PMID(sorted descending)
serological survey of wild cervids in england and wales for bovine viral diarrhoea virus.bovine viral diarrhoea (bvd) is a production disease commonly found in british cattle herds. species other than cattle have been shown to be infected with the virus, thereby providing a potential source of infection for livestock. this study surveyed serum samples taken from 596 culled wild deer from england and wales, between 2009 and 2010, for the presence of bvd antibodies.202032054720
onchocerca jakutensis ocular infection in poland: a new vector-borne human health risk?zoonotic onchocerciasis is a vector-borne disease, which involves many animal species, including large ungulates, boars, dogs, and sporadically, humans. so far, 39 cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis have been reported worldwide, 30 of which have been found in the last 20 years. onchocerca nematodes are transmitted to humans by blood-sucking vectors during a blood meal. the following species have been responsible for zoonotic infections: onchocerca cervicalis, o. dewittei japonica, o. gutturosa, o. ...202032051010
a genome-wide scan study identifies a single nucleotide substitution in the tyrosinase gene associated with white coat colour in a red deer (cervus elaphus) deer with very pale coat colour are observed sporadically. in the red deer (cervus elaphus) population of reinhardswald in germany, about 5% of animals have a white coat colour that is not associated with albinism. in order to facilitate the conservation of the animals, it should be determined whether and to what extent brown animals carry the white gene. for this purpose, samples of one white hind and her brown calf were available for whole genome sequencing to identify the single nucleotid ...202032041521
seroprevalence of small ruminant lentivirus (srlv) infection in wild cervids in poland.small ruminant lentiviruses (srlv) are widespread amongst domesticated sheep and goats worldwide. infection of wild ruminants in close contact with affected domesticated small ruminants has been proposed as an actor in srlv epidemiology, but studies are limited. the aim of this study was to estimate the apparent (ap) and estimated prevalence (ep) of exposure to srlv infection in wild ruminants from poland. samples originating from 198 free-living cervids comprising 142 european red deer and 56 r ...202032004826
increased genetic marker density reveals high levels of admixture between red deer and introduced japanese sika in kintyre, scotland.hybridization is a natural process at species range boundaries, but increasing numbers of species are hybridizing due to direct or indirect human activities. in such cases of anthropogenic hybridization, subsequent introgression can threaten the survival of native species. to date, many such systems have been studied with too few genetic markers to assess the level of threat resulting from advanced backcrossing. here, we use 44,999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and the admixture program ...202031993087
post-epidemic investigation of schmallenberg virus in wild ruminants in slovenia.schmallenberg virus (sbv) is a vector-borne virus belonging to the genus orthobunyavirus within the bunyaviridae family. sbv emerged in europe in 2011 and was characterized by epidemics of abortions, stillbirths and congenital malformations in domestic ruminants. the first evidence of sbv infection in slovenia was from an elisa-positive sample from a cow collected in august 2012; clinical manifestations of sbv disease in sheep and cattle were observed in 2013, with sbv rna detected in samples co ...202031991522
adaptability, resilience and environmental buffering in european refugia during the late pleistocene: insights from la riera cave (asturias, cantabria, spain).the upper palaeolithic in europe was a time of extensive climatic changes that impacted on the survival and distribution of human populations. during the late glacial maximum (lgm), southern european peninsulas were refugia for flora, fauna, and human groups. one of these refugia, the cantabrian region (northern atlantic spain), was intensively occupied throughout the upper palaeolithic. characterising how climatic events were expressed in local environments is crucial to understand human and an ...202031988327
viability longevity and quality of epididymal sperm stored in the liquid state of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).the aim of the study was to evaluate viability longevity and quality of liquid-stored epididymal sperm of european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus). sperm samples were recovered from epididymides of 15 mature stags. samples were diluted to 100 × 106 sperm⁄ml in modified salomon's extender and stored at 5 °c for 25 days. sperm were analyzed to determine total motility (tmot), progressive motility (pmot) and motion variables [casa system], acrosomes with normal apical ridges (nar), viability and ...202031987322
ericaceous species reduce methane emissions in sheep and red deer: respiration chamber measurements and predictions at the scale of european heathlands.despite the importance of atmospheric methane as a potent greenhouse gas and the significant contribution from ruminant enteric fermentation on methane emissions at a global scale, little effort has been made to consider the influence that different plant-based natural diets have on methane emissions in grazing systems. heathland is an ericaceous dwarf-shrub-dominated habitat widespread across the northern hemisphere, in europe, provides valuable ecosystem services in areas with poor soils, such ...202031982753
molecular identification of sarcocysts from tissue of fallow deer (dama dama) farmed in the open pasture system based on ssu rrna gene.sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites of livestock which also infect birds, lower vertebrates and mammals, including man. wild and domestic ruminants such as red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, cattle, sheep and goats may act as intermediate hosts for many sarcocystis species, some of which are significant pathogens causing sarcocystosis in livestock and humans. the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystis species in fallow deer farmed in an open pasture system ...202031981017
rewilding with large herbivores: positive direct and delayed effects of carrion on plant and arthropod communities.carrion of large animals is an extremely nutrient rich, ephemeral resource that is essential for many species, but is scarce in the anthropogenic western-european landscape due to legislative restrictions. rewilding, a novel conservation strategy that aims at restoring natural processes with minimal human intervention, is increasing in popularity and could lead to increased carrion availability in the landscape. it is therefore important to understand the effects of carrion on biodiversity. we i ...202031967995
progesterone and cortisol levels in blood and hair of wild pregnant red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds.the red deer (cervus elaphus l., 1758) is one of the largest deer species in the world. females are seasonal polyestrous, with negative photoperiod: the increase of the night peak of melatonin determines the secretion of gnrh and, therefore, lh and fsh. to date there is little information regarding the hormonal control during pregnancy for this species; this could be due to the difficulty of sampling wild subjects, while farmed animals' hormonal concentrations may not reflect the physiology of t ...202031963117
vaccination of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) with mycobacterium bovis bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) results in positive tuberculin skin test results in a dose-dependent fashion.mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most mammalian species, most notably cattle and other members of the family bovidae; however, many species of the family cervidae are also susceptible. in north america, tuberculosis has been identified in both captive and free-ranging cervids. captive cervids are tested for tuberculosis following many of the same guidelines applied to cattle, including intradermal tuberculin testing using m. bovis purified protein derivative (ppd). both captiv ...202031954316
first molecular detection of onchocerca flexuosa (wedl, 1856) in red deer in slovakia.the present paper deals with the post-mortem diagnostics of onchocerciasis and the molecular detection of causative agents of this disease in wild ruminant ungulates (cervus elaphus, dama dama and capreolus capreolus). the animals were shot in hunting seasons 2017 and 2018, in two regions of the eastern slovakia. the total number of examined skins was fifty-eight. the presence of subcutaneous nodules was confirmed in 27.59% (95% ci 16-39) of animals. all positive skins belonged to red deer indiv ...202031953565
parenteral cu supplementation of late-gestating and lactating iberian red deer hinds fed a balanced diet reduces somatic cell count and modifies mineral profile of milk.: this study describes the effects that cu supplementation of late-gestating and lactating females (hinds) of iberian red deer fed a balanced diet have on milk production, composition, and somatic cell count (scc). experimental hinds (n = 9) were subcutaneously injected every 42 days with cu (0.83 mg cu/kg body weight) from day 202 of gestation until the end of lactation (week 18). control hinds (n = 8) were injected with a physiological saline solution with the same volume and at the same frequ ...202031947856
infection with foamy virus in wild ruminants-evidence for a new virus reservoir?foamy viruses (fvs) are widely distributed and infect many animal species including non-human primates, horses, cattle, and cats. several reports also suggest that other species can be fv hosts. since most of such studies involved livestock or companion animals, we aimed to test blood samples from wild ruminants for the presence of fv-specific antibodies and, subsequently, genetic material. out of 269 serum samples tested by elisa with the bovine foamy virus (bfv) gag and bet antigens, 23 sera s ...202031947727
a spatial ecology study in a high-diversity host community to understand blood-feeding behaviour in phlebotomus sandfly vectors of leishmania.molecular studies indicate that phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) blood feed on many vertebrate species, of which only a few are proven parasite reservoirs. investigating sandfly vector feeding preferences is therefore important and requires taking into account the availability and accessibility of host species. in terms of the latter, it is necessary to consider the metabolic cost to the insect of reaching the host and moving on to a suitable breeding site. the present study used st ...202031930740
assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance effectiveness in french wildlife: an operational approach.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a chronic, zoonotic, bacterial disease mostly caused by mycobacterium bovis, which can affect both domestic and wild species. france was officially declared btb-free in 2001 but faced since 2004 an increase of the prevalence in cattle. since 2001, btb has been detected in several wild species: red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), wild boar (sus scrofa) and badger (meles meles). infected wild species constitute a major threat, because they may co ...202031923750
identifying maintenance hosts for infection with dichelobacter nodosus in free-ranging wild ruminants in switzerland: a prevalence study.footrot is a worldwide economically important, painful, contagious bacterial foot disease of domestic and wild ungulates caused by dichelobacter nodosus. benign and virulent strains have been identified in sheep presenting with mild and severe lesions, respectively. however, in alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), both strains have been associated with severe lesions. because the disease is widespread throughout sheep flocks in switzerland, a nationwide footrot control program for sheep focusing on vi ...202031917824
cutaneous fibropapilloma in a red deer (cervus elaphus) associated with cervus elaphus papillomavirus in portugal.a pedunculated cauliflower-like mass was detected on the left posterior limb of a subadult male red deer (cervus elaphus) after a hunt in portugal. histologically the lesion was classified as cutaneous fibropapilloma. the identification of cervus elaphus papillomavirus (cepv-1 variant) was based on sequencing of the l1 gene. the l2 sequence revealed a nine-nucleotide deletion, as already reported in the italian and hungarian cepv-1, further supporting the theory that this is a distinctive genomi ...202031917637
immune challenge of mating effort: steroid hormone profile, dark ventral patch and parasite burden in relation to intrasexual competition in male iberian red deer.testosterone secretion may regulate the reproductive effort and the development of sexual traits, but it may also involve costs at the immunological and metabolic levels. however, the evidence for this trade-off in wild populations is scarce. cortisol also plays an important role in mediating the reproductive and immune functions. in this study, we analyzed whether the endoparasite burden relates to hormonal levels (fecal testosterone and cortisol metabolites) and/or morphological sexual traits ...202031912636
investigation of anti-fatigue effect and simultaneous determination of eight nucleosides in different parts of velvet antler in red deer and sika deer.velvet antler (va) is crucial and precious nourishment in china and some countries in southeast asia and has excellent anti-fatigue effect. the incidence of fatigue syndrome has increased gradually. va can be a potential source of anti-fatigue products. therefore, we investigated the anti-fatigue activity of different sections (upper, middle, and basal section) of va from different species (red deer and sika deer) via loading swimming test in mice. furthermore, nucleosides are one kind of active ...202031900973
efficacy and animal welfare impacts of novel capture methods for two species of invasive wild mammals in new zealand.all capture methods impose animal welfare impacts, but these impacts are rarely quantified or reported. we present data from two wildlife capture studies that trialled new methods for capturing bennett's wallabies (notamacropus rufogriseus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in new zealand. we used helicopter net-gunning for both species, and compared this method with ground-based netting for wallabies and helicopter darting for red deer, using, for the first time in new zealand, the fast-acting opio ...201931878314
cervids as sentinel-species for tick-borne encephalitis virus in norway - a serological study.tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe). tbev is one of the most important neurological pathogens transmitted by tick bites in europe. the objectives of this study were to investigate the seroprevalence of tbe antibodies in cervids in norway and the possible emergence of new foci, and furthermore to evaluate if cervids can function as sentinel animals for the distribution of tbev in the country. serum samples from 286 moose, 148 roe deer, 140 ...201931855321
prevalence and subtypes of blastocystis sp. infection in zoo animals in three cities in china.blastocystis is a highly prevalent eukaryotic parasite of many animals and humans worldwide. it can compromise the gastrointestinal tract and cause gastrointestinal symptoms, constituting a serious threat to human health and animal growth. many animals are potential sources of blastocystis infection in humans. however, limited data are available regarding the prevalence and subtype distribution of blastocystis infection among zoo animals in china. therefore, the present study examined the preval ...202031845021
spatio-temporal patterns of sarcoptic mange in red deer and iberian ibex in a multi-host natural park.the reliance on multiple hosts to survive is what makes the management and control of multi-host infectious agents challenging. sarcoptes scabiei causes sarcoptic mange in a wide range of mammal species with ungulates being an important host. little is known about the role different ungulates play in sustaining endemic transmission of the disease and no study has yet to describe the long-term multi-host sarcoptic infestation dynamics in free-ranging wildlife. here, we explore 24 years of sarcopt ...202031837510
lc-ms determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair extracted using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite.a novel analytical methodology for the extraction and determination of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and their metabolites dl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol and dl-3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid by lc-ms is developed and validated for its application to human and animal urine and hair samples. the method is based on the preliminary extraction of the analytes by a magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. this is followed by a <9 min chro ...202031812837
body composition and venison quality of farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds reared on grass, papilionaceous or mixed pasture deer (cervus elaphus) hinds ( n=3×10 ) of identical initial body weight (bw, ca. 68 kg) were reared on a monocotyledonous grass (g group), on a grass-papilionaceous (gp group) or on pure papilionaceous pasture each of 2 ha (p group) for 219 d. at the end of the experiment carcass tissue composition was assessed by means of computer tomography, slaughter value and meat quality were characterized and tissue - longissimus thoracis et lumborum (ltl), thigh and liver - samples were taken for fatt ...201931807633
vitamin b12 test volume data before and after the implementation of an educational province-wide intervention to reduce redundant testing in alberta.the data presented in this article is the provincial vitamin b12 test volume data for alberta, canada per month between april 1, 2015 and april 30, 2018. this data set was collected from the three different alberta public laboratories laboratory information systems: cerner millennium for calgary, sunquest for edmonton, and meditech for the remaining rural zones of alberta (bonnyville, grand prairie, camrose, red deer, and medicine hat). an educational province-wide intervention aimed at reducing ...201931788514
presence of roe deer affects the occurrence of anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in questing ixodes ricinus in different habitat types of central europe.the way in which european genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum circulate in their natural foci and which variants cause disease in humans or livestock remains thus far unclear. red deer and roe deer are suggested to be reservoirs for some european a. phagocytophilum strains, and ixodes ricinus is their principal vector. based on groel gene sequences, five a. phagocytophilum ecotypes have been identified. ecotype i is associated with the broadest host range, including strains that cause ...201931783486
wolf diet and prey selection in the south-eastern carpathian mountains, romania.the romanian wolf population, one of the largest in europe, occupies a total home-range of 154500 km2 and is spread across a variety of landscapes-from anthropized hills and plateaus to remote, densely forested mountains. however, this population is markedly understudied, and even basic knowledge of the species' feeding habits is deficient. wolf diet was assessed based on 236 scat samples collected between november 2013 and october 2014, by following pre-established transects (total length = 774 ...201931751409
habitat and host factors associated with liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) diagnoses in wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in the scottish deer (cervus elaphus) are a common wild definitive host for liver fluke (fasciola hepatica) that have been the subject of limited diagnostic surveillance. this study aimed to explore the extent to which coprological diagnoses for f. hepatica in red deer in the scottish highlands, scotland, are associated with variability among hosts and habitats.201931718680
a novel, rapid and simple method for detecting brucellosis based on rapid vertical flow prevent the spread of brucellosis, a simple and rapid vertical flow technology (rvft) for the detection of antibodies targeting brucellosis was developed.202031715073
shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli isolates from red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) in poland.shiga toxin-producing escherichia (e.) coli (stec) pathogens are responsible for the outbreaks of serious diseases in humans, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus), bloody diarrhoea (bd) and diarrhoea (d), and they pose a significant public health concern. wild ruminants are an important environmental reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and contaminate fresh products. there is a general scarcity of published data about wildlife as a reservoir of food ...202031703865
the use of cytochrome b and ryanodine polymorphism to identify dna of animal and human origin.the aim of this study was to determine a match between dna recovered from evidence material, such as knocked down red deer, and from comparative material in form of two brown traces on the bonnet of a car driven by a person suspected of knocking down the animal. the spots coming from the car provided no dna profile, which questioned that they originated from a red deer and ruled out performance of a comparative dna analysis. for this reason, the material obtained from the blood smear was analyze ...201931703163
the role of selection and evolution in changing parturition date in a red deer population.changing environmental conditions cause changes in the distributions of phenotypic traits in natural populations. however, determining the mechanisms responsible for these changes-and, in particular, the relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity versus evolutionary responses-is difficult. to our knowledge, no study has yet reported evidence that evolutionary change underlies the most widely reported phenotypic response to climate change: the advancement of breeding times. in a wild populat ...201931689300
diversity of babesia spp. in cervid ungulates based on the 18s rdna and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i ranging ungulates, represented in europe mostly by several deer species, are important hosts for ticks and reservoirs of tick-borne infections. a number of studies have focused on the prevalence of tick borne pathogens in deer chiefly with the aim to determine their potential role as reservoir hosts for important human and livestock pathogens. however, genetic similarity of babesia spp. forming a group commonly termed as a clade vi that accommodates the deer piroplasms, complicates this tas ...202031678240
deer keds on wild ungulates in northern italy, with a taxonomic key for the identification of lipoptena spp. of europe.deer keds (lipoptena spp.) are blood-sucking ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and also accidentally of humans. in europe, five lipoptena spp. have been recorded, although the lack of specific taxonomic keys has often led to mistaken identification or to missing data. the present study aimed to develop an identification key of the european species and also to identify lipoptena spp. found on wild ungulates in northern italy. in total, 390 hippoboscids were collected from rupicapra rupi ...202031674696
elaphostrongylus and dictyocaulus infections in norwegian wild reindeer and red deer populations in relation to summer pasture altitude and climate.nematodes of the genera elaphostrongylus and dictyocaulus are associated with disease in semi-domesticated tundra reindeer and farmed red deer whereas less knowledge exists in the wild. their first stage larvae (l1) develop to the infective third stage (l3) in the environment; elaphostrongylus spp. within intermediate gastropod hosts and dictyocaulus spp. as free-living larvae. larval development of elaphostrongylus is highly temperature dependent with a developmental minimum of 9-10 °c. larval ...201931667081
sarcocystis morae (apicomplexa) in fallow deer (dama dama) from spain: ultrastructure and new host record.members of the genus sarcocystis are frequently found infecting members of the family cervidae. although sarcocystis species are generally host specific for their intermediate hosts, species in cervids appear to be less host specific. here, we report fallow deer (dama dama) as a new host for sarcocystis morae, originally described from the red deer (cervus elaphus). tongues of 69 legally hunted animals in spain were tested for sarcocysts, and the species were characterized by light microscopy, u ...201931660793
low serologic prevalences suggest sporadic infections of hepatitis e virus in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in the italian alps.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a worldwide public health concern, with an increase in human autochthonous cases in europe. although domestic pigs and wild boar (sus scrofa) are the main reservoirs of hev, the constant expansion of wild ruminants increases the potential for hev transmission. we investigated hev infection in chamois (rupicapra rupicapra) and red deer (cervus elaphus) in the italian alps using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). we detected hev antibodies from 2013 to 2015 in ...202031658433
influence of foetal calf serum supplementation during in vitro embryo culture in iberian red deer.nowadays, the use of foetal calf serum (fcs) during in vitro embryo culture is very controversial. whilst some authors have encouraged its use, others reject it because of its harmful effects. although in vitro embryo production in red deer is a promising assisted reproductive technique, it is still in its infancy and a great effort is needed to update the protocols used. the aim of this study was to assess whether fcs supplementation in red deer embryo culture medium is necessary to produce bla ...201931625239
no evidence of hepatitis e virus infection in farmed deer in germany.hepatitis e virus (hev) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but hev infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. however, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from fallow deer, red deer, and sika deer strictly hold in game enclosures from 11 farms in germany were a ...202031625032
head to head: the case for fighting behaviour in megaloceros giganteus using finite-element analysis.the largest antlers of any known deer species belonged to the extinct giant deer megaloceros giganteus. it has been argued that their antlers were too large for use in fighting, instead being used only in ritualized displays to attract mates. here, we used finite-element analysis to test whether the antlers of m. giganteus could have withstood forces generated during fighting. we compared the mechanical performance of antlers in m. giganteus with three extant deer species: red deer (cervus elaph ...201931594504
prevalence of coxiella burnetii (legionellales: coxiellaceae) infection among wildlife species and the tick hyalomma lusitanicum (acari: ixodidae) in a meso-mediterranean ecosystem.q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by coxiella burnetii (derrick) philip. it is a major cause of abortion among sheep and may be responsible for reproductive losses in red deer in spain. airborne transmission is the most widespread; however, some studies suggested that ticks may play a role, but little is known about their actual involvement in the c. burnetii cycle. the aim of this study was to determine the role that hyalomma lusitanicum (koch) tick plays in the maintenance of this agent a ...202031589748
red deer (cervus elaphus) did not play the role of maintenance host for bluetongue virus in france: the burden of proof by long-term wildlife monitoring and culicoides snapshots.bluetongue virus (btv) is a culicoides-borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. in europe, the red deer (cervus elaphus) (rd) is considered a potential btv reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. in this paper, we explored the dynamics of btv1 and btv8 serotypes in the rd in france, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of btv8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). we performed 8 years of ...201931569721
cellular distribution of the prion protein in palatine tonsils of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) that affects members of the cervidae family, including deer (odocoileus spp.), elk (cervus canadensis spp.), and moose (alces alces spp.). while cwd is a neurodegenerative disease, lymphoid accumulation of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (prpsc) is detectable early in the course of infection. it has been shown that a large portion of the prpsc lymphoid accumulation in infected mule deer takes place on the ...201931548473
can plant traits predict seed dispersal probability via red deer guts, fur, and hooves?seed dispersal by mammals provides functional connectivity between isolated plant habitat patches. across much of europe, red deer (cervus elaphus) populations are growing steadily, potentially leading to increasing importance of this large mammal species to plant dispersal. while deer endozoochory is relatively well studied, epizoochory via fur and hoof attachment is much less understood. seed dispersal internally and externally on 57 red deer individuals was investigated by sampling the seed c ...201931534692
cryptosporidium infections in terrestrial ungulates with focus on livestock: a systematic review and meta-analysis.cryptosporidium spp. are causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. mortality resulting from the disease is low in livestock, although severe cryptosporidiosis has been associated with fatality in young animals.201931521186
shedding of mycobacterium caprae by wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in the bavarian alpine regions, germany.the number of natural infections with mycobacterium caprae in wildlife and in cattle in the bavarian and austrian alpine regions has increased over the last decade. red deer (cervus elaphus) have been recognized as maintenance reservoir; however, the transmission routes of m. caprae among and from naturally infected red deer are unknown. the unexpected high prevalence in some hot spot regions might suggest an effective indirect transmission of infection. therefore, this study was undertaken to d ...202031512795
characteristics of subclinical mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in a captive white-tailed deer herd.paratuberculosis (johne's disease) is caused by mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (map), and affects both domestic and wild ruminants, including cattle, goats, sheep, and deer. in cattle, most infections occur during calfhood followed by a prolonged incubation period of 1-2 y or more before cows shed culturable numbers of map bacilli in their feces. as disease progresses, infected animals develop protein-losing enteropathy, intractable diarrhea, and weight loss. in a cohort of 32 clinica ...201931510911
the intensity of male-male competition may affect chemical scent constituents in the dark ventral patch of male iberian red deer.during the mating season, iberian red deer males (cervus elaphus hispanicus) present a large visible dark ventral area in their abdomen. this characteristic dark-haired area is formed by the impregnation of the hair with sprayed urine and gland secretions and contains volatile compounds that can be used in intraspecific communication. here, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) to describe the lipophilic chemicals from the dark ventral patch of males from different populations wit ...201931479490
influence of farming conditions on the rumen of red deer (cervus elaphus).the red deer is an intermediate feeder, showing a marked degree of forage selectivity, with seasonal morphological adaptations due to changes in food quality and availability. in captivity, deer have a limited choice of habitat and food, and we hypothesize that this condition affects the rumen environment. rumen samples were collected from 20 farmed and 11 wild red deer in autumn 2018 in poland, and analyzed for chemical composition, food residues, microbial population, and rumen papillation. fa ...201931450866
temporal and spatial spread of hypoderma actaeon infection in roe deer from peninsular spain determined by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the host switching of hypoderma actaeon (diptera: oestridae), a specific parasite of red deer (cervus elaphus), towards roe deer (capreolus capreolus) has been recently reported in spain. to provide information about the temporal and spatial spreading of h. actaeon infection in roe deer, 244 serum samples from animals hunted in spain between 2013 and 2018 were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the overall seropositivity was 13.9%. seropositivity was higher in continental ...202031444796
differentiation of live and dead mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in meat samples using pma qpcr.the causative agents of zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (btb), mycobacterium bovis and m. caprae, are members of the m. tuberculosis complex (mtc). wildlife such as red deer infected with btb are often without pathological findings, thus meat thereof may be classified as safe for human consumption. the culturing of mtc is time consuming and inappropriate to be applied with fresh meat and food. therefore, a rapid method "pma qpcr" to differentiate living and dead cells of mtc was developed in this s ...201931421753
consistent within-individual plasticity is sufficient to explain temperature responses in red deer reproductive traits.warming global temperatures are affecting a range of aspects of wild populations, but the exact mechanisms driving associations between temperature and phenotypic traits may be difficult to identify. here, we use a 36-year data set on a wild population of red deer to investigate the causes of associations between temperature and two important components of female reproduction: timing of breeding and offspring size. by separating within- versus between-individual associations with temperature for ...201931420999
afforested farmland vs. forestland: effects of bark stripping by cervus elaphus and climate on production potential and structure of picea abies forests.the aim of this study was to evaluate (1) effects of bark stripping and climatic factors on radial growth of picea abies /l./ karst., (2) production and structural differences between stands established on the forestland and abandoned farmland (afforested farmland-henceforth, farmland), and (3) interaction among the losses caused by ungulate damages, production, diversity, and soil types. data acquired from four permanent research plots (prps) located on the forestland and eight prps on the farm ...201931415638
genotyping of pestivirus a (bovine viral diarrhea virus 1) detected in faeces and in other specimens of domestic and wild ruminants at the wildlife-livestock interface.pestiviruses are widespread in the world among ungulates and infect both domestic and wild animals causing severe economic losses in livestock. bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (bvdv-1), now re-designated as pestivirus a, causes diseases mainly in cattle, while few data are available about infection in wild ruminants and about the role of these animals in viral maintenance and spread. in order to investigate bvdv-1 infection in domestic and wild ruminants, especially at the wildlife/livestock ...201931383300
screening of wild ruminants from the kaunertal and other alpine regions of tyrol (austria) for vector-borne pathogens.knowledge about vector-borne pathogens important for human and veterinary medicine in wild ruminants in tyrol (austria) is scarce. blood samples from alpine ibex (capra ibex; n = 44), alpine chamois (rupicapra rupicapra; n = 21), roe deer (capreolus capreolus; n = 18) and red deer (cervus elaphus; n = 6) were collected over a period of 4 years (2015-2018) in four regions in north tyrol, with a primary focus on the kaunertal. blood spots on filter paper were tested for the presence of dna of vect ...201931375956
do prey select for vacant hunting domains to minimize a multi-predator threat?many ecosystems contain sympatric predator species that hunt in different places and times. we tested whether this provides vacant hunting domains, places and times where and when predators are least active, that prey use to minimize threats from multiple predators simultaneously. we measured how northern yellowstone elk (cervus elaphus) responded to wolves (canis lupus) and cougars (puma concolor), and found that elk selected for areas outside the high-risk domains of both predators consistent ...201931373137
variation in the prion protein gene (prnp) sequence of wild deer in great britain and mainland europe.susceptibility to prion diseases is largely determined by the sequence of the prion protein gene (prnp), which encodes the prion protein (prp). the recent emergence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in europe has highlighted the need to investigate prnp gene diversity in european deer species, to better predict their susceptibility to cwd. here we report a large genetic survey of six british deer species, including red (cervus elaphus), sika (cervus nippon), roe (capreolus capreolus), fallow (dam ...201931366372
analysis of 19 minerals and cortisol in red deer hair in two different areas of the stelvio national park: a preliminary study.the aim of the study was to perform an investigation on the concentration of 19 minerals and cortisol in red deer (cervuselaphus) hair, a matrix that is easy to collect with non-invasive and painless sampling, able to represent an integrative values of long-term substance concentrations, and able to give useful information, also when performed on dead animals, given its extreme stability over time. in the study thirty-five animals were included, coming from two different sides of a valley in the ...201931357529
comparative proteomics analysis reveals the difference during antler regeneration stage between red deer and sika deer.deer antler, as the only mammalian regenerative appendage, provides an optimal model to study regenerative medicine. antler harvested from red deer or sika deer were mainly study objects used to disclose the mechanism underlying antler regeneration over past decades. a previous study used proteomic technology to reveal the signaling pathways of antler stem cell derived from red deer. moreover, transcriptome of antler tip from sika deer provide us with the essential genes, which regulated antler ...201931346498
chemokine-binding proteins encoded by parapoxvirus of red deer of new zealand display evidence of gene duplication and divergence of ligand specificity.parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz) is a species of the parapoxvirus genus that causes pustular dermatitis. we identified a cluster of genes in pvnz that encode three unique chemokine-binding proteins (cbps) namely orf112.0, orf112.3 and orf112.6. chemokines are a large family of molecules that direct cell trafficking to sites of inflammation and through lymphatic organs. the pvnz-cbps were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance against a broad spectrum of cxc, cc, xc and cx3c chemokin ...201931293551
first detection and molecular identification of the zoonotic anaplasma capra in deer in france.cervids are known to be reservoirs of zoonotic bacteria transmitted by ticks. this study aimed to identify the anaplasma species carried by captive red deer and swamp deer in a wild fauna reserve in france. blood from 59 red deer and 7 swamp deer was collected and analyzed over a period of two years. a semi-nested pcr targeting the 23s rrna was performed to detect and characterize anaplasma spp. and determine the presence of zoonotic species. anaplasma phagocytophilum was identified in 14/59 red ...201931276519
studies on the physicochemical characteristics of the new zealand deer's tail, cervus elaphus var. scoticus (iii).this study was designed to determine the nutritional profile and functional components of the nzt (new zealand deer's tail, cervus elaphus var. scoticus lönnberg). twenty-nine fatty acids, eighteen amino acids, twenty-five minerals, chondroitin, and phospholipids were detected by the auto-fatty acid analyzer, auto-amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer, absorbance measurements, and by weighing after separating, respectively. 7-ketocholesterol was isola ...201931275701
different maternal investment strategies for male and female calves in a polygynous mammal.maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the mother influences that of the young to the detriment of her survival, growth or fitness. the investment of the mother can be affected by maternal body condition and/or experience. trivers-willard hypothesis (twh) and local resource competition hypothesis (lrch) are the main hypotheses used to explain bias in birth sex-ratios in mammals, as well as for sex-biased maternal investment. both hypotheses suggest that a different amount of investment mus ...201931263485
in vitro culture of deer vitro embryo production of deer species has the potential to increase valuable traits for the agricultural sector, and from a conservation perspective, it is a propagation tool which can improve genetic diversity in small captive populations. in vitro embryo production is a multistep process consisting of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture. these techniques provide the backbone for more advanced assisted reproductive technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ics ...201931230282
a proteomic-based approach for the search of biomarkers in iberian wild deer (cervus elaphus) as indicators of meat quality.the positive perception of deer meat among consumers is growing. consequently, further efforts are needed to control its meat quality. specifically, the aim of this study was to search protein biomarkers in connection with tenderness and intramuscular fat (imf) content of iberian wild red deer (cervus elaphus) meat. twelve venison samples classified as tender, intermediate and tough meat, as well as with different imf were studied, using quantitative proteomic by swath-ms combined with bioinform ...201931228583
unravelling the sex- and age-specific impact of poaching mortality with multievent modeling.poaching is a prominent source of 'hidden hurdles', cryptic impacts of human activities that may hinder the conservation of animal populations. estimating poaching mortality is challenging, as the evidence for illegal killing is not outwardly obvious. using resighting and recovery data collected on 141 marked red deer cervus elaphus within the stelvio national park (central italian alps), we show how multievent models allow to assess the direct impacts of illegal harvesting on age- and sex-speci ...201931210776
presence of organic halogenated compounds, organophosphorus insecticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat of different game animal species from an italian subalpine area.the exposure to several compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), organochlorine pesticides (ocps), organophosphorus pesticides (ops), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pahs), perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) is a public health issue. the european union (eu) recommended that its member states monitor the presence of emerging contaminants, like pbdes and pfass, in food and in the environment to obtain an accurate estimation of exposure. the tis ...201931192775
investigation of toxoplasma gondii and association with early pregnancy and abortion rates in new zealand farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).this study tested for association between toxoplasma gondii and pregnancy and abortion to investigate sub-optimal reproduction in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus). sera from a sub-sample (n = 2304) of pregnant and non-pregnant hinds in early gestation at first pregnancy scan (scan 1) and approximately at the end of second trimester at second pregnancy scan (scan 2) were tested for t. gondii antibodies using a validated elisa. foetuses and/or uteri from pregnant, non-pregnant, and aborting hinds ...201931187222
serum haptoglobin response in red deer naturally infected with tuberculosis.the analysis of haptoglobin (hp) serum concentration is a very sensitive, but non-specific, indicator of inflammation or infection. methods to accurately diagnose infection in vivo in wildlife are usually constrained by low sensitivity due to the effects of stress on individual immune response and the challenging logistics of performing tests in the wild. firstly, we sought to determine serum hp concentration in red deer (cervus elaphus) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (tb). secondly ...201931174696
molecular and morphological characterization of cysticercus tenuicollis in red deer (cervus elaphus) from turkey.cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of taenia hydatigena has a worldwide distribution and is particularly common in rural areas and developing countries. in rare cases, t. hydatigena infection may result in the death of its host due to severe damage or secondary bacterial infections. generally, when multiple cysts are attached to the liver, it causes economic losses. the infection can be detected using morphological, histopathological and more recently, molecular investigations.201931165988
calibration of life history traits with epiphyseal closure, dental eruption and bone histology in captive and wild red deer.the study of skeletochronology and bone tissue as a record of information on ontogenetic stages and events is widely used for improving the knowledge about life histories (lhs) of extinct and extant vertebrates. compared with dinosaurs and extant reptiles, mammalian bone histology has received little attention. here, we calibrate for the first time bone and dental age with histological bone characteristics and lh stages in ontogenetic series of red deer. we rely on known lhs of different aged in ...201931148188
new findings of setaria tundra and setaria cervi in the red deer (cervus elaphus) in poland.our study aimed at examining the phylogenetic position of the newly-found setaria nematodes obtained from the red deer (cervus elaphus) based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1). alignment and phylogenetic analyses, as well as sem microscopic analysis, revealed the presence of two setaria species: s. cervi and s. tundra. setaria tundra was noted in only one individual, a calf of the red deer, while s. cervi was observed in three stages, two hinds and one calf ...201931142386
analgesic efficacy of articaine hydrochloride for velvet antler removal in red deer (cervus elaphus) and analysis of drug residues in the harvested velvet investigate the analgesic efficacy of articaine hydrochloride for antler removal in red deer (cervus elaphus) following s/c administration as a ring block, and to quantify the residue concentrations of articaine compared to lignocaine in the harvested antlers.201931034783
the first detection of ashworthius sidemi (nematoda, trichostrongylidae) in roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in russia.ashworthius sidemi is a blood-sucking nematode, which has spread out among wild ruminants in several european countries during last decades. the nematode has recently been detected in cattle as well. the distribution of a. sidemi in russia has not been sufficiently clarified yet. in european part of russia a. sidemi was formerly registered in sika deer (cervus nippon) and maral (cervus elaphus sibiricus) introduced from asia, and also in aboriginal elks (alces alces). taking into consideration t ...201831014730
frequency of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminth infections in wild deer from western romania.a survey was carried out to assess the prevalence and the intensity of helminth infections in the roe deer (capreolus capreolus l.), red deer (cervus elaphus l.) and fallow deer (dama dama l.) from 16 hunting areas in western romania. overall, 122 deer shot during the hunting season 2013-2015 were examined. haemonchus contortus, nematodirus filicollis, oesophagostomum venulosum and dictyocalus spp. were found in all the deer species. trichuris spp. and dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in the ...201731014642
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti in a wildlife conservation area in southern portugal.toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia besnoiti are closely related apicomplexan protozoa. t. gondii is a zoonotic pathogen which may cause serious disease in man and warm-blooded animals, including wild species. b. besnoiti causes bovine besnoitiosis, an emergent disease in europe, which is linked to important production losses. unlike t. gondii, the life cycle of b. besnoiti remains a mystery, since the definitive host has not yet been identified. the aim of this work was to determine the seroprevale ...201631014504
red deer umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cell extract cream for rejuvenation of the facebackground: aging is a multifactorial process that involves all components of the skin. both intrinsic and extrinsic forces play a role in this aging process. a new patented protein mix derived from red deer umbilical cord lining stem cell conditioned media (calecim® multi action cream, cellresearch corporation, singapore) has been developed to improve the signs of aging. the extract is the conditioned media from umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cell culture in basal media and consists of ...201931012565
quality parameters of hunted game meat: sensory analysis and ph monitoring.the aim of the present research is to propose a new, quick and objective method for the certification of hunted and/or culled wild game meat quality and to monitor its origin and the hunting practices adopted by hunters. the expected deliverable is a new labelling scheme for italian hunted wild game meat that will guarantee high quality and safety standards for consumers and will decrease transaction costs of the supply chains. during the 2015, 2016 and 2017 hunting seasons, 1,056 hunted wild un ...201931008084
packaging venison for extended chilled storage: comparison of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging containing 100% carbon dioxide.thirty red deer ( cervus elaphus ) stags were slaughtered at three deer slaughter premises (plants a, b, and c) to determine the effects of initial microbial flora on the quality of chilled venison loins stored using three packaging methods: vacuum packaging (vp), modified atmosphere packaging using an ultra-high barrier outer barrier film (co2-uhb), and modified atmosphere packaging using a dual aluminized polyethylene outer barrier film (co2-mpet), all of which were stored for 6, 12, and 18 we ...198931003357
sex-specific differences in spring and autumn migration in a northern large herbivore.ongoing global warming is now affecting migratory cycles in a large variety of taxa in seasonally variable environments. disruption of migratory systems can cause population decline and affect ecosystem function across the globe. it is therefore urgent to understand the drivers of migration and how the different fitness limitations of the sexes affect migration, but studies seldom considered the full annual cycle. we analysed the annual migration cycle of 237 red deer (cervus elaphus) in norway ...201930992511
maternal longevity and offspring sex in wild species with sexual size dimorphism, the offspring of the larger sex usually have greater energy requirements and may lead to greater fitness costs for parents. the effects of offspring sex on maternal longevity, however, have only been tested in humans. human studies produced mixed results and considerable debate mainly owing to the difficulty of distinguishing the effects of sexual dimorphism from sociocultural factors. to advance this debate, we examined how the relative number of sons inf ...201930963926
a hierarchical bayesian approach for handling missing classification data.ecologists use classifications of individuals in categories to understand composition of populations and communities. these categories might be defined by demographics, functional traits, or species. assignment of categories is often imperfect, but frequently treated as observations without error. when individuals are observed but not classified, these "partial" observations must be modified to include the missing data mechanism to avoid spurious inference.we developed two hierarchical bayesian ...201930962886
using genotyping-by-sequencing to predict gender in animals.gender assignment errors are common in some animal species and lead to inaccuracies in downstream analyses. procedures for detecting gender misassignment are available for array-based snp data but are still being developed for genotyping-by-sequencing (gbs) data. in this study, we describe a method for using gbs data to predict gender using x and y chromosomal snps. from a set of 1286 x chromosomal and 23 y chromosomal deer (cervus sp.) snps discovered from gbs sequence reads, a prediction model ...201930957265
microwear and isotopic analyses on cave bear remains from toll cave reveal both short-term and long-term dietary habits.dietary habits of the extinct ursus spelaeus have always been a controversial topic in paleontological studies. in this work, we investigate carbon and nitrogen values in the bone collagen and dental microwear of u. spelaeus specimens recovered in level 4 from toll cave (moià, catalonia, ne iberian peninsula). these remains have been dated to > 49,000 14c bp. the ability of both proxies to provide data on the diet of u. spelaeus at different times in the life-history (isotopes: average diet of l ...201930952915
a novel parvovirus, roe deer copiparvovirus, identified in ixodes ricinus ticks.the family parvoviridae contains diverse viruses that are capable of infecting a wide range of hosts. in this study, metagenomic sequencing of ixodes ricinus ticks harvested in 2016 on red deer (cervus elaphus) and european roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in belgium detected a new 6296-bp parvoviral genome. phylogenetic and sequence analyses showed the new virus belongs to a new species within the copiparvovirus genus. pcr screening of 4 pools of 10 serum samples from both deer species identified ...201930945175
the fine-scale landscape of immunity and parasitism in a wild ungulate population.spatial heterogeneity in susceptibility and exposure to parasites is a common source of confounding variation in disease ecology studies. however, it is not known whether spatial autocorrelation acts on immunity at small scales, within wild animal populations, and whether this predicts spatial patterns in infection. here we used a well-mixed wild population of individually recognized red deer (cervus elaphus) inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape to investigate fine-scale spatial patterns of immu ...201930942858
bacterial colonisation of reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of tarim red deer (cervus elaphus yarkandensis).the rumen microbiome contributes greatly to the degradation of plant fibres to volatile fatty acids and microbial products, affecting the health and productivity of ruminants. in this study, we investigated the dynamics of colonisation by bacterial communities attached to reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of tarim red deer, a native species distributed in the desert of the tarim basin. the reed and cottonseed hull samples incubated in nylon bags for 1, 6, 12, and 48 h were collected and us ...201930941531
joint effects of weather and interspecific competition on foraging behavior and survival of a mountain variations have the potential to influence species interactions, although effects on competitive interactions between species are poorly known. both weather and competition can influence foraging behavior and survival of herbivores during nursing/weaning, a critical period in the herbivore life cycle. we evaluated the joint effects of weather and competition with red deer cervus elaphus on the foraging behavior of adult female apennine chamois rupicapra pyrenaica ornata in summer, and on ...201930936905
estimating the amount of chronic wasting disease infectivity passing through abattoirs and field slaughter.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a highly infectious, naturally occurring, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse, or prion disease) affecting many cervid species. cwd has been widely circulating in north america since it was first reported in 1967. in 2016, the first european case of prion disease in deer was reported and confirmed in norway. there have since been several confirmed several cases in reindeer and moose and in one red deer in norway, and recently in a moose in finland. there ...201930935503
first detection of chronic wasting disease in a wild red deer (cervus elaphus) in europe.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal contagious prion disease naturally occurring in cervids in north america. in 2016, cwd was detected in wild reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and moose (alces alces) in norway. here, we report the first known naturally infected wild norwegian red deer (cervus elaphus).201930920905
unleaded hunting: are copper bullets and lead-based bullets equally effective for killing big game?semi-jacketed lead-cored or copper-based homogenous rifle bullets are commonly used for hunting big game. ever since their introduction in the 1990's, copper-based bullets have not been widely accepted by hunters due to limited supply, higher expense, and the perception that they exhibit inferior killing efficiency and correspondingly higher wounding rates. here, we present data showing that animal flight distances for roe deer, red deer, brown bear, and moose dispatched with lead- or copper-bas ...201930919260
genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in 16 mammal species and questing ticks from northern europe.lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere, and the pathogens causing lyme borreliosis have distinct, incompletely described transmission cycles involving multiple host groups. the mammal community in fennoscandia differs from continental europe, and we have limited data on potential competent and incompetent hosts of the different genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) at the northern distribution ranges where lyme borreliosis is emerging. ...201930911054
a wild circulation: high presence of porcine circovirus 3 in different mammalian wild hosts and ticks.porcine circovirus 3 (pcv-3) has emerged as a potential threat for swine industry, being consistently reported in the presence of several clinical signs all around the world. recently, its presence in wild boar has been demonstrated at high prevalence. this evidence is surprising since the lower density of wild populations might not be expected to sustain such efficient viral transmission. porcine circoviruses were proven to exhibit a certain plasticity in the host tropism and were detected in u ...201930901142
sarcocystis species identification in the moose (alces alces) from the baltic states.various muscle tissue samples from 60 moose (alces alces) in the baltic region were examined for sarcocystis species. sarcocysts were detected in 49 out of 60 (81.7%) moose investigated. six species, sarcocystis alces, sarcocystis hjorti, sarcocystis linearis, sarcocystis silva, sarcocystis ovalis, and sarcocystis sp., were identified using light microscopy (lm), and dna sequence analysis (cox1 and 18s rdna). sarcocysts of s. alces, s. ovalis, and s. hjorti were studied using transmission electr ...201930895383
radiocarbon dating and isotope analysis on the purported aurignacian skeletal remains from fontana nuova (ragusa, italy).proving voyaging at sea by palaeolithic humans is a difficult archaeological task, even for short distances. in the mediterranean, a commonly accepted sea crossing is that from the italian peninsula to sicily by anatomically modern humans, purportedly of the aurignacian culture. this claim, however, was only supported by the typological attribution to the aurignacian of the lithic industries from the insular site of fontana nuova. ams radiocarbon dating undertaken as part of our research shows t ...201930893326
future suitability of habitat in a migratory ungulate under climate change.with climate change, the effect of global warming on snow cover is expected to cause range expansion and enhance habitat suitability for species at their northern distribution limits. however, how this depends on landscape topography and sex in size-dimorphic species remains uncertain, and is further complicated for migratory animals following climate-driven seasonal resource fluctuations across vast landscapes. using 11 years of data from a partially migratory ungulate at their northern distrib ...201930890094
Displaying items 101 - 200 of 4335