PMID(sorted descending)
effects of attitudes and demography on public support for endangered species is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, ...201728376425
a mortality event in elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves associated with malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and deer adenovirus in colorado, usa.this report describes clinical, necropsy, and ancillary diagnostic findings for a mortality event in rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves attributed to malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and an alimentary presentation of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease.201728328349
can red deer antlers be used as an indicator of environmental and edible tissues' trace element contamination?venison is an attractive product for consumers concerned with healthy lifestyle; however, it can contain high levels of toxic elements, and therefore, it is a possible source of hazardous contaminants in human diet. antlers are suitable bioindicators of environmental metal contamination, and herein, we assessed the ability of trace element levels in antlers to indicate levels in edible soft tissues. we determined the concentrations of lead (pb), cadmium (cd), mercury (hg), arsenic (as), copper ( ...201728324255
evidence for the promotion of aboveground grassland production by native large herbivores in yellowstone national park.we examined the effect of native large herbivores on aboveground primary production of nonforested habitat in yellowstone national park, wyoming. productivity of vegetation grazed by elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) was compared with that of ungrazed (permanently fenced) vegetation at four sites. two methods were used that, we believed, would provide the most accurate measurements under the different grazing regimes encountered in the study. production of ungrazed vegetation in perma ...199328313410
winter ecology of nonmigratory alpine red winter, red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) that are not receiving supplementary feeding emphasize and rely on energy-saving strategies. in severe winters with deep snow, they select a home-range habitat-windblown alpine pastures above the timberline-that meets the requirements of this strategy: a much lower sinking depth and good forage availability are due to patchy snow distribution, while the open area provides higher radiation, permits group formation and thus sociobiological wellbeing ...199328312946
feeding-patch choice by red deer in relation to foraging efficiency : an experiment.we tested the idea that ruminants allocate their feeding time to habitat patches in relation to foraging efficiency. we used five tame red deer (cervus elaphus) in an enclosure planted with four treatment of timothy grass (phleum pratense) differing in their stage of growth. older swards offered higher biomass but lower nutritional quality than younger swards. we observed time spent feeding in each treatment during each of seven trials. we measured goodness-of-fit between observed times and pred ...199328312938
spatial variability in the nutrient composition of populus tremuloides: clone-to-clone differences and implications for cervids.populus tremuloides, a clonal angiosperm, is a major food item for many temperate-region herbivores. clonal variation in chemical composition has potentially important implications for vertebrate herbivores because a single clone may be areally large and hence, may comprise a large part of available forage. the objectives of this study were: (1) to examine spatial variability in nutrient concentrations and quality within and among 24 clones of trembling aspen, and (2) to evaluate these differenc ...199128312739
wolf predation and snow cover as mortality factors in the ungulate community of the bialowieża national park, poland.wolf-ungulate interactions were studied in the pristine deciduous and mixed forests of the bialowieża national park in 1985-1989. the study period included two severe and two mild winters. the community of ungulates inhabiting bialowieża national park consisted of red deer cervus elaphus, 55% of all ungulates; wild boar sus scrofa, 42%; and roe deer capreolus capreolus, moose alces alces, and european bison bison bonasus, about 1% each. the average size of red deer groups increased from 2.7 (sd ...199228312267
home range and activity patterns of male red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.from 1978 to 1981 in the bavarian alps (southern west germany) the home range and activity patterns of nine male red deer have been studied using radio-telemetry. the home range patterns definetely change with age. younger stags first follow the patterns of their mothers, then often emigrate from these home ranges and establish new ones elsewhere. except for the change in range at about 2(1/2) years of age, these patterns seem to be very constant in both spatial as well as seasonal position and ...198328310585
home range patterns of female red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.from 1976 to 1978, ten female red deer in the northern parts of the bavarian alps (southern west germany) were fitted with transmitter collars. seasonal movements, the home range patterns, and habitat utilization as a function of the habitat structure were examined. while some animals remained in the lowlands throughout the year, others move between two or even three different areas seasonally. the average size of the home range was 65 ha during winter, 167 ha in spring and autumn and 121 ha in ...198028309484
activity patterns of female red deer (cervus elaphus l.) in the alps.during 1976 to 1978 in the bavarian alps (southern west germany) the activity patterns of nine female red deer have been studied using radio-telemetry. the daily sum total of activity shows a marked annual cycle, ranging from about 7 h in winter to some 15 h in summer. it becomes obvious that the duration of activity during solar day, night and twilight is not only due to the length of these three periods but also varies independently in the course of the year. the daily pattern of activity reve ...198128309461
diet overlap among ruminants in fennoscandia.information on overlap in resource use is central to understanding of interspecific exploitation competition and resource partitioning. despite this, measures of diet overlap among northern ruminants in fennoscandia is limited to one earlier study (reindeer and sheep). diet overlap between sympatric moose and roe deer calculated with schoener's index was 20.7% and 33.6% during summer (data from one area) and winter (data from two areas), respectively, whereas average diet overlap between moose a ...200028308406
the relationship between habitat choice and lifetime reproductive success in female red non-territorial species, individuals can move freely and should be distributed in an ideal free manner between habitats and areas with respect to resources that influence lifetime reproductive success (lrs). consequently, no relationship between diet quality and lrs should be expected. however, there have been no attempts to test this prediction. the present paper investigates the relationship between forage habitat use and lrs in red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds within three neighbouring area ...199928308082
habitat segregation in ungulates: are males forced into suboptimal foraging habitats through indirect competition by females?sex differences in habitat use (termed `habitat segregation') are widespread in sexually dimorphic ungulate species. they are a puzzling phenomenon, particularly when females use better foraging habitats than males. it has been suggested that males, owing to their larger body size and higher forage requirements, are inferior in indirect competition to females and are forced by female grazing pressure into marginal habitats (`indirect-competition hypothesis'). this hypothesis has been widely cite ...199928307759
patch selection by red deer in relation to energy and protein intake: a re-evaluation of langvatn and hanley's (1993) results.langvatn and hanley (1993) recently reported that patch use by red deer (cervus elaphus) was more strongly correlated with short term rates of intake of digestible protein than dry matter. such short term measures overlook effects of gut filling, which may constrain intake by ruminants over longer time scales (i.e., daily rates of gain). we reanalyzed langvatn and hanley's data using an energy intake model incorporating such a processing constraint, to determine whether their conclusions are rob ...199528307585
short- and long-term effects of winter and spring weather on growth and survival of red deer in norway.populations of red deer (cervus elaphus) in norway have increased continuously over the last decades. we tested the possible effects of climate and increase in population size on the survival rates and body condition of individuals in one of the northernmost populations of red deer in europe. based on 678 individuals of known age marked between 1977 and 1995, we estimated annual survival rates, the probabilities of being harvested and the recapture probability according to sex, age, year, winter ...199828307518
herbivorous mammals as seed dispersers in a mediterranean dehesa.endozoochrous seed dispersal by herbivorous mammals has been verified repeatedly and its possible influence on the structure and function of herbaceous communities has been suggested. quantitative studies, however, are lacking in the field of seed dispersal via the dung of herbivore guilds in little-altered environments. the present paper analyses seed dispersal via rabbit, fallow deer, red deer and cow dung in a mediterranean dehesa (open woodland used for hunting and ranching) during the seedi ...199528307361
comparative rumen morphology of sympatric sika deer (cervus nippon) and red deer (c. elaphus scoticus) in the ahimanawa and kaweka ranges, central north island, new zealand.eighteen sika deer (cervus nippon) and 14 red deer (c. elaphus scoticus) were sampled from two areas where these closely related species are sympatric. total body weight, carcass weight, age class, sex, and internal parameters (e.g. liver weight, kidney weight, rumen volume) were recorded. samples of rumen wall mucosa taken from the dorsal rumen wall, atrium ruminis, caudoventral blindsac, and ventral rumen wall were used to compare rumen morphology between the two species (and also any area, se ...199628307077
presence of ail and ystb genes in yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1a isolates from game animals in poland.the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. strains belonging to biotype 1a do not possess pyv plasmids, often harbour the ystb gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for y. enterocolitica. the simultaneous presence of ail and ystb is uncommon. in this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1a y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (cervus elaphus; ...201728283072
optimization of protocols for iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) sperm handling before sex sorting by flow cytometry.currently, sperm reproductive biotechnologies such as sex sorting and cryopreservation are undoubtedly valuable tools for improving the economic and biological efficiency of red deer production systems. in this context, and because of the particular characteristics of this species (extensive exploitation typically far from laboratory facilities), a key goal is to optimize the design of an adequate handling protocol of sperm samples before samples are subjected to sex sorting and cryopreservation ...201728237327
investigation of intra-herd spread of mycobacterium caprae in cattle by generation and use of a whole-genome sequence.single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) calculated from whole genome sequencing (wgs) are ideally suited to study evolutionary relationships of pathogens and their epidemiology. mycobacterium caprae infections have been documented frequently in cattle and red deer along the bavarian and austrian alps during the last decade. however, little is still known about the transmission within cattle holdings and possible alterations of the genomes of m. caprae during such events. the aim of this study was ...201728194548
bacterial community composition and fermentation in the rumen of xinjiang brown cattle (bos taurus), tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and karakul sheep (ovis aries).the rumen microbiota plays a major role in the metabolism and absorption of indigestible food sources. xinjiang brown cattle (bos taurus), tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and karakul sheep (ovis aries) are important ruminant species for animal husbandry in the tarim basin. however, the microbiota and rumen fermentation of these animals are poorly understood. here, we apply high-throughput sequencing to examine the bacterial community in the rumen of cattle, red deer and sheep and m ...201728177790
wildlife interactions on baited places and waterholes in a french area infected by bovine tuberculosis.interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as mycobacterium bovis, which also affect livestock. although france is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (btb), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. we aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. we described the visits in term ...201728138439
detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in kidney samples of red deer (cervus elaphus) in portugal: evaluation of different methods.paratuberculosis or johne's disease, caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. the present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (cervus elaphus). with that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the centre-eastern portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and his ...201728132959
high seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in elk (cervus canadensis) of the central appalachians, usa.toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe, little is known about t. gondii impacts on the closely related north american counterpart, the elk (wapiti, cervus canadensis), which has increased in number and expanded in range during the past century. we assessed seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies using a modified agglu ...201728130658
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
soil microbial communities and elk foraging intensity: implications for soil biogeochemical cycling in the sagebrush steppe.foraging intensity of large herbivores may exert an indirect top-down ecological force on soil microbial communities via changes in plant litter inputs. we investigated the responses of the soil microbial community to elk (cervus elaphus) winter range occupancy across a long-term foraging exclusion experiment in the sagebrush steppe of the north american rocky mountains, combining phylogenetic analysis of fungi and bacteria with shotgun metagenomics and extracellular enzyme assays. winter foragi ...201728111902
control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in england.this report describes how mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of england, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. by taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with ...201728100768
endocranial volume is heritable and is associated with longevity and fitness in a wild mammal.research on relative brain size in mammals suggests that increases in brain size may generate benefits to survival and costs to fecundity: comparative studies of mammals have shown that interspecific differences in relative brain size are positively correlated with longevity and negatively with fecundity. however, as yet, no studies of mammals have investigated whether similar relationships exist within species, nor whether individual differences in brain size within a wild population are herita ...201628083105
rapid and robust authentication of deer antler velvet product by fast pcr-rflp analysis.deer antler velvet is widely used as a vitalizing, tonifying, haemopoietic and strengthening agent for debilitated persons in east asia. to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the identification of the biological source or origin in antler velvet products, a molecular approach was applied using pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. the cytochrome b gene sequences of nine cervidae species were analyzed, and a dde i restriction endonuclease recognition site was found only in ...201828071968
does cu supplementation affect the mechanical and structural properties and mineral content of red deer antler bone tissue?the main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially ca and p) and collagen content. however, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. one such trace mineral is cu. here, we studied the effects of cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red ...201728069103
climate, female traits and population features as drivers of breeding timing in mediterranean red deer populations.understanding the factors that lead to variation in the timing of breeding in widespread species such as red deer (cervus elaphus l.) is crucial to predict possible responses of wild populations to different climate scenarios. here, we sought to further understand the causes of inter-annual variation in the reproduction timing of female deer in mediterranean environments. an integrative approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual, population and climate traits in the date ...201728054452
effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on the post-thaw sperm quality of iberian red deer spermatozoa.this study investigated the effect of sex-sorting and cryopreservation on post-thaw characteristics and fertility of red deer (cervus elaphus) sperm for the first time. semen was collected by electroejaculation from 10 mature stags during the breeding season, and each ejaculate split into four experimental groups: bulk sorted spermatozoa, sorted but not sexed (bss); sorted high purity x-spermatozoa (xss); sorted high purity y-spermatozoa (yss); and, control non-sorted spermatozoa (ns). following ...201728043354
antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.the increasing number of antimicrobial resistant enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. the objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment ...201728040165
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in red deer from central italy.neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are cosmopolite protozoan parasites impacting on human and animal health. in particular, t. gondii commonly infects human beings and all warm-blooded animals, while n. caninum is responsible for bovine abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. the aim of the presented survey was to evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of these parasites in the most numerous italian red deer population. the sera of 60 red deer (cervus elaphus) inhabiting central italy (4 ...201628030947
hepatitis e virus in wild boars and spillover infection in red and roe deer, germany, determine animal hepatitis e virus (hev) reservoirs, we analyzed serologic and molecular markers of hev infection among wild animals in germany. we detected hev genotype 3 strains in inner organs and muscle tissues of a high percentage of wild boars and a lower percentage of deer, indicating a risk for foodborne infection of humans.201727983488
characteristics of air quality and sources affecting fine particulate matter (pm2.5) levels in the city of red deer, canada.with concern about levels and exceedances of canadian and provincial standards and objectives for fine particulate matter (pm2.5) in recent years, an investigation of air quality characteristics and potential local and long-range sources influencing pm2.5 concentrations was undertaken in the city of red deer, alberta. the study covered the period may 2009 to december 2015. comparatively higher concentrations of pm2.5 were observed in winter (mean: 11.6 μg/m3, median: 10 μg/m3) than in summer (me ...201727939625
resolving the phylogenetic status and taxonomic relationships of the hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in the family cervidae.the hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) is a "least concern" deer species, and it is the only survivor of the red deer group in the indian subcontinent. the phylogenetic status of the hangul relative to the other members of the family cervidae is not known because sequence data are not available in public databases. therefore, this study was carried out to determine the phylogenetic status and delineate the genetic boundaries of the hangul with respect to the other red deer subspecies on the basis of ...201627937071
scaling methane emissions in ruminants and global estimates in wild populations.methane (ch4) emissions by human activities have more than doubled since the 1700s, and they contribute to global warming. one of the sources of ch4 is produced by incomplete oxidation of feed in the ruminant's gut. domestic ruminants produce most of the emissions from animal sources, but emissions by wild ruminants have been poorly estimated. this study (i) scales ch4 against body mass in 503 experiments in ruminants fed herbage, and assesses the effect of different sources of variation, using ...201727923575
expression of metallothionein in the liver and kidneys of the red deer (cervus elaphus l.) from an industrial metal smelting area of poland.the metallothionein 1 (mt1) coding sequence of red deer was identified and compared to orthologous sequences from other mammals. over 90% identity was observed between red deer mt1 amino acid sequence and mt1 sequences of other ruminants. liver and kidney samples of red deer were collected from the industrial zinc smelting site of miasteczko slaskie and from the masuria lake district serving as a pollution-free control site. the concentrations of cadmium (cd), lead (pb), copper (cu) and zinc (zn ...201727918943
green wave tracking by large herbivores: an experimental approach.the forage maturation hypothesis (fmh) states that herbivores should follow the onset of growth in spring to obtain access to forage of higher quality and quantity, the so-called "green wave surfing." several studies have found correlative evidence in support of this by associating animal movement with plant phenology. however, experimental manipulation of vast natural systems determining causes of large herbivore movement is usually beyond reach. the unique management system involving winter en ...201627912000
glutathione in combination with trehalose has supplementary beneficial effects on cryopreserved red deer (cervus elaphus) this study, we evaluated the effects of glutathione in combination with trehalose addition to semen extenders on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed red deer (cervus elaphus) spermatozoa.201727885744
multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis potentially reveals the existence of two groups of anaplasma phagocytophilum circulating in cattle in france with different wild reservoirs.anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in europe. epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. to date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in europe, as european reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem), of the bacterium have not yet been clea ...201627876073
variation in stability of elk and red deer populations with abiotic and biotic factors at the species-distribution scale.stability in population dynamics is an emergent property of the interaction between direct and delayed density dependence, the strengths of which vary with environmental covariates. analysis of variation across populations in the strength of direct and delayed density dependence can reveal variation in stability properties of populations at the species level. we examined the stability properties of 22 elk/red deer populations in a two-stage analysis. first, we estimated direct and delayed densit ...201627870038
the role of topography in the distribution and intensity of damage caused by deer in polish mountain forests.the increase in the deer population observed in recent decades has strongly impacted forest regeneration and the forest itself. the reduction in the quality of raw wood material, as a consequence of deer-mediated damage, constitutes a significant burden on forest owners. the basis for the commencement of preventive actions in this setting is the understanding of the populations and behaviors of deer in their natural environment. although multiple studies have been carried out regarding this subj ...201627851776
risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater yellowstone area (ii): cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.recent cases of bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) in cattle (bos taurus) and domestic bison (bison bison) of the southern greater yellowstone area (sgya) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus). several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. it is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of ...201627836044
spatio-temporal trends and risk factors affecting west nile virus and related flavivirus exposure in spanish wild ruminants.during the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (genus flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. to further study utility of wild ruminant samples in west nile virus (wnv) surveillance, we assessed spatio-temporal trends and factors associated with wnv and cross-reacting flaviviruses exposure, particularly usutu virus (usuv) and meaban virus (mbv), in wild ruminants in spain. serum samples from 4693 wild ruminants, including 3073 fre ...201627829427
absence of antibodies specific to besnoitia spp. in european sheep and goats from areas in spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic.besnoitia besnoiti and b. caprae, which infect bovids (cattle and antelopes) and goats, respectively, are responsible for besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease. bovine besnoitiosis is considered to be a reemerging disease in central and western europe. in addition, infection by besnoitia spp. has been reported in reindeer from sweden and finland. recently, the parasite was also detected in roe deer and red deer from spain, where an interconnection between the domestic and sylvatic cyc ...201727815735
molecular identification of the rumen flukes paramphistomum leydeni and paramphistomum cervi in a concurrent infection of the red deer cervus elaphus.paramphistomosis, caused by paramphistomid flukes, is a gastrointestinal parasitic disease of domestic and wild ruminants. originally thought to be limited to the tropics and subtropics, the disease has recently been reported in temperate regions. here we describe the concurrent infection of a red deer doe (cervus elaphus) with paramphistomum leydeni and paramphistomum cervi. this is the first report of p. leydeni in croatia. flukes were identified on the basis of morphological keys (tegumental ...201627813468
ashworthius sidemi schulz, 1933 and haemonchus contortus (rudolphi, 1803) in cervids in france: integrative approach for species identification.among gastro-intestinal nematodes, the blood-sucking worms belonging to the subfamily of haemonchinae are considered to be of pathogenic and economic great importance, particularly in small ruminants. haemonchus contortus, primary found in domestic ruminants and wild bovines (mouflon, chamois), is probably the most studied, but occurrence of ashworthius sidemi has gradually increased over recent years, especially in cervids and free roaming wild bovid as the european bison in eastern europe, and ...201627810500
low copper levels associated with low carcass weight in wild red deer ( cervus elaphus ) in norway.copper (cu) deficiency is associated with several disease syndromes, including poor growth, in farmed red deer ( cervus elaphus ), but little is known of the consequences of low cu levels in free-ranging populations. low hepatic cu levels have been documented in several wild red deer populations along the west coast of norway, with the lowest values found on the island of hitra. we studied the relationship between liver cu concentration and slaughter weight in 63 red deer calves and 69 yearlings ...201727788057
wide exposure to coxiella burnetii in ruminant and feline species living in a natural environment: zoonoses in a human-livestock-wildlife interface.assessment of the role of wild and domestic hosts as potential reservoirs of misdiagnosed zoonoses, such as q fever by coxiella burnetii, is an important public health issue today both for wildlife conservation and management of disease in human-livestock-wildlife interface. this study used elisa, an indirect antibody, to research (2003-2013) c. burnetii infection in seven free-living wild and domestic ruminant species and in european wildcats (felis silvestris). the animals studied were 0 europ ...201727776577
linking landscape-scale differences in forage to ungulate nutritional ecology.understanding how habitat and nutritional condition affect ungulate populations is necessary for informing management, particularly in areas experiencing carnivore recovery and declining ungulate population trends. variations in forage species availability, plant phenological stage, and the abundance of forage make it challenging to understand landscape-level effects of nutrition on ungulates. we developed an integrated spatial modeling approach to estimate landscape-level elk (cervus elaphus) n ...201627755722
sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the european roe deer (capreolus capreolus).in the present study, we describe sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the european roe deer (capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and dna analysis. by light microscopy (lm), cysts of s. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. cyst wall of s. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (tem) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm betw ...201727752769
the many axes of deer undomesticated animals information about the production and composition of milk over time is still scarce. in general, for most mammals it is known that milk composition changes across lactation, is different for male and female offspring, and even that marsupials, such as kangaroos, can simultaneously produce milk of different compositions for young of different ages. such parallel milk production of differing compositions has not yet been studied in single-offspring placental mammals, but m ...201627744517
rumen microbiota for wild boreal cervids living in the same habitat.knowledge about the factors shaping the rumen microbiota in wild animals is limited. therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiota from the three cervid species moose (alces alces, n = 5), red deer (cervus elaphus, n = 4) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus, n = 12), sharing the same habitat. using deep 16s rrna gene sequencing, we found that the largest species moose had the highest number of unique operational taxonomic units. furthermore, red deer and moose shared more of the m ...201627737946
the influence of red deer space use on the distribution of ixodes ricinus ticks in the landscape.many wingless ectoparasites have a limited capacity for active movement and are therefore primarily dependent on hitchhiking on their hosts for transportation. the distribution of the tick ixodes ricinus is expected to depend mainly on transportation by hosts and tick subsequent survival in areas where they drop off. in europe, the most important hosts of adult female i. ricinus are cervids. the extensive space use of large hosts provides a much larger dispersal potential for i. ricinus than tha ...201627737695
changes in the rumen microbiome and metabolites reveal the effect of host genetics on hybrid crosses.the rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. however, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. here, we used sika deer (cervus nippon) and elk (cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (seh) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (esh). then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybr ...201627717170
[a rare zoonosis in hungary: cercarial dermatitis caused by schistosoma turkestanicum blood-fluke].several trematodes that parasitize vertebrate animals utilize swimming aquatic larvae to infect the host percutaneously. the most important ones among these parasites are the blood-flukes of birds and mammals comprising species that are also zoonotic. within this latter group are species that cause the bilharziasis or schistosomiasis of inhabitants of the tropical countries, and other trematode species that are able to penetrate human skin, but do not develop to an adult form of the worm in the ...201627690621
association between vitamin d supplementation and severity of tuberculosis in wild boar and red deer.tuberculosis (tb) is a chronic disease affecting humans and other mammal species. severity of tb caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans seems to be influenced by nutritional factors like vitamin d3 intake. however, this relationship has been scarcely studied in cattle and other mammals infected with mycobacterium bovis. the aim of this work was to assess if wildlife reservoirs of m. bovis show different levels of tb severity depending on the level of vitamin d found in serum after supple ...201627663379
dispersal ecology informs design of large-scale wildlife corridors.landscape connectivity describes how the movement of animals relates to landscape structure. the way in which movement among populations is affected by environmental conditions is important for predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation, and for defining conservation corridors. one approach has been to map resistance surfaces to characterize how environmental variables affect animal movement, and to use these surfaces to model connectivity. however, current connectivity modelling typically ...201727657496
markers for ongoing or previous hepatitis e virus infection are as common in wild ungulates as in humans in sweden.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a human pathogen with zoonotic spread, infecting both domestic and wild animals. about 17% of the swedish population is immune to hev, but few cases are reported annually, indicating that most infections are subclinical. however, clinical hepatitis e may also be overlooked. for identified cases, the source of infection is mostly unknown. in order to identify whether hev may be spread from wild game, the prevalence of markers for past and/or ongoing infection was invest ...201627657108
purifying selection, density blocking and unnoticed mitochondrial dna diversity in the red deer, cervus elaphus.the trajectories of postglacial range expansions, the occurrence of lineage patches and the formation and maintenance of secondary contact between lineages may mostly reflect neutral demographic processes, including density blocking, that may leave long-lasting genetic signatures. however, a few studies have recently shown that climate may also play a role. we used red deer, a large, mobile herbivore that is assumed to be sensitive to climate change, to test hypotheses of possible selection on t ...201627649313
development and characterization of 15 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite markers for tule elk using hiseq3000.the tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1800s, resulting in low genetic diversity. there is a need for high-resolution genetic assays that can be used to differentiate individual elk, including close relatives, with high confidence. an efficient assay requires multiple markers both polymorphic and that can be amplified in concert with other markers in multiplex reactions. to develop such markers, we employed 150-bp paired-end whole genome shotgun sequencing ...201627638816
two alternative dna extraction methods to improve the detection of mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex members in cattle and red deer tissue samples.bovine tuberculosis (btb), which is caused by mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae, is a notifiable animal disease in germany. diagnostic procedure is based on a prescribed protocol that is published in the framework of german btb legislation. in this protocol small sample volumes are used for dna extraction followed by real-time pcr analyses. as mycobacteria tend to concentrate in granuloma and the infected tissue in early stages of infection does not necessarily show any visible lesions, it is li ...201627629399
first description of onchocerca jakutensis (nematoda: filarioidea) in red deer (cervus elaphus) in switzerland.twenty-seven species of the genus onchocerca (nematoda; filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. most onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical africa. the european red deer (cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). two species, onchocerca flexuosa and onchocerca jakutensis, produce s ...201627617204
the role of weather and density dependence on population dynamics of alpine-dwelling red deer.the dynamics of red deer cervus elaphus populations has been investigated across different environmental conditions, with the notable exception of the european alps. although the population dynamics of mountain-dwelling ungulates is typically influenced by the interaction between winter severity and density, the increase of temperatures and the reduction of snowpack occurring on the alps since the 1980s may be expected to alter this pattern, especially in populations dwelling at medium - low ele ...201727616664
a field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (cervus elaphus hanglu) in dachigam national park of kashmir through faecal examinations. out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with git helminthes. in present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), trichuris ovis (39.75 %), dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %) ...201627605778
relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal.costs of reproduction are expected to be ubiquitous in wild animal populations and understanding the drivers of variation in these costs is an important aspect of life-history evolution theory. we use a 43 year dataset from a wild population of red deer to examine the relative importance of two factors that influence the costs of reproduction to mothers, and to test whether these costs vary with changing ecological conditions. like previous studies, our analyses indicate fitness costs of lactati ...201627601725
prevalence of liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) in wild red deer (cervus elaphus): coproantigen elisa is a practicable alternative to faecal egg counting for surveillance in remote deer (cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (fe) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen elisa (celisa) for f. hepatica surveillance. we also present celisa surveillance data for red deer from the highlands of scotland. diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a ...201627598003
effects of repeated comparative intradermal tuberculin testing on test results: a longitudinal study in tb-free red deer.diagnosing tuberculosis (tb) in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) is challenging and might require combining cellular and humoral diagnostic tests. repeated skin-testing with mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (ppds) might sensitize or desensitize the subjects to both kinds of diagnostic tools. we evaluated the effect of repeated (every 6 months) comparative tuberculin skin testing on skin test and elisa responsiveness in farmed red deer hinds from a tb-free herd. eighteen 8-month old hin ...201627596591
selection of red deer spermatozoa with different cryoresistance using density gradients.the objective of sperm selection media is selecting the best spermatozoa and to remove seminal plasma and diluent for using them in assisted reproductive techniques. it is known that individuals show different cryoresistance in response to the same freezing procedure. our hypothesis was that the efficacy of selection media could be dissimilar for samples with different sperm quality after thawing. epididymal sperm samples from mature iberian red deer were collected and frozen. males were classif ...201627562911
selective predation of a stalking predator on ungulate prey.prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. an optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking ca ...201627548478
spoligotype diversity and 5-year trends of bovine tuberculosis in extremadura, southern spain.bovine tuberculosis (btb) causes significant losses to farming economies worldwide. a better understanding on the epidemiology of this disease and the role that the different hosts develop in the maintenance and spread of btb is vital to control this zoonotic disease. this study reports the spoligotype diversity and temporal evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtbc) isolates obtained from extremadura (southern spain). genotyping data of mycobacterium bovis (n = 2102) and mycobacteri ...201627524741
red deer bone and antler collagen are not isotopically equivalent in carbon and nitrogen.bone and antler collagen δ(13) c and δ(15) n values are often assumed to be equivalent when measured in palaeodietary, palaeoclimate and palaeocological studies. although compositionally similar, bone grows slowly and is remodelled whereas antler growth is rapid and remodelling does not occur. these different patterns of growth could result in isotopic difference within antler and between the two tissue types. here we test whether red deer (cervus elaphus) bone and antler δ(13) c and δ(15) n val ...201627501431
morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (cervus elaphus) in austria.nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (diptera: oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (cervus elaphus) hunted in vorarlberg and tyrol (western austria). after being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) ampli ...201627492199
molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (cervus elaphus).to estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (cervus elaphus) living in italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by pcr for a. phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi s.l., coxiella burnetii, francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. in particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for a. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for babesia divergens, 6 (1 ...201627477510
the petrosal bone and bony labyrinth of early to middle miocene european deer (mammalia, cervidae) reveal their phylogeny.deer (cervidae) have a long evolutionary history dating back to the early miocene, around 19 million years ago. the best known fossils to document this history belong to european taxa, which all bear cranial appendages more or less similar to today's deer antlers. despite the good fossil record, relationships of the earliest stem deer and earliest crown deer are much debated. this hampers precise calibration against the independent evidence of the fossil record in molecular clock analyses. while ...201627460747
melatonin receptors mt1 and mt2 are expressed in spermatozoa from several seasonal and nonseasonal breeder species.melatonin is a ubiquitous and multipurpose molecule, and one of its roles is to regulate reproduction in some seasonal mammals. our group has previously reported the variation in the melatonin levels in ram seminal plasma along the year and identified mt1 and mt2 receptors in ram spermatozoa. the objective of this study was to elucidate whether the presence of melatonin receptors (mt1 and mt2) in the sperm plasma membrane, and melatonin in the seminal plasma is related to seasonal breeding. for ...201627448693
molecular analysis of anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia divergens in red deer (cervus elaphus) in western austria.wild ungulates may act as reservoirs of various vector borne pathogens that can infect humans and domestic animals. in the present study, blood samples from 196 red deer (cervus elaphus) from western austria (vorarlberg, tyrol and salzburg) were collected on filter paper and tested for anaplasmataceae, piroplasmida, rickettsia and filarioid helminths using molecular tools. babesia divergens was detected in ten (5.1%) and anaplasma phagocytophilum in three (1.5%) of the 196 samples. filarioid hel ...201727417532
patch-use dynamics by a large adaption of the optimal foraging theory suggests that herbivores deplete, depart, and finally return to foraging patches leaving time for regrowth [van moorter et al., oikos 118:641-652, 2009]. inter-patch movement and memory of patches then produce a periodic pattern of use that may define the bounds of a home range. the objective of this work was to evaluate the underlying movements within home ranges of elk (cervus elaphus) according to the predictions of this theory. using a spatial tempo ...201527408724
challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations.although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular the two species of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and mousedeer. while virus isolation and serologic analyses indicate that pestiviruses are circulating in these populations, little is known regarding their impact. the lack of regular survei ...201627379051
the first detection and whole genome characterization of the g6p[15] group a rotavirus strain from roe deer.although rotaviruses have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer, where their role is unknown. in this study, group a rotavirus was identified in roe deer during a study of enteric viruses in game animals. 102 samples of intestinal content were collected from roe deer (56), wild boars (29), chamois (10), red deer (6) and mouflon (1), but only one sample from roe deer was positive. following whole genome sequence analysis, the rotavi ...201627374907
climate-mediated shifts in neandertal subsistence behaviors at pech de l'azé iv and roc de marsal (dordogne valley, france).neandertals disappeared from europe just after 40,000 years ago. some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late pleistocene. the goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed neandertal populations. if cold climates stressed neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. to test this, an analysis of nea ...201627343769
genotypes of coxiella burnetii in wildlife: disentangling the molecular epidemiology of a multi-host pathogen.evidences point to a relevant role of wildlife in the ecology of coxiella burnetii worldwide. the lack of information on c. burnetii genotypes in wildlife prevents tracing-back clinical animal and human q fever cases with potential wildlife origin. to compare c. burnetii genotypes circulating in wildlife, livestock and humans, 107 samples from red deer, european wild rabbit, racoon, small mammals, goat and sheep were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization. gen ...201627336914
late pleistocene/early holocene migratory behavior of ungulates using isotopic analysis of tooth enamel and its effects on forager mobility.zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. in this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (cervus elaphus) and caprids at the pleistocene-holocene transition in the northeastern adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. the data show a significant change in δ18 ...201627275784
multilevel d-loop pcr identification of hunting game.the control region of mtdna (d-loop) was used for hair samples of the five hunting game species identification: red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (dama dama), mouflon (ovis aries musimon), and wild boar (sus scrofa). for d-loop multilevel pcr detection scheme was applied in six primers (ce cvzv 1 = 5'-gatcacgagcttgatcacca-3'; ce cvzv 2 = 5'-aggagtgggcgattttaggt-3'; dd cvzv 3 = 5'-cgcgtgaaaccaacaacccgc-3'; dd cvzv 4 = 5'-ccgggtcggggccttagacg-3'; ssw cvzv 5 = 5 ...201327275406
lungworm (nematoda: protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from małopolska region of poland.the conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. the post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (ovis aries) (14) and cattle (bos taurus) (18). some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. the faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red ...201627262959
benzimidazole resistance in haemonchus contortus recovered from farmed red deer.thirty haemonchus contortus male worms were collected from farmed red deer yearlings in order to determine whether routine administration of albendazole for a long-term period (17 years) could select anthelmintic resistance. pcr-rflp method based on single-nucleotide polymorphism of codon 200 in isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene (phe200tyr) was applied. the results showed a significant frequency of either the resistant allele (85 %) or the homozygous resistant genotype (70 %). by chi-square test, hardy-w ...201627249966
tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, cervus elaphus.understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. these interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (tb) and body size in adult red deer. heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and tb at individual and population levels. a single local effect was found f ...201627245150
spatially explicit modeling of animal tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in ciudad real province, spain.eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) are the most important wildlife reservoirs for animal tuberculosis (tb) caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (mtc), in mediterranean spain. these species are considered to play an important role in the transmission and persistence of mtc in cattle in some regions; however the factors contributing to the risk of transmission at the wildlife-livestock interface and the areas at highest risk for such transmission are largely ...201627237396
leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn ...201627220221
female sexual preferences toward conspecific and hybrid male mating calls in two species of polygynous deer, cervus elaphus and c. nippon.the behavioral processes at the basis of hybridization and introgression are understudied in terrestrial mammals. we use a unique model to test the role of sexual signals as a reproductive barrier to introgression by investigating behavioral responses to male sexual calls in estrous females of two naturally allopatric but reproductively compatible deer species, red deer and sika deer. previous studies demonstrated asymmetries in acoustic species discrimination between these species: most but not ...201727217596
coxiella burnetii genotypes in iberian investigate if coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of q fever, genotypes circulating in wildlife are associated with those infecting livestock and humans, multiple-locus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva-6-marker) was carried out over c. burnetii obtained from red deer (cervus elaphus), eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa), european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), black rat (rattus rattus), and wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus). mlva typing was performed by using six variable loc ...201627216529
the role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle.bovine besnoitiosis, a parasitic disease caused by besnoitia besnoiti, has been reported mainly in beef cattle raised under extensive pastoral systems and is considered to be re-emerging in western europe. horizontal transmission probably occurs either by means of blood sucking arthropods or as a consequence of direct contact between infected and non-infected cattle. however, the role that wild ruminants (e.g., red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus)) may play in the parasit ...201627198769
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hungarian red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family cervidae.recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the cervidae family. a common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial dna analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. with the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mit ...201627165525
molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from portugal.wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the centre and south of portugal.201627160767
listeria monocytogenes in different specimens from healthy red deer and wild the past, listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from game feces and meat. however, less information is available on the occurrence of l. monocytogenes in other specimens originating from game animals. hence, the aim of this study was to get an overview of the occurrence and distribution of l. monocytogenes in game animals by characterization of isolates from different matrices. for that purpose, samples were collected from red deer (cervus elaphus), wild boars (sus scrofa), and feed during ...201627159352
genomic characterization of a novel epsilonpapillomavirus associated with pigmented papillomas in a red deer (cervus elaphus).two of a group of 15 farmed european red (cervus elaphus elaphus) x wapiti (c. e. canadensis) deer stags developed multiple persistent pigmented squamous papillomas (warts) on their chins. dna was extracted from a papilloma and a short section of dna from a novel papillomavirus (pv) was amplified. this short sequence was used to design 'outward facing' primers to amplify the remainder of the circular pv dna. the pcr product was sequenced using next-generation sequencing and the full genome of th ...201627154332
genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (dictyocaulus, nematoda) in wild deer in hungary.dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. this study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. specifically, we quantify genetic variation in dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. t ...201627150969
Displaying items 401 - 500 of 4335