PMID(sorted descending)
weak spatiotemporal response of prey to predation risk in a freely interacting system.the extent to which prey space use actively minimizes predation risk continues to ignite controversy. methodological reasons that have hindered consensus include inconsistent measurements of predation risk, biased spatiotemporal scales at which responses are measured and lack of robust null expectations. we addressed all three challenges in a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal responses of adult female elk (cervus elaphus) to the risk of predation by wolves (canis lupus) during winter ...202030838656
a new test to detect antibodies against mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in red deer deer (cervus elaphus) farming is a growing economic activity worldwide. however, the capacity of this species to act as reservoir of animal tuberculosis (tb) poses a threat to other wildlife and to livestock. diagnostic assay accuracy in this species is therefore highly relevant for prevention and control measures. our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the protein complex p22, obtained from mycobacterium bovis derived purified protein derivative (bppd), as a candidate antigen ...201930825903
prevalence and co-infection with tick-borne anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia spp. in red deer (cervus elaphus) and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in southern norway.anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia spp. are causative agents of tick-borne infections that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. to assess the role of cervids in the maintenance of zoonotic pathogens in norway, we investigated the prevalence of a. phagocytophilum and babesia spp. in free-ranging roe deer and red deer. initial screening of spleen samples of 104 animals by multiplex real-time pcr targeting the major surface protein (msp2) gene and 18s rrna reveale ...201930766793
prevalence, levels and seasonal variations of human enteric viruses in six major rivers in alberta, canada.the prevalence and seasonal variation of 7 viruses in 6 major rivers in alberta were assessed using a combination of qpcr, cell culture and integrated cell culture with qpcr (icc-qpcr). water samples were collected monthly from rivers at different sites upstream and downstream of major urban centers. seven viruses including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, jc virus and enterovirus, were detected in at least one of the water samples at each site using qpcr. rotavirus was m ...201930743085
mycobacterium caprae infection of red deer in western austria-optimized use of pathology data to infer infection dynamics.austria is officially bovine tuberculosis (tb) free, but during the last decade the west of the country experienced sporadic tb cases in cattle. free-ranging red deer are known to be the maintenance host of mycobacterium (m.) caprae in certain areas in austria, where cattle can become infected on alpine pastures shared with deer. the epidemiology of tb in deer in alpine regions is still poorly understood. to inform decisions on efficient interventions against tb in deer, a method is needed to be ...201830719435
seasonal home ranges and habitat selection of three elk (cervus elaphus) herds in north dakota.changes in land use have resulted in range shifts of many wildlife species, including those entering novel environments, resulting in the critical need to understand their spatial ecology to inform ecosystem effects and management decisions. dispersing elk (cervus elaphus) were colonizing areas of suitable habitat in the northern great plains, usa, resulting in crop depredation complaints in these areas. although state resource managers had little information on these elk herds, limited evidence ...201930716128
characterisation of faecal staphylococci from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) and their susceptibility to gallidermin.our current knowledge of microbiota in wild ruminants is limited. the goal of this study was to evaluate staphylococcal species in red and roe deer for various attributes (haemolysis, dnase, and urease activities; lactic acid and biofilm production; and antibiotic profile) and their susceptibility to gallidermin. sixteen staphylococcal strains were identified from faeces of 21 free-living animals (9 adult female cervus elaphus-red deer and 12 young female capreolus capreolus-roe deer) sampled by ...202030710249
landscape genetic analyses of cervus elaphus and sus scrofa: comparative study and analytical deer and wild boar are two major game species whose populations are managed and live in areas impacted by human activities. measuring and understanding the impact of landscape features on individual movements and spatial patterns of genetic variability in these species is thus of importance for managers. a large number of individuals sampled across wallonia (belgium) for both species have been genotyped using microsatellite markers (respectively > 1700 and > 1200 genotyped individuals) and s ...201930710096
correction to: prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis e virus in pigs, wild boars, roe deer, red deer and moose in lithuania.following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified of a typing error in the "discussion" section.201930704501
intrafollicular growth differentiation factor 9: bone morphogenetic 15 ratio determines litter size in mammals†.we previously showed that rat, pig, sheep, and red deer oocytes express species-specific ratios of gdf9: bmp15 mrna (3.7, 0.5, 1.26, and 0.1, respectively), and with the exception of the pig, they are directly correlated to litter size. the purpose of this study was to determine the alternative mechanism that enables pig oocytes to secrete low ratios whilst maintaining a large litter size. herein, we performed same- and cross-species coincubations of oocytes with granulosa cells (gcs) of rat, pi ...201930698706
cone-to-müller cell ratio in the mammalian retina: a survey of seven mammals with different lifestyle.mammalian retinal glial (müller) cells are known to guide light through the inner retina to photoreceptors (franze et al., 2007; proc natl acad sci u s a 104:8287-8292). it was shown that müller cells transmit predominantly red-green and less violet-blue light (labin et al., 2014; nat commun 5:4319). it is not known whether this optical function is reflected in the cone-to-müller cell ratio. to determine this ratio in the retinas of mammals with different lifestyle, we evaluated the local densit ...201930641045
after the fort mcmurray wildfire there are significant increases in mental health symptoms in grade 7-12 students compared to order to examine the impact of disasters on adolescent mental health, this study compared population mental health survey data from two communities in alberta, canada: fort mcmurray, which experienced a major natural disaster, and red deer, which did not.201930630501
red deer in iberia: molecular ecological studies in a southern refugium and inferences on european postglacial colonization history.the red deer (cervus elaphus) is a widespread wild ungulate in europe that has suffered strong anthropogenic impacts over their distribution during the last centuries, but also at the present time, due its economic importance as a game species. here we focus on the evolutionary history of the red deer in iberia, one of the three main southern refugial areas for temperate species in europe, and addressed the hypothesis of a cryptic refugia at higher latitudes during the last glacial maximum (lgm) ...201930620758
infection prevalence and ecotypes of anaplasma phagocytophilum in moose alces alces, red deer cervus elaphus, roe deer capreolus capreolus and ixodes ricinus ticks from norway.the geographical expansion of the tick ixodes ricinus in northern europe is a serious concern for animal and human health. the pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks and causes emergences of tick-borne fever (anaplasmosis) in livestock. the transmission dynamics of the different ecotypes of a. phagocytophilum in the ecosystems is only partly determined. red deer and roe deer contribute to circulation of different ecotypes of a. phagocytophilum in continental europe, while the ...201930606222
investigation of association between bovine viral diarrhoea virus and cervid herpesvirus type-1, and abortion in new zealand farmed deer.this study tested for association between bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) and cervid herpesvirus type-1 (cvhv-1) exposure and abortion in new zealand farmed red deer. rising two-year-old (r2, n = 22,130) and mixed-age (ma, n = 36,223) hinds from 87 and 71 herds, respectively, throughout new zealand were pregnancy tested using ultrasound early in gestation (scan-1) and 55-89 days later (scan-2) to detect mid-term abortion. sera from aborted and non-aborted hinds at scan-2 were tested for bvdv ...201930593353
investigations on the distribution of schistosoma turkestanicum skrjabin, 1913 (trematoda: schistosomatidae) infection of red deer in hungary and a combined method for the detection of s. turkestanicum eggs in droppings.additional geographical distribution of the central european populations of schistosoma turkestanicum and the detectability of their eggs in droppings were investigated in red deer samples, because this rare species had previously been shown only in a single hungarian habitat. samples from visceral organs, intestinal contents, and droppings on the ground from 11 hunting areas of hungary were investigated to find a new presence of this fluke. close to the first site of detection in the gemenc for ...201830580539
mobiseq: de novo snp discovery in model and non-model species through sequencing the flanking region of transposable recent years, the availability of reduced representation library (rrl) methods has catalysed an expansion of genome-scale studies to characterize both model and non-model organisms. most of these methods rely on the use of restriction enzymes to obtain dna sequences at a genome-wide level. these approaches have been widely used to sequence thousands of markers across individuals for many organisms at a reasonable cost, revolutionizing the field of population genomics. however, there are still ...201930575257
evaluating the individuality of animal-habitat relationships.examining the ways in which animals use habitat and select resources to satisfy their life history requirements has important implications for ecology, evolution, and conservation. the advent of radio-tracking in the mid-20th century greatly expanded the scope of animal-habitat modeling. thereafter, it became common practice to aggregate telemetry data collected on a number of tagged individuals and fit one model describing resource selection at the population level. this convention, however, ru ...201830519415
reducing door-to-needle times for ischaemic stroke to a median of 30 minutes at a community hospital.alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke patients, and it is widely available at all primary stroke centres. the effectiveness of alteplase is highly time-dependent. large tertiary centres have reported significant improvements in their door-to-needle (dtn) times. however, these same improvements have not been reported at community hospitals.201930516454
coxiella burnetii in wild mammals: a systematic review.coxiella burnetii is a multi-host bacterium that causes q fever in humans, a zoonosis that is emerging worldwide. the ecology of c. burnetii in wildlife is still poorly understood and the influence of host, environmental and pathogen factors is almost unknown. this study gathers current published information on different aspects of c. burnetii infection in wildlife, even in species with high reservoir potential and a high rate of interaction with livestock and humans, in order to partially fill ...201930506629
identification of velvet antler and its mixed varieties by uplc-qtof-ms combined with principal component analysis.many species of velvet antler have been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years; however, as medicinal materials, velvet antler derived from different animals have different clinical effects. to distinguish the differences and homologies, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (uplc-qtof-ms) coupled with principal component analysis (pca) was developed and applied to identify these antler samples derived from cervus nippon temminck, cervus ...201930500596
detection of seroconversion to bovine herpesvirus 1 related alphaherpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhea virusin polish free-living deer.there are several infectious agents of domestic cattle that can also be present in free-living ruminant populations. these include bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) which are the causative agents of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea, respectively. the study was conducted on serum samples from 59 red deer, 24 roe deer, and 3 fallow deer (86 in total), originating from two geographically separate areas of poland. the samples were tested ...201830468331
sensitivity to antimicrobials of faecal buttiauxella spp. from roe and red deer (capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus)detected with maldi-tof mass spectrometry.wild ruminants are an interesting topic for research because only limited information exists regarding their microbiota. they could also be an environmental reservoir of undesirable bacteria for other animals or humans. in this study faeces of the 21 free-living animals was sampled (9 cervus elaphus-red deer, adult females, 12 capreolus capreolus-roe deer, young females). they were culled by selective-reductive shooting during the winter season of 2014/2015 in the strzałowo forest district-piska ...201830468327
spatial analysis of wildlife tuberculosis based on a serologic survey using dried blood spots, portugal.we investigated the spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in wildlife in a multihost system. we surveyed bovine tb in portugal by serologic analysis of elutes of dried blood spots obtained from hunted wild boar. we modeled spatial disease risk by using areal generalized linear mixed models with conditional autoregressive priors. antibodies against mycobaterium bovis were detected in 2.4% (95% ci 1.5%-3.8%) of 678 wild boar in 2 geographic clusters, and the predicted risk fits well wit ...201830457522
infection of wildlife by mycobacterium bovis in france assessment through a national surveillance system, sylvatub.mycobacterium bovis infection was first described in free-ranging wildlife in france in 2001, with subsequent detection in hunter-harvested ungulates and badgers in areas where outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis (tb) were also detected in cattle. increasing concerns regarding tb in wildlife led the french general directorate for food (dgal) and the main institutions involved in animal health and wildlife management, to establish a national surveillance system for tb in free-ranging wildlife. this ...201830430112
unprecedented high catecholamine production causing hair pigmentation after urinary excretion in red deer.hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 g/l, and concentrations of its metabolite dl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (dopeg) ranging from 1.0 to 44.5 g/l, in wild male red deer cervus elaphus hispanicus after lc-ms analyses. the dark ventral patch of male red deer, a recently described sexually selected signal, contains high amounts of d ...201930413834
comparison of lead levels in edible parts of red deer hunted with lead or non-lead meat may contain elevated concentrations of lead especially if lead-containing ammunition is used for hunting. then a health risk is possible for consumer groups with high game meat intake. the lead concentrations in three edible parts (marketable meat from the area close to the wound channel, saddle and haunch) of meat from red deer (cervus elaphus) between animals hunted either with lead or non‑lead ammunition were compared. furthermore, lead levels in game meat of lead-shot red deer were ...201930412876
molecular detection of babesia odocoilei in wild, farmed, and zoo cervids in ontario, canada.babesia odocoilei, a tick-borne protozoan hemoparasite of white-tailed deer ( odocoileus virginianus), is being increasingly recognized as a cause of disease in captive cervids in north america. historically endemic in white-tailed deer, the natural wildlife reservoir in the southeastern us, b. odocoilei has been recently associated with hemolytic anemia in captive eurasian tundra reindeer ( rangifer tarandus tarandus), wapiti ( cervus canadensis), and woodland caribou ( rangifer tarandus caribo ...201930339101
between-year vocal aging in female red deer (cervus elaphus).studying animal vocal aging has potential implication in the field of animal welfare and for modeling human voice aging. the objective was to examine, using a repeated measures approach, the between-year changes of weight, social discomfort score (bites of other hinds on hind pelt), body condition score (fat reserves) and acoustic variables of the nasal (closed-mouth) and the oral (open-mouth) contact calls produced by farmed red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) toward their young.201830333068
a further increase in the prevalence and intensity of infection with ashworthius sidemi nematodes in red deer in the lower silesian wildernessthe nematode ashworthius sidemi is a typical parasite of asiatic deer, particularly sika deer (cervus nippon). it was probably first carried into poland by migrating red deer. the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of a. sidemi infection in roe deer and red deer in the lower silesian wilderness in the winter season 2015/2016. parasitological necropsy of 34 abomasa of red deer from forest district ruszów wasperformed. the prevalence of a. sidemi infection was f ...201930316210
molecular confirmation of hymenolepis hibernia in field mice (apodemus sylvaticus) from st kilda has potential to resolve a host-parasite relationship.insular wildlife populations provide opportunities to examine biological questions in systems that are relatively closed and potentially tractable, striking examples being the long-term studies of ecology and evolution in the red deer and feral sheep populations on the hebridean islands of rum and st kilda. in the case of parasitology, understanding of parasitic infections insular wildlife populations in conjunction with knowledge of their origins has the potential to add a fresh perspective to ...201830302311
changing environments during the middle-upper palaeolithic transition in the eastern cantabrian region (spain): direct evidence from stable isotope studies on ungulate bones.environmental change has been proposed as a factor that contributed to the extinction of the neanderthals in europe during mis3. currently, the different local environmental conditions experienced at the time when anatomically modern humans (amh) met neanderthals are not well known. in the western pyrenees, particularly, in the eastern end of the cantabrian coast of the iberian peninsula, extensive evidence of neanderthal and subsequent amh activity exists, making it an ideal area in which to ex ...201830287834
establishment of fascioloides magna in a new region of hungary: case report.during the monitoring of red deer (n = 124) and fallow deer (n = 13) populations in four neighbouring areas, the presence of fascioloides magna was confirmed in southwestern hungary. the prevalence and the mean intensity of the infection within the host populations ranged between 0 and 100% and 0-36.3, respectively. the determined prevalences are similar to that observed earlier in other european natural foci. the authors hypothesise that the appearance of f. magna in this region should have bee ...201830284615
[structural–functional condition of the thyroid gland of red deer at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis].the histological structure and morphometric and some histochemical indices of thyroid gland ofmaral as a subspecies of red deer at the postnatal stage of ontogenesis were studied. it was established that thegland was structurally formed by the time of the birth. c-cells are detected at 6 months of age. with age, theratio of follicles of different sizes changed: smaller forms predominate in newborns and those 6 months old,medium and large predominate in adults and in old deer. histological, morph ...201830272886
carcass and meat quality characteristics from iberian wild red deer (cervus elaphus) hunted at different ages.deer-meat consumption is increasing in several countries based on claims that it is a healthy red meat. this study assessed the effect of slaughter age (low - 26 months and younger; medium - from 27 months to younger than 42 months; and high - 42 months and older) on carcass characteristics and meat physicochemical properties of 150 iberian wild red deer.201930270485
pathological lesions in the lungs of red deer cervus elaphus (l.) induced by a newly-described dictyocaulus cervi (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea).the large lungworms of the genus dictyocaulus are causative agents of parasitic bronchitis in various ungulate hosts, including red deer. recently, the red deer-derived lungworm d. cervi was described and separated from d. eckerti. little is known of the transmission patterns, epidemiology, geographical distribution and pathogenicity of d. cervi. histological examinations were performed on 22 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of hunted red deer. exclusively, d. cervi adults were derived from 15 ...201830253848
comparison of anti-inflammatory effect and protein profile between the water extracts from formosan sambar deer and red deer.velvet antler (va), the unossified antler from members of the family cervidae, has been used in traditional chinese medicines and health foods for over 2000 years in enhancement of kidney function and treatment or prevention of cardiovascular, immunological and gynaecological disease. the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of velvet antler water extracts from formosan sambar deer (rusa unicolor swinhoei, svae) and red deer (cervus elaphus, rvae). results indicated ...201830249326
infections with bartonella spp. in free-ranging cervids and deer keds (lipoptena cervi) in norway.bartonella bacteria are arthropod-borne and can cause long-term bacteremia in humans and animals. the predominant arthropod vectors and the mode of transmission for many novel bartonella species remain elusive or essentially unstudied. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bartonella spp. in norwegian cervids and deer keds (lipoptena cervi) and to characterise the bacteria by sequencing of the partial glta gene and 16 s-23 s rrna intergenic spacer region (its) in order to ev ...201830245047
treponeme-associated hoof disease of free-ranging elk ( cervus elaphus) in southwestern washington state, usa.a novel foot disease in free-ranging elk ( cervus elaphus) in southwestern washington state emerged in 2008 and spread throughout the region. initial studies showed adult elk had chronic hoof overgrowth, sole ulcers, and sloughed hoof capsules, but no cause was determined. to identify possible causes and characterize the earliest lesions, 9-, 7-, and 3-month-old elk were collected. nine-month-old elk had sole ulcers (3/9 elk) and sloughed/overgrown hoof capsules (4/9 elk) similar to adults. hist ...201930244661
estimating selection on the act of inbreeding in a population with strong inbreeding depression.inbreeding depression is widely regarded as a driving force in the evolution of dispersal, mate choice and sperm selection. however, due to likely costs of inbreeding avoidance, which are poorly understood, it is unclear to what extent selection to avoid inbreeding is expected in nature. moreover, there are currently very few empirical estimates of the strength of selection against the act of inbreeding (mating with a relative), as opposed to the fitness costs of being inbred. here, we use data ...201830230082
shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in wild ungulates.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) are zoonotic pathogens that live in the gastrointestinal tract of wildlife and cattle without causing disease. in humans, their colonization and infection lead to life-threatening disease. we investigated the occurrence of stec in wild ungulates (wild boar, red deer and roe deer) inhabiting areas differently impacted by anthropogenic activities. stec were detected in 9% (n = 6) of the samples and were recovered from the three species: 1 of wild boar, ...201930227290
multi-locus sequence typing of ixodes ricinus and its symbiont candidatus midichloria mitochondrii across europe reveals evidence of local co-cladogenesis in scotland.ticks have relatively complex microbiomes, but only a small proportion of the bacterial symbionts recorded from ticks are vertically transmitted. moreover, co-cladogenesis between ticks and their symbionts, indicating an intimate relationship over evolutionary history driven by a mutualistic association, is the exception rather than the rule. one of the most widespread tick symbionts is candidatus midichloria, which has been detected in all of the major tick genera of medical and veterinary impo ...201930197267
predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons.sexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator-prey system in northern yellowstone national park, wy, usa to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific ...201830177803
diverse tick-borne microorganisms identified in free-living ungulates in ungulates are hosts of ixodid ticks and reservoirs of tick-borne microorganisms in central europe and many regions around the world. tissue samples and engorged ticks were obtained from roe deer, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar hunted in deciduous forests of south-western slovakia. dna isolated from these samples was screened for the presence of tick-borne microorganisms by pcr-based methods.201830176908
consumer preferences for red deer meat: a discrete choice analysis considering attitudes towards wild game meat and hunting.this study aims to analyse consumer preferences for red deer meat (rdm) (cervus elaphus) by conducting a case study in northern italy. this analysis considers how the attitudes of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting might influence such preferences. this goal is achieved by combining the results of a k-means clustering analysis of the attitudes collected by means of two valuation scales with a discrete choice experiment (ce). according to our results, a positive attitude towards wild ga ...201830173016
the importance of wildlife in the ecology and epidemiology of the tbe virus in sweden: incidence of human tbe correlates with abundance of deer and hares.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is one tick-transmitted disease where the human incidence has increased in some european regions during the last two decades. we aim to find the most important factors causing the increasing incidence of human tbe in sweden. based on a review of published data we presume that certain temperature-related variables and the population densities of transmission hosts, i.e. small mammals, and of primary tick maintenance hosts, i.e. cervids and lagomorphs, of the tbe viru ...201830153856
effect of age on nutritional properties of iberian wild red deer meat.this study assessed the effect of age (l, less than 27 months old; m, from 27 to 42 months old; h, 43 months and older) on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, amino acid composition and mineral content of 150 iberian wild red deer meat samples.201930144080
meat quality of farmed red deer fed a balanced diet: effects of supplementation with copper bolus on different muscles.supplementation with copper (cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. here, we studied the effects of cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (st) and rectus abdominis (ra) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to c ...201930134996
histopathological, morphological, and molecular characterization of sarcocystis species in elk (cervus elaphus) from pennsylvania, usa.sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in many species of domestic and wild animals. here, we report sarcocystosis in muscles from 91 free range elk (cervus elaphus) from pennsylvania, usa, tested by histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (tem), and dna sequencing. sarcocysts were detected in hematoxylin and eosin (he)-stained sections from 83 of 91 (91.2%) elk, including 83/91 (91.2%) tongues and 15/17 (88.2%) hearts. with respect to age, sarcocysts were found in 0/5 calves, 8/9 (88.8%) ye ...201830120590
modelling strontium isotopes in past biospheres - assessment of bioavailable 87sr/86sr ratios in local archaeological vertebrates based on environmental signatures.87sr/86sr isotopic ratios in skeletal remains of archaeological vertebrates are used for provenance analysis since long. however, the definition of the past bioavailable isotopic ratio at the site of recovery is not known beforehand and geological maps can provide no more than gross expectations. therefore, the assessment of the "local sr isotopic signature" is still of crucial importance. in this study, we present a tool for the prediction of such local isotopic signatures by creating a concent ...201930118937
tetraplex real-time pcr assay for the simultaneous identification and quantification of roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and sika deer for deer meat authentication.analytical methods are needed for the identification and quantification of meat species to detect food adulteration. since game meat is more expensive than meat from domesticated animal species, it is a potential target for adulteration. we present a tetraplex real-time pcr assay that allows the simultaneous determination of the content of roe deer, red deer, fallow deer and sika deer. the tetraplex assay showed only moderate cross-reactivity with closely related species. after optimization the ...201830100464
multiple anthropogenic interventions drive puma survival following wolf recovery in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.humans are primary drivers of declining abundances and extirpation of large carnivores worldwide. management interventions to restore biodiversity patterns, however, include carnivore reintroductions, despite the many unresolved ecological consequences associated with such efforts. using multistate capture-mark-recapture models, we explored age-specific survival and cause-specific mortality rates for 134 pumas (puma concolor) monitored in the greater yellowstone ecosystem during gray wolf (canis ...201830073082
evidence of two genetically different lymphotropic herpesviruses present among red deer, sambar, and milu herds in china.herpesvirus infections in cervidae are a serious threat affecting some deer species worldwide. in our attempt to identify malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses in deer herds, ten gammaherpesviral dna fragments were identified in five species of deer in herds in china by using a pan-herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction assay targeting viral dna polymerase. notably, in sambar (rusa unicolor), a novel gamma-2 herpesvirus was identified that showed a close relationship with fallow deer ...201830041287
metapodials of ancient bison (bison priscus) of northeast russia: "stress markers," sex and withers height.a total of 175 metapodials (mp) of pleistocene and early holocene bison (bison priscus boj.) from the vast area of northeast russia were studied. mp were attributed to males and females both visually and statistically. data on the withers height of bison from northeast russia are provided. stress markers were recorded, including so-called "buttresses." with rare exceptions, stress markers were not of a pathological nature. the origin and development of the buttresses are age-related; their preva ...201930019862
susceptibility of human prion protein to conversion by chronic wasting disease prions.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a contagious and fatal neurodegenerative disease and a serious animal health issue for deer and elk in north america. the identification of the first cases of cwd among free-ranging reindeer and moose in europe brings back into focus the unresolved issue of whether cwd can be zoonotic like bovine spongiform encephalopathy. we used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay to determine whether cwd prions from elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in north america ...201830014840
gas and short-chain fatty acid production from feeds commonly fed to red deer (cervus elaphus l.) and incubated with rumen inoculum from red deer and sheep.efficient red deer supplementary feeding depends on estimations of the nutritive value of offered feeds, frequently estimated with the use of equations derived from domestic ruminants. the aim of this study was to compare the 24-hour in vitro true dry matter degradability (ivtd24 ), in vitro gas production (gp) kinetic parameters, gp in 24 hr of incubation (gas24 ) and short-chain fatty acid (scfa) and microbial biomass (mbs) produced after 24-hour incubation of feeds in inoculum prepared from s ...201829978922
does winter supplementary feeding affect deer damage in a forest ecosystem? a field test in areas with different levels of deer pressure.supplementary feeding is a widespread but controversial practice in game management. while many studies have been conducted on this issue, there is limited empirical evidence on how feeding affects damage caused by wildlife. in this context, the present study focused on the effect of artificial winter feeding on tree damage in three mountain regions in poland.201929956445
mycobacterium bovis persistence in two different captive wild animal populations in germany: a longitudinal molecular epidemiological study revealing pathogen transmission by whole-genome sequencing.bovine tuberculosis (btb) caused by mycobacterium bovis is a transmissible disease notifiable to the world organization for animal health and to the european union, with ongoing efforts of surveillance and eradication in every eu member state. in germany, a country which has been declared officially free from bovine tuberculosis since 1997 by the eu, m. bovis infections still occur sporadically in cattle and other mammals, including humans. here, the transmission routes of a btb outbreak in a wi ...201829950330
correction: genetic diversity, genetic structure and diet of ancient and contemporary red deer (cervus elaphus l.) from north-eastern france.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189278.].201829940045
game meat consumption by hunters and their relatives: a probabilistic approach.this study aimed to estimate the consumption of meat and products derived from hunting by the consumer population and, specifically, by hunters and their relatives. for this purpose, a survey was conducted on the frequency of consuming meat from the four most representative game species in spain, two of big game, wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus), and two of small game, rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) and red partridge (alectoris rufa), as well as of processed meat products (sa ...201829912678
prenatal histomorphological development of the rumen in dama dama.this work studies the morphological changes taking place in the dama dama rumen during prenatal development using histomorphometrics, surface microstructure and immunohistochemistry analysis as well as carrying out a comparative analysis of this species with other wild (red deer) and domestic-type ruminants. a total of 25 fallow deer embryos and fetuses were used, from the first stage of prenatal life until birth. the appearance of the rumen from the primitive gastric tube was observed at 51 day ...201829893403
elk resource selection and implications for anthrax management in montana.anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals throughout the world. in north america, anthrax outbreaks occur in livestock and wildlife species. vaccine administration in wildlife is untenable; the most effective form of management is surveillance and decontamination of carcasses. successful management is critical because untreated carcasses can create infectious zones increasing risk for other susceptible hosts. we studi ...201629887642
a survey of parasite lesions in wild red deer ( cervus elaphus) from argentina there is little information about diseases that affect exotic ungulates and the health risks that they pose to native wildlife, livestock, and humans. the aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of red deer ( cervus elaphus) in the nahuel huapi national park and surrounding areas in patagonia, argentina. during three consecutive hunting seasons, necropsies were performed on 101 red deer, and tissues were examined histologically. the most common lesions were those associa ...201829791294
development of diagnostic snp markers to monitor hybridization between sika deer (cervus nippon) and wapiti (cervus elaphus).sika deer (cervus nippon) and wapiti (cervus elaphus) are closely related species and their hybridization can result in significant allele-shift of their gene pool. additive genetic effects and putative heterotic effects of their hybridization on growth performance could confer considerable economic advantage in deer farming. here, we used double-digest restriction site-associated dna sequencing technology (ddrad-seq) and detected ∼320,000 genome-wide snps from 30 captive individuals: 7 sika dee ...201829789312
cinnamtannin b-1, a novel antioxidant for sperm in red deer.cinnamtannin b-1 (cnb-1) is a naturally occurring trimeric a-type proanthocyanidin contained in several plants such as cinnamon (cinnamomum zeylanicum). it is considered to be a potent antioxidant. the protective effect of cnb-1 against oxidative stress was assessed in red deer epididymal sperm incubated at 37 °c. cryopreserved sperm from six stags were thawed, pooled and extended to 400 × 106 sperm/ml in bgm (bovine gamete medium). after being aliquoted, the samples were supplemented with diffe ...201829776697
common drivers of seasonal movements on the migration - residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore.this study aimed to (1) identify the scale of environmental drivers of seasonal movements on the migration - residency behavior continuum in a large herbivore species and to (2) test the hypothesis that the same environmental drivers and spatio-temporal scaling should influence spatial processes in both migrants (long distance migration) and residents (short distance range shifts). we performed a comparative analysis of the influence of plant phenology and snow cover duration on seasonal movemen ...201829769562
a genomic region containing rec8 and rnf212b is associated with individual recombination rate variation in a wild population of red deer (cervus elaphus).recombination is a fundamental feature of sexual reproduction, ensuring proper disjunction, preventing mutation accumulation and generating new allelic combinations upon which selection can act. however it is also mutagenic, and breaks up favorable allelic combinations previously built up by selection. identifying the genetic drivers of recombination rate variation is a key step in understanding the causes and consequences of this variation, how loci associated with recombination are evolving an ...201829764960
sika deer (cervus nippon)-specific real-time pcr method to detect fraudulent labelling of meat and meat products.since game meat is more valuable and expensive than meat from domesticated animal species it is a potential target for adulteration. analytical methods must allow the identification and quantification of meat species to be applicable for the detection of fraudulent labelling. we developed a real-time pcr assay for the authentication of sika deer (cervus nippon) and products thereof. the primer/probe system amplifies a 71 bp fragment of the kappa-casein precursor gene. since the target sequence c ...201829739996
an assessment of the use of cox1 and cox3 mitochondrial genetic markers for the identification of dictyocaulus spp. (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in wild ruminants.lungworms of the genus dictyocaulus railliet and henry, 1907 (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) are the causative agents of parasitic bronchitis (dictyocaulosis, husk) of various ungulate hosts, including domestic and wild ruminants. correct diagnosis of lungworm species and a better understanding of the transmission patterns of dictyocaulus spp. are crucial in minimising the risk of its cross transmission between wildlife and livestock, and for the control of dictyocaulosis. the study was conducte ...201829736729
genome sequences of two novel papillomaviruses isolated from healthy skin of pudu puda and cervus elaphus deer.we report the complete genome sequences of pudu puda papillomavirus1 (ppudpv1) and cervus elaphus papillomavirus2 (celapv2), isolated from healthy skin hair follicles of a southern pudu and a red deer, respectively. ppudpv1 is basal to the dyokappapvs, whereas celapv2 is basal to the xipvs (beta-xipv crown group).201829724829
a comparison of food habits and prey preferences of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at the southwest primorskii krai in russia and hunchun in china.a small, isolated amur tiger population ranges across the southwest primorskii krai region in russia and hunchun region in china. many individuals, with "dual nationality," cross the border frequently. formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both countries. while the diets of tigers ranging in russia is clearly understood, little is known of the tigers' feeding habits in china.. we used scat analysis combined with data on the abu ...201829722132
long-term occurrence of trichuris species in wild ruminants in the czech republic.the aim of this study was to identify trichuris species in wild ruminants from 32 localities in the czech republic using morphological and molecular methods (its1-5.8s rna-its2 region polymorphisms). trichurids were obtained from 176 wild ruminants (roe deer, sika deer, red deer, fallow deer and mouflons) that were culled between 2009 and 2017. trichuris discolor is the predominant trichurid of all of the above-mentioned wild ruminants, whereas trichuris ovis was identified less frequently in ro ...201829721657
a novel application of an anthelmintic mixture for use against gastrointestinal parasites of red deer (cervus elaphus).a mixture of proprietary anthelmintics delivering 0.5 mg/kg moxidectin, 9.06 mg/kg oxfendazole, 15 mg/kg levamisole, and 0.08 mg/kg selenium on bodyweight basis per os to red deer is investigated. on a deer farm with a history of parasite problems, six weaner red deer were treated orally with a 50/50 mixture of exodus pour-on and oxfen c plus (ex/ox) at a dose rate of 1 ml/5 kg bodyweight. six herd mates were untreated. eleven days later abomasal worm counts for the untreated deer revealed an ar ...201829692928
pregnancy and mid-term abortion rates in farmed red deer in new zealand.this paper describes pregnancy and mid-term abortion rate data from an investigation of sub-optimal reproductive performance in new zealand farmed red deer. for 2 years, 87 yearling (yl) and 71 mixed-age adult (ma) herds from 85 farms were observed with 15 yl and seven ma herds observed both years. hinds were pregnancy diagnosed using ultrasonography in the late autumn-early winter (pd1) and again late winter-early spring (pd2) and mid-term daily abortion rates (dar) were calculated. overall, 85 ...201829685706
draft whole-genome sequences of three diarrheagenic escherichia coli strains isolated from farmed deer in new zealand.escherichia coli bacteria commonly colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of farmed ruminants. cattle are a well-recognized reservoir of zoonotic e. coli; we report here, however, the draft genome sequences of three diarrheagenic e. coli strains isolated from farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) in the manawatu region of new zealand.201829674551
transmission of helminths between species of ruminants in austria appears more likely to occur than generally assumed.helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. in austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and tran ...201829662884
declining home range area predicts reduced late-life survival in two wild ungulate populations.demographic senescence is increasingly recognised as an important force shaping the dynamics of wild vertebrate populations. however, our understanding of the processes that underpin these declines in survival and fertility in old age remains limited. evidence for age-related changes in foraging behaviour and habitat use is emerging from wild vertebrate studies, but the extent to which these are driven by within-individual changes, and the consequences for fitness, remain unclear. using longitud ...201829656580
low sequence diversity of the prion protein gene (prnp) in wild deer and goat species from spain.the first european cases of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in free-ranging reindeer and wild elk were confirmed in norway in 2016 highlighting the urgent need to understand transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in the context of european deer species and the many individual populations throughout the european continent. the genetics of the prion protein gene (prnp) are crucial in determining the relative susceptibility to tses. to establish prnp gene sequence diversity for free-ranging ...201829631620
evaluation of factors affecting the efficacy of treatment against fascioloides magna in wild red deer population.deer fascioloidosis is a serious and potentially fatal disease caused by the non-native trematode fascioloides magna. infections of red deer with f. magna in croatia have been reported for the first time in 2000 in the baranja region. subsequently, the disease spread throughout the eastern parts of the country, involving all 3 deer species (red, roe, and fallow) and mouflons. within the disease control programme (dcp), livers from all shot deer were thoroughly analysed and all detected trematode ...201829631313
enamel apatite crystallinity significantly contributes to mammalian dental adaptations.the monophyodont molar teeth, prismatic enamel and the complexity of enamel microarchitecture are regarded as essential dental apomorphies of mammals. as prominent background factors of feeding efficiency and individual longevity these characters are crucial components of mammalian adaptive dynamics. little is known, however, to which degree these adaptations are influenced by the crystallographic properties of elementary hydroxyapatite crystallites, the only inorganic component of enamel. in a ...201829615748
mycobacterium aviumsubsp. paratuberculosis isolated from wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in northern italy.paratuberculosis (or johne's disease) is an infectious disease which affects mainly ruminants and it is caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). during a culling program (years 2011-2015) aimed at controlling the red deer (cervus elaphus) population in stelvio national park (italian alps), where paratuberculosis was already described in this species, 382 tissue samples from the lombardy region and 102 fecal specimens from the autonomous province of bolzano were analyzed by pc ...201829615250
antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial pathogens isolated from faeces of red deer (cervus elaphus).antibacterial activity is the most widely studied aspect of plant extracts. antibiotics extensively produced and consumed in large quantities, have proved to be problematic due to various types of adverse effects. the development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. one of the alternative strategies for fighting antibiotic- resistant bacteria is the use of natural antimicrobial substances such as plant extracts. we t ...201729611658
bovine tuberculosis outbreak in farmed american bison (bison bison) in poland.poland has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (btb) free country for the last seven years. the problem currently observed is the increasing number of new cases of btb in wild species, kept in a farmed herd and free-living herd: european bison (bison bonasus), wild boar (sus scrofa), wolves (canis lupus) and red deer (cervus elaphus). this article presents the case of mycobacterium caprae transmission to an american bison (bison bison) herd kept on a private farm in eastern poland.201729611649
the prevalence of yersinia enterocolitica in game animals in poland.natural reservoirs of yersinia (y.) enterocolitica comprise different animal species, but little is known about the role of wild animals in the epidemiology of yersiniosis. the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of y. enterocolitica among game animals in poland. the bio-serotypes and the pathogenicity markers of the analyzed isolates were determined. the experimental material comprised rectal swabs from 857 free-living animals hunter-harvested over a period of 2 years (2013-2014) in ...201829596492
identification of first-stage dorsal-spined lungworm larvae of tunisian barbary red deer: first report of varestrongylus sagittatus and elaphostrongylus cervi in africa.barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) is a protected rare subspecies of red deer. the study of its protostrongylidae fauna based only on sporadic necropsy of naturally dead animals is difficult. therefore diagnosis of lungworms rely mainly on the identification of the first stage larvae (l1). the l1 of the different species are not readily diagnosed on morphological basis since much variation is recorded within and among dorsal-spined larvae belonging to various species. the aim of this stu ...201829581029
comparative analysis of prions in nervous and lymphoid tissues of chronic wasting disease-infected cervids.the prevalence, host range and geographical bounds of chronic wasting disease (cwd), the prion disease of cervids, are expanding. horizontal transmission likely contributes the majority of new cwd cases, but the mechanism by which prions are transmitted among cwd-affected cervids remains unclear. to address the extent to which prion amplification in peripheral tissues contributes to contagious transmission, we assessed the prion levels in central nervous and lymphoreticular system tissues in whi ...201829580373
extrinsic modification of vertebrate sex ratios by climatic variation.evidence for the influences of climate on early development, maternal condition, and offspring viability in terrestrial vertebrates suggests that climatic change has the potential to induce variation in offspring sex ratios in such organisms. using long-term data at individual and population levels, we investigated the influence of global climatic variation, as a result of the north atlantic oscillation (nao), on offspring sex ratios of red deer in norway. the state of the nao during the fetal d ...199929578787
lower dietary concentrate level increases bacterial diversity in the rumen of cervus elaphus yarkandensis.the ruminal microbiota plays major roles in feed digestion. the composition and fermentation of the bacterial communities in 3 important ruminant species have been studied previously. here, we extended this research to the effect of concentrate-to-forage ratios on ruminal bacterial communities in tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis). different concentrate-to-forage ratios (2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5) were fed to tarim red deer for 20 days. ruminal bacterial communities were elucidated by 16s ...201829562140
carcass and meat characteristics from farm-raised and wild fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus): a review.deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). the production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. it is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. overall, the world ...201829558697
tick- and fly-borne bacteria in ungulates: the prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae in water buffalo and deer species in central europe, hungary.hunting constitutes an important industry in europe. however, data on the prevalence of vector-borne bacteria in large game animal species are lacking from several countries. blood or spleen samples (239 and 270, respectively) were taken from red, fallow and roe deer, as well as from water buffaloes, mouflons and wild boars in hungary, followed by dna extraction and molecular analyses for anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae.201829554900
influence of insemination time on the fertility of sex sorted frozen-thawed y-sperm in red deer.the aim of this study was to assess the effect of insemination timing on pregnancy rates in red deer (cervus elaphus) when using sex-sorted sperm samples. semen was collected by electroejaculation from 8 mature stags and processed to obtain: conventional samples, following standard freezing procedures for commercial purposes; control sorted samples, diluted and handled as per sorted samples but without being submitted to the sorter passage; and y sex sorted (yss) samples. hinds were synchronized ...201829547733
perceptions and acceptability of some stakeholders about the bovine tuberculosis surveillance system for wildlife (sylvatub) in france.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. the surveillance of btb in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. in france, a btb surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. it relies on active and passive survei ...201829543911
spavin in red deer: a case study from the early neolithic blagotin, serbia.pathological modifications are rarely observed in the remains of wild animals from archaeological sites. we present one such specific, pathological change - a case of spavin in a red deer specimen from the early neolithic site of blagotin, in central serbia. the left tarsal joint presented proliferative new bone formation, which was analyzed macroscopically, then subjected to x-ray and computed tomography (ct) imaging. we assume that the initial degenerative changes in this red deer tarsal joint ...201629539526
dental development pathology in wild artiodactyls: two prehistoric case studies from this paper we report two unique cases of dental development anomalies observed on prehistoric faunal material from france. the first is a severely malformed first incisor from a red deer, dated to the 13th-12th millennium bc, which is interpreted as a composite odontoma, a rare pseudo-tumor of odontogenic origin. the second is a mesolithic (9th-8th millennium bc) wild boar skull presenting an anomalous tooth row including a duplication of the upper left second premolar. both pathologies are d ...201429539502
cementoblastoma in a red deer (cervus elaphus) from the late pleistocene of rochedane, france.only relatively few cases of dental abnormalities in wild ruminants have thus far been described in the paleopathological literature. this study reports a case of cementoblastoma, a benign odontogenic tumor of ectomesenchymal origin, in a red deer (cervus elaphus) from the late pleistocene of rochedane, a prehistoric site in the french jura. the tumor was attached to the root of a heavily worn loose left maxillary third molar. ct imaging revealed several radiolucent (former soft tissue) spaces o ...201529539480
management of hunting waste as control measure for tuberculosis in wild ungulates in south-central recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central spain. this implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (tb). the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as tb control measure in wild boar (sus scrofa) and red deer (cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/20 ...201829536638
pathologic and biochemical characterization of prpscfrom elk with prnp polymorphisms at codon 132 after experimental infection with the chronic wasting disease agent.the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene (prnp) is polymorphic at codon 132, with leucine (l132) and methionine (m132) allelic variants present in the population. in elk experimentally inoculated with the chronic wasting disease (cwd) agent, different incubation periods are associated with prnp genotype: ll132 elk survive the longest, lm132 elk are intermediate, and mm132 elk the shortest. the purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms underlying vari ...201829523205
seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. however, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (cervus elaphus) on the isle of rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. we collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from ...201829519265
effects of mn supplementation in late-gestating and lactating red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) on milk production, milk composition, and calf growth.this study describes the effects of mn supplementation of 20 late-gestating and lactating iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) females (hinds) fed a balanced diet on milk production and milk composition over the lactation period. body weight of their calves at birth and at weaning was also evaluated. in addition, the effect of lactation stage was studied. for these purposes, 2 groups of hinds, one composed by 12 individuals (experimental) and the other by 8 individuals (control) were com ...201829518225
very low influenza a virus prevalence in cervids in german national parks.influenza a viruses are one of the most important and most studied pathogens in humans and domestic animals but little is known about viral prevalence in non-avian wildlife. serum samples from three free-ranging cervid species (red [ cervus elaphus], fallow [ dama dama] , and roe deer [ capreolus capreolus]) were collected from six german national parks between 2000 and 2002. the serum was tested for the presence of influenza a antibodies using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorben ...201829517428
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