pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in african and asian elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus).the pharmacokinetic parameters of s(+) and r(-) ibuprofen were determined in 20 elephants after oral administration of preliminary 4-, 5-, and 6-mg/kg doses of racemic ibuprofen. following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen, serum concentrations of ibuprofen peaked at 5 hr at 3.9 +/- 2.07 microg/ml r(-) and 10.65 +/- 5.64 microg/ml s(+) (mean +/- sd) in african elephants (loxodonta africana) and at 3 hr at 5.14 +/- 1.39 microg/ml r(-) and 13.77 +/- 3.75 microg/ml s(+) in asian elephants (elepha ...200717679510
assisted reproduction in female rhinoceros and elephants--current status and future perspective.over the last few decades, rhinoceroses and elephants became important icons in the saga of wildlife conservation. recent surveys estimate the wild asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephant populations to be, at most, 50 250 and 637 600 respectively. for the five rhinoceros species, black (diceros bicornis), white (ceratotherium simum), indian (rhinoceros unicornis), javan (rhinoceros sondaicus) and sumatran rhinoceros (dicerorhinus sumatrensis), the population estimates ...200717688600
the distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the asian elephant (elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.both asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. the ...200717711421
six novel gammaherpesviruses of afrotheria provide insight into the early divergence of the gammaherpesvirinae.the afrotheria represent an early branching of placental mammals. only two herpesviruses from afrotheria have been previously identified, and the genus proboscivirus in the subfamily betaherpesvirinae has been proposed for them. six novel gammaherpesviruses were identified in four species in the superorder afrotheria by detection and analysis of their dna polymerase genes. elephantid herpesvirus 3 (elhv3) and elephantid herpesvirus 4 (elhv4) were identified from conjunctival swabs from asian ele ...200817884307
elephants classify human ethnic groups by odor and garment color.animals can benefit from classifying predators or other dangers into categories, tailoring their escape strategies to the type and nature of the risk. studies of alarm vocalizations have revealed various levels of sophistication in classification. in many taxa, reactions to danger are inflexible, but some species can learn the level of threat presented by the local population of a predator or by specific, recognizable individuals. some species distinguish several species of predator, giving diff ...200717949977
impacts of large herbivorous mammals on bird diversity and abundance in an african savanna.large native mammals are declining dramatically in abundance across africa, with strong impacts on both plant and animal community dynamics. however, the net effects of this large-scale loss in megafauna are poorly understood because responses by several ecologically important groups have not been assessed. we used a large-scale, replicated exclusion experiment in kenya to investigate the impacts of different guilds of native and domestic large herbivores on the diversity and abundance of birds ...200818288493
structural characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of an african elephant (loxodonta africana africana).the oligosaccharides present in the milk of an african elephant (loxodonta africana africana), collected 4 days post partum, were separated by size exclusion-, anion exchange- and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) before characterisation by (1)h nmr spectroscopy. neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were identified. neutral oligosaccharides characterised were isoglobotriose, gal(beta1-4)[fuc(alpha1-3)]glcnac(beta1-3)gal(beta1-4)glc, gal(beta1-4)[fuc(alpha1-3)]glcnac(beta1-3)gal(beta1- ...200818374615
fine-scale population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society.nonrandom patterns of mating and dispersal create fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations - especially of social mammals - with important evolutionary and conservation genetic consequences. such structure is well-characterized for typical mammalian societies; that is, societies where social group composition is stable, dispersal is male-biased, and males form permanent breeding associations in just one or a few social groups over the course of their lives. however, genetic structure ...200818466226
ivory identification by dna profiling of cytochrome b gene.ivory can be visually identified in its native form as coming from an elephant species; however, determining from which of the three extant elephant species a section of ivory originates is more problematic. we report on a method that will identify and distinguish the protected and endangered elephant species, elephas maximus or loxodonta sp. to identify the species of elephant from ivory products, we developed three groups of nested pcr amplifications within the cytochrome b gene that generate ...200918612647
pharmacokinetics of orally administered phenylbutazone in african and asian elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus).the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenylbutazone were determined in 18 elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus) after single-dose oral administration of 2, 3, and 4 mg/kg phenylbutazone, as well as multiple-dose administrations with a 4-wk washout period between trials. after administration of 2 mg/kg phenylbutazone, mean serum concentrations peaked in approximately 7.5 hr at 4.3 +/- 2.02 microg/ml and 9.7 hr at 7.1 +/- 2.36 microg/ml for african and asian elephants, respectively, whil ...200818634209
estrous synchrony in a group of african elephants (loxodonta africana) under human care.synchrony of estrous, and consequently of conception and birth of young, may be of adaptive significance for certain mammals. among the species in which estrous synchrony has been suspected several times are elephants, but clear evidence is still missing. we determined estrous cycles of african elephants (loxodonta africana) (n=4) at the vienna zoo, austria, between june 2003 and january 2006 by measuring serum progesterone levels from weekly blood samples. except for the dominant female when sh ...200918691838
the movements of limb segments and joints during locomotion in african and asian the largest extant terrestrial animals, elephants do not trot or gallop but can move smoothly to faster speeds without markedly changing their kinematics, yet with a shift from vaulting to bouncing kinetics. to understand this unusual mechanism, we quantified the forelimb and hindlimb motions of eight asian elephants (elephas maximus) and seven african elephants (loxodonta africana). we used 240 hz motion analysis (tracking 10 joint markers) to measure the flexion/extension angles and angular ...200818723530
long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal african elephant (loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. we assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an african elephant population in mikumi national park, tanzania, prior to 1989. we examined fe ...200818759771
network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in hierarchical mammalian societies.recent studies have demonstrated that human societies are hierarchically structured with a consistent scaling ratio across successive layers of the social network; each layer of the network is between three and four times the size of the preceding (smaller) grouping level. here we show that similar relationships hold for four mammalian taxa living in multi-level social systems. for elephant (loxodonta africana), gelada (theropithecus gelada) and hamadryas (papio hamadryas hamadryas) baboon, succ ...200818765349
germany/australia index of sperm sex sortability in elephants and rhinoceros.flow cytometric sexing of spermatozoa followed by application in artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization provides a unique opportunity to predetermine the sex of offspring and might enhance the conservation management of endangered species in captivity such as the elephant and rhinoceros. to obtain an indication of the sortability of spermatozoa from these species, the relative dna differences between x and y chromosome bearing spermatozoa (fresh, frozen thawed, epididymal) from three ...200919055564
elephant (loxodonta africana) home ranges in sabi sand reserve and kruger national park: a five-year satellite tracking study.during a five-year gps satellite tracking study in sabi sand reserve (ssr) and kruger national park (knp) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (loxodonta africana) from september 2003 to august 2008. the study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. we found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. ...200819065264
the sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare.this study examined the distribution of 495 asian elephants (elephas maximus) and 336 african elephants (loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in europe (49.1%) and north america (32.6%). cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (elephas). groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (sigma = 5.73). one fifth of elephants lived alone or with one conspecific. forty-six elephants (5.5%) had no conspecific. many zoos ignore minimum group sizes of regional zoo associatio ...200919107664
microbiology of the external ear canal in six african elephants (loxodonta africana).samples collected from both external ear canals of six adult female african elephants (loxodonta africana) were cultured for fungi, yeasts and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. all the samples produced heavy growths of several aerobic bacteria, but anaerobic bacteria were rare and no fungi or yeasts were isolated. the most common bacterium isolated was staphylococcus epidermidis, which was cultured from 11 of the 12 ears. acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and coryn ...200919234325
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus skin infections from an elephant calf--san diego, california, 2008.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) infections are a major cause of human skin and soft tissue infections in the united states. mrsa colonization and infection also have been observed in turtles, bats, seals, sheep, rabbits, rodents, cats, dogs, pigs, birds, horses, and cattle, and mrsa infections with an epidemiologic link to animal contact have been reported in veterinary personnel, pet owners, and farm animal workers. on january 29, 2008, the county of san diego health and huma ...200919265780
origin and ascendancy of a chimeric fusion gene: the beta/delta-globin gene of paenungulate mammals.the delta-globin gene (hbd) of eutherian mammals exhibits a propensity for recombinational exchange with the closely linked beta-globin gene (hbb) and has been independently converted by the hbb gene in multiple lineages. here we report the presence of a chimeric beta/delta fusion gene in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) that was created by unequal crossing-over between misaligned hbd and hbb paralogs. the recombinant chromosome that harbors the beta/delta fusion gene in elephants is st ...200919332641
pulmonary aspergillosis in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).a 26-year-old female african elephant (loxodonta africana) with a history of purulent pododermatitis, recurrent abdominal pain, and severe weight loss died spontaneously after a period of deteriorating disease. the main pathological finding was a severe bilateral pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing pneumonia with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. at microbiological examination aspergillus spp. were isolated. the present case indicates that mycotic pneumonia should to be considered as a d ...200919425315
logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for central african tropical forests.the management of tropical forest in timber concessions has been proposed as a solution to prevent further biodiversity loss. the effectiveness of this strategy will likely depend on species-specific, population-level responses to logging. we conducted a survey (749 line transects over 3450 km) in logging concessions (1.2 million ha) in the northern republic of congo to examine the impact of logging on large mammal populations, including endangered species such as the elephant (loxodonta african ...200919453655
self-recognition in the asian elephant and future directions for cognitive research with elephants in zoological settings.the field of animal cognition has grown steadily for nearly four decades, but the primary focus has centered on easily kept lab animals of varying cognitive capacity, including rodents, birds and primates. elephants (animals not easily kept in a laboratory) are generally thought of as highly social, cooperative, intelligent animals, yet few studies-with the exception of long-term behavioral field studies-have been conducted to directly support this assumption. in fact, there has been remarkably ...201019514017
initial findings on visual acuity thresholds in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).there are only a few published examinations of elephant visual acuity. all involved asian elephants (elephas maximus) and found visual acuity to be between 8' and 11' of arc for a stimulus near the tip of the trunk, equivalent to a 0.50 cm gap, at a distance of about 2 m from the eyes. we predicted that african elephants (loxodonta africana) would have similarly high visual acuity, necessary to facilitate eye-trunk coordination for feeding, drinking and social interactions. when tested on a disc ...201019598240
serum antibody titers following routine rabies vaccination in african evaluate serum antibody titers in captive african elephants (loxodonta africana) following routine vaccination with a commercially available, inactivated rabies vaccine.200919827985
vocalizations of wild asian elephants (elephas maximus): structural classification and social context.elephants use vocalizations for both long and short distance communication. whereas the acoustic repertoire of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) has been extensively studied in its savannah habitat, very little is known about the structure and social context of the vocalizations of the asian elephant (elephas maximus), which is mostly found in forests. in this study, the vocal repertoire of wild asian elephants in southern india was examined. the calls could be classified into four mutua ...200919894852
qualitative comparison of the cranio-dental osteology of the extant elephants, elephas maximus (asian elephant) and loxodonta africana (african elephant).few osteological descriptions of the extant elephants and no detailed morphological comparison of the two genera, elephas and loxodonta, have been done in recent years. in this study, 786 specimens of extant elephants (crania, mandibles, and molars) were examined for characters unique to each species. differences between sexes in each species were described, as well as differences between subspecies of each species. striking differences in morphology were noted between sexes of both elephants an ...201019937635
large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.1. savanna ecosystems are defined largely by tree-grass mixtures, and tree establishment is a key driver of community structure and ecosystem function in these systems. the factors controlling savanna tree establishment are understudied, but likely involve some combination of seed, microsite and predator/fire limitation. in african savannas, suppression and killing of adult trees by large mammals like elephants (loxodonta africana blumenbach, 1797) and giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis linnaeus, ...201020039982
major histocompatibility complex variation and evolution at a single, expressed dqa locus in two genera of elephants.genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (mhc) are crucial to defense against infectious disease, provide an important measure of functional genetic diversity, and have been implicated in mate choice and kin recognition. as a result, mhc loci have been characterized for a number of vertebrate species, especially mammals;however, elephants are a notable exception. our study is the first to characterize patterns of genetic diversity and natural selection in the elephant mhc. we did ...201020058003
microscopic morphology of the elephant's a result of the lack of basic microscopic anatomy of the elephants' foot, this study deals with the normal microscopic morphology of both the asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephant foot with consideration of pathologic changes. a total of 727 histologic samples from defined locations of 24 hooves of both species (17 asian and seven african species) were studied, measured, and evaluated. minor differences between the feet and species are seen histologically. poor hor ...200920063818
prolactin secretion and ovarian function in cycling and non-cycling african female elephants (loxodonta africana).reproduction of captive elephants in zoos has shown a low fecundity and requires improvement. one of the reasons for low fecundity is ovarian dysfunction in many female elephants. to investigate whether prolactin has a correlation with ovarian function in female elephants, the serum concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and estradiol-17beta in four african female elephants (one cycling female and three non-cycling female elephants) were measured. cyclic patterns of prolactin and estradiol-17 ...201020179385
birth statistics for african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.african (loxodonta africana) and asian elephants (elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. this study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. i obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. o ...201020391462
a survey of the management and development of captive african elephant (loxodonta africana) calves: birth to three months of age.we used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 african elephant calves born in captivity. the management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. all of the calves were born at night, between 7pm and 7am. the calves showed a systematic progression in behavioral and physical development, attaining developmental milestones at least a quickly as calves in situ. this study emphasized birth-relate ...201020391463
forensic species identification of elephant (elephantidae) and giraffe (giraffidae) tail hair using light we present methods for distinguishing tail hairs of african elephants (loxodonta africana), asian elephants (elephas maximus), and giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis) from forensic contexts. such hairs are commonly used to manufacture jewelry artifacts that are often sold illegally in the international wildlife trade. tail hairs from these three species are easily confused macroscopically, and morphological methods for distinguishing african and asian tail hairs have not been published. we us ...201020549391
direct analysis of α- and β-chains of hemoglobins from mammalian blood samples by nanoesi mass spectrometry during in-capillary proteolytic digestion.α- and β-chains of hemoglobins derived from several species were analyzed directly from diluted blood samples by simultaneous in-capillary proteolytic digestion and nanoesi ms and ms/ms analysis. starting from fresh or frozen and thawed blood samples, sequence coverages of >80% were usually obtained. only 2 h after resuspension of a dried blood spot, human origin could be demonstrated from data obtained by in-capillary tryptic digestion, nanoesi mass spectrometric analysis, and data base search. ...201020602125
defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an african savanna.tree cover in savanna ecosystems is usually regarded as unstable, varying with rainfall, fire, and herbivory. in sub-saharan africa, elephants (loxodonta africana) suppress tree cover, thereby maintaining landscape heterogeneity by promoting tree-grass coexistence. in the absence of elephants, tree encroachment may convert savannas into closed-canopy woodlands; when elephants increase in abundance, intensified browsing pressure can transform savannas into open grasslands. we show that symbiotic ...201020817530
the prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wild mammals in the kruger national park, south africa.this study determined the prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in faecal samples from elephant (loxodonta africana), buffalo (syncerus caffer) and impala (aepyceros melampus) in the kruger national park (knp) and an adjacent game reserve in south africa. two of the study areas were in close proximity to rural communities on the western knp boundary and the third study area was located in the centre of the knp. fresh stool samples (n=445) were collected and tested using an immunofluorescent ...201021075528
neuronal morphology in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) neocortex.virtually nothing is known about the morphology of cortical neurons in the elephant. to this end, the current study provides the first documentation of neuronal morphology in frontal and occipital regions of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). cortical tissue from the perfusion-fixed brains of two free-ranging african elephants was stained with a modified golgi technique. neurons of different types (n=75), with a focus on superficial (i.e., layers ii-iii) pyramidal neurons, were quantifie ...201021079992
influence of age and gender on secretion of anti-müllerian hormone in asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) elephants.anti-müllerian hormone (amh) secretion was studied in asian and african elephants varying in age and reproductive status. overall mean concentrations did not differ (p > 0.05) between species, but were markedly higher in male than female asian elephants (31.01 ± 4.22 ng/ml and 0.19 ± 0.02 ng/ml, mean ± sem) and african elephants (40.27 ± 3.18 ng/ml, 0.17 ± 0.04 ng/ml), respectively. anti-müllerian hormone secretion was not significantly affected by ovarian cyclicity status (cycling vs noncycling ...201021111473
liquid semen storage in elephants (elephas maximus and loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. the objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodo ...201021127305
genomic dna sequences from mastodon and woolly mammoth reveal deep speciation of forest and savanna elucidate the history of living and extinct elephantids, we generated 39,763 bp of aligned nuclear dna sequence across 375 loci for african savanna elephant, african forest elephant, asian elephant, the extinct american mastodon, and the woolly mammoth. our data establish that the asian elephant is the closest living relative of the extinct mammoth in the nuclear genome, extending previous findings from mitochondrial dna analyses. we also find that savanna and forest elephants, which some hav ...201021203580
effects of rainfall, host demography, and musth on strongyle fecal egg counts in african elephants (loxodonta africana) in namibia.wild african elephants (loxodonta africana) are commonly infected with intestinal strongyle parasites. our objective was to determine baseline fecal strongyle egg counts for elephants in the northeast region of etosha national park, namibia and determine if these numbers were affected by annual rainfall, elephant demography (age of individuals and composition of groups), and hormonal state of males. we found that matriarchal family group members have significantly higher fecal egg counts than ma ...201121270006
results of the third reproductive assessment survey of north american asian (elephas maximus) and african (loxodonta africana) female elephants.a written survey assessed reproductive status of female asian and african elephants in aza/ssp facilities in 2008, and data were compared to surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005. results showed that ovarian acyclicity rates across the surveys remained unchanged for asian (13.3, 10.9 and 11.1%) and african (22.1, 31.2 and 30.5%) elephants, respectively (p>0.05), but were higher overall for african compared to asian elephants (p<0.05). in 2008, the percentages of asian and african elephants with irr ...201121319213
a preliminary analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the genomic organization of the igh (immunoglobulin heavy chain), ig? (immunoglobulin kappa chain), and ig? (immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. the elephant igh locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 v(h) gene segments, 87 d(h) gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six j(h) gene segments, a single µ, a d remnant, and eight ? genes (a and e genes are miss ...201121364892
leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age.the value of age is well recognized in human societies, where older individuals often emerge as leaders in tasks requiring specialized knowledge, but what part do such individuals play in other social species? despite growing interest in how effective leadership might be achieved in animal social systems, the specific role that older leaders may play in decision-making has rarely been experimentally investigated. here, we use a novel playback paradigm to demonstrate that in african elephants (lo ...201121411454
a questionnaire-based evaluation of the veterinary cordon fence separating wildlife and livestock along the boundary of the kruger national park, south africa.veterinary cordon fences are used in southern africa to separate wildlife from domestic animals in order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. such fences are a control method recognized by the world organization for animal health (oie) for establishing disease-free zones in beef exporting countries. however, few studies have evaluated the ecological impact of these physical barriers or their effectiveness at a multispecies level. we examined the permeability of one such barrier, along ...201121536336
placentation in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). v. the trophoblast secretes placental determine if elephant placenta secretes a lactogenic hormone which may function as the principal luteotrophin to maintain ovarian luteal function throughout gestation. study design and main outcome measures: to label biopsies of endometrium and placenta recovered from african elephant culled professionally throughout gestation with an anti-human prolactin polyclonal antibody in a conventional immunocytochemical staining technique.201121550657
secretory pattern of inhibin during estrous cycle and pregnancy in african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants.the ovary of female elephants has multiple corpora lutea (cl) during the estrous cycle and gestation. the previous reports clearly demonstrated that inhibin was secreted from lutein cells as well as granulosa cells of antral follicles in cyclic asian elephants. the aim of this study is to investigate the inhibin secretion during the pregnancy in african and asian elephants. two african elephants and two asian elephants were subjected to this study. circulating levels of immunoreactive (ir-) inhi ...201121812022
effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild african elephants.declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. this is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. i assessed the relation ...201121790785
volumetric analysis of the african elephant ventricular system.this study used magnetic resonance imaging (mri) to determine the volume of the ventricular system in the brain of three adult male african elephants (loxodonta africana). the ventricular system of the elephant has a volume of ôê+240 ml, an order of magnitude larger than that seen in the adult human. despite this large size, allometric analysis indicates that the volume of the ventricles in the elephant is what one would expect for a mammal with an ôê+5 kg brain. interestingly, our comparison wi ...201121714111
a cross-species comparison of escape from x inactivation in eutheria: implications for evolution of x chromosome chromosome dosage compensation in both eutherian and marsupial mammals is achieved by x chromosome inactivation (xci)-transcriptional repression that silences one of the two x chromosomes in the somatic cells of females. we recently used rna fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) to show, in individual nuclei, that marsupial x inactivation (in the absence of xist) occurs on a gene-by-gene basis, and that escape from inactivation is stochastic and independent of gene location. in the absenc ...201121947602
the secretory pattern and source of immunoreactive prolactin in pregnant african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants.the objective of the present study was to define the secretion of prolactin (prl) in pregnant african and asian elephants. levels of immunoreactive (ir-) prl in serum and placental homogenates were measured by a heterologous radioimmunoassay (ria) based on an ovine and human ria system, and the localization of immunoreactive (ir-) prl in the placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-human prl. circulating ir-prolactin clearly showed a biphasic pattern during pregnancy in african a ...201122075560
proteomic analysis of a pleistocene mammoth femur reveals more than one hundred ancient bone proteins.we used high-sensitivity, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry to shotgun sequence ancient protein remains extracted from a 43 000 year old woolly mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius ) bone preserved in the siberian permafrost. for the first time, 126 unique protein accessions, mostly low-abundance extracellular matrix and plasma proteins, were confidently identified by solid molecular evidence. among the best characterized was the carrier protein serum albumin, presenting two single amino acid ...201122103443
inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of african elephant movement using a linear filtering approach.understanding the environmental factors influencing animal movements is fundamental to theoretical and applied research in the field of movement ecology. studies relating fine-scale movement paths to spatiotemporally structured landscape data, such as vegetation productivity or human activity, are particularly lacking despite the obvious importance of such information to understanding drivers of animal movement. in part, this may be because few approaches provide the sophistication to characteri ...201121905431
Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared bet ...201121908279
game over! wildlife collapse in northern central african republic.the wildlife populations of northern central african republic (car) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. socio-political turmoil in northern car that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. an aerial sample count was carried out in northern car after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. the survey was flown at the end of the dry season in february-march 2010. it covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting re ...201122170159
chemical signals of elephant musth: temporal aspects of microbially-mediated modifications.mature male african (loxodonta africana) and asian (elephas maximus) elephants exhibit periodic episodes of musth, a state in which serum androgens are elevated, food intake typically decreases, aggressiveness often increases, and breeding success is enhanced. urine is a common source of chemical signals in a variety of mammals. elephants in musth dribble urine almost continuously for lengthy periods, suggesting that the chemicals in their urine may reveal their physiological condition to conspe ...201222246519
the identification of elephant ivory evidences of illegal trade with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and hypervariable d-loop region.dna analysis of elephant ivory of illegal trade was handled in this work. the speciation and geographical origin of nine specimens of elephant ivory were requested by the police. without national authorization, the suspect had purchased processed ivory seals from january to may, 2011 by internet transactions from a site in a neighboring country. the dna of decalcified ivory evidences was isolated with qiagen micro kit. the total 844-904 base pair sized sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and ...201223472798
use of tolazoline as an antagonist to xylazine-ketamine-induced immobilization in african elephants.a group of 15 african elephants (loxodonta africana) were immobilized with a combination of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, im) and ketamine (1 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight, im). ten of the african elephants were allowed to remain recumbent for 30 minutes and the remaining 5 elephants, for 45 minutes before they were given tolazoline (0.5 mg/kg of body weight, iv). for the group of 15, the mean induction time (the time required from injection of the xylazine-ketamine combination until onset o ...20143963578
the formation and function of the corpus luteum in the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 20165017016
collection, motility and storage of spermatozoa from the african elephant loxodonta africana. 20154621102
[parabronema longispiculatum n. sp., a stomach parasite of the african elephant (loxodonta africana blumenbach, 1797)]. 20051230886
circulating progesterone concentrations and ovarian functional anatomy in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).mean plasma progesterone concentrations measured in pregnant and non-pregnant elephants did not differ significantly from each other because of considerable variation, particularly for stage of pregnancy. maximum progesterone values were recorded during pregnancy (5-8 months) and declined towards term (22 months). the numbers of corpora lutea or total luteal tissue volume were not critical in maintaining progesterone secretion. an increase in plasma progesterone concentrations with the luteal ph ...20092754639
non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female african elephants (loxodonta africana) treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) vaccine for inducing southern africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. in this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. the aims of this study were to monitor the ...201222921012
identification of high-efficiency 3'gg grna motifs in indexed fasta files with ngg2.crispr/cas9 is emerging as one of the most-used methods of genome modification in organisms ranging from bacteria to human cells. however, the efficiency of editing varies tremendously site-to-site. a recent report identified a novel motif, called the 3'gg motif, which substantially increases the efficiency of editing at all sites tested in c. elegans. furthermore, they highlighted that previously published grnas with high editing efficiency also had this motif. i designed a python command-line ...201526878062
frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system.few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and longitudinal dynamics. in addition, though most ecological immunology studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titre determination is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more objective. despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging zoonotic infectious disease found world-wide, its natural ecology is not well u ...201424499424
prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater congo basin.vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. the role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. we investigated the exposure history of various african wildlife species from the congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. sera from 24 african forest buffalo (syncerus caffer nanus), 34 african elep ...201323778608
acute death associated with citrobacter freundii infection in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).a 21-year-old male african elephant (loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart sam ...201526179092
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium species at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park, south africa.molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp. was done on isolates from african elephant (loxodonta africana), african buffalo (syncerus caffer), impala (aepyceros melampus) and native domestic calves collected during may and june 2008 at the wildlife/livestock interface of the kruger national park (knp), south africa. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the 18s rrna gene was used in feces from 51 calves (3-12 months of age), 71 buff ...201322975725
effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (loxodonta africana) of the chad basin national park, nigeria.the effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of african elephants (loxodonta africana) of the chad basin national park were determined for the first time. out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured strongyloides, coccidia and strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. among the males, the larvae of strongyloides papi ...201324506015
fatal encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an african savanna elephant (loxodonta africana) in a french zoo.a fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) involving an african elephant ( loxodonta africana ) occurred in november 2013 at the réserve africaine de sigean, france. an adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular ...201526056902
retrospective genetic characterisation of encephalomyocarditis viruses from african elephant and swine recovers two distinct lineages in south africa.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) outbreaks are rare in southern africa. only two have been reported to date from south africa, both coinciding with rodent irruptions. the first outbreak manifested as acute myocarditis in pigs in 1979, whilst the second, occurring from 1993 to 1994, was linked to the deaths of 64 free-ranging adult african elephants (loxodonta africana). the p1 genome region, inclusive of the flanking leader (l) and 2a genes, of three south african isolates, one from swine and t ...201323021643
occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, loxodonta africana, in the okavango delta, is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. a total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke protofasciola robusta. ...201525830107
prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in mammals of the royal zoological society of antwerp, belgium.contrary to the numerous reports on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) in domestic animals, only three articles concerning zoo animals are documented in the literature. a skin infection of an african elephant (loxodonta africana) calf was most likely acquired from an infected caretaker. another zoo detected mrsa in the rumen content of a mouflon (ovis aries), and, in a third facility, it was reported in a fistulous wound at the coronary band of a digit of an indian rhinoceros (rh ...201222448524
impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central kenya.the impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an east african savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. the dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. eight other small mammal species, including arvicanthis sp., mus sp., mastomys sp., dendromus sp., crocidura sp., and, rarely, tatera sp., aethomys sp., and ...199828308070
food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and african elephants (loxodonta africana). a pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. high-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. high-prefe ...201121191846
how bees deter elephants: beehive trials with forest elephants (loxodonta africana cyclotis) in gabon, like elsewhere in africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. in this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". to deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in east africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in central afr ...201627196059
african elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.the samburu pastoralists of northern kenya co-exist with african elephants, loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. audio playback experiments demonstrate that african elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of samburu tribesmen. when exposed to adult male samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). rumble vocalizations were most common and were characte ...201424586753
bee threat elicits alarm call in african elephants.unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, african elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. the sound of disturbed african honeybees apis meliffera scutellata causes african elephants loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. in our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stin ...201020436682
harvesting and chewing as constraints to forage consumption by the african savanna elephant (loxodonta africana).as a foundation for understanding the diet of african savanna elephants (loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (pt ), chewing (ct ) and handling times (ht ) differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food). bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals), with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across ...201627688971
dietary management, husbandry, and body weights of african elephants (loxodonta africana) during successful pregnancies at disney's animal kingdom.successful pregnancy in african elephants is influenced by biological and environmental factors. for managed elephants many of these factors are set directly or indirectly by their human care takers, including nutrition and husbandry. while african elephants often struggle to conceive and produce healthy offspring under human care, disney's animal kingdom (dak) has effectively managed six gestations to fruition in three cows. despite differences between mothers in terms of bw and growth curves d ...201627455912
circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept african elephants (loxodonta africana).salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7-12 years) and one group of three adult (24-25 years) african elephant females, loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by eia. samples were collected during may, june, and november 2012 (n = 147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr intervals from 20:00 to 20:00 of the next day (seven samples per animal in each trial). the animals are kept under standard zoo management: the ...201626748465
expression of human cell cycle regulators in the primary cell line of the african savannah elephant (loxodonta africana) increases proliferation until senescence, but does not induce immortalization.the african savannah elephant (loxodonta africana) is one of the critically endangered animals. conservation of genetic and cellular resources is important for the promotion of wild life-related research. although primary cultured cells are a useful model for the physiology and genomics of the wild-type animals, their distribution is restricted due to the limited number of cell divisions allowed in them. here, we tried to immortalize a primary cell line of l. africana with by overexpressing huma ...201626487427
characterization of casein and alpha lactalbumin of african elephant (loxodonta africana) milk.the current research reports partial characterization of the caseins and α-lactalbumin (α-la) of the african elephant with proposed unique structure-function properties. extensive research has been carried out to understand the structure of the casein micelles. crystallographic structure elucidation of caseins and casein micelles is not possible. consequently, several models have been developed in an effort to describe the casein micelle, specifically of cow milk. here we report the characteriza ...201526454297
diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of zoo elephants in an outdoor facility.the present study examined the activity budgets of 15 african elephants (1 bull, 6 cows, 2 male juveniles, 2 female juveniles, and 4 male calves) living at the san diego zoo safari park during the summers of 2010 and 2011. onsite behavioral data (n = 600 hr) were collected for approximately 12 weeks from 0400 to 0830 and 1100 to 2400 during the 2010 and 2011 summer season. foraging was the most common behavior state during the day followed by resting, and walking. during the evening hours, the e ...201425113850
assessment of ovarian cycles in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. however, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. this study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (eia) for progestins in salivary ...201424610639
lack of spatial and behavioral responses to immunocontraception application in african elephants (loxodonta africana).opinions are divided as to whether human intervention to control elephant (loxodonta africana) population growth is desirable, partly because of elephant welfare concerns. female contraception through immunization with porcine zona pellucida (pzp) proteins is viable. the effects of sustained use and application of the pzp vaccine on elephant behavioral and spatial responses were examined by evaluating herd ranging, fission-fusion dynamics, association patterns, and reproductive and sexual behavi ...201324437086
animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.the identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. in african savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbi ...201222761680
elephant transcriptome provides insights into the evolution of eutherian placentation.the chorioallantoic placenta connects mother and fetus in eutherian pregnancies. in order to understand the evolution of the placenta and provide further understanding of placenta biology, we sequenced the transcriptome of a term placenta of an african elephant (loxodonta africana) and compared these data with rna sequence and microarray data from other eutherian placentas including human, mouse, and cow. we characterized the composition of 55,910 expressed sequence tag (i.e., cdna) contigs usin ...201222546564
eradication of elephant ear mites (loxoanoetus bassoni) in two african elephants (loxodonta africana).elephant ear mites, not previously described in north america, were eradicated in two african elephants (loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. the microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born african elephants housed in a new york state zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (loxoaneotus bassoni). the cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. both elephants we ...201222448521
milk composition of three free-ranging african elephant (loxodonta africana africana) cows during mid are presented that indicate the dynamic changes of nutrients in milk from three free ranging african elephant (loxodonta africana africana) cows during lactation. at the respective collection times of 12, 14 and 18 months of lactation the nutrient content was 47.3, 52.0 and 68.6 g protein; 60.7, 87.4 and 170.8 g fat; 1.6, 2.1 0.5 g lactose and 20.9, 21.5 and 8.6 g oligosaccharides per kg milk. the protein fraction respectively consisted of 18.0, 31.7 and 45.9 g caseins/kg milk and of 29.3, ...200717618152
conservation challenge: human-herbivore conflict in chebera churchura national park, investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in ccnp between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (chebera, serri, yora, shita, delba, chuchra, chewda) around the park. a total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. group discussion and field observation were also carried out. among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. african elephant (loxodonta africana), hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibious), african buffalo (syncerus caffer), ...201324506044
does competition regulate ungulate populations? further evidence from serengeti, tanzania.changes in populations of several ungulate species in the serengeti-mara region of east africa over the past 30 years suggest several hypotheses for their regulation and coexistence. recent censuses in the 1980s have allowed us to test the hypotheses that: (1) there was competition between wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsoni). this predicted that gazelle numbers should have declined in the 1980s when wildebeest were food limited. census figures show no chan ...199028312676
large herbivores that strive mightily but eat and drink as friends.grazing in patches of cynodon dactylon and of sporobolus spicatus by four large herbivores, and the interaction between these sedentary herbivores was studied in lake manyara national park, northern tanzania. the herbivores were the african buffalo, syncerus caffer; the african elephan, loxodonta africana; the burchell's zebra, equus burchelli; and the wildebeest, connochaetus taurinus. four different hypotheses of the interactions between the herbivores were tested, viz., increased predator det ...199028312674
shift in black rhinoceros diet in the presence of elephant: evidence for competition?in african large herbivore assemblages, megaherbivores dominate the biomass and utilise the greatest share of available resources. consequently, they are considered a separate trophic guild that structures the food niches of coexisting large herbivores. however, there exists little empirical evidence on how food resources are shared within this guild, and none for direct competition for food between megaherbivores. using the histological analysis of faeces, we explore this phenomenon for african ...201323874997
when yawning occurs in elephants.yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. one would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. after confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two asian elephants (elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive african elephants (loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the western cape, south africa, the knysna elephant park. ob ...201728293560
skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography.foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (ct) scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven african loxodonta africana and 14 asian elephas maximus), describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones) that could be mistaken for disease. we ...201728123909
ivory species identification using electrophoresis-based techniques.despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. a requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. we report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex pcr-electrophoresis assay for ivory dna analysis ...201627754560
does diet influence salivary enzyme activities in elephant species?asian elephants (elephas maximus) and african elephants (loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than africans. although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. this study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant fo ...201727580888
development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the african forest elephant (loxodonta cyclotis).african elephants comprise two species, the savanna elephant (loxodonta africana) and the forest elephant (l. cyclotis), which are distinct morphologically and genetically. forest elephants are seriously threatened by poaching for meat and ivory, and by habitat destruction. however, microsatellite markers have thus far been developed only in african savanna elephants and asian elephants, elephas maximus. the application of microsatellite markers across deeply divergent lineages may produce irreg ...201627456228
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