PMID(sorted descending)
the influence of environment, mode of nutrition and animal species on level of nitrosamine contamination in venison.the work aimed to research occurrence of nitrosamines in raw venison from different game species and mode of nutrition effect on their meat concentrations. samples of venison from male and female elks, male and female red deer, male and female roe deer, male and female fallow deer, male and female wild boars, male and female brown hares and males and females of wild rabbits shot in poland during the permissible hunting seasons were used for the experiments after their jointing and cutting. in th ...200322063687
cholesterol concentration and fatty acid profile of red deer (cervus elaphus) meat.the effects of gender and age on intramuscular fat (imf) levels, cholesterol concentration, and fatty acid composition were investigated in the semitendinosus (st) and triceps brachii (tb) muscles of feral red deer (cervus elaphus). six stags of >2years of age, four hinds of 1year, and six calves of 6months were shot in slovenia. generally, all parameters measured were influenced by interaction of muscle and treatment group (hinds, stags and calves) at the 5% level or less. in st muscle, the imf ...200822063609
conservation of cervus elaphus meat in modified atmospheres.this study examines the effect of three types of modified atmospheres, each with a different gas composition (a:40% co(2)+60% n(2); b:80% co(2)+20% o(2); c:80% co(2)+20% n(2)), on the development of meat quality of cervus elaphus in order to suggest a gas composition that best preserves this type of meat. meat quality was assessed by examining ph, colour as l(*)a(*)b(*) values, drip loss (dl), cooking loss (cl) and shear force (sf). in samples of group a, ph values tended to be higher in all sto ...200322063440
authentication of meat from game and domestic species by snapshot minisequencing analysis.the aim of the present study is to develop an assay for the specific identification of meat from capreolus capreolus, cervus elaphus, capra ibex, rupicapra rupicapra, targeting sequences of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mitochondrial dna. the assay is also intended to enable differentiation between meat from these wild species as well as ovis aries, capra hircus, bubalus bubalis, bos taurus and sus scrofa domestic species. the primers used in the preliminary pcr were designed in well conserve ...200822063325
a comparison of biochemical and meat quality variables in red deer (cervus elaphus) following either slaughter at pasture or killing at a deer slaughter investigate effects of pre-slaughter handling on blood and muscle biochemistry and venison quality, paddock-shot (n=8) and commercially slaughtered red deer (n=8) were compared. the deer were kept in two larger groups. one stag per group per day was head-shot, exsanguinated, electrically stimulated then transported 150 m to a deer slaughter premises (dsp) for processing. prior to each slaughter day one of the groups was mustered into a deer yards and six (including two experimental) deer were ...200222063109
real-time pcr for detection and quantification of red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in meat mixtures.a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique using sybr green detection system, has been developed for the quantification of red deer, fallow deer, and roe deer dnas in meat mixtures. the method combines the use of cervid-specific primers that amplify a 134, 169, and 120bp of the 12s rrna gene fragment of red deer, fallow deer and roe deer, respectively, and universal primers that amplify a 140bp fragment on the nuclear 18s rrna gene from eukaryotic dna. the c(t) (threshold cycle) ...200822062757
electrical stimulation of red deer (cervus elaphus) carcasses - effects on rate of ph-decline, meat tenderness, colour stability and water-holding capacity.a total of 14 female red deer were included in a study on the effects of low voltage carcass electrical stimulation on meat tenderness, colour stability and water-holding capacity. carcasses were randomly allocated to either electrical stimulation treatment (es; 90-95 v unipolar pulses, 7.5 ms duration, 15 hz for a duration of 55 s) or no electrical stimulation (non-es) (n=7 in each group). temperature and ph decline was recorded in m.m. triceps brachii, longissimus dorsi et lumborum (at the las ...200122062680
microbiological quality of freshly shot game in the framework of a project on the hygiene status of freshly shot game 289 samples were microbiologically analysed: 127 samples from wild boars, 95 from roe deer and 67 from red deer. the microbiological parameters evaluated were the mesophilic aerobic count (apc), which showed mean log10-counts of 2.6cfu/cm(2) for roe deer, 2.9cfu/cm(2) for red deer and 3.2cfu/cm(2) for wild boars and the numbers of enterobacteriaceae, which gave mean log10-values of 2.1cfu/cm(2) for all three species with di ...200822062460
risk factors associated with bruising in red deer at a commercial slaughter plant.bruising of slaughter animals has both economic and welfare implications. in order to identify potential risk factors we surveyed bruising of red deer carcasses from a single deer slaughter plant (dsp) over a three year period. downgrading due to bruising did not vary between the three years surveyed [1991, n = 21 454, 6.5% downgraded (dg); 1992, n = 22 289, 7.9% dg; 1993, n = 22 262, 6.1% dg]. from an intensive examination of one year's kill (1991) we related the incidence of bruising to variou ...199622060828
determination of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence for red deer (cervus elaphus) and the differentiation of closely related deer meats.the cytochrome b gene sequence for red deer was determined using the dye terminator cycle sequencing method and used for identification of deer meat in meat and meat products. red deer showed a similarity of 94.1, 84.0, 81.1, 85.5 and 85.6% to sika deer (cervus nippon), bovine, pigs, sheep and goats, respectively. to differentiate the deer meat, oligonucleotide primers rd-1(5'-tcatcgcagcactcgctatagtacact-3'), rd-2(5'-atctccaagtaggtctggtgcgaataa-3') were designed for the region of the cytochrome ...199822060620
t(X;14)(p11.4;q32.33) is recurrent in marginal zone lymphoma and upregulates GPR34.Genetic events underlying pathogenesis of nodal and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) are incompletely understood. We report here a novel t(X;14)(p11.4;q32.33) identified in 4 lymphoma cases: 2 with a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, 1 with a nodal MZL and 1 with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In all cases lymphoma evolved from a previous auto-immune disorder. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular studies showed that t(X;14) which is mediated by ...201122058210
influence of packaging method and length of chilled storage on microflora, tenderness and colour stability of venison loins.sections of venison loins (ld) weighing approximately 300 g from 12 red deer (cervus elaphus) were packaged using four packaging methods: (a) vacuum packaging, (b) co(2) flushed using a nylon containment film (co(2)-nylon), (c) co(2) flushed using an ultra-high barrier containment film (co(2)-uhb), and (d) co(2) flushed using an aluminium foil laminate containment film (co(2)-foil) and stored for 1, 6, 12 and 18 weeks at 0°c. meat ph values were lower in all co(2) flushed meat packages (p<0·05) ...198822055411
early growth response 1--a transcription factor in the crossfire of signal transduction cascades.early growth response-1 (egr-1) is a cys2-his2-type zinc-finger transcription factor. a broad range of extracellular stimuli is capable of activating egr-1, thus mediating growth, proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. egr-1 is, therefore, participating in the progression of a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis or cancer. functional response elements connect egr-1 to signal transduction cascades targeting egr-1. five serum response elements (sre) have been identified in the promot ...201122053691
molecular dynamics simulations and in silico peptide ligand screening of the elk-1 ets domain.abstract:201122044511
an nmr metabolomics study of elk inoculated with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both farmed and wild cervids, specifically deer and elk, and is a member of the larger family of prion diseases. prion disease transmission is believed to occur through exposure to infectious prion material-a misfolded and infectious form of the prion protein that is normally present in the host. chronic wasting disease is endemic to regions of central north america and infectious material can persist for long periods i ...201122043909
Inbreeding depression in red deer calves.ABSTRACT:201122039837
Mercury exposure and mechanism of response in large game using the Almadén mercury mining area (Spain) as a case study.Mercury (Hg) accumulation, transfer, defense mechanism and adverse effects were studied in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Almadén mining district (Spain), the largest (285,000t of Hg) and the oldest (more than 2000 years) Hg mine/refining operation site in the world. Red deer (n=168) and wild boar (n=58) liver, kidney, bones (metacarpus), testis and muscle were analyzed for total Hg and selenium (Se) within a range of distances to the Almadén mining district. The h ...201122019248
dwarfism associated with chondrodysplasia in a red deer (cervus elaphus). 201122016513
nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats.little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. the objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in n metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (cp) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % cp and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % cp and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % cp and 26 % fat). a total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. daily food intake, faecal and ...201122005421
taenia arctos n. sp. (cestoda: cyclophyllidea: taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear ursus arctos linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk alces spp.) hosts.taenia arctos n. sp. (cestoda: cyclophyllidea: taeniidae) is described from the brown bear ursus arctos linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from finland (type-locality) and alaska, usa. the independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtdna sequence data of lavikainen et al. (2011; parasitology international, 60, 289-295). special reference is given to morphological differences ...201122002024
climate change intensification of herbivore impacts on tree recruitment.altered species interactions are difficult to predict and yet may drive the response of ecological communities to climate change. we show that declining snowpack strengthens the impacts of a generalist herbivore, elk (cervus elaphus), on a common tree species. thick snowpack substantially reduces elk visitation to sites; aspen (populus tremuloides) shoots in these areas experience lower browsing rates, higher survival and enhanced recruitment. aspen inside herbivore exclosures have greatly incre ...201121976686
alterations of molecular and behavioral responses to cocaine by selective inhibition of elk-1 phosphorylation.activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) signaling pathway in the striatum is crucial for molecular adaptations and long-term behavioral alterations induced by cocaine. in response to cocaine, erk controls the phosphorylation levels of both mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (msk-1), a nuclear kinase involved in histone h3 (ser10) and camp response element binding protein phosphorylation, and elk-1, a transcription factor involved in serum response element (sre)-d ...201121976515
(-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose by inhibition of pkc and erk1/2 signalings.proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetes-related vascular complications. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (egcg), the major catechin derived from green tea, is able to exert antidiabetes effects in animal models. however, it is not known whether or not egcg inhibits vsmc proliferation induced by high glucose. this study tested the hypothesis that egcg might have an inhibitory effect on vsmc proliferation induced by h ...201121973165
the ratio of growth differentiation factor 9: bone morphogenetic protein 15 mrna expression is tightly co-regulated and differs between species over a wide range of ovulation rates.recent evidence suggests that the species-specific ovulation-rate phenotypes may be influenced by differences in the expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) mrna and protein. the aim of this study was to compare gdf9 and bmp15 mrna levels in individual denuded oocytes (do) from a range of single (i.e. cow, red deer), single-to-triple (i.e. sheep) and high (i.e. pig, mouse, rat) ovulation-rate species. compared to all other species stu ...201221970812
Relationships between in vivo microdamage and the remarkable regional material and strain heterogeneity of cortical bone of adult deer, elk, sheep and horse calcanei.Natural loading of the calcanei of deer, elk, sheep and horses produces marked regional differences in prevalent/predominant strain modes: compression in the dorsal cortex, shear in medial-lateral cortices, and tension/shear in the plantar cortex. This consistent non-uniform strain distribution is useful for investigating mechanisms that mediate the development of the remarkable regional material variations of these bones (e.g. collagen orientation, mineralization, remodeling rates and secondary ...201121951210
Elk-1 Interacts with Dynein upon Serum Stimulation but Independent of Serine 383 Phosphorylation.Elk-1 belongs to the Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) subfamily of the ETS (from E26 viral oncogene) domain superfamily of transcription factors, and has been known as a regulator of mitogen-induced immediate early gene transcription upon Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation. Elk-1 has been previously shown to interact with neuronal microtubules, and here we show that P-S383-Elk-1, in addition to co-localizing with motor proteins kinesin, Eg5 and Mitotik Kinesin-Like Protein (MKLP) at ...201121935709
no evidence that wild red deer (cervus elaphus) on the iberian peninsula are a reservoir of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.the potential role of red deer (cervus elaphus) as a reservoir of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) infection is largely unknown. a total of 332 wild red deer were investigated using post-mortem examination, bacteriology and serology. only three animals (1.12%) were found to have lesions on histopathological examination and no map bacteria were recovered on culture. the results suggest it is unlikely that wild red deer make a significant contribution to the maintenance of map ...201121930401
Attention grabbing in red deer sexual calls.Identifying the respective functions of distinct call types is an important step towards understanding the diversification of mammal vocal repertoires. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags give two distinct types of roars during the rut, termed 'common roars' and 'harsh roars'. This study tests the hypothesis that harsh roars function to raise and maintain female attention to calling males. To this end, we examined the response of female red deer to playback sequences of common roar bouts including a ...201121927848
first molecular evidence of anaplasma ovis and rickettsia spp. in keds (diptera: hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. dna was extracted individually or in pools. anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living dee ...201121923269
evidence for distinct chronic wasting disease (cwd) strains in experimental cwd in ferrets.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an evolving prion disease of cervids (deer, elk and moose) that has been recognized in north america and korea. infection of non-cervid reservoir or transport species in nature is not reported. however, the ferret (mustela putorius furo) is susceptible to cwd after experimental inoculation. here, we report that infection of ferrets with either of two ferret cwd isolates by various routes of exposure has revealed biologically distinct strain-like properties distin ...201221918005
immediate-early transcriptional response to angiotensin ii in human adrenocortical cells.angiotensin ii binds to the angiotensin ii receptors type 1 (at1 receptors) in adrenocortical cells and triggers an intracellular signaling cascade leading to changes in the gene expression pattern. here, we show that stimulation with angiotensin ii induces the expression of biologically active early growth response (egr)-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, in human h295r adrenocortical cells. expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the ternary complex factor elk-1, a key transcriptional ...201121914770
sdf-1α induces pdgf-b expression and the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pericytes.platelet-derived growth factor b (pdgf-b) and its receptor, pdgfr-β, play a critical role in pericyte maturation; however, the mechanisms by which pdgf-b is upregulated in the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. we previously showed that upregulating stromal-derived factor, sdf-1α, in vegf(165)-inhibited ewing's sarcoma tumors (tc/sivegf(7-1)) induced pdgf-b mrna expression, increased infiltration and differentiation of bone marrow cells (bmc) into pericytes and, rescued tumor growth. the pur ...201121911740
sod3 decreases ischemic injury derived apoptosis through phosphorylation of erk1/2, akt, and foxo3a.extracellular superoxide dismutase (sod3), which dismutates superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide, has been shown to reduce the free radical stress derived apoptosis in tissue injuries. since both superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide have a marked impact on signal transduction pathways and could potentially explain a number of apoptosis and survival -related phenomena in different pathological conditions, we clarified the impact of sod3 on akt and erk1/2 cell survival pathways in rat hind limb ...201121909393
experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme); chronic wasting disease (cwd) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) of cattle. the emergence of bse and its spread to human beings in the form of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to cwd, tme and scrapie. experimental cross-species transmission of tse agents p ...201121908269
organochlorine compounds in red deer (cervus elaphus l.) and fallow deer (dama dama l.) from inland and coastal croatia.polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) and organochlorine pesticide (ocp) levels in fat tissue of red and fallow deer (cervus elaphus l. and dama dama l.) from two inland and an adriatic area were established. of 17 analysed pcbs, pcb-28, pcb-138, pcb-153, pcb-180 and pcb-118 were found in all samples, whilst pcb-101 and pcb-170 were found in more than 50% of samples. they ranged between 0.03 and 5.98 ng g(-1) fat weight. of seven analysed ocps, hcb, γ-hch and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene ...201121904863
variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?males of all polygynous deer species (cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. the extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. however, interbreeding between several species of cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. this study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygyn ...201121887242
Comparative analysis of essential collective dynamics and NMR-derived flexibility profiles in evolutionarily diverse prion proteins.Collective motions on ns-µs time scales are known to have a major impact on protein folding, stability, binding and enzymatic efficiency. It is also believed that these motions may have an important role in the early stages of prion protein misfolding and prion disease. In an effort to accurately characterize these motions and their potential influence on the misfolding and prion disease transmissibility we have conducted a combined analysis of molecular dynamic simulations and NMR-derived flexi ...201121869604
med23 mutation links intellectual disability to dysregulation of immediate early gene expression.med23 is a subunit of the mediator complex, a key regulator of protein-coding gene expression. here, we report a missense mutation (p. r617q) in med23 that cosegregates with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. this mutation specifically impaired the response of jun and fos immediate early genes (iegs) to serum mitogens by altering the interaction between enhancer-bound transcription factors (tcf4 and elk1, respectively) and mediator. transcriptional dysregulation of these g ...201121868677
Modification to histopathological lesion severity score in red deer (Cervus elaphus) affected by Johne's disease. 201121851306
effect of vaccination and natural infection with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on specificity of diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus).to assess the effect of vaccination against paratuberculosis (johne's disease) on reactivity to diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (tb) in deer exposed to natural challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map), and to investigate map infection as a factor in tb test cross-reactivity at the herd level.201121851298
Effect of ruminally protected methionine on body weight gain and growth of antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the humid tropics.Sixteen male red deer (Cervus elaphus), with an initial weight of 93.83?±?4.38 kg were used to study the effect of the dietary level of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) on growth, antler morphometry and serum metabolites. The deer were allowed to graze and were individually supplemented with concentrate to provide 0, 2.5, 3.5 or 4.5 g/day of RPM for 65 days. There was a quadratic effect on daily weight gain (0.163, 0.098, 0.147 and 0.172 kg/day; P?<?0.005) and antler beam length (59.7, 63.6, ...201121847713
fibroblast growth factor 21 induces glucose transporter-1 expression through activation of the serum response factor/ets-like protein-1 in adipocytes.fibroblast growth factor 21 (fgf21) is a liver-secreted endocrine factor with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-related disorders. it enhances glucose uptake by inducing the expression of glucose transporter-1 (glut1) in adipocytes. here we investigated the signaling pathways that mediate fgf21-induced glut1 expression and glucose uptake in vitro and in animals. quantitative real-time pcr and a luciferase reporter assay showed that fgf21 induced glut1 expression through transcriptional acti ...201121846717
characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection.fatty acid (fa) and triacylglycerol (tg) composition of natural oils and fats intake in the diet has a strong influence on the human health and chronic diseases. in this work, non-aqueous reversed-phase (narp) and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (gc/fid) and mass spectrometry detection are used for the characterization of fa and tg composition in comp ...201121835413
herbal formula hmc05 prevents human aortic smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation by inhibiting the erk1/2 mapk signaling cascade.hmc05 is a formulation derived from eight medicinal herbs, and prevents neointima formation by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway with induction of heat shock protein 27 expression. in this study, we investigated the influence of hmc05 regulation on the mapk/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk) 1/2 signaling cascade in the inhibition of the migration and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (hasmcs). the inhibitory effects of hmc05 (25, 50, and ...201121833774
evaluation of the efficacy of commercial vaccines against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8 in experimentally infected red deer (cervus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus) is a widespread and abundant species susceptible to bluetongue virus (btv) infection. inclusion of red deer vaccination among btv control measures should be considered. four out of twelve btv antibody negative deer were vaccinated against serotype 1 (btv-1), and four against serotype 8 (btv-8). the remaining four deer acted as unvaccinated controls. forty-two days after vaccination (dpv), all deer were inoculated with a low cell passage of the corresponding btv strains. ...201121824733
saturation deficit and deer density affect questing activity and local abundance of ixodes ricinus (acari, ixodidae) in italy.the wood tick ixodes ricinus, one of the most common arthropod-borne disease vectors, is of increasing relevance for human and animal health in europe. the aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of several abiotic and biotic factors potentially affecting questing activity and local abundance of i. ricinus in italy, considering the scale at which these factors interact with the host-seeking ticks. within eden, a large-scale eu collaborative project on eco-epidemiology of vec ...201121820245
sorbitol-fermenting, +¦-glucuronidase-positive, shiga toxin-negative escherichia coli o157:h7 in free-ranging red deer in south-central spain.abstract we investigated the prevalence of escherichia coli o157:h7 in free-ranging red deer in south-central spain, to assess their potential as reservoir hosts of sorbitol-fermenting (sf) e. coli o157:h7 strains, which are emerging causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in europe. fecal samples from 264 hunter-harvested iberian red deer (cervus elaphus) were collected in 25 different game estates and examined for e. coli o157:h7 by culture and pcr. e. coli o157:h7 was detected and isolated in 4 o ...201121819212
analysis of the effect of osteon diameter on the potential relationship of osteocyte lacuna density and osteon wall important hypothesis is that the degree of infilling of secondary osteons (haversian systems) is controlled by the inhibitory effect of osteocytes on osteoblasts, which might be mediated by sclerostin (a glycoprotein produced by osteocytes). consequently, this inhibition could be proportional to cell number: relatively greater repression is exerted by progressively greater osteocyte density (increased osteocytes correlate with thinner osteon walls). this hypothesis has been examined, but only ...201121809466
long-lasting behavioral responses to stress involve a direct interaction of glucocorticoid receptors with erk1/2-msk1-elk-1 signaling.stressful events are known to have a long-term impact on future behavioral stress responses. previous studies suggested that both glucocorticoid hormones and glutamate acting via glucocorticoid receptors (grs) and n-methyl d-aspartate (nmda) receptors, respectively, are of critical importance for the consolidation of these long-lasting behavioral responses at the dentate gyrus, the gateway of the hippocampal formation. we found that an acute psychologically stressful event resulted in erk1/2 pho ...201121808001
biochemical and molecular analysis of the interaction between erk2 map kinase and hypoxia inducible factor-1athe mitogen activated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathways play significant roles in fundamental cellular processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. it has been shown that the specificity and efficacy of phosphorylation by map kinases rely upon distinct mapk-docking domains (d-domains) found in a wide range of mapk substrates including the ets-transcription factor elk-1. importantly, the mapk signaling cascade converges with the hypoxia-induced signaling pathway. the key regulator o ...201121807114
dj-1 modulates the expression of cu/zn-superoxide dismutase-1 through the erk1/2-elk1 pathway in neuroprotection.objective: loss of function mutations of park7/dj-1 gene increase the susceptibility of dopaminergic cells to reactive oxygen species and cause early onset familial parkinson disease (pd). however, the mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuron loss related to dj-1 mutation remain undefined. therefore, it is important to find the new mechanisms underlying the antioxidative functions of dj-1. methods: dj-1 knockdown cells and dj-1 knockout mice were used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the ...201121796667
temporal stability in the genetic structure of sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived sarcoptes mite in asturias, spain.abstract: background: implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. in this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of sarcoptes mite populations from pyrenean chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica) in asturias (spain), using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and sarcoptes samples from sympatric pyrenean chamois, red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red fox (vulpes vulpes). ...201121794141
analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in xinjiang, china.polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in xinjiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the sanguinetti silver staining method. numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (e) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (pic), mean heterozygosity (h) and genetic distances among the ...201121794008
p300-dependent atf5 acetylation is essential for egr-1 gene activation and cell proliferation and survival.atf5 has been shown to be a critical regulator of cell proliferation and survival; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. we demonstrate here that atf5 interacts with transcriptional coactivator p300, which acetylates atf5 at lysine-29 (k29), which in turn enhances the interaction between atf5 and p300 and binding of the atf5/p300 complex to the are region of the egr-1 promoter. are-bound atf5/p300 acetylates lysine-14 (k14) of nucleosomal histone h3 at both the are and sre o ...201121791614
compressive mechanical properties of demineralized and deproteinized cancellous bone.a method to completely demineralize and deproteinize bone was used to investigate the mechanical properties of either the mineral or protein phase in cancellous bone and compared to an untreated one. compression tests on cancellous bovine femur and elk antler (cervus elaphus canadensis) were performed on demineralized, deproteinized, and untreated samples in an air-dry condition. results showed that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of the demineralized (protein only) and deproteinize ...201121783106
immunological and pathological responses of red deer resistant or susceptible genotypes, to experimental challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.this study aimed to monitor the clinical, immunological and pathological changes in red deer for 49 weeks after experimental oral challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and to assess the heritability of resistance in the offspring of two red stags. eighteen young deer, which were bred from unselected hinds and sired by two stags resistant (r) or susceptible (s) to paratuberculosis, were challenged with map and monitored for 49 weeks. biopsy samples of the jejunal lymph ...201121782254
role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 4 and 8 in spain.abstract: although the importance of wild ruminants as potential reservoirs of bluetongue virus (btv) has been suggested, the role played by these species in the epidemiology of bt in europe is still unclear. we carried out a serologic and virologic survey to assess the role of wild ruminants in the transmission and maintenance of btv in andalusia (southern spain) between 2006 and 2010. a total of 473 out of 1339 (35.3%) wild ruminants analyzed showed antibodies against btv by both elisa and ser ...201121781340
chronic wasting disease prion trafficking via the autonomic nervous system.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy that is efficiently transmitted among members of the mammalian family cervidae, including deer, elk, and moose. typical of prion diseases, cwd is characterized by the conversion of the native protease-sensitive protein prp(c) to a protease-resistant isoform, denoted prp(res). in native species, spread of the disease likely results from the ingestion of prion-containing excreta, including urine, saliva, or feces. although cervid p ...201121777560
estrogen receptor ? stimulates egr-1 transcription via mek1/erk/elk-1 cascade in c6 glioma cells.the egr-1 is an immediate early response gene encoding a transcription factor that functions in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. estrogen has diverse physiological effects, including cellular proliferation and neuroprotection against brain injury. there are two types of estrogen receptors (ers), era and er?. era-induced egr-1 expression has been extensively studied; however, the role of er? is yet not known. in the present study, we investigated whether or not er? i ...201121777515
lesion distribution and epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis in elk and white-tailed deer in south-western manitoba, canada.surveillance for mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from south-western manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, ...201121776351
composition and some quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle of reindeer in norway compared to farmed new zealand red deer.norwegian reindeer of finnmark county live under harsh conditions on extensive feed sources. thus the meat may have special qualities. m. longissimus lumborum from 30 animals was investigated with respect to carcass and meat quality and compositional/nutritional characteristics. meat from calves had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, and had lighter, redder and more yellow colour than meat from adult reindeer. regarding nutritional compounds the meat from calves had lower ...201121757298
effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization on reproductive function and behavior in captive female rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).fertility control is a potential method for managing overabundant wildlife populations; however, current technology is limited by duration of treatment efficacy and unacceptable side-effects. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a single immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) vaccine to suppress reproductive function in pregnant female elk and to evaluate potential behavioral and pathological side-effects of treatment. eighteen captive adult female elk we ...201121753192
ontogenesis of the omasum: a comparative analysis of the merino sheep and iberian red deer.the aim of this study is to describe differences in the ontogenesis of the omasum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). a total of 50 embryos and fetuses of merino sheep and 50 iberian deer were used, from the first stages of prenatal life until birth. for the study, the animals were divided into five experimental groups according to the most relevant histological characteristics. the appearance of the omasum from the primitive gastric tube was earlier in sheep (22% gestation, 3 ...201121751145
wild and farm breeding cervids infections with anaplasma phagocytophilum.the main goal of our study was to determine the prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in wild cervids living in north-eastern part of poland. material used in the study was gathered between the years 2004- 2008. the blood samples from 106 red deer (cervus elaphus), 32 sika deer (cervus nippon hortulorum), 130 fallow deer (dama dama) and 31 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) were collected. dna was isolated using genomic mini ax blood kit (a and a biotechnology). molecular detection of a ...201121739932
identification of functional ccaat/enhancer-binding protein and ets protein binding sites in the human chorionic somatomammotropin enhancer sequences.the human chorionic somatomammotropin (cs) a and b genes (listed as csh1 and csh2 in the hugo database) are highly expressed in placenta. a 241ôçèbp potent enhancer, nucleotides (nts) 1-241, located at the 3' end of the cs-b gene (cs-benh) stimulates promoter activity specifically in placental trophoblast cells in vitro. strong activity is exerted by a 23ôçèbp element within the cs-benh (nts 117-139), shown to interact with transcription enhancer factor (tef) members of the transcription enhance ...201121737519
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (dama dama) are reported herein. during the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; group a) or elk (n = 6; group b), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (group c). as described previously, 3 cwd-inoculated deer were euthanized ...201121731188
liver enzymes and blood metabolites in a population of free-ranging red deer ( cervus elaphus) naturally infected with fascioloides magna.we investigated the effects of fascioloides magna infection on the serum biochemistry values of the naturally infected red deer population in eastern croatia. the investigation was performed on 47 red deer with f. magna infection confirmed patho-anatomically in 27 animals (57.4%). fibrous capsules and migratory lesions were found in 14 deer while only fibrous capsules without migratory lesions were found in 13 deer. in 13 deer both immature and mature flukes were found, in 5 deer only immature f ...201121729388
risk assessment of the lead intake by consumption of red deer and wild boar meat in southern spain.the presence of heavy metals in big game meat may pose a risk to human health. the main objective of this paper is to carry out a risk assessment study (using a probabilistic and point-estimate approach) of lead intake by consumption of red deer and wild boar meat in southern spain based on spanish data collected in the period 2003-2006. in general, the concentration levels found for wild boar meat (meanôçë=ôçë1291ôçë-ágôçëkg(-1)) were much higher than those observed in red deer meat (meanôçë=ôç ...201121728894
a case of hepatic carcinoid in a red deer hind (cervus elaphus).a carcinoid tumour in the liver of a red deer hind (cervus elaphus) is described. macroscopically, the liver was considerably enlarged with multifocal, firm, yellow and red nodular neoplastic masses, which were histopathologically diagnosed as hepatic carcinoids. the diagnosis was confirmed by modified grimelius staining, which demonstrated numerous small argyrophilic granules in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells, and by immunohistochemistry. the neoplastic cells gave a strong positive reaction ...201121727064
spatial and temporal patterns of intraspecific morphological variation in dactylogyrus simplexus from fathead minnows in nebraska.abstract dactylogyrus simplexus monaco and mizelle, 1955, occurs on the gills of fathead minnows (pimephales promelas). previous research on parasites of fathead minnows from 3 converging nebraska streams, elk creek, oak creek, and west oak creek, shows that fish in each stream constitute distinct populations. to determine whether their parasites had diverged structurally in response to such isolation, or in response to seasonal change, we searched for patterns of intraspecific morphometric vari ...201121721902
mycobacterial screening of czech red deer (cervus elaphus) populations in overwintering sites, isolate of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in 2,212 fecal samples of wild deer assembled in overwintering sites (ows). neither m. bovis nor m. a. subsp. avium was found. therefore, congregating deer in owss does not automatically lead to the amplification of these pathogens among animals in owss.201121719853
sufentanil and xylazine immobilization of rocky mountain elk.from october 2009 through july 2010, five captive, 3-yr-old, female rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus) and nine free-ranging elk (one male, eight female) were immobilized with 0.1 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.5 mg/kg xylazine which was antagonized with 1 mg/kg naltrexone and 2 mg/kg tolazoline. induction and recovery times averaged 4.9 -¦ 0.3 min and 3.9 -¦ 0.4 min, respectively. physiologic and blood gas parameters as well as bispectral index (bis) were measured on the captive elk every 10 min for ...201121719828
dna vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and ifn-+¦ responses.brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the greater yellowstone area. during the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of idaho, usa; wyoming, usa; and montana, usa. current livestock b. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). one problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to und ...201121719815
decomposing variation in population growth into contributions from environment and phenotypes in an age-structured population.evaluating the relative importance of ecological drivers responsible for natural population fluctuations in size is challenging. longitudinal studies where most individuals are monitored from birth to death and where environmental conditions are known provide a valuable resource to characterize complex ecological interactions. we used a recently developed approach to decompose the observed fluctuation in population growth of the red deer population on the isle of rum into contributions from clim ...201121715404
physiology on a landscape scale: plant-animal interactions.we explore in this paper how animals can be affected by variation in climate, topography, vegetation characteristics, and body size. we utilize new spatially explicit state-of-the-art models that incorporate principles from heat and mass transfer engineering, physiology, morphology, and behavior that have been modified to provide spatially explicit hypotheses using gis. we demonstrate how temporal and spatial changes in microclimate resulting from differences in topography and vegetation cover a ...200221708738
the fossil monocot limnobiophyllum scutatum: resolving the phylogeny of lemnaceae.more than 200 specimens of limnobiophyllum scutatum (dawson) krassilov have been recovered from lacustrine claystones in the paleocene paskapoo formation near red deer, alberta. the plant was a floating, aquatic angiosperm with helically arranged, ovate leaves attached in small rosettes. rosettes are interconnected by stolons and bear simple adventitious roots as well as larger branching roots that appear to have vascular tissue. leaves are pubescent, aerenchymatous, with 12-14 campylodromous pr ...199721708589
tubular frameworks guiding orderly bone formation in the antler of the red deer (cervus elaphus).deer antler is a bony tissue which re-grows every year after shedding. growth speed and material properties of this tissue are truly remarkable, making it an interesting model for bone regeneration. surprisingly, not much is known about the ultrastructure of the calcified tissues and the temporal sequence of their development during antler growth. we use a combination of imaging tools based on light and electron microscopy to characterize antler tissue at various stages of development. we observ ...201121704707
epigenetic mechanisms in stress and adaptation.epigenetic mechanisms are processes at the level of the chromatin that control the expression of genes but their role in neuro-immuno-endocrine communication is poorly understood. this review focuses on epigenetic modifications induced by a range of stressors, both physical and psychological, and examines how these variations can affect the biological activity of cells. it is clear that epigenetic modifications are critical in explaining how environmental factors, which have no effect on the dna ...201121704151
phylogenetic study of setaria cervi based on mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.the objective of the present study was to examine the phylogenetic position of setaria cervi based on sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. a fragment of the cox1 gene from two morphologically identified s. cervi collected from red deer (cervus elaphus) from italy were amplified, sequenced, and compared with corresponding sequences of other filarioid nematode species. phylogenetic studies using bayesian analysis revealed s. cervi as monophyletic with other setari ...201121695569
secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is associated with mmp-2 and mmp-9 to promote migration and invasion in snu638 gastric cancer cells.secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (slpi) protects tissue from proteases, and promotes cell proliferation and healing during inflammatory response. slpi is also overexpressed in gastric, lung and ovarian cancers, which accelerates the metastasis of cancer cells. matrix metalloproteinases-2, -9 (mmp-2 and mmp-9) are overexpressed in high metastatic cancers, and promote the migration of cancer cells through collagen degradation. slpi and mmp-2, -9 are critical factors in stimulating the metast ...201121687932
transactivation of egfr/pi3k/akt involved in atp-induced inflammatory protein expression and cell motility.phenotype transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (vsmcs) is important in vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. once released, atp may promote activation of vsmcs by stimulating cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), cytosolic phospholipase a(2) (cpla(2) ) expression and prostaglandin (pg)e(2) synthesis via activation of mapks and nf-+¦b. however, whether alternative signaling pathways participated in regulating cox-2 and cpla(2) expression associated with cell migration were investig ...201121678415
erk pathway mediates p2x7 expression and cell death in renal interstitial fibroblasts exposed to necrotic renal epithelial cells.we recently reported that necrotic renal proximal epithelial cells (rptc) stimulate the expression of p2x7 receptor in renal fibroblasts and that p2x7 receptor mediates deleterious epithelial-fibroblast cross talk. the present study was carried out to investigate the signaling mechanism of necrotic rptc-induced p2x7 expression in cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts (nrk-49f). exposure of nrk-49f to necrotic rptc supernatant (rptc-sup) induced a time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of sev ...201121677150
decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.summary when a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. this study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric ...201121676351
cox-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status.increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind cox-2 induction remain elusive. this study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high cox-2 expression in colon cancer tissue.201121668942
bis(12)-hupyridone, a novel multifunctional dimer, promotes neuronal differentiation more potently than its monomeric natural analog huperzine a possibly through alpha7 nachr.the cause of many neurodegenerative disorders can be ascribed to the loss of functional neurons, and thus agents capable of promoting neuronal differentiation may have therapeutic benefits to patients of these disorders. in this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of bis(12)-hupyridone (b12h), a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor modified from huperzine a (ha), on neuronal differentiation were investigated using both the rat pc12 pheochromocytoma cell line and adult rat hippoc ...201121665194
embryo transfer and sex determination following superovulated hinds inseminated with frozen-thawed sex-sorted y sperm or unsorted semen in wapiti (cervus elaphus songaricus).the aim of this study was to evaluate embryo production in superovulated wapiti hinds inseminated with either y-sorted or unsorted semen. eighteen hinds were allocated to three treatment groups: ai following multiple ovulation (cidr/fsh) with 10×10(6) y-sorted frozen-thawed semen (y group, n=6), or 10×10(6) and 100×10(6) unsorted frozen-thawed semen for the unsorted (n=6) and the control group (n=6). the embryos from the sixth day following insemination were collected and classified. fifteen ...201121664079
differential responses of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores to traits of new zealand subalpine shrubs.plant traits are influenced by herbivore diet selection, but little is known about how traits are affected by different types of herbivores. we related eight traits of 27 subalpine shrub species in south island, new zealand, to damage of these shrubs by introduced red deer (cervus elaphus) and native invertebrate herbivores using phylogenetically explicit modeling. deer preferentially consumed species that grew quickly, were low in foliar tannins, or had high leaf area per unit mass. however, th ...201121661560
possible subclinical hepatopathy after copper supplementation in farmed red determine the effect of parenteral supplementation with cu on the activities of hepatic enzymes in deer with adequate concentration(s) of cu in liver and serum.201121660850
vaccination for leptospirosis improved the weaning percentage of 2-year-old farmed red deer hinds in new investigate the effect of leptospiral vaccination against serovars hardjo-bovis and pomona on fetal loss and weaning percentage in rising 2-year-old farmed red deer hinds.201121660849
genome-wide analysis reveals padi4 cooperates with elk-1 to activate c-fos expression in breast cancer cells.peptidylarginine deiminase iv (padi4) catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. to broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of padi4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (chip-chip) analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of padi4 target genes across the genome in mcf-7 ...201121655091
the ets family transcription factor elk-1 regulates induction of the cell cycle regulatory gene p21waf1/cip1 and the bax gene in sodium arsenite-exposed human keratinocyte hacat cells.cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdkn1a), often referred to as p21(waf1/cip1) (p21), is induced by a variety of environmental stresses. transcription factor elk-1 is a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. here, we show that elk-1 directly trans-activates the p21 gene, independently of p53 and egr-1, in sodium arsenite (naaso(2))-exposed hacat cells. promoter-deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified the presence of an elk-1-binding core motif between -190 and -170 bp of the ...201121642427
'carg'ing for micrornas. 201121620846
travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 foodnet population survey.the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (cwd) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. travel to the united kingdom and other european countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of us residents to the agents that cause bse and cwd. the foodborne diseases active surveillance network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the ...201121616198
neonatal mortality of elk driven by climate, predator phenology and predator community composition.1. understanding the interaction among predators and between predation and climate is critical to understanding the mechanisms for compensatory mortality. we used data from 1999 radio-marked neonatal elk (cervus elaphus) calves from 12 populations in the north-western united states to test for effects of predation on neonatal survival, and whether predation interacted with climate to render mortality compensatory. 2. weibull survival models with a random effect for each population were fit as a ...201121615401
trypanosoma spp. in swedish game animals.serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and serology. only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite dna. seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma igg antibodies. the two isolated strains, one fr ...201121614542
modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that cwd prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on cwd dynamics. in the present study, we use simulation models to demonstr ...201121603638
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of free-ranging and farmed ungulates (deer, elk, and moose) in north america and south korea. first described by the late e.s. williams and colleagues in northern colorado and southern wyoming in the 1970s, cwd has increased tremendously both in numerical and geographical distribution, reaching prevalence rates as high as 50% in free-ranging and >90% in captive deer herds in certain areas of usa and canada. cwd is certainly the most contagious pri ...201121598099
cross-species tests of 45 microsatellite loci isolated from different species of ungulates in the iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) to generate a multiplex panel.the iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) is an emblematic game species in spain. to generate a battery of polymorphic markers for multiplex polymerase chain reactions for the spanish red deer, 45 loci isolated in different species of ungulates were tested. of the primers tested, 27 amplified but only 21 were polymorphic. eleven of these markers were subsequently optimized for multiplex in four polymerase chain reactions. this allows analysing several molecular markers jointly to substant ...200821586051
[investigate of dna extraction of os cervi].to establish a convenient, practical and high efficient method of dna extraction of os cervi, and lay the foundation of identification of animal bones.201121585046
assessment of levels of bacterial contamination of large wild game meat in europe.the variations in prevalence and levels of pathogens and fecal contamination indicators in large wild game meat were studied to assess their potential impact on consumers. this analysis was based on hazard analysis, data generation and statistical analysis. a total of 2919 meat samples from three species (red deer, roe deer, wild boar) were collected at french game meat traders' facilities using two sampling protocols. information was gathered on the types of meat cuts (forequarter or haunch; fi ...201121569954
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