PMID(sorted descending)
assessment of the genetic relationship between dictyocaulus species from bos taurus and cervus elaphus using complete mitochondrial genomic datasets.dictyocaulus species are strongylid nematodes of major veterinary significance in ruminants, such as cattle and cervids, and cause serious bronchitis or pneumonia (dictyocaulosis or "husk"). there has been ongoing controversy surrounding the validity of some dictyocaulus species and their host specificity. here, we sequenced and characterized the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of dictyocaulus viviparus (from bos taurus) with dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti from red deer (cervus elaphus), used mt datase ...201223110936
bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock. 201223107231
superovulation in waptiti (cervus elaphus) during the anovulatory season.the objective was to evaluate the efficacy of three previously unreported ovarian superovulatory treatment protocols in wapiti. protocols were initiated specifically at the time of ovarian follicular wave emergence, and intended to enable determination of the effects of frequency of treatment (i.e., animal handling) and lh supplementation on ovarian response. thirteen parous wapiti hinds, 2 to 4 y of age, were used late in the anovulatory season (july). the ovaries were examined daily by transre ...201323102845
the impact of past introductions on an iconic and economically important species, the red deer of scotland.the red deer (cervus elaphus) is an iconic species in scotland and, due to its value as a game species, an important element of the scottish rural economy. the native status of this species is sometimes questioned because of many recorded introductions of nonnative deer in the past that were an attempt to improve trophy size. in this study, we assessed the impact of past introductions on the genetic makeup of scottish red deer by genotyping at 15 microsatellite loci a large number of samples (n ...201223091222
bluetongue virus serotype 1 in wild ruminants, france, 2008-10.the persistence of bluetongue virus serotype 1 (btv-1) circulation was evaluated in red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), mouflons (ovis ammon), and pyrenean chamois (rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) sampled during two hunting seasons between september 2008 and february 2010 in the east pyrenean mountains, france. the prevalence of btv antibody in red deer was high and not significantly different between the two hunting seasons (50.9% and 49.6%, respectively). the prevalence o ...201223060507
re-mating across years and intralineage polygyny are associated with greater than expected levels of inbreeding in wild red deer.the interaction between philopatry and nonrandom mating has important consequences for the genetic structure of populations, influencing co-ancestry within social groups but also inbreeding. here, using genetic paternity data, we describe mating patterns in a wild population of red deer (cervus elaphus) which are associated with marked consequences for co-ancestry and inbreeding in the population. around a fifth of females mate with a male with whom they have mated previously, and further, femal ...201223039875
reduced glutathione and trolox (vitamin e) as extender supplements in cryopreservation of red deer epididymal spermatozoa.the use of assisted reproductive techniques in cervids is increasing as the commercial use of these species increase. we have tested the suitability of the antioxidants trolox and reduced glutathione (gsh) for freezing red deer epididymal spermatozoa, aiming at improving post-thawing quality. samples from 19 stags were frozen in a tes-tris-fructose extender (20% egg yolk, 8% glycerol), with 1 or 5 mm of antioxidant. motility (casa), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde -mda- production), membrane s ...201223021747
surveillance for mycobacterium bovis transmission from domestic cattle to wild ruminants in a mexican wildlife-livestock interface assess the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and wild ruminants (wrs) in a wildlife-livestock interface area (wlia) of the mexican highland plateau.201223013189
reconstructing the history of a fragmented and heavily exploited red deer population using ancient and contemporary deer (cervus elaphus) have been an important human resource for millennia, experiencing intensive human influence through habitat alterations, hunting and translocation of animals. in this study we investigate a time series of ancient and contemporary dna from norwegian red deer spanning about 7,000 years. our main aim was to investigate how increasing agricultural land use, hunting pressure and possibly human mediated translocation of animals have affected the genetic diversity on a long-te ...201223009643
labeling studies on cortical bone formation in the antlers of red deer (cervus elaphus).the formation and mineralization process of antlers, which constitute the fastest growing bones in vertebrates, is still not fully understood. we used oxytetracycline injections to label different stages of bone formation in antlers of 14 red deer between days 28 and 156 of antler growth. results show that initially a trabecular scaffold of woven bone is formed which largely replaces a pre-existing scaffold of mineralized cartilage. lamellar bone is then deposited and from about day 70 onwards, ...201323000508
[phylogeography of red deer (cervus elaphus): data of analysis of polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b].analysis of polymorphism of the gene for cytochrome b (1140 bp) of 106 samples of red deer (cervus elaphus) of eurasia is carried out, and the phylogenetic relationships of groups throughout the entire geographic range, including north america, are reconstructed. in total, the paper describes 75 haplotypes, 33 of them for the european and 42 for the asian part of the geographic range. common haplotypes for these two parts of the range were not found. the genetic kinship of asian siberian stags a ...201622988755
evaluation of remote delivery of passive integrated transponder (pit) technology to mark large mammals.methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. the use of passive integrated transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. passive integrated transponder tags (pit) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully m ...201222984572
a migratory northern ungulate in the pursuit of spring: jumping or surfing the green wave?the forage-maturation hypothesis (fmh) states that herbivores migrate along a phenological gradient of plant development in order to maximize energy intake. despite strong support for the fmh, the actual relationship between plant phenology and ungulate movement has remained enigmatic. we linked plant phenology (modis-normalized difference vegetation index [ndvi] data) and space use of 167 migratory and 78 resident red deer (cervus elaphus), using a space-time-time matrix of "springness," define ...201222976006
strain characterization of the korean cwd cases in 2001 and 2004.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has been recognized as a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was confirmed only in elk in the republic of korea in 2001, 2004 and 2005. epidemiological investigations showed that cwd was introduced via importation of infected elk from canada between 1994 and 1997. in spite of the increasing geographic distribution and host range of cwd, little ...201322972463
mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal previous analytical procedures are available and validated for mercury speciation analysis in terrestrial animal tissues. this analysis is a difficult task both because the expected concentrations are low, since important accumulation process are not likely to occur, and also because there are not commercially available certified reference material. thus, an analytical methodology has been developed and validated for mercury speciation for the specific case of terrestrial animal tissues. the ...201222967634
modelling transmission of bovine tuberculosis in red deer and wild boar in normandy, early 2001, mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed in red deer (rd) (cervus elaphus) shot in normandy region, france. an epidemiological survey conducted during the following hunting season in two connected forests confirmed the occurrence of the disease in both free-ranging rd and wild boar (wb) (sus scrofa). this was the first detected bovine tuberculosis outbreak in wildlife in france. we present a simple deterministic age-structured model of the within- and between-species m. bovis t ...201222958262
distinguishing wild ruminant lipids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.the carbon isotopic characterisation of ruminant lipids associated with ceramic vessels has been crucial for elucidating the origins and changing nature of pastoral economies. δ(13)c values of fatty acids extracted from potsherds are commonly compared with those from the dairy and carcass fats of modern domesticated animals to determine vessel use. however, the processing of wild ruminant products in pottery, such as deer, is rarely considered despite the presence of several different species on ...201222956328
human selection of elk behavioural traits in a landscape of fear.among agents of selection that shape phenotypic traits in animals, humans can cause more rapid changes than many natural factors. studies have focused on human selection of morphological traits, but little is known about human selection of behavioural traits. by monitoring elk (cervus elaphus) with satellite telemetry, we tested whether individuals harvested by hunters adopted less favourable behaviours than elk that survived the hunting season. among 45 2-year-old males, harvested elk showed bo ...201222951744
a serologic survey of viral infections in captive ungulates in turkish zoos.zoos and zoologic gardens make optimal environments for interspecies transmission of viral infections. there are seven zoos and several small zoologic collections in turkey. this study aimed to determine the current status of viral infections in captive ungulates living in these environments. blood samples were taken from 163 captive animals from two zoos. there were 39 cameroon sheep (ovis ammon f aries), 11 barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), 57 pygmy goats (capra hircus), 9 angora goats (capra ...201122946369
a bayesian approach to study the risk variables for tuberculosis occurrence in domestic and wild ungulates in south central spain.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by mycobacterium bovis. although eradication is a priority for the european authorities, btb remains active or even increasing in many countries, causing significant economic losses. the integral consideration of epidemiological factors is crucial to more cost-effectively allocate control measures. the aim of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the association between tb distribution and a list of potential r ...201222931852
response of elk to habitat modification near natural gas development.elk (cervus elaphus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with various forms of energy development. the specific behavioral responses underlying these trends, however, have not been effectively studied. to investigate such effects, we examined elk response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in las animas county, colorado, usa in 2008-2010. we created 10 1-ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 operating natural gas wells b ...201222926238
collaboration in natural resource governance: reconciling stakeholder expectations in deer management in scotland.the challenges of integrated, adaptive and ecosystem management are leading government agencies to adopt participatory modes of engagement. collaborative governance is a form of participation in which stakeholders co-produce goals and strategies and share responsibilities and resources. we assess the potential and challenges of collaborative governance as a mechanism to provide an integrated, ecosystem approach to natural resource management, using red deer in scotland as a case study. collabora ...201222898708
shiga toxin subtypes associated with shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains isolated from red deer, roe deer, chamois, and ibex.a total of 52 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains, isolated from fecal samples of six ibex, 12 chamois, 15 roe deer, and 19 red deer were further characterized by subtyping the stx genes, examining strains for the top nine serogroups and testing for the presence of eae and ehxa. eleven of the 52 strains belonged to one of the top nine stec o groups (o26, o45, o91, o103, o111, o113, o121, o145, and o157). eight stec strains were of serogroup o145, two strains of serogroup o113, ...201222891940
cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations in selected red deer (cervus elaphus l.) tissues from north-eastern croatia.concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury were determined in muscle, liver and kidney tissue from three different age groups of red deer (young animals aged 6 or 7 months, middle-aged animals aged 3 to 5 years, old animals aged over 8 years) from the baranja region of croatia. median cadmium concentrations were low in the muscles of all investigated age groups (0.0002; 0.0009 and 0.0020 μg/g), higher in the liver (0.0279; 0.0656 and 0.1463 μg/g) and highest in the kidneys (0.4792; 2.8531 and 6 ...201222871008
global gene expression analysis in skin biopsies of european red deer experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8.bluetongue virus (btv) is a double-stranded rna virus transmitted by blood-feeding biting midges of the genus culicoides to wild and domestic ruminants, causing high morbidity and variable mortality. the aim of this study was to characterize differential gene expression in skin biopsies of red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds experimentally infected with btv serotypes 1 and 8. skin biopsies were collected from btv-1 and btv-8 experimentally infected and control hinds at 14 and 98 days post-infection ...201222835526
shared spatial effects on quantitative genetic parameters: accounting for spatial autocorrelation and home range overlap reduces estimates of heritability in wild red structure, limited dispersal, and spatial heterogeneity in resources are ubiquitous in wild vertebrate populations. as a result, relatives share environments as well as genes, and environmental and genetic sources of similarity between individuals are potentially confounded. quantitative genetic studies in the wild therefore typically account for easily captured shared environmental effects (e.g., parent, nest, or region). fine-scale spatial effects are likely to be just as important in w ...201222834741
quality, oxidative markers and dna damage (dna) fragmentation of red deer thawed spermatozoa after incubation at 37 °c in presence of several antioxidants.antioxidants may be useful for supplementing sperm extenders. we have tested dehydroascorbic acid (dha), tempol, n-acetyl-cysteine (nac) and rutin on epididymal spermatozoa from red deer, during incubation at 37 °c. cryopreserved spermatozoa were thawed, washed and incubated with 1 mm or 0.1 mm of each antioxidant, including oxidative stress (fe(2+)/ascorbate). motility (casa and clustering of subpopulations), viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and acrosomal status were assessed at 2 a ...201222818091
browsed twig environmental dna: diagnostic pcr to identify ungulate species.ungulate browsing can have a strong effect on ecological processes by affecting plant community structure and composition, with cascading effects on nutrient cycling and animal communities. however, in the absence of direct observations of foraging, species-specific foraging behaviours are difficult to quantify. we therefore know relatively little about foraging competition and species-specific browsing patterns in systems with several browsers. however, during browsing, a small amount of saliva ...201222813481
the effect of human activities and their associated noise on ungulate behavior.the effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. this study investigated potential impacts of a variety of human activities and their associated noise on the behavior of elk (cervus elaphus) and pronghorn (antilocapra americana) along a transportation corr ...201222808175
evaluation of serodiagnostic assays for mycobacterium bovis infection in elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in the united 2011, the united states department of agriculture conducted a project in which elk (cervus elaphus spp.), white-tailed deer (wtd) (odocoileus virginianus), and reindeer (rangifer tarandus) were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (sct), comparative cervical tuberculin test (cct), and serologic tests. the rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the cervidtb stat-pak (stat-pak), and the dual path platform vettb (dpp). blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals pri ...201222792512
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multidimensional scaling, binary hierarchical cluster tree and selected diagnostic masses improves species identification of neolithic keratin sequences from furs of the tyrolean iceman oetzi.the identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old tyrolean iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (pcr)-based techniques are often ...201222777774
effects of culling eurasian wild boar on the prevalence of mycobacterium bovis and aujeszky's disease virus.worldwide, failure to eradicate a disease in livestock has sometimes been related to wildlife reservoirs of infection. we describe the effects of eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) abundance reduction through increased culling on the prevalence of two chronic infectious diseases, tuberculosis (tb) and aujeszky's disease (ad), in a region of south-central spain (scs). the two infections studied responded differently to an approximately 50% reduction of wild boar abundance. wild boar tb prevalence re ...201222743215
putative risk factors for infections with toggenburg orbivirus in goat herds in southern switzerland (canton of ticino).toggenburg orbivirus (tov), only detected in goats, has been described as a member of the bluetongue virus (btv) serogroup. the transmission pathway of the virus seems different from other bluetongue viruses (btvs). the objective of this study was to explore risk factors, especially the influence of alpine pasture and the presence of other livestock species, for the presence of tov infected goats on farms. between february 2008 and september 2009, blood samples were collected and analyzed for to ...201222739059
longitudinal pathogenesis study of young red deer (cervus elaphus) after experimental challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map).paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. this study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). at 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. all 14 deer became infected, n ...201222720193
pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica o:3 isolated from a hunted wild alpine ibex.occurrence of yersinia spp. in wild ruminants was studied and the strains were characterized to get more information on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic yersinia in the wildlife. in total, faecal samples of 77 red deer, 60 chamois, 55 roe deer and 27 alpine ibex were collected during 3 months of the hunting season in 2011. the most frequently identified species was y. enterocolitica found in 13%, 10%, 4% and 2% of roe deer, red deer, alpine ibex and chamois, respectively. interestingly, one ...201322697252
nutritional evaluation of the lipid fraction of iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) tenderloin.the meat lipid fraction of psoas major muscle from 20 adult (10 males and 10 females) feral iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) was characterized by quantification of total fat, total cholesterol, vitamin e and fatty acid (fa) composition, including detailed trans octadecenoate isomers and conjugated linoleic acid (cla) isomeric profile. the total lipid content revealed a very lean meat (0.99 g/100g of meat), with total cholesterol content averaging 55.6 mg/100g of muscle. the fa profil ...201222695295
amino acid sequence of myoglobin from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).our objective was to determine the primary structure of white-tailed deer myoglobin (mb). white-tailed deer mb was isolated from cardiac muscles employing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. the amino acid sequence was determined by edman degradation. sequence analyses of intact mb as well as tryptic- and cyanogen bromide-peptides yielded the complete primary structure of white-tailed deer mb, which shared 100% similarity with red deer mb. white-tailed deer mb consi ...201222608832
comparative landscape genetic analyses show a belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (sus scrofa).while motorways are often assumed to influence the movement behaviour of large mammals, there are surprisingly few studies that show an influence of these linear structures on the genetic make-up of wild ungulate populations. here, we analyse the spatial genetic structure of red deer (cervus elaphus) and wild boars (sus scrofa) along a stretch of motorway in the walloon part of belgium. altogether, 876 red deer were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci, and 325 wild boars at 14 loci. in the case ...201222607276
pre-orbital gland opening in farmed red deer (cervus elaphus) during stressful handling.stressful manipulation by humans has been previously shown to result in opening the pre-orbital gland of the newborn red deer. we hypothesized that exposure of red deer to stressful handling would result in opening the pre-orbital gland. further, we tested the potential factors associated with pre-orbital opening, including season, sex, age and struggling behavior. pre-orbital gland status was observed in 76 red deer (48 males, 28 females) during 281 handling events with the animal isolated and ...201222585799
pre-orbital gland opening: part of sucking behavior in red deer (cervus elaphus) calves.opening of the pre-orbital gland in red deer (cervus elaphus) was previously found to be associated with feeding and negatively associated with achieving satiety in bottle-reared red deer calves. we speculated that this acted as a signal from a calf to the mother that it was hungry. thus, we focused on a possible association between the pre-orbital gland opening and the sucking behavior in red deer calves. we recorded 63 sucking attempts and 150 sucking bouts within a stable social group of 24 f ...201222585792
passive transfer of maternal gnrh antibodies does not affect reproductive development in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves.gonadotropin-releasing hormone is intermittently released from the hypothalamus in consistent patterns from before birth to final maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at puberty. disruption of this signaling via gnrh vaccination during the neonatal period can alter reproduction at maturity. the objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of gnrh-antibody exposure on reproductive maturation and function in elk calves passively exposed to high concentrations o ...201222541328
evidence for btv-4 circulation in free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus) in cabañeros national park, spain.bluetongue (bt) is an infectious disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (btv). btv-4 spread through southern spain from 2004 to 2006, whereas a btv-1 outbreak that started in southern spain in 2007 is still ongoing. vaccination and movement restriction regulations are applied to domestic ruminants to control bt, but the potential reservoir role of wild european ungulates has not been clarified so far. the aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of btv in the ...201222525011
seroprevalence and risk factors associated to mycobacterium bovis in wild artiodactyl species from southern spain, 2006-2010.the control of bovine tuberculosis (btb) is at a critical point in the last stage of eradication in livestock. wildlife species recently have emerged infected with tb in europe, particularly ungulates in the iberian peninsula. epidemiological information regarding tb in wild ungulates including affected species, prevalence, associated risk factors and appropriate diagnostic methods need to be obtained in these countries. a cross-sectional study was carried out on wild artiodactyl species, includ ...201222523563
prevalence of neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and rodents from north-west europe.neoehrlichia mikurensis s an emerging and vector-borne zoonosis: the first human disease cases were reported in 2010. limited information is available about the prevalence and distribution of neoehrlichia mikurensis in europe, its natural life cycle and reservoir hosts. an ehrlichia-like schotti variant has been described in questing ixodes ricinus ticks, which could be identical to neoehrlichia mikurensis.201222515314
shedding of foodborne pathogens and microbial carcass contamination of hunted wild assess the shedding of selected bacterial foodborne pathogens, fecal samples from 239 hunted wild red deer, roe deer, chamois, and ibex were examined. all samples tested negative for salmonella spp. and l. monocytogenes, but other listeria species were occasionally found. of the 239 fecal samples, 32.6% tested positive for stx (shiga toxins), 6.7% for eae (intimin) and 13.8% for both stx and eae genes. among the 56 isolated shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains, 44.6% harbored ...201222503394
chlamydiosis: seroepidemiologic survey in a red deer (cervus elaphus) population in italy.chlamydiae are obligate, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that are responsible for important diseases in humans, other mammals, and birds. studies have shown that chlamydiae could be present in wild ruminants, but the serodiagnostic method most commonly used did not allow identification of chlamydial species. we determined the prevalence of antibodies to chlamydia pecorum, chlamydia suis, chlamydia abortus, and chlamydia psittaci in 271 red deer (cervus elaphus) of a central italian populat ...201222493128
detection of prpcwd in feces from naturally exposed rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting captive and free-ranging cervids. currently, tests for cwd in live animals involve relatively invasive procedures to collect lymphoid tissue biopsies and examine them for cwd-associated, protease-resistant cervid prion protein (prp(cwd)) detected by immunohistochemistry (ihc). we adapted an ultrasensitive prion detection system, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca), to detect prp(cwd) in rocky mountain ...201222493117
severe ocular dysplasia in british red deer (cervus elaphus). 201222492801
sex-based differences in density-dependent sociality: an experiment with a gregarious ungulate.for animals living in natural or semi-natural settings, empirical data on how sociality changes in response to increasing population density are few, especially with respect to true conspecific density and not group size. however, insight into this line of research may be far-reaching--from understanding density dependence in sexual selection to improving models of disease transmission. using elk (cervus elaphus linnaeus) held in enclosures, we conducted sex-stratified experiments to test how th ...201222486100
modelling transmission dynamics of paratuberculosis of red deer under pastoral farming conditions.this study aimed to develop a mathematical model describing the dynamics of paratuberculosis (ptb) in red deer (cervus elaphus) under pastoral farming conditions in new zealand. the model examined infectivity differences between ovine and bovine strains of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (map) and seasonality of map survival. we also evaluate variable use of pasture and the effect of management interventions on the infection prevalence and annual clinical incidence of ptb. a stat ...201222480407
deer as a potential wildlife reservoir for parachlamydia species.wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and trans-boundary livestock diseases. however, detailed information relating to the occurrence of endemic pathogens such as those of the order chlamydiales in such populations is lacking. during the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples (including blood, conjunctival swabs, internal organs and faeces) were collected in the eastern swiss alps from 99 free-living red deer (cervus elaphus) and 64 free-living roe deer (capre ...201222460045
coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena.we performed high-throughput sequencing of dna from fossilized faeces to evaluate this material as a source of information on the genome and diet of pleistocene carnivores. we analysed coprolites derived from the extinct cave hyena (crocuta crocuta spelaea), and sequenced 90 million dna fragments from two specimens. the dna reads enabled a reconstruction of the cave hyena mitochondrial genome with up to a 158-fold coverage. this genome, and those sequenced from extant spotted (crocuta crocuta) a ...201222456883
borrelia burgdorferi serosurvey in wild deer in england and wales.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united kingdom and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. however, limited information is available on its epidemiology and dynamics in the u.k. a survey in wild deer to investigate the presence of antibodies reactive to borrellia burgdorferi was conducted to obtain initial information on the distribution pattern of the spirochete in england and wales. samples from roe deer (n=604) and red deer (n=80) were collected in eight ...201222448654
diet of wolves canis lupus returning to the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf canis lupus was extinct in hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. the diet of wolves living in groups in aggteleki national park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, b% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %o ...201122448046
using n-alkanes to estimate diet composition of herbivores: a novel mathematical approach.n-alkanes are long-chain saturated hydrocarbons occurring in plant cuticles that can be used as chemical markers for estimating the diet composition of herbivores. an important constraint of using n-alkanes to estimate diet composition with currently employed mathematical procedures is that the number of markers must be equal or larger than the number of diet components. this is a considerable limitation when dealing with free-ranging herbivores feeding on complex plant communities. we present a ...200722444217
genetic analysis of life-history constraint and evolution in a wild ungulate among life-history traits are central to evolutionary theory. in quantitative genetic terms, trade-offs may be manifested as negative genetic covariances relative to the direction of selection on phenotypic traits. although the expression and selection of ecologically important phenotypic variation are fundamentally multivariate phenomena, the in situ quantification of genetic covariances is challenging. even for life-history traits, where well-developed theory exists with which to re ...201222437186
ontogenesis of the reticulum with special reference to neuroendocrine and glial cells: a comparative analysis of the merino sheep and iberian red deer.the present study was designed to compare the differences in the ontogenesis of the reticulum in sheep (domestic ruminant) and deer (wild ruminant). a total of 50 embryos and foetuses merino sheep and 50 iberian deer were used, from the first pre-natal life until birth. the appearance of the reticulum from the primitive gastric tube was earlier in the sheep (22% gestation, 33 days) than in the deer (25% gestation, 66 days). in both cases, it displayed a primitive epithelium of a stratified, cyli ...201222432940
development and application of a delayed-release anthelmintic intra-ruminal bolus system for experimental manipulation of nematode worm order to quantify the impact of parasites on host population dynamics, experimental manipulations that perturb the parasite-host relationship are needed but, logistically, this is difficult for wild hosts. here, we describe the use of a delayed-release anthelmintic delivery system that can be administered when the hosts can be captured and its activity delayed until a more appropriate period in the host-parasite cycle. our model system is svalbard reindeer infected with a nematode parasite, m ...201222417532
detection of antibodies in wild ruminants to evaluate exposure to liver trematodes.wild ruminants sharing pastures with domestic livestock are at risk of infection by liver trematodes. detection of antibodies provides a very useful tool to gain more knowledge about the distribution of these parasites. non-lethal methods are strongly encouraged for the analysis of the risk of infection among wild ruminants. a seroepidemiological survey was conducted to analyze exposure to hepatic trematodes ( fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum ) in wild ruminants from southern spain ...201222414166
benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. however, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. in this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. forty-four red deer hinds (cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum mea ...201222403707
pathology of brucella ovis infection in red deer stags (cervus elaphus).to describe the pathology of the reproductive tract of red deer stags with active brucella ovis infection and in stags in which b. ovis infection had resolved.201222352933
taking advantage of the use of supervised learning methods for characterization of sperm population structure related with freezability in the iberian red deer.using iberian red deer as a model, this study presents a supervised learning method, the support vector machines (svm), to characterize sperm population structure related with freezability. male freezability was assessed by evaluating motility, membrane status and mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm after a freezing-thawing procedure. the svm model was generated using sperm motility information captured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (casa) from thawed semen, belonging to six stags wi ...201222341709
deer (cervus elaphus) antler extract suppresses adhesion and migration of endometriotic cells and regulates mmp-2 and mmp-9 expression.deer antler has been used for centuries as medicine for a wide range of health problems, including various women's diseases. however, there is a safety concern related to its use in hormone-sensitive conditions, such as breast cancer and endometriosis. in the present study, we investigated the effect of deer (cervus elaphus) antler extract (dae) on adhesion and migration of human endometriotic cells.201222313625
seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of yellowstone national park.1. for large predators living in seasonal environments, patterns of predation are likely to vary among seasons because of related changes in prey vulnerability. variation in prey vulnerability underlies the influence of predators on prey populations and the response of predators to seasonal variation in rates of biomass acquisition. despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2. we assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves canis lu ...201222260633
vocal anatomy, tongue protrusion behaviour and the acoustics of rutting roars in free-ranging iberian red deer stags (cervus elaphus hispanicus).roaring in rutting iberian red deer stags cervus elaphus hispanicus is unusual compared to other subspecies of red deer, which radiated from the iberian refugium after the last glacial maximum. in all red deer stags, the larynx occupies a permanent low mid-neck resting position and is momentarily retracted almost down to the rostral end of the sternum during the production of rutting calls. simultaneous with the retraction of the larynx, male iberian red deer pronouncedly protrude the tongue dur ...201222257361
mandibular osteomyelitis in red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) and fallow deer (dama dama): occurrence and associated factors in free-living populations in southern spain.the prevalence of mandibular osteomyelitis, which results in a condition called lumpy jaw, and factors associated with its occurrence were investigated in syntopic free-living populations of red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) and fallow deer (dama dama) in spain. the study material consisted of 3,586 mandibles from 2,548 red deer and 1,038 fallow deer shot during sport hunting, herd management culls, and programs for population control between 1988 and 1997 (period 1) and 2002 and 2009 (period ...201222247376
"expression of protein kinase cαand the mzf-1 and elk-1 transcription factors in human breast cancer cells"."recently, our research into hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) has shown that the transcription factors myeloid zinc finger-1 (mzf-1) and ets-like-protein 1 are related to protein kinase c alpha (pkcα) expression. the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of the expression of pkcαwith the expressions of elk-1 and mzf-1 in various differentiated breast cancer cell lines: mda- mb-231, hs57bt, skbr3, mda-mb-468 and mcf-7. the malignant potential in the five lines of breast cancer cell ...201222242952
structure of the carboxy-terminal region of a kcnh channel.the kcnh family of ion channels, comprising ether-à-go-go (eag), eag-related gene (erg), and eag-like (elk) k(+)-channel subfamilies, is crucial for repolarization of the cardiac action potential, regulation of neuronal excitability and proliferation of tumour cells. the carboxy-terminal region of kcnh channels contains a cyclic-nucleotide-binding homology domain (cnbhd) and c-linker that couples the cnbhd to the pore. the c-linker/cnbhd is essential for proper function and trafficking of ion ch ...201222230959
antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (cervus elaphus) as influenced by molecular weight and enzymes.the crude protein hydrolysates from aqueous extract of velvet antler (aeva) were prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (sgi, pepsin-pancreatin) using pancreatin-pepsin, alcalase and neutrase. the resulting hydrolysates were separated by sequential ultrafiltration into four fractions. the antioxidant activities of peptide fractions were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (frap), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 ...201122224289
do wild ungulates allow improved monitoring of flavivirus circulation in spain?as a response to the need for improved and cost-efficient west nile virus (wnv) and other flavivirus surveillance tools, we tested 887 juvenile free-living red deer, 742 free-living juvenile wild boar, and 327 farmed deer, to detect temporal variability in exposure to these viruses. thirty of 742 wild boar samples (4%; 95% ci 2.8,5.7) yielded a positive elisa result. antibody-positive individuals had been sampled between 2003 and 2011 in localities from central and southern spain. no wild boar f ...201222217171
toward an identification of resources influencing habitat use in a multi-specific context.interactions between animal behaviour and the environment are both shaping observed habitat use. despite the importance of inter-specific interactions on the habitat use performed by individuals, most previous analyses have focused on case studies of single species. by focusing on two sympatric populations of large herbivores with contrasting body size, we went one step beyond by studying variation in home range size and identifying the factors involved in such variation, to define how habitat f ...201122216164
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
foci report on indigenous dermacentor reticulatus populations in belgium and a preliminary study of associated babesiosis pathogens.the occurrence of autochthonous clinical cases of canine and equine babesiosis in belgium during the last two decades suggests that the vector of the pathogens responsible for these diseases, dermacentor reticulatus (ixodida: ixodidae), may be present in this country. consequently, evidence for the presence of this tick species in different locations within belgium was investigated. four different locations were monitored by flagging in 2010; these included the locations at which d. reticulatus ...201222211927
blocking egfr activation suppresses ovarian tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.genetic alterations including overexpression of egfr (in approximately 70% of ovarian tumors) play a crucial role in the signal transduction pathways that regulate key cellular functions such as cell survival and proliferation and are responsible for compromising traditional chemotherapy. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (dim) is an indole compound present in brassica vegetables. in our previous studies, we demonstrated that br-dim, a formulated version of dim, suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells ...201122205686
campylobacter spp. distribution in biofilms on different surfaces in an agricultural watershed (elk creek, british columbia): using biofilms to monitor for campylobacter.despite its relevance to public health, presence and concentrations of campylobacter spp. in biofilms in natural aquatic environments has not been investigated. this study examined the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in biofilms on a variety of surfaces (river rock, slate rock, wood, lexan™, sandpaper, and sediment) and in water from december 2005 to december 2006 to find a substratum that facilitated campylobacters detection in natural aquatic environments. samples were collected at four sites ...201122204983
Morphogenetic aspects of deer antler development.Deer antlers are unique mammalian appendages that have potential for application as a valuable model for biomedical research, such as organ regeneration, bone development and growth control. In this review we described the morphogenetic aspects of antler development, by summarizing relevant information accumulated over the course of our antler research in combine with other published papers. Antler development consists of two distinct phenomena: generation and regeneration. Generation starts wit ...201222202000
unexpected high responses to tuberculin skin-test in farmed red deer: implications for tuberculosis control.tuberculosis (tb) in deer is a serious zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. detection of infected animals is usually performed using single or comparative skin-testing (sst/cst), although false responses due to sensitization to other mycobacteria may occur, hampering diagnostic specificity. we describe the evolution of the responses to the sst, cst and to an in-house serological assay in a red deer farm subjected to regular tb testing in southern spain in an attempt to understand the dyna ...201122197268
Polymorphic integrations of an endogenous gammaretrovirus in the mule deer genome.Endogenous retroviruses constitute a significant genomic fraction in all mammalian species. Typically they are evolutionarily old and fixed in the host species population. Here we report on a novel endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERV? for cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus) in the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus that is insertionally polymorphic among individuals from the same geographical location, suggesting that it has a more recent evolutionary origin. Using PCR-based methods, we identified seve ...201122190723
food chain model based on field data to predict westslope cutthroat trout (oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) ovary selenium concentrations from water selenium concentrations in the elk valley, british columbia.previous studies conducted in the elk river watershed showed that selenium concentrations are higher in aquatic biota in lentic compared to lotic habitats of the system having similar water selenium concentrations. studies have also shown that water selenium concentrations have increased over time (∼10% per year) and recent annual average concentrations have ranged up to 0.044 mg/l in areas downstream from mine discharges. for the present study, trophic transfer of selenium was characterized in ...201122189838
activation of the intracellular metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in striatal neurons leads to upregulation of genes associated with sustained synaptic transmission including arc/arg3.1.the g-protein coupled receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mglur5), is expressed on both cell surface and intracellular membranes in striatal neurons. using pharmacological tools to differentiate membrane responses, we previously demonstrated that cell surface mglur5 triggers rapid, transient cytoplasmic ca2+ rises resulting in c-jun n-terminal kinase, ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (camk), and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (creb) phos ...201122179607
the inhibitory effects of nkx3.1 on igf-1r expression and its signalling pathway in human prostatic carcinoma pc3 cells.nkx3.1, which is a prostate-specific homeobox gene, plays an important role in prostate cancer and usually functions as a tumour suppressor gene. in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of nkx3.1 on insulin-like growth factor (igf)-1r expression and its downstream signalling pathway in pc3 cells. pc3 cells were stably transfected with nkx3.1 expression plasmid (pcdna3.1-nkx3.1) or vector plasmid (pcdna3.1+). the igf-ir mrna and protein expression levels were assessed in pc3-nkx3.1 t ...201122179513
suspicion of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission between cattle and wild-living red deer (cervus elaphus) by multi target genotyping.for epidemiological tracing of paratuberculosis (johne's disease), multi-target genotyping of the etiologic agent mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is necessary. the study was undertaken to assess the informative value of different typing techniques and individual genome markers by investigation of map transmission between wild-living red deer and farmed cattle with known shared habitats.53 map-type-ii-isolates were differentiated by short-sequence repeat (ssr, 4 loci)-, mycobact ...201122179249
seroprevalence study in forestry workers from eastern germany using novel genotype 3- and rat hepatitis e virus-specific immunoglobulin g elisas.hepatitis e virus (hev) is the causative agent of an acute self-limiting hepatitis in humans. in industrialized countries, autochthonous cases are linked to zoonotic transmission from domestic pigs, wild boar and red deer. the main route of human infection presumably is consumption of contaminated meat. farmers, slaughterers and veterinarians are expected to be risk groups as they work close to potentially infected animals. in this study, we tested four escherichia coli-expressed segments of the ...201122179131
historic, pre-european settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the united states.the objectives of this analysis were to estimated historic (pre-european settlement) enteric methane (ch(4)) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous united states and compare these to present-day ch(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. the analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis due to their natural range being mostly outside of the co ...201122178852
tissue-specific expression of human calcineurin-binding protein 1 in mouse synovial tissue can suppress inflammatory arthritis.calcineurin (cn) is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase. in immune cells, cn controls the activity of a wide range of transcription factors, including nuclear factor of activated t, nuclear factor-kappa b, c-fos, and elk-1. cn plays an important role in synoviocyte activation and arthritis progression in vivo and this function is tightly linked to dysregulated intracellular ca(2+) store and ca(2+) response triggered by proinflammatory cytokines. in the present study, ...201122175542
Alpha and gamma herpesvirus detection in two herds of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) in New Zealand.Abstract201222175434
growth response and shedding of leptospira spp. in urine following vaccination for leptospirosis in young farmed deer.abstract201222175424
corrected misidentification of first instars of the bot flies cephenemyia apicata and c. jellisoni, with a review of the biology and life history of both species.first instars obtained from the uteri of host-seeking females, and compared with previously published descriptions of larvae collected from columbian black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), revealed that larvae described as cephenemyia apicata bennett & sabrosky (diptera: oestridae) actually are c. jellisoni townsend. several new characters are added to supplement the original descriptions of the first instars of these species. collections of all larvae from deer autopsied during di ...201122168389
prostaglandin e(2) production in mice is reduced by consumption of range-fed sources of red meat.many view bison as a healthful alternative to other red meat sources, and as a way to decrease health risks, they associate it with meat consumption. using mice as a model for immune function, we hypothesized that consumption of meat from range-fed bison would decrease prostaglandin (pg) e(2) and alter prostacyclin (pgi(2)) release upon immune challenge when compared with mice fed meat from grain-finished bison, range-fed beef, feedlot steers, free-ranging elk, or chicken breast. after 2 weeks o ...201122153516
pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in north bohemia (czech republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. we compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging european roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the czech republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). data on atmospheric fluoride ...201122137477
dpp activates integrin-mediated anchorage-dependent signals in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.dpp, a major noncollagenous protein of the dentin matrix is a highly acidic protein and binds ca2+ avidly and thus linked to matrix mineralization. here, we demonstrate that the rgd domain in dpp can bind to integrins on the cell surface of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and pulp cells. this coupling generates intracellular signals that are channeled along cytoskeletal filaments and activates the non-receptor tyrosine kinase fak, which plays a key role in signaling at sites of cellular ...201122134916
bilateral microphthalmia and aphakia associated with multiple eye abnormalities in a free-living european red deer calf (cervus elaphus).a free-living european red deer calf (cervus elaphus) was euthanized due to bilateral microphthalmia. lens was missing, replaced by proliferating squamous epithelial cells; hyperplastic squamous cells, sebaceous and mucinous glands were observed within the cornea with the characteristics of inclusion cyst. findings were consistent with congenital microphthalmia/aphakia, with multiple eye abnormalities.201122134109
selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central quebec.vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. the presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. we studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (abies balsamea (l.) miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dom ...201022127165
mycobacterial infections in free-living cervids in germany (2002-2006).we examined 1,022 free-living roe deer, red deer, and fallow deer for mycobacteria in germany, 2002-2006. retropharyngeal lymph nodes and other tissues were processed for culture and isolates were identified with the use of polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing. mycobacteria were found in 18.3% of deer, with mycobacterium avium in 14.8%. other atypical mycobacteria were detected in 5.3%. members of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were not detected.201122102674
first description of nodular onchocercosis (onchocerca jakutensis) in free-ranging italian red deer (cervus elaphus).onchocercosis is a vector-transmitted parasitic disease involving wild and domestic ungulates, humans, and dogs. red deer (cervus elaphus) host numerous onchocerca spp. which have precise anatomic sites in the host and two species, onchocerca flexuosa wedl, 1856 and onchocerca jakutensis guba-now, 1964, are found inside subcutaneous nodules. between september and november 2007, subcutaneous nodules were observed on both thighs in shot red deer of a tuscany population. we observed cystic structur ...201122102667
both mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (erk) 1/2 and phosphatidylinositide-3-oh kinase (pi3k)/akt pathways regulate activation of e-twenty-six (ets)-like transcription factor 1 (elk-1) in u138 glioblastoma cells.epidermal growth factor (egf) and its receptor (egfr) have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma. in our study, the egfr was stimulated with egf in human u138 glioblastoma cells. we show that the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (erk) 1/2 pathway phosphorylated the e twenty-six (ets)-like transcription factor 1 (elk-1) mainly at serine 383 residue. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (mek) 1/2 inhibit ...201122085529
Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while r ...201222079077
Novel regulatory mechanism and functional implication of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in CpG-ODN-stimulated macrophages.Macrophages are activated by recognizing bacterial DNA and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) through Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been shown to be an important factor in inflammation-induced macrophage migration which is essential for defense functions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the molecular mechanism associated with the regulation of PAI-1 expression and its biological significance in CpG-ODN-stimulated mouse macrophages. Our res ...201222078208
identification of meats from red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and roe deer (capreolus capreolus) using polymerase chain reaction targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene was applied to the specific identification of meats from red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and roe deer (capreolus capreolus). the use of a common reverse primer, together with forward specific primers for red deer, fallow deer, and roe deer, allowed the selective amplification of the desired cervid sequences. the specificity of each primer pair was verified by pcr analysi ...200722064291
influence of hunting-season stage and ripening conditions on nitrogen fractions and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in venison (cervus elaphus) chorizo sausages.the influence of hunting-season stage (deer hunted at the start versus deer hunted at the end of the season) and ripening conditions (natural versus controlled drying rooms) on nitrogen fractions and degradation of myofibrillar proteins were studied in chorizo sausages made with venison. variations of nitrogen fractions during 21 days of ripening were found. in all batches, myofibrillar protein content decreased and proteolysis indices were between 4.6% and 14.4% at the end of ripening. however, ...200722064193
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 4335