effect of tiger nut fibre on quality characteristics of pork burger.horchata is a refreshing beverage obtained from tiger nut tubers that yields high amount of by-products. these by-products have a high content of fibre that allows its application in the development of dietary fibre rich foods. the utilization of increasing levels (0%-control, 5%, 10% and 15%) of tiger nut fibre (tnf), in the formulation of pork burgers was evaluated. this evaluation was based on: chemical composition, physicochemical, cooking characteristics and sensory properties of burgers. p ...201020374867
are aedes albopictus or other mosquito species from northern italy competent to sustain new arboviral outbreaks?the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae), native to southeast asia, has extended its geographical distribution to invade new temperate and tropical regions. this species was introduced in 1990 to italy and has since become the main pest in urban settings. it was incriminated as a principal vector in the first european outbreak of chikungunya virus (chikv) in the province of ravenna (italy) in 2007. this outbreak was associated with chikv e1-226v, efficiently transmi ...201020377735
chikungunya fever in two german tourists returning from the maldives, september, 2009.this report describes the first isolation and molecular characterisation of a chikungunya virus from two german tourists who became ill after a visit to the maldives in september 2009. the virus contained the e1 a226v mutation, shown to be responsible for an adaptation to the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus. the e1 coding sequence was identical to chikungunya virus isolates from sri lanka and showed three nt-mismatches to the only available e1 nt sequence from the maldives.201020394712
phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, cytoplasmic free-ca(2+) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon under acute copper stress.the aim of this study was to investigate the cellular toxicity of copper-induced injury to the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. the 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h lc(50) (median lethal concentration) of cu(2+) on p. monodon (11.63+/-1.14g) were found to be 3.49, 1.54, 0.73 and 0.40mgl(-1), respectively. total haemocyte count (thc), phagocytic activity, respiratory burst (rb), cytoplasmic free-ca(2+) (cf-ca(2+)) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to differen ...201020398793
identification and cloning of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and its transcription following pathogen infection and related to the molt stages.complementary (c)dna encoding glutathione peroxidase (gpx) messenger (m)rna of the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) method. the 1321-bp cdna contained an open reading frame (orf) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), and a 688-bp 3'-utr containing a poly a tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (secis) element. the molecular mass of the dedu ...201020399225
reproarray(gts): a cdna microarray for identification of reproduction-related genes in the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and characterization of a novel nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (nasp) gene.expressed sequence tags (ests) were established from various tissues of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). to simultaneously examine expression patterns of a large number of transcripts in ovaries and testes of p. monodon, a cdna microarray (reproarray(gts)) containing 4992 features amplified from cdnas of ovary (1920) and testis (3072) est libraries was constructed and subjected to high-throughput gene expression analysis in four different stages of ovarian development (previtellogenesis ...200920403739
the complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp litopenaeus stylirostris (crustacea: decapoda).mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the pacific shrimp litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in america, but also in asia. much less is known about other pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp litopenaeus stylirostris. we report the complete mitogenome ...200920403743
pathogen host switching in commercial trade with management wildlife trade exacerbates the spread of nonindigenous species. pathogens also move with hosts through trade and often are released into naïve populations with unpredictable outcomes. amphibians are moved commercially for pets, food, bait, and biomedicine, and are an excellent model for studying how wildlife trade relates to pathogen pollution. ranaviruses are amphibian pathogens associated with annual population die-offs; multiple strains of tiger salamander ranaviruses move through the ...201020411298
identification and characterization of alix/aip1 interacting proteins from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.apoptosis is proposed to be a major cause of death in shrimp viral infections. from our previous study, an apoptosis-related gene, pm-alix, was identified from the black tiger shrimp. its expression was high in defence-related tissues including haemocytes and the lymphoid organ. to clarify its possible role in shrimp, we used pm-alix as bait in a yeast two-hybrid analysis to search for alix interacting proteins in shrimp. two cdna sequences discovered had homology to a predicted ubiquitin c of t ...201020412359
suppressing aedes albopictus, an emerging vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, by a novel combination of a monomolecular film and an insect-growth regulator.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) is rapidly increasing its global range and importance in transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses. we tested pellet formulations of a monomolecular film (agnique) and (s)-methoprene (altosid) under laboratory and field conditions. in the laboratory, agnique provided 80% control for 20 days, whereas altosid, in combination with agnique, provided 80% control for > 60 days. during field trials, the 1:1 pellet ratio of combined products provide ...201020439963
a novel viral responsive protein is involved in hemocyte homeostasis in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.a novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (hhap), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. the full-length cdnas of hhap from the black tiger shrimp (pmhhap), penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (plhhap), pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein tcasga2_tc00 ...201020444692
vif of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats protects against apobec3 restriction factors from many get more insight into the role of apobec3 (a3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) of the domestic cat, we tested the a3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). these a3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the vif protein of fiv. while a3z3s and a3z2-z3s inhibited deltavif fiv, felid a3z2s did not show any antiviral activity against deltavif fiv or wild-type (wt) fiv. all felid a3z3s and a3z2-z ...201020444897
knocking down a taura syndrome virus (tsv) binding protein lamr is lethal for the whiteleg shrimp penaeus vannamei.a cdna encoding a laminin receptor protein (lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the pacific white shrimp penaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei (pv), based on primers designed from a previously published lamr sequence of a taura syndrome virus (tsv) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (pm). the deduced amino acid sequence of pvlamr shares 97% identity with pmlamr and has significant homology to laminin receptors and ribosomal protein p40 from various organisms. tissue distrib ...201020451618
adaptation of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, to different salinities through an excretory function of the antennal tiger shrimps (penaeus monodon) are able to survive and can be reared under various salinities, possibly by the cellular adaptation of their excretory system, particularly the antennal gland, which is known to regulate body fluid in crustaceans. we have investigated the morphological and biochemical alterations of the antennal glands in shrimp reared in 7, 15, or 30 ppt seawater. drastic changes occur in animals reared under 7 ppt conditions. ultrastructural studies of the antennal gland i ...201020458500
genetic heterogeneity of non-o1 and non-o139 vibrio cholerae isolates from shrimp aquaculture system: a comparison of rs-, rep- and eric-pcr fingerprinting approaches.the genetic diversity of vibrio cholerae isolated from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) aquaculture farms was determined using three pcr typing methods based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric) sequences, ribosomal gene spacer (rs) sequence and repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) sequences.201020477960
myogenin in model pufferfish species: comparative genomic analysis and thermal plasticity of expression during early development.myogenin (myog) is a muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays an essential role in the specification and differentiation of myoblasts. the myogenin genes from the tiger pufferfish, takifugu rubripes, and green-spotted pufferfish, tetraodon nigroviridis, were cloned and a comparative genomic analysis performed. the gene encoding myogenin is composed of three exons and has a relatively similar genomic structure in t. rubripes, t. nigroviridis and human. introns 1 and ...200620483233
[identification and production of monoclonal antibody of siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].to purify immunoglobulin (ig) of siberian tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mab) against the ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in siberian tiger.201020499651
a bivalent tarantula toxin activates the capsaicin receptor, trpv1, by targeting the outer pore domain.toxins have evolved to target regions of membrane ion channels that underlie ligand binding, gating, or ion permeation, and have thus served as invaluable tools for probing channel structure and function. here, we describe a peptide toxin from the earth tiger tarantula that selectively and irreversibly activates the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive channel, trpv1. this high-avidity interaction derives from a unique tandem repeat structure of the toxin that endows it with an antibody-like bivalency. ...201020510930
a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor spipm2 from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon is involved in antiviral responses.a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, spipm2, from penaeus monodon has recently been implicated in antiviral responses for it is up-regulated upon viral infection and needs further studies. the spipm2 genomic gene was composed of seven exons and six introns. the genomic dna segments coding for each kazal domain were separated by introns of variable lengths supporting the hypothesis of gene duplication in the kazal-type gene family. rt-pcr and western blot analysis revealed that t ...201020540960
expression and distribution of three heat shock protein genes under heat shock stress and under exposure to vibrio harveyi in penaeus monodon.a sudden increase in temperature results in heat shock stress of the cultured shrimp. to cope with the stress, shrimp has to overcome by triggering a response known as heat shock response. to understand the heat shock response in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), we examined expression patterns and distribution of three heat shock protein (hsp) genes in p. monodon juveniles. the expression levels of hsp21, hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by quantitative real-time pcr in nine tissues (gil ...201020561967
cloning and characterization of a melanization inhibition protein (pmmip) of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.melanization is an important component of the innate immune responses in invertebrates and it is essential for defense against invading microorganism. melanin formation, which is a result of activation of the so called prophenoloxidase activating system, needs to be controlled due to the dangerous effects of quinones and melanin which are produced during the process of melanization. here, a cdna for a melanization inhibition protein (mip), named pmmip, was identified from the black tiger shrimp, ...201020561997
molecular cloning and expression of progestin membrane receptor component 1 (pgmrc1) of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.knowledge on molecular mechanisms of steroid hormonal induction on oocyte development may lead to the possible ways to effectively induce ovarian maturation in shrimp. in this study, progestin membrane receptor component 1 (pgmrc1) of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) initially identified by est analysis was further characterized. the full-length cdna of pgmrc1 was 2015bp in length containing an orf of 573bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 190 amino acids. northern blot analysis reveale ...201020566361
molecular characterization of a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide in the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and its expression profile in response to various immunostimulants and challenge with wssv.a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from the haemocytes of giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon was partially characterized at the molecular level and phylogenetic analysis was performed. the partial coding sequence of 299 bp and 91 deduced amino acid residues possessed conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the shrimp crustins. phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed divergence of this crustin-like amp from other shrimp crustins. the differential expression of the cru ...201120580462
extraintestinal migration of centrorhynchus sp. (acanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) in experimentally infected rats.reptiles were known to serve as paratenic hosts for centrorhynchus (acanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) in korea, but the infection course in experimental animals was not elucidated yet. in this study, the tiger keelback snakes (rhabdophis tigrinus) were collected and digested with artificial pepsin solution, and the larvae of centrorhynchus were recovered from them. then, the collected larvae were orally infected to rats for developmental observations. in rats, all the larvae were observed outsid ...201020585530
hunting, livelihoods and declining wildlife in the hponkanrazi wildlife sanctuary, north myanmar.the hponkanrazi wildlife sanctuary, north myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household co ...201020593177
artificial triple wolbachia infection in aedes albopictus yields a new pattern of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility.obligately intracellular wolbachia bacteria infect numerous invertebrates and often manipulate host reproduction to facilitate the spread of infection. an example of reproductive manipulation is wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci), which occurs commonly in insects. this ci has been the focus both of basic scientific studies of naturally occurring invasion events and of applied investigations on the use of wolbachia as a vehicle to drive desired genotypes into insect populations (" ...201020601501
antiviral effect of pmrab7 knock-down on inhibition of laem-singh virus replication in black tiger shrimp.pmrab7 is a penaeus monodon small gtpase protein possibly involved in replication of several shrimp viruses. in this study rna interference (rnai) using double-stranded rna (dsrna) targeting pmrab7 gene (dsrna-pmrab7) was employed to silence the expression of pmrab7 to investigate the inhibitory effect on laem-singh virus (lsnv) replication. injection of dsrna-pmrab7 24h before challenge with the virus resulted in a drastic decrease of pmrab7 mrna and complete inhibition of lsnv replication at 3 ...201020619295
evaluation of immune response and resistance to diseases in tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon fed with biofilm of vibrio alginolyticus.immune response in juvenile tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon fed with biofilm (bf) and free cells (fc) of vibrio alginolyticus was studied by evaluating the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial activity. the above immune responses were higher in bf fed shrimp than that in fc fed or control shrimp. among the different doses of bf of v. alginolyticus tested, 10(9) cfu g(-1) shrimp day(-1) for two weeks could evoke higher immune response. bf fed shrimp were more resistant to inject ...201020638481
a differential proteomic approach to assess the effects of chemotherapeutics and production management strategy on giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the intensification of shrimp farming has been related to the increasing use of chemotherapeutics and potentially suboptimal rearing conditions. for the purpose of assessing the stress level of cultured giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, a proteomic analysis (2d-dige) was performed on hemolymph. on the one hand, shrimp were exposed for 7 days to the antibiotics enrofloxacin or furazolidone via feed (4 g kg(-1)) under laboratory conditions. on the other hand, shrimp were submitted to enrofloxaci ...201020655818
analysis of the allergenic proteins in black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) and characterization of the major allergen tropomyosin using mass spectrometry.crustaceans are the third most prevalent cause of food-induced anaphylaxis after peanuts and tree nuts. the severity of the allergenic proteins depends mainly on the amino acid sequence that induces production of ige antibodies. in black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), the crude protein extract was profiled and its allergenic potency was examined against patient's sera. proteins having strong immunoreactivity with patient's ige were characterized using peptide mass fingerprinting (pmf). tropomyos ...201020658686
[current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) in spain].in this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (diptera: culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. the faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. the results show the existence of several common and anthropophi ...201020661525
establishment and cryopreservation of a fibroblast cell line derived from bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).the bengal tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblasts cell line (btf22), containing 157 tubes of frozen cells, was successfully established by using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (pdt) for revival cells was approximately 28 h. measurement of ldh and mdh isoenzymes showed no cross-contamination among the cells. karyotyping showed that the frequency of cells with chromosome number 2n = 38 was 90.6-92.2%. tes ...201020687455
indian isolates of white spot syndrome virus exhibit variations in their pathogenicity and genomic tandem detect genomic variation of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) isolates from different geographical regions of india, the variable number of the tandem repeat (vntr) region of the orf 94 (thailand wssv isolate - genebank accession no. af369029) was analysed using five specific sets of primers. analysis of 70 wssv-positive samples showed the presence of 14 different genotypes of wssv with vntrs ranging from 2 to 16 tandem repeats with the majority (85.47%) having 6-12 tandem repeats. occurrence ...201020690959
identification of testis-relevant genes using in silico analysis from testis ests and cdna microarray in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. understanding molecular mechanisms governing reproductive maturation processes requires the fundamental knowledge of integrated expression profiles in gonads of this economically important species. in p. monodon, a non-model species for which the genome sequence is not available, expressed sequence tag (est) and cdna microarray anal ...201020696033
dynamics of sundarban estuarine ecosystem: eutrophication induced threat to mangroves.abstract:201020699005
histopathological studies on vibrio harveyi- infected tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes (temminck et schlegel), cultured in japan.vibrio harveyi infection occurred with a moderate mortality in tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes (temminck et schlegel), in autumn 2007, at a mariculture farm in western japan. the diseased fish showed nodular lesions in the branchial chamber and the inner surface of the operculum. histopathologically, the lesions comprised granulation tissue containing many suppurative foci allowing propagation of the bacteria and granuloma encapsulating abscesses with a decrease in bacteria. the bacteria were di ...201020726939
proline-rich domain of penaeidin molecule exhibits autocrine feature by attracting penaeidin-positive granulocytes toward the wound-induced inflammatory site.antimicrobial peptides (amps) are amphipathic structures of low molecular weight that are generally positively charged. penaeidins are shrimp-specific amps that are synthesized and stored in granulocytes and released after stimulation. penaeidin is composed of an n-terminal proline-rich domain (prd) and a c-terminal cysteine-rich domain (crd). penaeidin and prd were approved as a cytokine in vitro, but how penaeidin regulates hemocyte adhesion in vivo is unclear. the present study examines penae ...201020816808
mhc class i and mhc class ii drb gene variability in wild and captive bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris).bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i and mhc class ii drb genes for wild and captive tigers from india. we amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of mhc class i and beta-1 domain of mhc class ii drb genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. we detect ...201020821315
habitat evaluation of wild amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern china.the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of china. in this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (ahp), remote sensing (rs), geog ...201120828917
factor deficiencies in venom-induced consumption coagulopathy resulting from australian elapid envenomation: australian snakebite project (asp-10).limited information exists on the dynamics of hemostasis in patients with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (vicc) from snake envenomation.201020831619
oral tolerance to food-induced systemic anaphylaxis mediated by the c-type lectin signr1.we propose that a c-type lectin receptor, signr-1 (also called cd209b), helps to condition dendritic cells (dcs) in the gastrointestinal lamina propria (lpdcs) for the induction of oral tolerance in a model of food-induced anaphylaxis. oral delivery of bsa bearing 51 molecules of mannoside (man(51)-bsa) substantially reduced the bsa-induced anaphylactic response. man(51)-bsa selectively targeted lpdcs that expressed signr1 and induced the expression of interleukin-10 (il-10), but not il-6 or il- ...201020835248
pmppae2, a new class of crustacean prophenoloxidase (propo)-activating enzyme and its role in po activation.the prophenoloxidase (propo) activating system plays an important role in the defense against microbial invasion in invertebrates. in the present study, we report a second propo-activating enzyme (designated pmppae2) from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. pmppae2 contained the structural features of the clip domain serine proteinase family and exhibited 51% amino acid sequence similarity to the insect manduca sexta pap-1. amino acid sequence alignment with the available a ...201120837056
double-stranded rna confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against penaeus stylirostris densovirus (pstdnv) in litopenaeus vannamei.penaeus stylirostris densovirus (pstdnv) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded rna (dsrna) or sirna has given promising results. in present study, dsrnas corresponding to non-structural (orf1 and orf2 overlapping ...201020869997
molecular analysis of the qm gene from penaeus monodon and its expression on the different ovarian stages of present study, a qm gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cdna library of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon). the full-length black tiger prawn qm (pmqm) cdna contained a 5'-utr of 41 bp, an orf of 663 bp encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids with molecular weight 25.5 kda, and a 3'-utr of 54 bp. homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the pmqm with other known qm sequences by matgat software revealed that the pmqm was high homology with ot ...201020872074
renal lesions of nondomestic comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. the ...201020876911
female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. as a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. the ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree ...201020888156
a multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).this study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in soctrang and camau provinces, main shrimp producers in mekong river delta, vietnam. shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (is1, is2, is3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (rs4, rs5, rs6); th ...201020943254
morbillivirus infection in a wild siberian tiger in the russian far east.we report the first documented case of morbillivirus infection in a wild, free-ranging siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). the tigress entered a small village in the russian far east in an ambulatory but stuporous state with no apparent recognition or fear of humans. her condition progressed rapidly with neurological signs, anorexia, and ultimately death. histologic lesions included vacuolated to malacic white matter in the brain stem, cerebellum, and thalamus, with associated lymphocytic ...201020966275
vocal power and pressure-flow relationships in excised tiger larynges.despite the functional importance of loud, low-pitched vocalizations in big cats of the genus panthera, little is known about the physics and physiology of the mechanisms producing such calls. we investigated laryngeal sound production in the laboratory using an excised-larynx setup combined with sound-level measurements and pressure-flow instrumentation. the larynges of five tigers (three siberian or amur, one generic non-pedigreed tiger with bengal ancestry and one sumatran), which had died of ...201021037066
introduction and control of three invasive mosquito species in the netherlands, july-october july 2010, during routine mosquito surveillance inspections at companies that import used tires, three invasive species were found at five locations in the netherlands: the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti), the asian tiger mosquito (ae. albopictus), and the american rock-pool mosquito (ae. atropalpus). this is the first time that ae. aegypti is reported from the netherlands. mosquito control was initiated one week after the first invasive mosquito was found, using adulticides and larvici ...201021087591
nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the animal kingdom: report of two cases.this report describes two cases of marked bone loss (osteopenia) occurring in a 9-week-old german shepherd puppy and in a 6-month-old tiger. in both cases the animals were fed a diet which was exclusively boneless meat. the diets in both cases contained approximately 40 mg of calcium and 1000 mg of phosphorus per pound resulting in both calcium deficiency and phosphorus excess, resulting in a phosphorus-to-calcium ratio of 25:1, well beyond the amounts known to cause marked loss of bone experime ...201021092876
solvent extracts of the red seaweed gracilaria fisheri prevent vibrio harveyi infections in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.vibriosis is a common bacterial disease that can cause high mortality and morbidity in farmed shrimp. since compounds from seaweed have been reported to have anti-bacterial and immunostimulant activity, this study was conducted to determine whether solvent extracts from the red seaweed gracilaria fisheri might be a possible alternative for prevention and treatment of shrimp vibriosis caused by vibrio harveyi. seaweed extracts prepared using ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane were evaluated ...201021115128
paralogous mitochondrial control region in the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon (f.) affects population genetics inference: a cautionary tale.the mitochondrial control region (mtcr) is a widely used genetic marker for phylogenetic, phylogeographic and population genetic inference. the analysis of mtcr in 115 indonesian specimens of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, revealed 26 individuals yielding a second - apparently paralogous - sequence in addition to the putatively authentic mitochondrial haplotype. the paralogous haplotypes fell into two major haplogroups that are highly diverged with respect to the authentic mitochondria ...201021145976
from tiger to panda: animal head detection.robust object detection has many important applications in real-world online photo processing. for example, both google image search and msn live image search have integrated human face detector to retrieve face or portrait photos. inspired by the success of such face filtering approach, in this paper, we focus on another popular online photo category-animal, which is one of the top five categories in the msn live image search query log. as a first attempt, we focus on the problem of animal head ...201021156394
young-onset parkinsonism in a hong kong chinese man with adult-onset hallervorden-spatz syndrome.neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (nbia) is a heterogeneous group of disorders varied in genetic etiologies, clinical presentations, and radiological features. nbia is an iron homeostasis disorder with progressive iron accumulation in the central nervous systems and is clinically characterized by extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, retinal pigmentary changes, and cognitive impairment. panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (hallervorden-spatz disease) is the commonest ...201121198414
the possible role of penaeidin5 from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in protection against viral infection.penaeidin class 5 (pen5) has so far only been reported in the chinese shrimp, fenneropenaeus chinensis, and the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. the pen5 homolog from f. chinensis (fenchipen5) exhibits antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. here, we characterized the pen5 gene from p. monodon (penmonpen5) and evaluated its potential involvement in antiviral immunity. the deduced open reading frame of penmonpen5 encodes for a predicted ...201021199664
a double wap domain-containing protein pmdwd from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon is involved in the controlling of proteinase activities in lymphoid organ.a homolog of mammalian secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor or slpi known as a double wap domain (dwd) protein has been found in penaeid shrimp and believed to play an important role in innate immune system of the shrimp. the pmdwd identified from the penaeus monodon est database was investigated for its expression under pathogen infection. infections by vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus (wssv) up-regulated the expression of the pmdwd, which was peaked at about 24 h post infection ...201121216291
pathogenicity of gill-associated virus and mourilyan virus during mixed infections of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).gill-associated virus (gav) and mourilyan virus (mov) can occur at very high prevalence in healthy black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in eastern australia, and both have been detected in moribund shrimp collected from mid-crop mortality syndrome (mcms) outbreaks. experimental evidence presented here indicates that gav, but not mov, is the cause of mcms. firstly, in healthy p. monodon used for experimental infections, pre-existing mov genetic loads were very high (mean >10(9) viral rna copies μ ...201121216987
diversity and characterization of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria associated with non-native species, white-leg shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), and native species, black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), intensively cultured in thailand.this study aimed at surveying prevalence of oxytetracycline (otc)-resistant bacteria in the white-leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, intensively cultured in thailand. we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial isolates, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of otc, the occurrence of major otc-resistant genes and multiple-antibiotic resistance in the isolates.201121219554
objective voice analysis of boys with profound hearing loss.a critical factor that affects human voice production is hearing because it provides necessary feedback for control of speech. vocal quality of profoundly hearing-impaired children is often considered deviant from both perceptual and acoustic perspectives. the present study compares selected vocal acoustic parameters of a profound hearing loss group of boys with normal peers.201121236637
cloning, characterization, and biological function analysis of the sidt2 gene from siniperca chuatsi.the systemic rna interference defective protein (sid)-1 plays an important role in dsrna uptake in cells. we identified the scsidt2 gene from the mandarin fish (siniperca chuatsi), which is the first-studied sid-1 homolog in fish. scsidt2 mrna is 3380 bp long and contains a 2568-bp open reading frame that encodes an 855-amino-acid protein with an n-terminal signal peptide and ten putative transmembrane domains. tissue distribution profile in healthy fish and expression profiles of scsidt2 in inf ...201121334374
avian and human influenza a virus receptors in trachea and lung of animals.influenza a viruses are capable of crossing the specific barrier between human beings and animals resulting in interspecies transmission. the important factor of potential infectivity of influenza a viruses is the suitability of the receptor binding site of the host and viruses. the affinities of avian and human influenza virus to bind with the receptors and the distributions of receptors in animals are different.201021337915
milky hemolymph syndrome (mhs) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, european shore crab carcinus maenas and spiny lobster panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (mhs). four rickettsia-like bacteria (rlb) isolates of mhs originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. the histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex pcr assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. the 16s rrna gene and 16-23s rrna intergenic spacer region (isr) were used to examine the ...201021387989
saving wild tigers: a case study in biodiversity loss and challenges to be met for recovery beyond 2010.wild tigers are being annihilated. tiger range countries and their partners met at the 1st asian ministerial conference on tiger conservation in january 2010 to mandate the creation of the global tiger recovery program to double the number of tigers by 2022. only 3200-3600 wild adult tigers remain, approximately half of the population estimated a decade ago. tigers now live in only 13 countries, all of which are experiencing severe environmental challenges and degradation from the effects of hum ...201021392347
human-tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans.human-tiger (panthera tigris linnaeus, 1758) conflicts (htc), manifested primarily as attacks on people and domestic animals, exacerbate at least 2 major threats to tigers: (i) conflicts often result in mortality or removal of tigers from the wild; and (ii) they result in negative attitudes towards tigers by local people, thereby reducing support for tiger conservation. although htc has decreased over the past century, it will likely increase if current and proposed conservation initiatives to d ...201021392348
using dogs for tiger conservation and research.this paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (panthera tigris linnaeus, 1758). using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. these methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproduc ...201021392356
a new phaseolus vulgaris lectin induces selective toxicity on human liver carcinoma hep g2 cells.we describe here the purification and characterization of a new phaseolus vulgaris lectin that exhibits selective toxicity to human hepatoma hep g2 cells and lacks significant toxicity on normal liver wrl 68 cells. this polygalacturonic acid-specific lectin (termed btkl) was purified from seeds of p. vulgaris cv. blue tiger king by liquid chromatography techniques. the 60-kda dimeric lectin showed strong and broad-spectrum hemagglutinating activity toward human, rabbit, rat, and mouse erythrocyt ...201121445585
wind-powered wheel locomotion, initiated by leaping somersaults, in larvae of the southeastern beach tiger beetle (cicindela dorsalis media).rapid movement is challenging for elongate, soft-bodied animals with short or no legs. leaping is known for only a few animals with this "worm-like" morphology. wheel locomotion, in which the animal's entire body rolls forward along a central axis, has been reported for only a handful of animals worldwide. here we present the first documented case of wind-powered wheel locomotion, in larvae of the coastal tiger beetle cicindela dorsalis media. when removed from their shallow burrows, larvae easi ...201121448275
vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the nyishi and galo tribes in arunachal pradesh (north-east india).arunachal pradesh, the easternmost part of india, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the nyishi and galo tribes in their respective west siang and subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. of a ...201121453496
effectiveness of a multiple intervention strategy for the control of the tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) in spain.this study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of four complementary and combined strategies to minimize the presence of the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus, firmly established in sant cugat del vallès, catalonia, spain. a quasi-experimental design including six neighbourhoods was performed in 2008-2009. the abundance of mosquitoes was monitored through ovitraps. the multiple intervention strategy consisted of four actions: source reduction; larvicide treatments (bacillus thuringiens ...201121466887
exercise tiger: assessing the bcm impact of the 2012 olympics on canary this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. the london 2012 summer olympic games will see huge opportunity for businesses in london, and across europe, but not without cost. canary wharf lies in the heart of london's docklands and less than three miles from the olympic park at stratford. purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working populati ...201121482513
a cdna microarray, unishrimpchip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).abstract:201121486443
climatic factors driving invasion of the tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) into new areas of trentino, northern italy.the tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus), vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern italy. changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in europe. therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies.201121525991
molecular cloning and expression analysis of the mitogen-activating protein kinase 1 (mapk1) gene and protein during ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.isolation and characterization of genes and/or proteins differentially expressed in ovaries are necessary for understanding ovarian development in the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). in this study, the full-length cdna of p. monodon mitogen-activating protein kinase 1 (pmmapk1) was characterized. pmmapk1 was 1,398 bp in length containing an open reading frame of 1,098 bp that corresponded to a polypeptide of 365 amino acids. pmmapk1 was more abundantly expressed in ovaries than in testes o ...201121542048
tiger frog virus (an iridovirus) entry into hepg2 cells via a ph-dependent, atypical caveola-mediated endocytosis pathway.tiger frog virus (tfv), in the genus ranavirus of the family iridoviridae, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in china. to explore the cellular entry mechanism of tfv, hepg2 cells were treated with drugs that inhibit the main endocytic pathways. we observed that tfv entry was inhibited by nh(4)cl, chloroquine, and bafilomycin, which all can elevate the ph of acidic organelles. in contrast, tfv entry was not influenced by chlorpromazine or overexpression of a dominant-negative ...201121543502
gene expression in placentation of farm animals: an overview of gene function during development.eutherian mammals share a common ancestor that evolved into two main placental types, i.e., hemotrophic (e.g., human and mouse) and histiotrophic (e.g., farm animals), which differ in invasiveness. pregnancies initiated with assisted reproductive techniques (art) in farm animals are at increased risk of failure; these losses were associated with placental defects, perhaps due to altered gene expression. developmentally regulated genes in the placenta seem highly phylogenetically conserved, where ...201121550103
big cat phylogenies, consensus trees, and computational thinking.abstract phylogenetics seeks to deduce the pattern of relatedness between organisms by using a phylogeny or evolutionary tree. for a given set of organisms or taxa, there may be many evolutionary trees depicting how these organisms evolved from a common ancestor. as a result, consensus trees are a popular approach for summarizing the shared evolutionary relationships in a group of trees. we examine these consensus techniques by studying how the pantherine lineage of cats (clouded leopard, jaguar ...201121563975
a novel integrase-containing element may interact with laem-singh virus (lsnv) to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp.abstract: background: from 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (msgs) caused severe economic losses for thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. in 2008, newly discovered laem-singh virus (lsnv) was proposed as a necessary but insufficient cause of msgs, and this stimulated the search for the additional com ...201121569542
genetic diversity of pasteurella dagmatis as assessed by analysis of the 16s rrna and rpob gene sequences.a total of 16 pasteurella dagmatis strains, including 11 feline and 4 canine isolates as well as one strain isolated from a tiger, were analyzed using partial 16s rrna and rpob gene sequence comparison. phylogenetic studies based on both genes revealed that the population of p. dagmatis recovered from cats in poland differs markedly from canine strains, constituting a well-separated cluster within pasteurella sensu stricto species group. the isolate from a tiger seems to represent yet another ev ...201121573831
fosmid library end sequencing reveals a rarely known genome structure of marine shrimp penaeus monodon.abstract: background: the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world, representing the crustacean lineage which possesses the greatest species diversity among marine invertebrates. yet, we barely know anything about their genomic structure. to understand the organization and evolution of the p. monodon genome, a fosmid library consisting of 288,000 colonies was constructed, equivalent to 5.3-fold coverage of the 2.17 gb genome. approximatel ...201121575266
capsular serotyping of pasteurella multocida from various animal hosts - a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic hundred and fourteen strains of pasteurella multocida were isolated from different domestic animals species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, dog, cat), avian species (chicken, duck, turkey) and wild animals (deer, tiger, orang utan, marmoset). the serogroups of p. multocida were determined by both conventional capsular serotyping and a multiplex pcr assay targeting specific capsular genes. based on the conventional serotyping method, the 114 strains of p. multocida were subtyped i ...201121602769
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of thrombospondin gene from penaeus present study, a thrombospondin gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cdna library of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon). the full-length p. monodon thrombospondin (pmtsp) cdna contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 9bp, an open reading frame (orf) of 2778bp encoding a polypeptide of 925 amino acids with molecular mass 100.57kda, and a 3'utr of 99bp. scanprosite analysis indicated that pmtsp contained four chitin-binding type-ii domains, an egf-like domai ...201121620333
eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation: study from sundarban delta, india.this study attempts to examine the extent and impact of human-animal conflicts visa-vis psychosocial stressors and mental health of affected people in two villages adjacent to sundarban reserve forest (srf) in the gosaba block, west bengal, india.200821572831
fourteen new di- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the critically endangered indian tiger (panthera tigris tigris).we describe 11 dinucleotide and three tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the critically endangered indian tiger, panthera tigris tigris. all of them were polymorphic with four to nine alleles per locus and an observed heterozygosity between 0.13 and 1.0. all primers also amplify microsatellite loci in leopard, panthera pardus, and 12 primer pairs yielded reproducible results in domestic cat, felis catus. these new microsatellites specifically developed for indian tiger - in combination with ...200821586082
development of simple sequence repeat markers from expressed sequence tags of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).in this study, we describe the development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers from expressed sequence tags of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) deposited in public sequence databases. a total of 46 primer pairs were designed and screened on 26 individuals of p. monodon from a natural population. of these, 16 primer pairs showed polymorphic profiles with between two and five alleles per locus. the average unbiased and direct count heterozygosities were 0.4662 and 0.35 ...200821586086
isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh).suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) libraries between cdna in stages i (previtellogenic) and iii (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) were established. in all, 452 ests were unidirectionally sequenced. sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in genbank. several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. the full-length cdna of anaphase promoting complex subun ...201021637577
polymorphism of cag repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (ar). the polymorphism of cag triplet repeat (polycag), in the n-terminal transactivation domain of the ar protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. we obtained partial sequence of ar exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. in most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three cag repeat regions of ar, in contrast, only cag-i site polymorphism presented in primate species, and cag- ...201121643744
gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (platyhelminthes: monogenea) infecting the south european toothcarp aphanius fasciatus (valenciennes) (teleostei, cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in italy.historically, non-native species of gambusia (poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the asian tiger mosquito, stegomyia albopicta reinert, harbach et kitching, 2004 throughout italy. the potential utility of indigenous populations of aphanius fasciatus (valenciennes) (teleostei: cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. a sub-sample of ten fish collected from cervia saline, italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°c) to assess their reprod ...201121658217
identification and cloning of a selenophosphate synthetase (sps) from tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and its transcription in relation to molt stages and following pathogen infection.complementary (c)dna encoding selenophosphate synthetase (sps) messenger (m)rna of the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, designated pmsps, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the 1582-bp cdna contained an open reading frame (orf) of 1248bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), and a 231-bp 3'-utr, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (secis) element, a conventional p ...201121664929
evidence for (shared) abstract structure underlying children's short and full a syntactic priming paradigm, three- and four-year-old children and adults described transitive events after hearing thematically and lexically unrelated active and short passive prime descriptions. both groups were more likely to produce full passive descriptions (the king is being scratched by the tiger) following short passive primes (the girls are being shocked) than active primes (the sheep is shocking the girl). these results suggest that by four, children have (shared) abstract syntact ...201121803346
penaeus monodon is protected against gill-associated virus by muscle injection but not oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsrnas.gill-associated virus (gav) is a nidovirus that commonly infects penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp) in eastern australia, causing morbidity and mortalities in the acute stage of disease. here we explored the possibility of inhibiting gav replication and disease using double-stranded (ds)rnas expressed in bacteria and delivered either orally or by muscle injection. to enhance potential rna interference (rnai) responses, 5 long dsrnas were used that targeted open reading frame 1a/1b (orf1a/b) ge ...201121797032
trends of forest dynamics in tiger landscapes across asia.protected areas (pas) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of pas are also important to tiger conservation. tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the pa, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and f ...201121786183
rapid and sensitive detection of laem-singh virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.laem-singh virus (lsnv) was discovered recently in thailand in farmed giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) displaying signs of slow growth syndrome. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) allows dna to be amplified rapidly at a constant temperature. here a reverse transcription (rt)-lamp method was combined with a chromatographic lateral-flow dipstick (lfd) to detect lsnv rna rapidly and specifically. the reaction was optimized at 65°c for 30min and amplified dna hybridized to an fitc-lab ...201121762729
functional processing and secretion of chikungunya virus e1 and e2 glycoproteins in insect cells.abstract: background: chikungunya virus (chikv) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic alphavirus that causes large epidemics in africa, south-east asia and india. recently, chikv has been transmitted to humans in southern europe by invading and now established asian tiger mosquitoes. to study the processing of envelope proteins e1 and e2 and to develop a chikv subunit vaccine, c-terminally his-tagged e1 and e2 envelope glycoproteins were produced at high levels in insect cells with baculovirus vector ...201121762510
molecular analysis of a ras-like nuclear (ran) gene from penaeus monodon and its expression at the different ovarian stages of the present study, a ras-like nuclear (ran) gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cdna library of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon). the full-length black tiger prawn ran (pmran) cdna consisted of 1140 nucleotides including an open reading frame (orf) 648 bp, a 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of 117 bp and a 3'utr of 375 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence "aataaa" and a poly (a) tail. the orf encoded a peptide of 215 amino acids with molecular mass 24.6 ...201121748319
additional random, single to multiple genome fragments of penaeus stylirostris densovirus in the giant tiger shrimp genome have implications for viral disease diagnosis.scattered reports of viral inserts in shrimp and insect genomes led to the hypothesis that random, autonomous insertion of such sequences occurs in these organisms and leads to specific, heritable immunity. to test the prediction regarding random insertion of viral sequences into the shrimp genome, we examined the giant tiger shrimp for random genomic insertions of penaeus stylirostris densovirus (also called ihhnv). by pcr analysis using a set of 7 overlapping primer pairs to cover the whole ih ...201121723348
self-recognition in social amoebae is mediated by allelic pairs of tiger cells of the social amoebae dictyostelium discoideum can aggregate and develop into multicellular fruiting bodies in which many die altruistically as they become stalk cells that support the surviving spores. dictyostelium cells exhibit kin discrimination--a potential defense against cheaters, which sporulate without contributing to the stalk. kin discrimination depends on strain relatedness, and the polymorphic genes tgrb1 and tgrc1 are potential components of that mechanism. here, ...201121700835
coagulant effects of black snake (pseudechis spp.) venoms and in vitro efficacy of commercial antivenom.the coagulant effects of australasian black snakes (pseudechis spp.) are poorly understood and differ to the procoagulant venoms of most dangerous snakes in australia. this study aimed to investigate in vitro coagulant effects of pseudechis venoms and the efficacy of commercial black snake antivenom (blsav), tiger snake antivenom (tsav) and specific rabbit anti-snake igg to neutralise these effects. using a turbidimetric assay, all six pseudechis venoms had anticoagulant activity, as well as pho ...201121723878
how unique is the tiger beetle fauna (coleoptera, cicindelidae) of the balkan peninsula?the tiger beetle fauna of the balkan peninsula is one of the richest in europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the european tiger beetle fauna. assembled by their biogeographical origins, the balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, mediterranean, middle oriental, central asiatic, euro-siberian, south and east european, pannonian-sarmatian, west palaearctic, turano-european and afrotropico indo-mediterranean species. the mediterranean sclerophyl and the pontian s ...201121738429
lhermitte-duclos disease associated with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor differentiation with characteristic magnetic resonance appearance of "tiger striping".the simultaneous presence of lhermitte-duclos disease (ldd) with focal areas of nodular dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (dnet) differentiation in the cerebellar hemisphere is reported in a patient who showed the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (mri) appearance of "tiger striping".201121704939
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