the czech republic.the paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the czech republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. geometric means (in bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer ...025464037
genetic differentiation between red deer from different sample sites on the tianshan mountains (cervus elaphus), china.about 273 individuals were identified from 471 fecal samples from six different red deer populations in china. the genetic structure showed that the red deer from the western and eastern tianshan mountains was different. a total number of 12 haplotypes were defined by 97 variable sites by the control region (cr), and 10 haplotypes were defined by 34 variable sites by cytochrome b. there was no haplotype sharing between red deer populations from western and eastern tianshan mountains by the cr an ...201525431826
heritability and cross-sex genetic correlations of early-life circulating testosterone levels in a wild mammal.testosterone is an important hormone that has been shown to have sex-specific links to fitness in numerous species. although testosterone concentrations vary substantially between individuals in a population, little is known about its heritable genetic basis or between-sex genetic correlations that determine its evolutionary potential. we found circulating neonatal testosterone levels to be both heritable (0.160 ± 0.064 s.e.) and correlated between the sexes (0.942 ± 0.648 s.e.) in wild red deer ...201425428929
effect of microsatellite selection on individual and population genetic inferences: an empirical study using cross-specific and species-specific amplifications.although whole-genome sequencing is becoming more accessible and feasible for nonmodel organisms, microsatellites have remained the markers of choice for various population and conservation genetic studies. however, the criteria for choosing microsatellites are still controversial due to ascertainment bias that may be introduced into the genetic inference. an empirical study of red deer (cervus elaphus) populations, in which cross-specific and species-specific microsatellites developed through p ...201525403329
attachment site selection of life stages of ixodes ricinus ticks on a main large host in europe, the red deer (cervus elaphus).ticks and tick-borne diseases are increasing in many areas of europe and north america due to climate change, while land use and the increased abundances of large hosts play a more controversial role. the pattern of host selection involves a crucial component for tick abundance. while the larvae and nymphs feed on a wide range of different sized hosts, the adult female ticks require blood meal from a large host (>1 kg), typically a deer, to fulfil the life cycle. understanding the role of differ ...201425391754
influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. here, we used direct observations of yellowstone wolves (canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, b ...201425389760
sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.the factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. here, ...201425380133
isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from hoof lesions in wild north american elk (cervus elaphus) in washington state, usa.since 2008, a large increase in the numbers of cases of lameness have been seen in wild north american elk (cervus elaphus) from washington state, usa. the most recent cases manifested as foot lesions similar both clinically and pathologically to those seen in digital dermatitis (dd) in cattle and sheep, a disease with a bacterial etiopathogenesis. to determine whether the same bacteria considered responsible for dd are associated with elk lameness, lesion samples were subjected to bacterial iso ...201425355757
beyond mice and men: environmental change, immunity and infections in wild the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. we argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: many components of environmental change--shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns and reduced environmental predictability--may affect host immunity. we suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discove ...201525354672
element concentrations and element ratios in antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer (cervus elaphus) stags-a quantitative x-ray fluorescence study.the present study compared the concentrations of different elements (ca, p, mg, sr, ba, k, s, zn, mn) as well as ca/p, ca/mg, sr/ca, and ba/ca ratios in hard antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags (n = 11). pedicles showed higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus and a higher ca/mg ratio than antlers, while antlers exhibited higher concentrations of potassium, sulfur, and manganese as well as higher ca/p, sr/ca, and ba/ca ratios. the findings indicate that antlers are less min ...201425319008
authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (dama dama), red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (cervus nippon) by real-time pcr.this contribution presents a single real-time pcr assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (dama dama), red deer (cervus elaphus) and sika deer (cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. the pcr assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. the limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. the deer content in meat produ ...201525306377
wild ungulates as sentinel of btv-8 infection in piedmont areas.bluetongue caused by the genotype 8 virus (btv-8) appeared for the first time in btv free areas in northern italy in 2008. the presence of domestic animals outbreaks, abundant wild ungulates populations, and ongoing regional btv control plans, made this area interesting to evaluate the role of wild ruminants in btv-8 epidemiology. we analyzed spleen samples from hunted red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and alpine chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) by quantitative rt-pcr. sampl ...201425306211
increased chromatin fragmentation and reduced acrosome integrity in spermatozoa of red deer from lead polluted sites.vertebrates are constantly exposed to a diffuse pollution of heavy metals existing in the environment, but in some cases, the proximity to emission sources like mining activity increases the risk of developing adverse effects of these pollutants. here we have studied lead (pb) levels in spermatozoa and testis, and chromatin damage and levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in spermatozoa of red deer (cervus elaphus) from a pb mining area (n=37) and a control area (n=26). deer from the pb-poll ...201525306093
condition dependent effects on sex allocation and reproductive effort in sequential hermaphrodites.theory predicts the optimal timing of sex change will be the age or size at which half of an individual's expected fitness comes through reproduction as a male and half through reproduction as a female. in this way, sex allocation across the lifetime of a sequential hermaphrodite parallels the sex allocation of an outbreeding species exhibiting a 1:1 ratio of sons to daughters. however, the expectation of a 1:1 sex ratio is sensitive to variation in individual condition. if individuals within a ...201425302941
quality attributes and composition of meat from red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama) and aberdeen angus and holstein cattle (bos taurus).the consumption of venison from deer species has increased in recent years owing to presumably positive health effects. therefore a comparison was made of the physical characteristics, chemical composition and sensory attributes of meat obtained from red deer, fallow deer and aberdeen angus and holstein cattle raised under conditions typical for commercial farming practice and slaughtered at similar ages.201525298298
the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis in wild deer and feral pigs and their roles in the establishment and spread of bovine tuberculosis in new zealand new zealand, wild deer and feral pigs are assumed to be spillover hosts for mycobacterium bovis, and so are not targeted in efforts aimed at locally eradicating bovine tuberculosis (tb) from possums (trichosurus vulpecula), the main wildlife host. here we review the epidemiology of tb in deer and pigs, and assess whether new zealand's tb management programme could be undermined if these species sometimes achieve maintenance host status. in new zealand, tb prevalences of up to 47% have been re ...201525295713
gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated norwegian population of wild red deer (cervus elaphus).thirteen red deer (cervus elaphus), culled from the isolated population at the mongstad oil refinery, norway, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. these animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1 km(2)) within the refinery site (3 km(2)). the population was estimated to be 110-130 at the time of culling.201425294401
molecular identification of fascioloides magna (bassi, 1875) from red deer from south-western poland (lower silesian wilderness) on the basis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (its-2).the study was conducted in 2012-2013 on 75 fecal samples of red deer from the lower silesian wilderness which were examined to determine the prevalence of fascioloides magna in the game population. finding liver fluke eggs in a single sample which were larger in size than fasciola hepatica eggs indicated that further molecular analysis was necessarily. the partial sequence (116 bp long) of its-2 of the investigated eggs was identical to the sequences of f. magna from red deer (cervus elaphus) (g ...201425286665
a multivariate analysis of genetic constraints to life history evolution in a wild population of red deer.evolutionary theory predicts that genetic constraints should be widespread, but empirical support for their existence is surprisingly rare. commonly applied univariate and bivariate approaches to detecting genetic constraints can underestimate their prevalence, with important aspects potentially tractable only within a multivariate framework. however, multivariate genetic analyses of data from natural populations are challenging because of modest sample sizes, incomplete pedigrees, and missing d ...201425278555
retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing p. tenuis infection. additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) using parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how pcr results corresponded with histological findings. histo ...201425274743
development of 12 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers using a next generation sequencing approach for spiculopteragia spiculoptera, a nematode parasite of deer.twelve novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were produced and characterized for spiculopteragia spiculoptera (nematoda, trichostrongyloidae) a common parasite of abomasum of roe and red deer, using next generation sequencing approach, and two multiplexes pcr were developed with these markers. polymorphism of each locus was tested in 40 individuals of this species from diverse wild populations of cervids, and was tested for crossed-amplification on four other species of nematodes, close to s. ...201425257224
diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in testicular disorders of red deer (cervus elaphus): a case report.we used fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) to diagnose sertoli cell-only pattern and hypospermatogenesis in an iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus). cytologic diagnosis was confirmed by histology and epididymal sperm analysis. we conclude that fnac can be an important diagnostic tool in testicular diseases of wildlife.201425248117
axenic in vitro culture and molecular characterization of giardia duodenalis from red deer (cervus elaphus) and thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii).giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous flagellate that infects humans and many species of animals. this species exhibits great biotypic and genetic diversity. in the present study, we established short- and long-term in vitro cultures of g. duodenalis trophozoites originating from red deer and thomson's gazelle (artiodactyls) and genetically characterised the isolates by their glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase gene sequences. the g. duodenalis isolates from red deer and the gaz ...201425236290
a new multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals different clusters for anaplasma phagocytophilum circulating in domestic and wild ruminants.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne intragranulocytic alpha-proteobacterium. it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in ruminants, and of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, two diseases which are becoming increasingly recognized in europe and the usa. however, while several molecular typing tools have been developed over the last years, few of them are appropriate for in-depth exploration of the epidemiological cycle of this bacterium. therefore we have developed a multiple-l ...201425228371
detection of invasive borrelia burgdorferi strains in north-eastern piedmont, italy.following reports of human cases of lyme borreliosis from the ossola valley, a mountainous area of piemonte, north-western italy, the abundance and altitudinal distribution of ticks, and infection of these vectors with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were evaluated. a total of 1662 host-seeking ixodes ricinus were collected by dragging from april to september 2011 at locations between 400 and 1450 m above sea level. additional 104 i. ricinus were collected from 35 hunted wild animals (4 chamois, ...201525220838
what attracts elk onto cattle pasture? implications for inter-species disease southwest alberta, beef cattle and wild elk (cervus elaphus) have similar habitat preferences. understanding their inter-species contact structure is important for assessing the risk of pathogen transmission between them. these spatio-temporal patterns of interactions are shaped, in part, by range management and environmental factors affecting elk distribution. in this study, resource selection modeling was used to identify factors influencing elk presence on cattle pasture and elk selection ...201425218913
prevalence and diversity among anaplasma phagocytophilum strains originating from ixodes ricinus ticks from northwest norway.the tick-borne pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. the main vector ixodes ricinus is found along the norwegian coastline as far north as the arctic circle. a total number of 1804 i. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qpcr. the overall infection rate varied from ...201425215241
gps based daily activity patterns in european red deer and north american elk (cervus elaphus): indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.long-term tracking using global positioning systems (gps) is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. these data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using gps datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. we compared two different populations of deer (cervus elaphus), one in the netherlands ( ...201425208246
cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. the aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in croatia from 1990 to 2012. the exposure assessment was based on avai ...201425205692
enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (cervus nippon) and red deer (cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of its the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. to understand the prevalence of natural infection of e. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by e. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers i ...201425185666
isolation and characterization of babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).the diversity of babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in cádiz and ciudad real. the number of babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in cádiz and 1/35 in ciudad real. hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candida ...201425155988
evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (cervus elaphus and ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of norway.recent reports suggest a potential for transmission of a newly discovered rickettsial endosymbiont, midichloria mitochondrii, to animals and humans from feeding ticks (ixodes ricinus). using molecular methods; i. ricinus, sheep and red deer in anaplasma phagocytophilum-endemic areas of norway, were examined to see if they were infected by m. mitochondrii or related organisms like wolbachia pipientis and rickettsia spp. a total of 532 ticks collected from pastures, 76 blood samples from grazing l ...201425132534
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