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blood characteristics of the african elephant (loxodonta africana cyclotis).mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and red and white cell counts from five domesticated african elephants were measured. the results obtained are tabulated and compared with those from shot and chemically immobilized african elephants.1979459036
dislocation of the elbow and its social consequences for an african elephant.a dislocated elbow of a male elephant calf (loxodonta africana) in the addo elephant national park resulted in it being harassed by other elephants and consequently leaving its maternal herd at the age of 6 years, rather than the more usual age of 9-10 years. in the absence of large predators the elephant had survived for 9 years and had adapted its locomotion and intraspecific behaviour to its injury. the humeral joint of the affected forelimb was carried in partial extension while the cubital ...1979551180
serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 1977830482
serum enzyme activities in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase have been measured in the african elephant. in general, the values were broadly comparable with those of man except that alanine aminotransferase was much lower and creatine phosphokinase higher. no variation due to age, sex, season or location was observed.1976955033
serum amylase in the african elephant, (loxodonta africana). 1976975772
formation, function, and persistence of the corpora lutea of the african elephant (loxodonta africana. 19751113050
some hematological values of free-ranging african elephants.blood samples were collected from 23 free-ranging african elephants(loxodonta africana) in tanzania. red and white blood cell counts, white blood cell differential, hemoglobin, blood copper, and blood inorganic phosphate were determined. no correlation of any of these measurements with age and sex was discernible, except that the total white count was significantly higher in females than in males in all age groups. the findings are compared with those previously reported for captive and free-ran ...19751113444
arteriosclerosis in the african elephant: part 2. medial sclerosis.a type of spontaneous arteriosclerosis, described as medial sclerosis and quite distinct from atherosclerosis, was found in the aortas, coronary arteries and aortic branch arteries of free-living elephants (loxodonta africana) in uganda and kenya. the lesions took the form of calcified fibrotic plaques in the inner tunica media. the calcification appeared to commence in the internal elastic lamina and was associated with atrophy of medial smooth muscle fibres and their replacement by fibrous tis ...20141131300
toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living african mammals.twelve species of free-living african mammals from kenya, tanzania, uganda and zambia were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. t. gondii antibodies were detected in burchell's zebra, (equus burchelli), hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), african elephant (loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (kobus defassa), lion (panthera leo), and rock hyrax (procavia capensis), the highest titers were fou ...19751195497
echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the kruger national park.echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the kruger national park : lion, panthera leo, spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta, cape hunting dog, lycaon pictus, burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, aepyceros melampus. infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. species like elephant, loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus, do not ...19751219111
[parabronema longispiculatum n. sp., a stomach parasite of the african elephant (loxodonta africana blumenbach, 1797)]. 20051230886
detection of oestrus in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19751241771
proceedings: the glycerylphosphorylcholine and phospholipid pattern of the genital duct and spermatozoa of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19761255600
heat exchange by the pinna of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).1. surface temperatures of the pinnae of four female african elephants were measured at ambient temperatures between 14 and 32 degrees c using infrared thermography. instantaneous heat losses calculated using those values ranged from 10.67 to 76.2 w under the observed conditions. 2. using a value of 17 kcal/kg/day, those heat losses account for 0.65-4.64% of the animals' standard metabolic rates, considering one side of one ear only. 3. a model of heat flow across a flat vertical plate was const ...19921351443
afrotropical culicoides: c. (avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., a new member of the imicola group (diptera: ceratopogonidae) associated with the african elephant in the kruger national park, south africa.culicoides (avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., is described and illustrated from both sexes collected in south africa. it is the 5th species of the imicola group of the subgenus avaritia to be described from the afrotropical region, and is presently known only from the kruger national park where it has been collected in light-traps and reared from the dung of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) on various occasions. a number of character states, and statistical analyses of antennal and palpal ...19921513595
the response of animals to suxamethonium (succinyldicholine) and succinylmonocholine.the time which elapses before cessation of breathing, and blood pressure and blood gas changes after the intramuscular administration of suxamethonium, or a mixture of suxamethonium and hexamethonium, is compared in immobilised african elephants (loxodonta africana) and buffaloes (syncerus caffer). in addition, the respiratory responses of elephants and other animals to intravenous administration of suxamethonium and succinylmonocholine are reported on, as are the effects of darting animals with ...19911770482
anthrax in wildlife in the luangwa valley, zambia.an abnormally high mortality among hippos (hippopotamus amphibius) in the luangwa river valley between june and november 1987 and estimated to number more than 4000 deaths was attributed to anthrax. several other species, particularly cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) and elephant (loxodonta africana), appear to have been affected. a smaller outbreak of anthrax in hippos occurred between august and september 1988, approximately 100 km up-river. a field study was arranged in august 1989 to assess th ...19911907048
comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: african elephant (loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis), indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), indian elephant (elephas maximus) and mara (dolichotis patagonum). the anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to piromyces spp. a defined medium is described w ...19911919514
elephant pituitary gonadotropins.we describe for the first time the purification and some properties of luteinizing hormone (lh) and follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) isolated from anterior pituitary tissue of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). methodology previously applied to equine and donkey pituitaries was used to obtain purified preparations of elephant lh and fsh in yields of 8.8 and 0.48 mg, respectively, per 10 g pituitary powder. the preparations were characterized by hplc gel filtration and amino acid analys ...19902118115
odontoma in an african elephant (loxodonta africana).the first known case of an odontoma in an african elephant (loxodonta africana) is described. the tumour was fused with the coronal cementum of the sixth right mandibular molar tooth, thus preventing its eruption.19892634774
circulating progesterone concentrations and ovarian functional anatomy in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).mean plasma progesterone concentrations measured in pregnant and non-pregnant elephants did not differ significantly from each other because of considerable variation, particularly for stage of pregnancy. maximum progesterone values were recorded during pregnancy (5-8 months) and declined towards term (22 months). the numbers of corpora lutea or total luteal tissue volume were not critical in maintaining progesterone secretion. an increase in plasma progesterone concentrations with the luteal ph ...20092754639
topography of the retina in the elephant loxodonta africana.the distribution of neurones in the ganglion cell layer of the retina of an african elephant is described. the eye was obtained post-mortem from an infant animal, which died of an unknown disease. it is assumed that most of the neurones observed in the ganglion cell layer are ganglion cells. ganglion cells concentrate along a horizontal axis extending across the retina inferior to the optic disc, as in the visual streak described in the retina of many mammals. they also concentrate in the upper ...19892819413
short and long phases of progesterone secretion during the oestrous cycle of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).serum samples were collected from 3 mature female african elephants once each week for 15-18 months. circulating concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol and lh were determined by radioimmunoassay (ria). the lh ria was validated by demonstrating parallel cross-reaction with partly purified elephant lh pituitary fractions. changing serum progesterone concentrations indicated an oestrous cycle length of 13.3 +/- 1.3 weeks (n = 11). the presumed luteal phase, characterized by elevated serum proge ...19883184054
anatomy of the reproductive tract of the female african elephant (loxodonta africana) with reference to development of techniques for artificial breeding.complete reproductive tracts of 30 female african elephants (5-53 years), obtained during a population reduction procedure, were examined. the reproductive tracts were palpated in situ via the urogenital canal. a plastic speculum (1.3 x 170 cm) was introduced into the canal and dye was injected to simulate the procedure for artificial insemination. the lengths of reproductive tracts (from the vulva to the ovary) ranged from 120 to 358 cm. the length increased with the size and age of the animal. ...19883199367
the primary structure of the hemoglobin of the brazilian manatee (trichechus inunguis, sirenia).the hemoglobin of the brazilian manatee (trichechus inunguis, sirenia) consists of one component. we present the primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains which have been separated by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose cm-52. the sequences have been determined by automatic edman degradation with the film technique, using the native chains, tryptic peptides and the c-terminal prolyl-peptide obtained by acid hydrolysis of the asp-pro bond of the alpha-chains. compared to the correspo ...19883202957
parotid salivary gland of the african elephant (loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. the composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. the parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. the sal ...19883210214
paenungulata: a comparison of the hemoglobin sequences from elephant, hyrax, and manatee.inspection of the amino acid differences among hemoglobin sequences of a wide range of mammalian species suggested that at alpha 19, alpha 110, alpha 111, beta 23, beta 44, and beta 56, synapomorphies group manatee (trichechus inungius, sirenia), indian and african elephant (elephas maximus and loxodonta africana, proboscidea), and rock hyrax (procavia habessinica, hyracoidea) into a monophyletic clade. results obtained by parsimony analysis provide evidence for this grouping--and thus support f ...19863444412
afrotropical culicoides: a redescription of c. (avaritia) kanagai khamala & kettle, 1971, reared from elephant dung in the kruger national park, south africa.the discovery of culicoides kanagai in south africa represents a new record for this species. the female is redescribed, and the male is described for the first time. culicoides (a.) dasyops clastrier, 1958 is shown to be closely related to it but c. (a.) alticola is only superficially related. short notes on the larval habitat of c. kanagai, the dung of the african elephant, loxodonta africana, are given. the dung of both the white rhinoceros, ceratotherium simum, and the black rhinoceros, dice ...19873444613
influence of cryoprotective diluent on post-thaw viability and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).electroejaculates from free-ranging, african elephants were frozen to test various seminal diluents, freezing methods and thawing media on post-thaw sperm viability and structural integrity. in study i, each ejaculate was tested with each of 7 cryoprotective diluents. after cooling to 5 degrees c and equilibration on ice (4 degrees c) for 120 min, each aliquant was pellet frozen on solid co2, stored in liquid nitrogen and thawed (37 degrees c) in saline or tissue culture solution. amongst all di ...19863531508
acute myocarditis in a captive african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19873820423
use of tolazoline as an antagonist to xylazine-ketamine-induced immobilization in african elephants.a group of 15 african elephants (loxodonta africana) were immobilized with a combination of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, im) and ketamine (1 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight, im). ten of the african elephants were allowed to remain recumbent for 30 minutes and the remaining 5 elephants, for 45 minutes before they were given tolazoline (0.5 mg/kg of body weight, iv). for the group of 15, the mean induction time (the time required from injection of the xylazine-ketamine combination until onset o ...20143963578
implantation, foetal membranes and early placentation of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19744154465
foot-and-mouth disease in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19734361515
herpes nodules in the lung of the african elephant (loxodonta africana (blumebach, 1792)). 19714368768
spermatozoa in the genital ducts of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19744431010
collection, motility and storage of spermatozoa from the african elephant loxodonta africana. 20154621102
proceedings: the rôle of the urogenital ducts of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19744819328
[brain development and morphology in a proboscidian, the african elephant (loxodonta africana blum.)]. 19694987411
the formation and function of the corpus luteum in the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 20165017016
comparative studies of the respiratory functions of mammalian blood. 8. asian elephant (elephas maximus) and african elephant (loxodonta africana africana). 19725024177
reproduction of elephant, loxodonta africana, in the luangwa valley, zambia. 19725035330
[the epiphysis and the circumventricular structures of the epithalamus in the brain of the elephant (loxodonta africana)]. 19725042251
biochemical observations on the corpora lutea of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19695357935
eye lesions in the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19695392356
observations on arteriosclerosis, serum cholesterol and serum electrolytes in the wild african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19705461445
[karyotype and sex chromatin of the african elephant (loxodonta africana)]. 19705474735
the functional significance of movements and positions of the pinnae of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19715545560
chromosomes of three elephants, two asian (elephas maximus) and one african (loxodonta africana). 19665921502
male reproductive organs of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19676029179
occurrence of placental scars in the uterus of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19676066501
the testis of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). ii. development, puberty and weight. 19676066777
the testis of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). i. histological features. 19676066825
studies of the deferent ducts from the testis of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. iii. ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the ductuli efferentes.the epithelium of the ductuli efferentes is composed of ciliated, principal, halo and basal cells. the supranuclear cytoplasm of ciliated cells is penetrated by particularly long cilial rootlets which are surrounded by numerous elongate mitochondria. microtubules are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the cells. the spaces between the microvilli of principal cells form canaliculi which penetrate the apical cytoplasm and appear to be involved in endocytotic activity. the supranuclear cytopla ...19816277838
blood concentrations of gonadotrophins, prolactin and gonadal steroids in males and in non-pregnant and pregnant female african elephants (loxodonta africana).no seasonal variation in any of the hormones measured was apparent in males or females. testosterone levels in males increased around puberty (10-11 years) and remained significantly higher in adult than prepubertal males. this was not accompanied by any significant change in levels of lh, fsh or prolactin. in non-pregnant females there was no apparent difference in levels of lh, fsh or prolactin with age. there was a significant increase in progesterone around puberty (12 years) but there was c ...19836401810
studies of the deferent ducts from the testis of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. ii. histochemistry of the epididymis.the three main segments of the elephant epididymis were examined for the occurrence, in the spermatozoa and lining epithelium, of carbohydrates, neutral lipids and phospholipids, atpase, alkaline phosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, diaphorases, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase. the most distinct feature of the carbohydrate content of the epididymis was a layer of acidic, alcian blue-positive glycoprotein over the lumina ...19806447136
electroejaculation, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations of free-ranging african elephants (loxodonta africana).a regimented electroejaculation protocol (120 electrical stimulations; 10-30 v) was used to collect semen and characterize ejaculate quality from 9 adult, free-ranging african elephants under anaesthesia. eight of the 9 ejaculates contained high concentrations of progressively motile spermatozoa. the overall mean ejaculate volume, sperm concentration/ml ejaculate, sperm motility, sperm status and ejaculate ph were 93.3 ml, 2408.6 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml, 70%, 3.9 and 7.4, respectively. a high per ...19846471047
phosphate-haemoglobin interaction. the primary structure of the haemoglobin of the african elephant (loxodonta africana, proboscidea): asparagine in position 2 of the beta-chain.the primary structure of the haemoglobin of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) is reported. the sequence was determined by means of a sequenator. the haemoglobin differs in 26 amino acids in the alpha-chains and in 27 in the beta-chains from that of adult human haemoglobin. the haemoglobin of the african elephant, like that of the indian elephant and ilama, has only 5 binding sites for polyphosphate. this finding explains the low p(o2)50 value in whole blood as a result of the lower 2,3-b ...19846479896
death of an african elephant from probable toxemia attributed to chronic pulpitis.a 31-year-old captive male african elephant (loxodonta africana) of 5,000-kg body weight died suddenly in ventral recumbency. lesions seen at necropsy were bilateral purulent pulpitis and periodontitis of both tusks, serous atrophy of coronary groove fat, grammocephalus cholangitis, myocardial and skeletal lipofuscinosis, and scattered segmental necrosis in the pectoral muscles. nonhemolytic streptococci, corynebacterium sp, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, fusobacterium nucleatum, and bacteroides ...19836643242
choniagnium algericum sp. n. (nematoda: strongylidae) from the intestine of african elephant, loxodonta africana (blumenbach, 1779).nematodes of the genus choniagnium were found in african elephant (loxodonta africana) from algerian zoological garden. on the basis of studies in light and scanning electron microscope these nematodes were identified as a new species, choniagnium algericum sp. n.19836662405
musth and urinary testosterone concentrations in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).urine samples were obtained from free-ranging african elephants that were considered to be in and out of musth. testosterone concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay were significantly greater in males that were in or around the time of behavioural musth. this study supports a correlation between the observed behavioural characteristics of musth and urinary testosterone levels.19846694143
testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in elephant serum and temporal gland secretions.serum and temporal gland secretions (tgs) were obtained from mature wild african (loxodonta africana) and captive asian elephants (elephas maximus). samples were obtained from five cows and eight bulls culled for management purposes in kruger national park, south africa, and from four females and two males residing at the washington park zoo, portland, oregon. our purpose was to describe the levels of the androgens, testosterone (t), and dihydrotestosterone (dht), and to correlate these observat ...19846704470
circulating oestrogen concentrations during pregnancy in the african elephant (loxodonta africana).oestrone, oestradiol-17 beta and oestriol were measured in plasma samples from non-pregnant and pregnant african elephants shot in the wild. enzymic hydrolysis of plasma showed that approximately 90 and 96% of the total (i.e. conjugated plus unconjugated) concentrations of oestrone and oestradiol-17 beta, respectively were represented by conjugated hormones. unconjugated oestrogens remained low (less than 50 pg ml) in all samples, with no distinction between non-pregnant and pregnant animals. le ...19836822969
musth in the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19817266649
studies of the deferent ducts from the testis of the african elephant, loxodonta africana. i. structural differentiation. 19817298489
luminal composition and maturation of spermatozoa in the genital ducts of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the mean spermatocrit and sodium, potassium and protein concentrations of fluid collected from the rete testis of the elephant were similar to values described for the ram. sperm maturation, as assessed by the location of the cytoplasmic droplet in the middle pice, occurred in the distal head and the isthmus of the epididymis (middle segment). spermatocrit determinations indicated that 96% of the fluid leaving the testis was reabsorbed by the efferent ducts and proximal initial segment, and 53% ...19807431332
african horsesickness epidemiology: five species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected live behind the ears and at the dung of the african elephant in the kruger national park, south africa.during the culling of elephants (loxodonta africana) at five sites in the kruger national park, south africa, a total of 682 culicoides of five species of the subgenus avaritia were found live either behind the ears of elephants or attracted to the freshly disembowelled intestinal dung of elephants. the species are culicoides tororoensis khamala & kettle, 1971; c. kanagai khamala & kettle, 1971; c. loxodontis meiswinkel, 1992, and two undescribed species, i.e. culicoides sp. #50 and culicoides s ...19947596566
a histocytochemical study of mucus glycoproteins or mucins in the intestinal tract of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the distribution of neutral mucins, sialomucins and sulphomucins was determined histochemically in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). the techniques used were periodic acid-schiff (pas), alcian blue/periodic acid-schiff (ab-pas), high-iron-diamine/alcian blue (hid-ab), alcian blue at varying ph solutions and alcian blue at high temperature after methylation and saponification. acid mucins appear to dominate neutral mucins, the latter decreasing t ...19947596568
suspected cardiac glycoside poisoning in elephants (loxodonta africana).two young (< 2 years old) elephants (loxodonta africana) died suddenly and simultaneously at ongava game reserve bordering on the etosha national park, namibia. both elephants showed lung congestion, epi- and endocardial haemorrhages and hyperaemic areas in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. histopathology of the myocardium showed multifocal degeneration and necrosis of muscle fibres accompanied by haemorrhages. parts of the leaves of the alien plant cryptostegia grandiflora (asclepi ...19947602572
morphology of the deciduous tusk (tush) of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the tusk of the african elephant is preceded by a deciduous tooth generally known as the tush. tushes from nine elephant fetuses and six calves younger than 1 year were exposed by dissection and described morphologically. all tushes consisted of a crown, root and pulpal cavity, the formation of which is completed soon after birth. they reached a maximum length of 5 cm, appeared not to erupt through the skin and were pushed aside and resorbed during enlargement of the distally located primordium ...19957677604
progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the aim of this study was to examine the progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the african elephant (loxodonta africana). luteal tissue was collected from nonpregnant and early, mid- and late pregnant elephants (n = 2 per group) shot in the kruger national park. pieces of individual corpora lutea (2-3 per animal; 23 in total) were stored directly in ethanol before hormone analysis. matching tissue pieces were incubated for 2 h with [3h]pregnenolone (2 x 10(5) c.p.m ...19947799309
arterial blood pressure of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) under etorphine anaesthesia and after remobilisation with diprenorphine. 19947863595
osteology of the pelvic limb of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the pelvic girdle was characterized by large, transversely-placed ilial wings. the femur was the longest bone of the skeleton and its fovea capitis was situated caudomedially between the epiphyseal line and the articular surface of the femoral head. a wedge-shaped patella articulated with the femoral trochlea. the bones of the crus were approximately half as long as the femur and consisted of the sturdy tibia and slender fibula. the condyles of the tibia were concave and the femoro-tibial joint ...19947898898
flaccid trunk paralysis in free-ranging elephants (loxodonta africana) in zimbabwe.an epizootic of flaccid trunk paralysis began in free-ranging zimbabwean elephants (loxodonta africana) on the southern shore of lake kariba in 1989. it involved a selective neuropathy of peripheral nerves supplying the trunk, with axon and myelin degeneration, muscle atrophy, compensatory hypertrophy, and fine endomyseal fibrosis, without inflammatory changes.19947933290
[epidemiologic study of bluetongue in sheep, cattle and different species of wild animals in the ivory coast].between 1992 and 1993, a serological survey was conducted in côte d'ivoire on 623 sera from sheep, 215 sera from cattle and 211 sera from wild herbivores. these sera were tested for bluetongue virus (btv) antibodies using an agar gel immunodiffusion test. the purpose of this survey was twofold: to establish the incidence of bluetongue in the country, and to analyse the putative role of btv in the reproductive pathology of sheep. seroprevalence was 52 +/- 4% in sheep, 95 +/- 3% in cattle, and 56 ...19947949349
effects of gnrh analogues on pituitary-testicular function in free-ranging african elephants (loxodonta africana).we tested the ability of several gnrh analogues to suppress pituitary-testicular activity and potentially musth in free-ranging african elephants (loxodonta africana). in study 1, adult bulls were given 4 or 12 mg gnrh antagonist (detirelix) or saline i.m. on day 0 (n = 3 bulls per treatment). animals were then recaptured on day 2 (about 48 h later) and given 300 micrograms gnrh i.v. to assess the ability of the antagonist to block pituitary activity. detirelix reduced (p < 0.05) basal concentra ...19938107048
anthrax and cowdriosis in an african elephant (loxodonta africana). 19938236707
osteology of the thoracic limb of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the forelimb bones of 8 elephants (7 adults, 1 juvenile) were studied. in addition, the bones of the digits were dissected and studied in situ in a mature specimen. the scapula, humerus and bones of the antebrachium (particularly the ulna) are massive in comparison to the short, relatively small bones of the manus. there are 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones and 5 digits. digits 2-4 consist of 3 phalanges each. the 5th digit consists of 2 phalanges, while the 1st is represented by a single phal ...19938332313
allozyme variation in a wild african elephant (loxodonta africana) population from the kruger national park, south africa.1. blood, liver, heart, testis, skin, eye, muscle and kidney samples were obtained from elephants (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park during a culling programme in april 1992. 2. gene products of 25 protein coding loci in l. africana were examined by horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. 3. eighteen protein coding loci (72%) displayed monomorphic gel banding patterns whereas only seven (28%) displayed polymorphic gel banding patterns. 4. average heterozygosity values for adults, yo ...19938403843
surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in namibia.anthrax has been studied intensively in etosha national park, namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totalling 6,190 deaths. standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (equus burchelli), elephant (loxodonta africana), wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and springbok ...19938518440
an outbreak of encephalomyocarditis-virus infection in free-ranging african elephants in the kruger national park.a cluster of four deaths in late december 1993, marked the onset of an outbreak of disease of african elephants (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park (knp) in south africa, which has an estimated population of 7,500 elephants. mortalities peaked in january 1994, with 32 deaths, and then declined steadily to reach pre-outbreak levels by september, but sporadic losses continued until november. during the outbreak altogether 64 elephants died, of which 53 (83%) were adult bulls. archival ...19958600443
characterization of mucus glycoproteins in the intestinal mucosa of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) following lectin histochemistry.the glycoproteins of the small intestines, caecum and colon of three adult elephants and one recently weaned elephant calf were examined by means of lectin histochemistry. tissue sections were histochemically stained with peroxidase-labelled concanavalin a (con a), asparagus-pea (tpa), peanut (pna) and wheat-germ (wga) lectins. con a and tpa showed no binding activity in the intestinal tract of the adult elephants or the duodenum and ileum of the elephant calf, but did show a small amount of bin ...19958628572
the skull and mandible of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).in the present study the bones of the skull, excluding the hyoid apparatus, are described. all the bones are aerated by sinuses. in the occipital bone the squamous part is aerated from the sinus of the parietal bone, the lateral part is aerated from the tympanic bulla and the basal part from the sinus of the basisphenoid bone. condylar foramens and hypoglossal canals are absent. a small interparietal bone is present at birth. at an early age it fuses with the surrounding cranial bones. the squam ...19958668323
the osteology of the african elephant (loxodonta africana): vertebral column, ribs and sternum.the vertebral column, sternum and ribs of the african elephant were studied and illustrated. in the cervical series, the vertebrae are characterized by very short (compressed) vertebral bodies and short spinous processes. there are 20-21 thoracic vertebrae that carry ribs, and three lumbar vertebrae. the neural arches of the five sacral vertebrae fuse with each other as well as with the wings of the ilium, while the intervertebral discs do not ossify and the vertebral bodies remain separate. the ...19968856763
interordinal mammalian relationships: evidence for paenungulate monophyly is provided by complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences.the complete mitochondrial 12s rrna sequences of 5 placental mammals belonging to the 3 orders sirenia, proboscidea, and hyracoidea are reported together with phylogenetic analyses (distance and parsimony) of a total of 51 mammalian orthologues. this 12s rrna database now includes the 2 extant proboscideans (the african and asiatic elephants loxodonta africana and elephas maximus), 2 of the 3 extant sirenian genera (the sea cow dugong dugon and the west indian manatee trichechus manatus), and 2 ...19968899726
excretory fate of estradiol and progesterone in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) and patterns of fecal steroid concentrations throughout the estrous cycle.we developed and validated a noninvasive method to quantify fecal estrogens and progestins as a tool for monitoring long-term ovarian activity in free-ranging african elephants. the lag times between iv injection of [(3)h]estradiol and [(14)c]progesterone and peak excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces were approximately 4 hr and 48 hr, respectively. the majority of progesterone metabolites recovered was excreted in feces (55%) versus urine (45%), whereas comparatively little of the recov ...19968998970
a practical anesthesia monitoring protocol for free-ranging adult african elephants (loxodonta africana).twenty free-ranging adult african elephants (loxodonta africana) in northern botswana were immobilized with a mean (+/- sd) of 9.5 +/- 0.5 mg etorphine hydrochloride and 2,000 iu hyaluronidase by intramuscular (im) dart. the mean time to recumbency was 8.7 +/- 2.4 min. all animals were maintained in lateral recumbency. the anesthesia monitoring protocol included cardiothoracic auscultation; palpation of auricular pulse for quality and regularity; checking of rectal temperature, and monitoring of ...19979027693
binding activity of 5alpha-reduced gestagens to the progestin receptor from african elephant (loxodonta africana).recent findings in the african elephant (loxodonta africana) indicate that the major progestins contained within and biosynthesized by corpora lutea are 5alpha-reduced metabolites and that progesterone is quantitatively of minor importance. the specific gestagenic action within the reproductive tract of elephants was determined by measurement of relative binding affinity of the respective progestins to the gestagen receptor extracted from elephant endometrium. the cytosol was incubated with 40 n ...19979038248
concentrations of progesterone and the 5 alpha-reduced progestins, 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, in luteal tissue and circulating blood and their relationship to luteal function in the african elephant, loxodonta africana.the 5 alpha-reduced metabolites 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-dhp) and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (5 alpha-p-3 alpha-oh) are the principal progestins biosynthesized by the african elephant corpus luteum. the aim of the present study was to determine luteal and circulating concentrations of these 5 alpha-reduced progestins in relation to progesterone (p4) and to examine whether their measurement reflects corpus luteum function. ovarian (luteal) tissue (30 corpora lutea and 3 co ...19979047008
respiratory and circulatory parameters of african elephants (loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone.respiratory rate, heart rate, blood-gas tensions (po2 and pco2) and ph of arterial (a) and peripheral venous (v) blood, concentration of haemoglobin in arterial blood (hb), saturation of arterial haemoglobin with oxygen and the end-expiratory concentration of oxygen were measured in 22 juvenile african elephants (loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone during a period of 35-65 minutes after they had assumed lateral recumbency. based on these parameters the alveolar-arteria ...19969120854
ligand specificity of uterine oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the subadult african elephant, loxodonta africana.the ligand specificity of progesterone and oestrogen receptors in the uteri of four nonpregnant, nonlactating african elephants, killed during routine culling in the kruger national park, were determined. the mean (+/-sem) kd values of the oestrogen (0.18 +/- 0.019 x 10(-9) mol l-1, n = 12) and progesterone (0.22 +/- 0.025 x 10(-9) mol l-1, n = 12) receptors were essentially similar when [3h]promegestone was used as radioligand in the progesterone receptor assays. however, when [3h]progesterone ...19979155728
ulcerative pododermatitis in free-ranging african elephant (loxodonta africana) in the kruger national park.the occurrence of severe lameness in adult african elephant bulls in a shrub mopane (colophospermum mopane) ecosystem was investigated. large ulcers in the soles of at least one front foot were seen in each of the recorded cases. microscopically, the lesion can be described as a severe, chronic-active, ulcerative, bacterial pododermatitis (complicated by hypersensitivity/septic vasculitis). a variety of bacteria were isolated from these lesions as well as from regional lymph nodes. streptococcus ...19979204500
influence of gestation on uterine endometrial steroid receptor concentrations in the african elephant, loxodonta africana.the modulatory effects of gestational age and circulating concentrations of progesterone, 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione, and estradiol-17beta on the uterine sex steroid hormone receptor levels of the african elephant were investigated. uterine tissue biopsies and blood samples were obtained from animals culled in the kruger national park. estrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations were determined in uterine biopsies from subadult, lactating, early-, mid-, and late-pregnant elephants, by equi ...19989472923
molecular phylogenetic inference of the woolly mammoth mammuthus primigenius, based on complete sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12s ribosomal rna genes.complete sequences of cytochrome b (1,137 bases) and 12s ribosomal rna (961 bases) genes in mitochondrial dna were successfully determined from the woolly mammoth (mammuthus primigenius), african elephant (loxodonta africana), and asian elephant (elephas maximus). from these sequence data, phylogenetic relationships among three genera were examined. molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed by the neighbor-joining and the maximum parsimony methods provided an identical topology both for cytochr ...19989493356
isolation and characterisation of immunoglobulin g and igg subclasses of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).immunoglobulins were precipitated from pooled african elephant sera with ammonium sulphate and separated by gel filtration and fast protein liquid chromatography (ion exchange). analysis of the fractions by sds-page showed igg of 150 kda with up to five subclasses, each having heavy chains of 57 kda and light chains of 27 kda. three monoclonal antibodies against human igg and polyclonal antibodies against canine, bovine, cameline, equine, phocine and feline igg showed strong cross-reactivity wit ...19989597308
reproductive assessment of male elephants (loxodonta africana and elephas maximus) by ultrasonography.transrectal ultrasonography was performed on five wild and two captive male african elephants (loxodonta africana) and four captive male asian elephants (elephas maximus) to develop standards for assessment of reproductive health and status. the entire internal urogenital tract was visualized ultrasonographically by using a 3.5 mhz or a 7.5-mhz transducer in combination with a probe extension adapted for elephant anatomy. the findings were verified by postmortem ex situ ultrasound examinations i ...19989732024
african elephant myoglobin with an unusual autoxidation behavior: comparison with the h64q mutant of sperm whale myoglobin.elephant myoglobins both from asian and african species have a glutamine in place of the usual distal (e7) histidine at position 64. we have isolated native oxymyoglobin directly from the skeletal muscle of african elephant (loxodonta africana), and examined the autoxidation rate of oxymyoglobin (mbo2) to metmyoglobin (metmb) as a function of ph in 0.1 m buffer at 25 degreesc. as a result, african elephant mbo2 was found to be equally resistant to autoxidation as sperm whale myoglobin. however, ...19989748556
geographic variations in the composition of ivory of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).tracing the source of origin of illegal ivory will contribute to the identification of poorly managed game parks and facilitate steps taken to prevent the african elephant from becoming extinct. this study was aimed at establishing a database on the composition of ivory obtained from elephant sanctuary areas in southern africa. fragments of elephant ivory from seven geographically distinct areas in south africa, namibia and botswana were analysed for inorganic and organic content. a total of 20 ...19989758047
isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the african elephant, loxodonta africana. 19989787454
histo- and cytophysiology of the lactating mammary gland of the african elephant (loxodonta africana).the lactating mammary gland of the african elephant (loxodonta africana) has been studied with a panel of morphological techniques focusing on (1) the functional changes during the secretory process, (2) proliferative process [by application of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) immunohistochemistry] and apoptotic phenomena [by use of the tunel technique] in the individual lobules, and (3) components of milk and milk-fat-globule membrane. in the lactating gland, the lobules are variably d ...19989799466
plasma vitamin e and other analyte levels in nepalese camp elephants (elephas maximus).plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin e) and other analytes in asian elephants (elephas maximus) in nepal were determined during typical work camp management of the elephants. elephants foraged for food for 4-6 hr each day under the control of mahouts and were also provided daily with cut forage and supplements of unhusked rice, cane molasses, and salt. blood samples were taken monthly for 1 yr without chemical restraint from 26 female elephants in four camps. elephants were 6-60+ y ...19989809597
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