isolation of laribacter hongkongensis, a novel bacterium associated with gastroenteritis, from chinese tiger frog.laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered novel bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. although the bacterium has been isolated from freshwater fish and natural freshwater environments, it is not known if other freshwater animals could also be a source of l. hongkongensis. in a surveillance study on freshwater food animals (other than fish) in hong kong, l. hongkongensis was isolated from eight of 10 chinese tiger frogs (hoplobatrachus chinensis), a widespread frog ...200919033083
molecular cloning and mrna expression of cyclophilin a gene in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the cyclophilin a (cypa) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the full-length cdna of black tiger shrimp cypa (btscypa) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 81 bp, an orf (open reading frame) of 495 bp encoding a polypeptide of 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.68 kda and a 3' utr of 308 bp. the predicted amino acid sequence of btscypa shared high identity with cypa in other organisms. a ...200919041262
chikungunya: a paradigm of emergence and globalization of vector-borne diseases.chikungunya (chik) fever is a tropical arboviral disease responsible for acute polyarthritis which can last for weeks to months. in 2007, the chikungunya virus (chikv) reached europe. since the beginning of this outbreak, several million cases of chikungunya virus disease have occurred in autochthonous populations and in travelers who were diagnosed after they returned home from epidemic areas. chikv, usually transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has now been repeatedly associated with a new ...200819061754
genetic diversity and geographic differentiation of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand analyzed by mitochondrial coi sequences.genetic diversity and geographic differentiation of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in thai waters (satun, trang, phangnga, and ranong in the andaman sea and chumphon and trat in the gulf of thailand) were examined by coi polymorphism (n = 128). we observed 28 coi mitotypes across all investigated individuals. the sequence divergence between pairs of mitotypes was 0.00-20.76%. a neighbor-joining tree clearly indicated lineage separation of thai p. monodon and large nucleotide divergence ...200919082881
[asian tiger mosquito bites: perception of the affected population after aedes albopictus became established in spain].the presence of aedes albopictus was detected in spain in 2004 and it has now become fully established, causing significant discomfort among the population in the affected areas.200819087809
nmr structure of ralf-pm3, an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from shrimp: model of the possible lipid a-binding site.the anti-lipopolysaccharide factor alf-pm3 is a 98-residue protein identified in hemocytes from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. it was expressed in pichia pastoris from the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter as a folded and (15)n uniformly labeled ralf-pm3 protein. its 3d structure was established by nmr and consists of three alpha-helices packed against a four-stranded beta-sheet. the c(34)-c(55) disulfide bond was shown to be essential for the structure stab ...200919107926
accidental importation of the mosquito aedes albopictus into the netherlands: a survey of mosquito distribution and the presence of dengue the summer of 2005, the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) was found for the first time in the netherlands. it was collected on the premises of several horticultural companies that import the ornamental plant dracaena sanderiana (sparagalus: dracaenaceae [agavaceae]), known as lucky bamboo, from southern china, an area endemic for this mosquito species and for arboviruses transmitted by this vector. here we report the results of a 1-year survey of the distribu ...200819120963
yohimbine antagonizes the anaesthetic effects of ketamine-xylazine in captive indian wild determine the effectiveness of yohimbine as an antagonist of ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia in captive asiatic lions (panthera leo persica), tigers (panthera tigris) and leopards (panthera pardus).200919121157
pathological lesions and viral localization of influenza a (h5n1) virus in experimentally infected chinese rhesus macaques: implications for pathogenesis and viral transmission.chinese rhesus macaques infected with influenza virus a/tiger/harbin/01/2002 (h5n1) developed acute interstitial pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage. the results of virus isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization showed that the lung was the major target organ of the h5n1 virus infection. no virus was detected in the extrapulmonary organs. the results of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization also showed that pneumocyte ...200919130169
the mitochondrial genome sequence of the tasmanian tiger (thylacinus cynocephalus).we report the first two complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the thylacine (thylacinus cynocephalus), or so-called tasmanian tiger, extinct since 1936. the thylacine's phylogenetic position within australidelphian marsupials has long been debated, and here we provide strong support for the thylacine's basal position in dasyuromorphia, aided by mitochondrial genome sequence that we generated from the extant numbat (myrmecobius fasciatus). surprisingly, both of our thylacine sequences differ ...200919139089
oral delivery of dna construct using chitosan nanoparticles to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (wssv).the protective efficacy of oral delivery of a dna construct containing the vp28 gene of wssv encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles was investigated in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the results showed that significant survival was obtained in wssv-challenged shrimp at 7, 15 and 30 days post-treatment (relative survival, 85%, 65% and 50%, respectively) whereas 100% mortality was observed in the control shrimp fed with feed containing chitosan/pcdna 3.1 or chitosan/pbs complex. the ability ...200919141321
molecular characterization and expression profiles of cyclin a and cyclin b during ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the meiotic maturation of oocytes is regulated by maturation promoting factor (mpf), a complex of cdc2 (cdk1) and cyclin b and other cdk/cyclin complexes. to better understand molecular aspects governing reproductive maturation of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), the full length cdnas and genomic organization of cyclins a and b (pmcya and pmcyb) were characterized. a single form of pmcya contained an open reading frame (orf) of 1326 bp corresponding to a deduced protein of 441 amino aci ...200919141329
mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.the caspian tiger (panthera tigris virgata) flourished in central asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. for over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. using ancient-dna (adna) methodology, we generated composite mtdna haplotypes from twenty wild caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sam ...200919142238
comparative distribution of a putative egg-laying hormone in neural and reproductive tissues of four decapoda crustaceans.evidence for the presence of a putative egg-laying (elh) hormone has been previously described in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, so a further investigation was carried out to detect its presence in a range of decapoda crustaceans prior to a full molecular analysis. the crustaceans were represented by the australian fresh water yabbie, cherax destructor, the australian southern rock lobster, jasus edwardsii, the snow crab, chionoecetes opilio, and the blue swimmer crab, portunus pelagic ...200919184148
[chikungunya emergency in emilia-romagna: learning through experience].this paper summarizes the emilia-romagna strategy to face the 2007 emergency, caused by a chikungunya epidemic outbreak with local virus transmission by ae. albopictus. the paper describes the trend of epidemic and the interventions adopted to face toward the event. the first cases were in ravenna and cervia and then the outbreak spread toward other areas: the provinces of forlì-cesena, rimini and bologna. last case was notified 2007 28th september; health ministry declared over the outbreak on ...200819186509
the importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.intensive black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical asia. few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. at khao sam roi yod national park, thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foragi ...200919189172
cervical spine injury: tiger attack.reports of tiger attacks in the united states are rare. this article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. this article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. most infections are polymicrobial, with pasteurella multicida ...200819226051
[felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?].the micronuclei (mn) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. mn are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (mne) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. n ...200819256458
role of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in protection from white spot syndrome virus infection.the anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf) from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, has been shown previously to exhibit a broad spectrum of activity against various strains of bacteria and fungi. herein, the recombinant alfpm3 (ralfpm3) protein was examined for its role in the defence against white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection in haematopoietic (hpt) cell cultures of the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as in live p. monodon shrimps. incubation of hpt cell cultu ...200919264668
three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.background: studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. however, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. we use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of f ...200919270749
keratin-lipid structural organization in the corneous layer of snake.the shed epidermis (molt) of snakes comprises four distinct layers. the upper two layers, here considered as beta-layer, contain essentially beta-keratin. the following layer, known as mesos-layer, is similar to the human stratum corneum, and is formed by thin cells surrounded by intercellular lipids. the latter layer mainly contains alpha-keratin. in this study, the molecular assemblies of proteins and lipids contained in these layers have been analyzed in the scale of two species of snakes, th ...200919280640
effects on male fitness of removing wolbachia infections from the mosquito aedes albopictus.cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci) induced by maternally inherited wolbachia bacteria is a potential tool for the suppression of insect pest species with appropriate patterns of infection. the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) is known to be infected by two strains of wolbachia pipientis hertig (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae), walb a and walb b, throughout its geographical distribution. this infection pattern theoretically restricts the application of ci-based cont ...200919292821
genomic structure, expression pattern and functional characterization of crustinpm5, a unique isoform of crustin from penaeus monodon.a unique isoform of crustin, crustinpm5, was identified from a gill-epipodite cdna library of the tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. the crustinpm5 cdna contains an open reading frame (orf) of 510 bp encoding a 169 amino acid protein. the deduced amino acid sequence of crustinpm5 showed 38% and 37% overall sequence identity with those of crustinpm1 and crustin-likepm, respectively, two crustin isoforms previously reported. the crustinpm5 gene contained four exons interrupted by three introns whilst ...200919306939
first isolation and identification of elizabethkingia meningoseptica from cultured tiger frog, rana tigerina rugulosa.elizabethkingia meningoseptica has been recognised as an occasional but serious opportunistic bacterial pathogen to human beings. recently, it was frequently isolated from tiger frog, rana tigerina rugulosa, with cataract disease, which is the most common disease of unknown aetiology of frogs in hainan, china. the purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the bacterial strains isolated from the recent outbreaks of cataract disease in farmed tiger frog in hainan, china, and to evalua ...200919327918
functional characterization of a masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a cdna encoding a masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue (pmmassph) from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, has been cloned and characterized. the transcript of pmmassph is induced in response to vibrio harveyi infection. to further characterize the function(s) of the protein, (i) the n-terminal region comprising the glycine-rich repeats and the clip domain, and (ii) the c-terminal sp-like domain of the pmmassph were separately cloned into the pet-28b(+) expression vector and transfor ...200919328243
identification of a receptor for activated protein kinase c1 (pm-rack1), a cellular gene product from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) interacts with a protein, vp9 from the white spot syndrome virus.a gene encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase c1 homolog has been isolated from the shrimp, penaeus monodon (pm-rack1). the full length pm-rack1 cdna has 957 bp, and an open reading frame encoding a protein of 318 amino acid residues. the protein contains seven wd40 repeats and shares approximately 78% identity with vertebrate rack1. in adult shrimp, pm-rack1 transcripts were detected in all tissues. during wssv infection, pm-rack1 was upregulated in hepatopancreas, stomach and hemocyt ...200919340954
comparison of several types of enrichment for captive felids.enrichment can increase the complexity of the captive environment and possibly enhance captive animals' well-being by stimulating active behaviors and reducing stereotypical behaviors commonly seen in zoo felids. in this study, three different enrichment items were added to outdoor enclosures of felids at the montgomery zoo to test their effects on activity levels and stereotypic pacing. bones, frozen fish, and spices (cinnamon, chili powder, and cumin) were presented over a 3-month period to si ...200719360587
commercial monovalent antivenoms in australia are polyvalent.monovalent antivenoms have a lower volume of specific antibodies that may reduce reactions but require accurate snake identification to be used. polyvalent antivenoms are larger volume and may have a higher reaction rate. however, they avoid the problem of snake identification and may be more cost-effective to manufacture. we have previously shown cross-neutralisation of two australian elapid venoms, tiger snake (notechis scutatus) and brown snake (pseudonaja textilis) venoms, by their respectiv ...200919375442
tiger frog virus can infect zebrafish cells for studying up- or down-regulated genes by proteomics approach.tiger frog virus (tfv), a member of the iridovirus family, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in southern china. to better understand tfv infection and its interaction with host cells, zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (zf4) cells, a stable polyploid cell line with most clear genetic map, was used for our present study. our results showed that tfv caused typical lytic plaque forming cytopathic effect (cpe) and that various stages of viral proliferation were observed using electro ...200919409947
combined effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on susceptibility of the tiger salamander to ambystoma tigrinum virus.several hypotheses have been examined as potential causes of global amphibian declines, including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. although these factors are typically studied separately, animals are generally exposed to both stressors simultaneously. we examined the effects of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the susceptibility of tiger salamander larvae, ambystoma tigrinum, to a viral pathogen, ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv). environmentall ...200919415385
the engineering of bacteria bearing azido-pseudaminic acid-modified flagella.catch a tiger by the tail: we have demonstrated that by feeding nonmotile mutant c. jejuni bacteria with a neutral azide-labelled pseudaminic acid precursor we can restore their ability to generate functional flagella. the presence of azido-pseudaminic acid on the surface of the flagella provides a bio-orthogonal chemical handle that can be used to modify the flagellar proteins.200919422007
changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.abstract : ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. as key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (cvbds), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (canl) by leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by dirofilaria immiti ...200919426441
acetylcholinesterase activity as a biomarker of exposure to antibiotics and pesticides in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).this study aimed to assess the potentiality to use cholinesterase activity (che) in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) as a biomarker of exposure to 2 antibiotics (enrofloxacin, furazolidone) and 2 pesticides (endosulfan, deltamethrin), commonly used in vietnamese farms. che from muscle and gills was first characterised using three different substrates and specific inhibitors. results showed that both tissues possess only one che which displays the typical properties of an acetylcholinesterase ...200919427694
gene silencing of a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme in the shrimp, penaeus monodon, increases susceptibility to vibrio harveyi infection.the prophenoloxidase (propo) activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. the major enzyme, phenoloxidase (po), is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases (clip-sps). in this study, a cdna encoding a propo activating enzyme (ppae) from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, designated as pmppae1, was cloned and characterized. the full-length ...200919428482
failure of aedes albopictus to overwinter following introduction and seasonal establishment at a tire recycling plant in the northeastern july 2006, an introduction of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, was documented for the first time at a commercial tire recycling plant in northeastern connecticut, usa. the introduction likely occurred via transport of infested tires originating from northern new jersey or metropolitan new york city. efforts were made to determine seasonal establishment and overwintering success by assessing adult biting and oviposition activity in the surrounding woodlands. the first adult female w ...200919432065
[survival of salmonella weltevreden and s. senftenberg in black tiger shrimp under frozen storage].survival of salmonella in black tiger shrimps during frozen storage was investigated following our previous study on salmonella contamination in frozen shrimps imported into japan. salmonella (s.) weltevreden and s. senftenberg were inoculated onto the surface and inside of black tiger shrimps without the shell. after storage at -10 degrees c, -20 degrees c and -30 degrees c for 12 weeks, the salmonella population decreased in all cases; the decrease was smallest at the lowest temperature. viabi ...200919436157
complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of iridoviridae.soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). to our knowledge, the only molecular information available on stiv mainly concerns the highly conserved stiv major capsid protein. the complete sequence of the stiv genome is not yet available. therefore, determining the genome sequence of stiv and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate furthe ...200919439104
cloning of penaeidin gene promoter in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).penaeidins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed in the hemocytes of penaeid shrimps. using an extender pcr method and a nested pcr, we cloned two types of genomic fragment flanking the 5' end of penaeidin gene in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon): type536 and type411 sequences. both fragments contained tata box, gata, dorsal and ap-1 motifs and were ligated to an expression vector with a luciferase reporter gene. the constructs were then delivered into drosophila s2 cell ...200919439182
aedes albopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse, 1894), is an invasive species that can be found on all continents. the species, originally considered a secondary vector of viruses such as dengue viruses, has recently been suggested to play a role in the transmission of chikungunya virus in several countries bordering the indian ocean, central africa and europe. here we review the current geographic range and the relevant biological traits of a. albopictus in order to explain its rapid spread. ...200919450706
application of yhv-protease dsrna for protection and therapeutic treatment against yellow head virus infection in litopenaeus vannamei.while farming of the pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei is well established in north and south america, the industry has more recently been introduced to asia, and the pacific white shrimp is now the most commonly farmed species in thailand. however, outbreaks of yellow head virus (yhv) disease in the pacific white shrimp have caused severe economic losses and currently there is no effective prevention or treatment of yhv infections. the yhv-protease double-stranded rna (yhv-pro dsrna) ca ...200919476288
in situ stress testing to identify australian black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) free of gill-associated virus and mourilyan identify whether black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) in the weipa region of the gulf of carpentaria, queensland, are free of gill-associated virus (gav) and mourilyan virus (mov), which are endemic in p. monodon along the east coast of queensland.200919489783
differential gene expression in black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, following administration of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid.the intensification of shrimp farming systems has led to the spreading of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases that continue to plague the shrimp industry worldwide. efforts to combat these pathogenic organisms include the use of immunostimulants, probiotics, vaccines and antibiotics. although a few studies have already reported on the effects of various stimuli on shrimp, the effect of antibiotics, particularly on the changes in the shrimp transcriptomic profile have yet to be reported. he ...200919497335
kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and the inhibitory activities of spipm4 and 5.serine proteinase inhibitors (spis) play important roles in physiological and immunological processes involving proteinases in all multicellular organisms. in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, nine different kazal-type spis, namely spipm1-9, were identified from the cdna libraries of hemocyte, hepatopancreas, hematopoietic tissue, ovary and lymphoid organ. they are multi-domain spis containing 2-7 and possibly more kazal domains. two interesting cdna clones, spipm4 and spipm5 coding for two-do ...200919497371
surface morphology and morphometric analysis of sensilla of asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse): an sem investigation.the sensilla and sensory mechanism play a significant role in hostseeking and oviposition behaviour of mosquitoes, which enable them to transmit various diseases to humans. aedes albopictus (skuse) has emerged as a major vector of chikungunya virus in the recent epidemics in most parts of southern india. studies on the sensory structures of dengue vector, aedes aegypti (linn) are comprehensive; whereas information on the sensillary systems of asian tiger mosquito, ae. albopictus is inadequate. t ...200919502692
allerhunter: a svm-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. the number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. while existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. we describe allerhunter, a web-based computational system for the assessmen ...200919516900
does language about similarity play a role in fostering similarity comparison in children?commenting on perceptual similarities between objects stands out as an important linguistic achievement, one that may pave the way towards noticing and commenting on more abstract relational commonalities between objects. to explore whether having a conventional linguistic system is necessary for children to comment on different types of similarity comparisons, we observed four children who had not been exposed to usable linguistic input--deaf children whose hearing losses prevented them from le ...200919524220
enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov. (microsporida: enterocytozoonidae), a parasite of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (decapoda: penaeidae): fine structure and phylogenetic relationships.a new microsporidian species, enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov., is described from the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea: decapoda). different stages of the parasite are described, from early sporogonal plasmodia to mature spores in the cytoplasm of host-cells. the multinucleate sporogonal plasmodia existed in direct contact with the host-cell cytoplasm and contained numerous small blebs at the surface. binary fission of the plasmodial nuclei occurred during ...200919527727
fatal infection with feline panleukopenia virus in two captive wild carnivores (panthera tigris and panthera leo).two cases of fatal infection caused by parvovirus in a white tiger (panthera tigris) and an african lion (panthera leo) at the lisbon zoo (portugal) are described. gross findings at necropsy were catharral enteritis in the tiger and severe hemorrhagic enteritis in the lion. histopathologic examination revealed, in both animals, intestinal crypt necrosis and lymphocyte depletion in the germinal centers of the mesenteric lymph nodes. bacteriologic examination was negative for common bacterial path ...200919569486
isolation of a novel strain of bacillus pumilus from penaeid shrimp that is inhibitory against marine pathogens.a bacterium was isolated from the mid-gut of healthy black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, based on a large zone of inhibition in mixed culture on solid medium. the isolate was a gram-positive, motile spore former, with an optimum ph range for growth in tryptone soya broth containing 2% nacl of between ph 6 and 9. the bacterium was highly salt tolerant with concentrations between 0% and 8% having no detrimental effect on growth. the isolate was identified as bacillus pumilus based on physiologica ...200919573134
cleavage and gastrulation of the dendrobranchiate shrimp penaeus monodon (crustacea, malacostraca, decapoda).the cleavage pattern of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon was analyzed from the first division until gastrulation. observations were based on microscopy combined with the use of fluorescent dyes, histological techniques, and computer based three-dimensional reconstructions. early cleavage is holoblastic and follows a stereotypic pattern, which largely corresponds to what is known from other dendrobranchiate decapods. however, for the first time in this group, we report the presence of an in ...200919573622
spatial and temporal patterns of ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv) prevalence in tiger salamanders ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum.amphibian ranaviruses have been documented as causes of mass mortality in amphibian populations throughout the world. the temporal and spatial dynamics of ranavirus infections when epidemics are not apparent remains unclear. to address this question, we collected tissue samples from 2003 to 2006 in 4 geographically separated tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum host populations on the kaibab plateau in northern arizona. we tested for ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv), a lethal ranavirus of ...200919593927
feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of zurich, switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. the majority of swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. women and frequent ...201019598253
low-cost farmed shrimp shells could remove arsenic from solutions kinetically.the purpose of this study was to explore the ability of shrimp shell to remove arsenic (as) from aqueous solutions by experimental and modeling analyses. the shells of two species of farmed shrimp, black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), were chosen to be the sorbents. the results indicate that sorption capacities of black tiger shrimp and white shrimp shells were estimated to be 8.1 x 10(-3) to 5.0 x 10(-1) and 7.8 x 10(-3) to 2.4 x 10(-1)mgg(-1), respectiv ...200919604633
taming the tiger by the tail: modulation of dna damage responses by telomeres.telomeres are by definition stable and inert chromosome ends, whereas internal chromosome breaks are potent stimulators of the dna damage response (ddr). telomeres do not, as might be expected, exclude ddr proteins from chromosome ends but instead engage with many ddr proteins. however, the most powerful ddrs, those that might induce chromosome fusion or cell-cycle arrest, are inhibited at telomeres. in budding yeast, many ddr proteins that accumulate most rapidly at double strand breaks (dsbs), ...200919629039
[preparation of the vaccine with inactivated feline panleukopenia virus isolated from tiger and the preliminary application].to prepare a vaccine with inactivated feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) isolated from siberian tigers and to evaluate its immunological effect.200919637573
[land use pattern and its dynamic changes in amur tiger distribution region].land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica). based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the l ...200919637615
cloning of profilin (fcpfn) from the shrimp fenneropenaeus chinensis, a highly expressed protein in white spot syndrome virus (wssv)-infected shrimp.we isolated and characterized the profilin (fcpfn) cdna from hemocytes of fenneropenaeus chinensis, a unique shrimp species from the yellow sea. the fcpfn cdna consists of 830 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, having a predicted isoelectric point of 5.06. the deduced amino acid sequence of fcpfn shows 36% and 90% amino acid sequence identity to the profilin genes of pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, respectively. the fcpfn mrna was h ...200919638679
expression of immune-related genes in the digestive organ of shrimp, penaeus monodon, after an oral infection by vibrio all previous studies, to study shrimp immune response, bacteria were directly injected into the shrimp body and as a consequence the initial step of a natural interaction was omitted. in this study we have instead used an immersion technique, which is a more natural way of establishing an infection, to study immune responses in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). normally, vibrio harveyi (vh) is highly pathogenic to post-larval shrimp, but not to juveniles which usually resist an infection. ...201019646472
why the indian subcontinent holds the key to global tiger recovery.with only approximately 3,000 wild individuals surviving restricted to just 7% of their historical range, tigers are now a globally threatened species. therefore, conservation efforts must prioritize regions that harbor more tigers, as well try to capture most of the remaining genetic variation and habitat diversity. only such prioritization based on demographic, genetic, and ecological considerations can ensure species recovery and retention of evolutionary flexibility in the face of ongoing gl ...200919680439
molecular characterization of the invasive asian tiger mosquito, aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in corsica.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus, vector of various human viruses and parasites, has recently spread and established in many temperate regions including european countries. in the present study, we developed a simple pcr-based assay (the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer its2 within nuclear ribosomal rdna) for molecular identification of a. albopictus and confirmed its presence in corsica island. this assay may (i) facilitate future large scale studies and avoid misidenti ...200919682964
tiger bite: an unapprehended injury.this short communication describes the various modes of presentation, complications and management of tiger bite. all patients presenting to the emergency department with a history of tiger bite were included in the study. a total of 6 patients were admitted at the department of surgery, khulna medical college hospital, bangladesh, from 2003 to 2006. injury involved different parts of the body; predominantly, the upper part. all patients needed emergency surgery including wound toileting, debrid ...200919728951
chikungunya fever--re-emergence of an old disease.several large outbreaks of chikungunya infections in the past decade have stimulated renewed interest in the chikungunya virus. this special issue describes recent outbreaks of chikungunya and discusses possible reasons for the re-emergence of this arbovirus; reviews the ecology and geographic expansion of its vector, the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus; summarizes our current knowledge of the immune response to infection; and presents our understanding of pathogenesis based on research i ...200919737627
tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) penaeidin possesses cytokine features to promote integrin-mediated granulocyte and semi-granulocyte adhesion.recent studies indicated that antimicrobial peptides (amps) play multiple roles in both innate and adaptive immune functions. the penaeidin of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon shows an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. to study immunomodulation functions of the penaeidin, we transfected shrimp hemocytes in primary culture with penaeidin-specific small interfering rna (sirna-3) and observed a concomitant 20% reduction in adhesive hemocytes compared with mock ...201019748589
mercury accumulation in fish species from the persian gulf and in human hair from and methylmercury concentrations were assessed in muscle and liver of 141 fish samples from the northern part of the persian gulf. all fish samples belonged to five different species: grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker, and silver pomfret. in addition, hg and methylmercury were analyzed in scalp hair of 19 fishermen living in the same coastal stations of the persian gulf and consuming several fish meals a week. total mercury concentrations in fish muscle and liver ranged ...201019760084
molecular cloning and mrna expression of peroxiredoxin gene in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the peroxiredoxin (prx) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the full length cdna of black tiger shrimp prx (pmprx) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 51 bp, an orf (open reading frame) of 582 bp encoding a polypeptide of 193 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.15 kda and a 3' utr of 948 bp. sequence comparison showed that pmprx shared higher identities with prx ivs than that with other isof ...201019760093
myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (panthera tigris) and cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (felis catus). as previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the mhc isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing ...201019768738
changes in aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) populations in new jersey and implications for arbovirus transmission.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) was first detected in new jersey in 1995 during mosquito surveillance operations in monmouth county. we tracked statewide changes in populations of the asian tiger mosquito and its association with west nile virus from 2003 to 2007. ae. albopictus population abundance has increased in new jersey since 2003, primarily along the urban corridor between new york city and philadelphia, and they are now expanding their range further into suburban and r ...200919769057
cdna cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by vibrio alginolyticus.complementary (c)dna encoding transglutaminase (tg) messenger (m)rna of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) using oligonucleotide primers based on the tg sequence of the horseshoe crab, tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: baa02134); tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon (aal78166); and pacifastacus leniusculus (af336805). the 2638-bp cdna contained an open reading frame ...200919782141
[adult-onset case of idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation without mutations in the pank2 and pla2g6 genes].a 47-year-old man with a 15-year history of bipolar disorder treated with anti-depressants, lithium carbonate or neuroleptics was admitted because of marked difficulty in gait and speech. at the age 45, he was unable to walk without bilateral assists and became a wheel-chair state. there was no family history and his mother, father and younger sister were neurologically free. general physical examinations revealed no abnormalities. neurologically, he was moderately demented (mini mental state ex ...200919827596
evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, malayan tigers, jaguars, and amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). all cats were ...201019830746
[news on the presence of the tiger mosquito aedes albopictus in metropolitan france].aedes albopictus (tiger mosquito) lives mostly in urban areas. the females lay their eggs in containers close to the stagnant water. aedes albopictus is spreading worldwide, helped by international transports of tires. in metropolitan france, it has settled down in the french riviera since 2004, in corsica since 2006. it is also present in other mediterranean countries like italy and spain. since italian outbreak in summer 2007, the risk to acquire an autochthonous chikungunya or dengue diseases ...200919836679
a novel prolactin-like protein (prl-l) gene in chickens and zebrafish: cloning and characterization of its tissue this study, a full-length cdna encoding a prolactin-like protein (prl-l) was cloned from chicken brain tissues using rt-pcr. this putative prl-l precursor has 225 amino acids in length and shares 30-35% amino acid sequence identity with prolactin (prl) of chicken, zebrafish, xenopus, rat and human. using rt-pcr, the mrna expression of prl-l in chicken tissues was further examined. unlike the predominant expression of prl in pituitary, prl-l was found to be widely expressed in adult chicken ex ...201019854191
a long form of shrimp astakine transcript: molecular cloning, characterization and functional elucidation in promoting hematopoiesis.hemocytes play important roles in crustacean immune responses. generation of new hemocytes (hematopoiesis) is thus necessary to maintain homeostasis which is vital to crustaceans. in vertebrates, certain cytokines have been demonstrated to regulate hematopoiesis and immune responses. in invertebrates, however, little is known about cytokines related to hematopoiesis. in the present study, we cloned an astakine molecule from hemocytic cdna of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) which was 1509 bp in le ...201019854277
molecular cloning and expression analysis of ovary-specific transcript 1 (pm-osti) of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.isolation and characterization of genes specifically expressed in ovaries are necessary for understanding sex differentiation and ovarian development processes in the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. in this study, a transcript that significantly matched the polehole precursor was further characterized by race-pcr. the sequence obtained was 5151 bp in length and contained a coding region of 5031 bp corresponding to 1677 amino acids. this transcript was only expressed in ovaries but not in te ...200919877839
evolutionary cross-domain discriminative hessian it possible to train a learning model to separate tigers from elks when we have 1) labeled samples of leopard and zebra and 2) unlabelled samples of tiger and elk at hand? cross-domain learning algorithms can be used to solve the above problem. however, existing cross-domain algorithms cannot be applied for dimension reduction, which plays a key role in computer vision tasks, e.g., face recognition and web image annotation. this paper envisions the cross-domain discriminative dimension reduct ...201019887315
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of lymphocystis disease virus.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (lcdv). a set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of lcdv. the reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees c, respectively. lamp amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a ...201019891986
fine structure of a septate gregarine trophozoite in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.gregarines are parasitic protozoa that occasionally parasitize the gut lumen of penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. here we describe the morphology of gregarine trophozoites found in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon using light microscopy (lm) and scanning (sem) and transmission (tem) electron microscopy. using lm with fresh preparations and with paraffin sectioning followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, several trophozoites were discovered in the foregut and midgut, and gametocysts wer ...200919899350
dogs, cats, and kin: a molecular species-level phylogeny of carnivora.phylogenies underpin comparative biology as high-utility tools to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, inform on conservation strategies, and reveal the age and evolutionary histories of traits and lineages. as tools, most powerful are those phylogenies that contain all, or nearly all, of the taxa of a given group. despite their obvious utility, such phylogenies, other than summary 'supertrees', are currently lacking for most mammalian orders, including the order carnivora. carnivora ...201019900567
cryopreservation of feline epididymal spermatozoa from dead and alive animals and its use in assisted reproduction.cryopreservation of gametes is an important tool in assisted reproduction programmes; long-term storage of oocytes or spermatozoa is necessary when in vitro fertilization (ivf) or artificial insemination is to be performed at a future date. cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa offers a potential tool for rescuing genetic material from males of endangered populations. the objectives of this work were to: (1) examine sperm motility, viability, abnormality and acrosome integrity of frozen-tha ...201019939333
maintenance and growth requirements for nitrogen, lysine and methionine and their utilisation efficiencies in juvenile black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, using a factorial approach.we used a factorial approach to distinguish maintenance from growth requirements for protein, lysine and methionine in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. juvenile p. monodon (initial weight 2.4 g) were fed during 6 weeks one of ten semi-purified diets based on casein and purified amino acids (aa) as n source. the diets contained four levels of crude protein (cp, from 5 to 54 % dm diet) with two levels (% cp) of lysine or methionine (normal or 30 % deficient). requirements were determined u ...201019944000
monodon baculovirus (mbv) infects the freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii cultivated in thailand.field specimens of post-larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (macrobrachium rosenbergii) from thailand showed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells that contained central, eosinophilic inclusions within enlarged nuclei and marginated chromatin. these inclusions resembled those produced by some baculoviruses prior to formation of occlusion bodies that enclose virions in a polyhedrin protein matrix. by electron microscopy, the intranuclear inclusions contained bacilliform, enveloped virions (ap ...201019963025
studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from durio zibethinus in penaeus monodon shrimp against vibrio harveyi and wssv.oral administration of polysaccharide gel (pg) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). pg from the fruit-rind of durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. pg inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. clear inhibition zones on agar plates were observed at the lowes ...201020034573
retraction. changes in integument histology and protein expression related to the molting cycle of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. 201020050157
construction of integrated genetic linkage maps of the tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) using microsatellite and aflp markers.the linkage maps of male and female tiger shrimp (p. monodon) were constructed based on 256 microsatellite and 85 amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers. microsatellite markers obtained from clone sequences of partial genomic libraries, tandem repeat sequences from databases and previous publications and fosmid end sequences were employed. of 670 microsatellite and 158 aflp markers tested for polymorphism, 341 (256 microsatellite and 85 aflp markers) were used for genotyping with ...201020064148
[preparation and identification of the syntenin1 polyclonal antibody, a cancer metastasis related gene].to express the gst fusion protein, gst-syntenin1 in e. coli, and to prepare the polyclonal antibody of syntenin1.200920067133
effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.the dry forests of southern india, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. i studied the impacts of the exotic plant lantana camar ...201020067493
identification of genes expressed in response to yellow head virus infection in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, by suppression subtractive hybridization.suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) was employed to identify yellow head virus (yhv)-responsive genes from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. two ssh cdna libraries were constructed to identify viral responsive genes in the early (24i) and late (48/72i) phases of yhv infection. from 240 randomly selected clones from each library, 155 and 30 non-redundant transcripts were obtained for the early and late libraries, respectively. from these clones, 72 and 16, respecti ...201020067803
when the zebra loses its stripes: semantic priming in early alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.patients suffering from alzheimer's disease (ad) or semantic dementia (sd) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory. semantic priming (sp) paradigms provide a very pure and precise implicit measurement of semantic memory impairment, and a previous study of ad (giffard et al., 2002) using one such paradigm revealed that ad patients in the initial stages of semantic deterioration presented an abnormally large priming effect (hyperpriming) in a category-coordinate condition, compa ...201120089250
necrotizing pneumonia and pleuritis associated with extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli in a tiger (panthera tigris) cub.extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli (expec) cause diseases in humans and animals, affecting organs outside the alimentary canal. in recent years, expec have been reported as a cause of fatal pneumonia in dogs, cats, and in a horse. in the current report, a fatal case of pneumonia and pleuritis is described in a 4-week-old tiger (panthera tigris) cub associated with expec. the cub was presented with a sudden-onset respiratory illness and died after a few hours. postmortem examination of t ...201020093704
supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, panthera (carnivora: felidae).the pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. a significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed panthera with the same topology. these ...201020138224
mortality rates differ among amphibian populations exposed to three strains of a lethal ranavirus.infectious diseases are a growing threat to biodiversity, in many cases because of synergistic effects with habitat loss, environmental contamination, and climate change. emergence of pathogens as new threats to host populations can also arise when novel combinations of hosts and pathogens are unintentionally brought together, for example, via commercial trade or wildlife relocations and reintroductions. chytrid fungus (batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and amphibian ranaviruses (family iridovirid ...201020143127
management of blood system in disasters.managing the blood system in disasters is one of the main challenges for any blood transfusion service exposed to natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and tsunamis, biological threats such as pandemic influenza as well as manmade disruptions and terrorism. sri lanka had to face contrasting types of situations. the most unexpected and dreadful one was the 2004 december 26 tsunami catastrophe which cost >30,000 human lives, leaving more than 23,000 injured. health services were over-burdene ...201020149686
impact of yellow head virus outbreaks in the whiteleg shrimp, penaeus vannamei (boone), in thailand.yellow head virus (yhv) is known as a major pathogen in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus (penaeus) monodon. it can also cause serious mortality in farmed whiteleg shrimp, penaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei. however, there is no published information on the economic and/or production impact of the disease in p. vannamei. shrimp with gross signs of yhv disease (faded body colour and 60-70% mortality) were observed in 20 study farms rearing p. vannamei in the central part of thailand from the end of 200 ...201020158577
[clinical manifestations and detection of pantothenate kinase 2 gene mutation in a patient with hallervorden-spatz syndrome].to investigate the clinical features and detection of pantothenate kinase 2 (pank2) gene mutation in a chinese patient with hallervorden-spatz syndrome (hss).200920193558
chitinases from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon: phylogenetics, expression and activities.chitinases are essential enzymes for crustaceans and animal alike for their molting and digestion of foods containing chitin. from the penaeus monodon est database, cdna contigs and singletons for three chitinases, namely pmchi1, 2 and 3, were identified. the complete sequences for the mature pmchi1, 3 and partial pmchi2 were amplified and cloned. the reading frames of pmchi1 and 3 encoded mature proteins of 644 and 468 amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 72.4 and 51.9kda, respective ...201020197105
development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum.the detection and measurement of snake venom in blood is important for confirming snake identification, determining when sufficient antivenom has been given, detecting recurrence of envenoming, and in forensic investigation. venom enzyme immunoassays (eia) have had persistent problems with poor sensitivity and high background absorbance leading to false positive results. this is particularly problematic with australasian snakes where small amounts of highly potent venom are injected, resulting i ...201020223258
recombinant ferritin protein protects penaeus monodon infected by pathogenic vibrio harveyi.hemocytes of shrimp perform an essential role in defense against microbial pathogens, involving both cellular and humoral factors. the gene coding for ferritin in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon was cloned, sequenced and expressed using pqe-30-ua vector and sg13009 escherichia coli host cells. the deduced amino acid sequence of p. monodon ferritin showed 32 to 95% similarity with ferritin proteins of other organisms. the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinit ...201020225671
endogenous thrombin potential as a novel method for the characterization of procoagulant snake venoms and the efficacy of antivenom.venom-induced consumption coagulopathy occurs in snake envenoming worldwide but the interaction between procoagulant snake venoms and human coagulation remains poorly understood. we aimed to evaluate an assay using endogenous thrombin potential (etp) to investigate the procoagulant properties of a range of australian whole venoms in human plasma and compared this to traditional clotting and prothrombinase activity studies. we developed a novel modification of etp using procoagulant snake venoms ...201020338189
use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the bangladesh sundarbans.human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. the resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. we tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the bangladesh sundarbans. we identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, ...201020345402
inbreeding depression affects life-history traits but not infection by plasmodium gallinaceum in the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus.emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases represent an increasingly significant public health challenge. while geographic variation among populations of vector species for susceptibility to pathogen infection and vector competence has been thoroughly documented, relatively little attention has been devoted to understanding the ultimate evolutionary causes of this intraspecific variation. local genetic drift is known to influence genetic differentiation among populations for a variety of con ...201020359551
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