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allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order decapoda. in this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and ...200717691004
molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis on alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the full-length sequence of alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) was cloned from the hemocytes of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), cloning and sequencing of overlapping pcr, and the rapid amplification of cdna ends method. the alpha2-m cdna consists of 4682bp with an open reading frame of 4479bp, a 52-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 132-bp 3'-untranslated region. the predicted molecular mass of the mature protein (1475 amino acids) is 167 ...200817706773
short communication: first record of aedes albopictus in gabon, central africa.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector. originating in east asia, the species has been introduced to the americas, the indo-pacific and australasian regions as well as europe and africa, mostly during the past 30 years and probably by transportation in used tires. we report ae. albopictus for the first time from gabon (libreville). in addition, the yellow fever mosquito ae. aegypti ssp. formosus and 16 other culicid species were detected throughout the city, f ...200717714432
environmental effects on the behavior of zoo-housed lions and tigers, with a case study of the effects of a visual barrier on pacing.tigers and lions in the wild are nocturnal nonhuman animals who may hunt and mate opportunistically during daylight hours. in captivity, they spend most time on exhibit sleeping or pacing. to better understand their activity budget, this study examined the daily behavior patterns of 2 sumatran tigers and 3 african lions in different housings. the proportion of scans the large felids spent engaged in stereotypic pacing varied by time of day and environment. the tigers spent different amounts of t ...200717559318
cloning, expression and antimicrobial activity of crustinpm1, a major isoform of crustin, from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.crustin antibacterial homologues, containing a whey acidic protein (wap) domain, have been identified from the haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. sequence analysis of these cdnas indicates the presence of several isoforms of crustin in p. monodon. crustinpm1, the most abundant isoform, contains an open reading frame of 435bp encoding a precursor of 145 amino acids that comprises 17 amino acid signal peptides and 128 amino acid mature peptides. the peptides contain a gl ...200817573111
phylogenetic concordance analysis shows an emerging pathogen is novel and endemic.distinguishing whether pathogens are novel or endemic is critical for controlling emerging infectious diseases, an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. to test the endemic vs. novel pathogen hypothesis, we present a unique analysis of intraspecific host-pathogen phylogenetic concordance of tiger salamanders and an emerging ranavirus throughout western north america. there is significant non-concordance of host and virus gene trees, suggesting pathogen novelty. however, non-concordance ...200717850337
molecular cloning, genomic organization and recombinant expression of a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a novel crustin-like antimicrobial peptide (crus-likepm) was identified from haemocytes of penaeus monodon. the deduced amino acid sequence of a crus-likepm consists of 124 amino acid residues of the mature peptide and a signal peptide of 17 amino acid residues. the mature peptide contains a glycine-rich domain at the n-terminus and 12 conserved cysteine residues containing a single wap domain at the c-terminus. phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed a distinct between a cru ...200817850873
patterns of species discovery in the western ghats, a megadiversity hot spot in india.even since linnaeus,naturalists and taxonomists have been systematically describing species new to science. besides indicating gaps in taxonomic effort, understanding the temporal patterns of species discovery could help in identifying drivers that determine discovery. in this study we report the patterns of discovery of eight taxa--birds, butterflies, frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids--in the western ghats, a megadiversity centre in india. our results indicate that the di ...200717762152
molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (ef-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (ef-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the full length cdna of black tiger shrimp ef-2 (btsef-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 73 bp, an orf of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kda, and a 3( utr of 112 bp. the searches for protein sequence similarities with blast analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence ...200817629788
the presence and distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-liked factor in the central nervous system of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.the distribution and presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) in the central nervous system (cns) of penaeus monodon were examined by immunocytochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (hplc), and radioimmunoassay (ria). we demonstrated the existence of octopus (oct)gnrh-liked immunoreactivity (ir-octgnrh) and lamprey (l)gnrh-iii-liked immunoreactivity (ir-lgnrh-iii) in cell bodies of medium-sized neurons of the anterior part (protocerebrum) of the supraesophageal ganglion (bra ...200817905251
coprology of panthera tigris altaica and felis bengalensis euptilurus from the russian far east.fecal samples from the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and the amur cat (felis bengalensis euptilurus) from far eastern russia, were examined for parasites. a natural sedimentation methodology was used and a complete examination of all the sediment was performed. this fecal investigation allowed us to isolate and identify several developmental stages of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and respiratory parasites. five parasites were found from p. t. altaica: 11 trematodes (platynosomum fastosu ...200717918383
characterization of cauxin in the urine of domestic and big cats.cauxin is an abundant protein in feline urine. we have used proteomics strategies to characterize cauxin from the urine of domestic cats and a number of big cat species. proteins were resolved by gel-based electrophoretic purification and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin. the resultant tryptic peptides were mass-measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. peptides were also resolved by liquid chromatography and analyzed by electrospray ioni ...200717924168
sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in sri lanka and the philippines.this article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in sri lanka and the philippines. the aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (penneaus monodon) and milkfish (chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (scylla serrata). factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to i ...200717929084
cloning and expression analysis of heat shock cognate 70 gene promoter in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) functions as a molecular chaperon and plays an important role in protein folding. hsc70 cdna of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) was cloned and characterized in our previous study. after shrimps were treated with the 1-hr heat shock, the hsc70 mrna level in hemocytes increased (approximately 8 fold) using real-time quantitative pcr. an hsc70 clone was obtained from genomic library screening. the gene contains 2 exons separated by a 1557-bp intron. the 5'-flanking regi ...200717931801
detection of laem-singh virus (lsnv) in cultured penaeus monodon from india.viral diseases have become a major constraint on the growth of shrimp aquaculture in india. during a study of new diseases in cultured tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, diseased samples randomly collected from the southwestern and southeastern coasts of india were analyzed for white spot syndrome virus (wssv), monodon baculovirus (mbv), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (hpv) by nested pcr, and for laem-singh virus (lsnv) by reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr). of the 56 samples analyzed, 3 were positi ...200717933400
molecular cloning and expression analysis of a heat shock protein (hsp90) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the hsp90 gene from black tiger shrimp. the full length cdna of black tiger shrimp hsp90 (btshsp90) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 72 bp, an orf (open reading frame) of 2160 bp encoding a polypeptide of 720 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 83-kda and a 3' utr of 288 bp. the sequence of the coding region showed 90 and 84% homology with that of the chiromantes haematocheir and homo sapiens, respectiv ...200917934796
development of a cryopreservation protocol for long-term storage of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) spermatophores.the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of cryoprotectants on sperm viability and develop a freezing protocol for long-term storage of p. monodon spermatophores. spermatophores suspended for 30 min in calcium-free saline (ca-f saline) containing the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso), ethylene glycol (eg), 1,2-propylene glycol (pg), formamide, and methanol at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, or 20% were studied using a modified eosin-nigrosin staining technique. the smallest ...200717900683
habitat fragmentation as a result of biotic and abiotic factors controls pathogen transmission throughout a host population.1. the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation (biotic or abiotic) alters the transmission of disease within a population is explored using field data from a well-studied amphibian-pathogen system. 2. we used the ambystoma tigrinum-a. tigrinum virus (atv) model system to show how habitat fragmentation as a result of emergent vegetation and habitat management affects disease transmission dynamics in ponds across a landscape. 3. we quantified variation in atv infection over time and across the lands ...200818005032
chikungunya: a risk for mediterranean countries?the italian outbreak of the 2007 summer and the active spreading of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus in southern europe, raise the possibility of local transmission of chikungunya (chik) in mediterranean countries. established in at least 12 countries in southern europe since the end of the 1970s and in southern france since 2004, ae. albopictus, is invading the french mediterranean coast from east to west. to determine the possibility of an outbreak of chik in southern france, we provi ...200818005927
aeromonas hydrophila wound infection following a tiger bite in nepal.aeromonas hydrophila is a rare human pathogen. reports of zoonotic infection developing after large feline bites are even rarer. we are documenting the first case of human wound infection with a. hydrophila following a tiger bite. the patient responded well following wound debridement, secondary suturing and combination antibiotic therapy.200718041304
prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) in wild shrimp penaeus monodon in the philippines.prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) was determined using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methodology on dna extracted from the gills of wild black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon collected from 7 sampling sites in the philippines. these 7 sampling sites are the primary sources of spawners and broodstock for hatchery use. during the dry season, wssv was detected in shrimp from all sites except bohol, but during the wet season it was not detected in any site except palawan. none of the wss ...200718062468
anti-lipopolysaccharide factors from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, are encoded by two genomic loci.different isoforms of the alf homologues (alfpm1-5) have been previously identified from penaeus monodon expressed sequence tag (est) database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th). the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the p. monodon alf homologues were analyzed and categorized into two groups, alfpm1 and 2 in group a and alfpm3-5 in group b. the genomic sequences of the two alf gene groups were obtained by using the pcr and genome walking techniques. the alf group a gene consisted of three exons ...200818083045
down-regulation of defender against apoptotic death (dad1) after yellow head virus (yhv) challenge in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.here we describe the highly conserved gene, defender against apoptotic death (dad1) identified from an est library of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. the full-length cdna of dad1 of p. monodon comprised 638bp with an orf of 345bp corresponding to 114 deduced amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence was compared to known dad1 sequences in the genbank and in other databases. phylogenetic analysis revealed that p. monodon dad1 clustered with dad1 from other invertebrates. real-time rt-p ...200818083552
pyelonephritis associated with staphylococcus intermedius in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).pyelonephritis, in which staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, was diagnosed in a 4-year-old female siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). at necropsy, the renal pelvis was dilated with a large amount of purulent exudates. microscopically, the lesions of renal pelvis and medulla consisted of necrotic foci intermingled primarily with numerous degenerative neutrophils and a few lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. bacteriology showed the presence of s. intermedius. this is the first re ...200717827895
retinal bipolar cells: temporal filtering of signals from cone photoreceptors.the temporal dynamics of the response of neurons in the outer retina were investigated by intracellular recording from cones, bipolar, and horizontal cells in the intact, light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum), with special emphasis on comparing the two major classes of bipolars cells, the on depolarizing bipolars (bd) and the off hyperpolarizing bipolars (bh). transfer functions were computed from impulse responses evoked by a brief light flash on a steady background ...200718093365
[vibrio vulnificus pollution of imported frozen black tiger shrimps in japan].the ariake sea area of japan is endemic for vibrio vulnificus infection. v vulnificus was isolated from slime from tidal flats, seawater, and fish sea year-round as we reported previously. to identify new routes and factors of v vulnificus infection, we studied v. vulnificus pollution of imported frozen black tiger shrimps purchased from a fish market in kurume, fukuoka, japan. v. vulnificus was isolated from 9 of 100 tails (9%) of philippines products, 3 of 100 tails (3%) of indonesia products, ...200718095471
foxk1 splice variants show developmental stage-specific plasticity of expression with temperature in the tiger pufferfish.foxk1 is a member of the highly conserved forkhead/winged helix (fox) family of transcription factors and it is known to play a key role in mammalian muscle development and myogenic stem cell function. the tiger pufferfish (takifugu rubripes) orthologue of mammalian foxk1 (tfoxk1) has seven exons and is located in a region of conserved synteny between pufferfish and mouse. tfoxk1 is expressed as three alternative transcripts: tfoxk1-alpha, tfoxk1-gamma and tfoxk1-delta. tfoxk1-alpha is the ortho ...200717873000
transmission dynamics of the amphibian ranavirus ambystoma tigrinum virus.transmission is central to pathogen fitness and strongly influences the impact of pathogens on host populations. particularly important to transmission dynamics is the distinction between direct transmission requiring close physical contact (e.g. bumping, fighting, or coughing) and indirect transmission from environmental sources such as contaminated substrates. we present data from 4 experiments addressing the form, routes, and timing of transmission of ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv) among tige ...200717972749
identification of cdna encoding toll receptor, mjtoll gene from kuruma shrimp, marsupenaeus japonicus.toll receptors are cell-surface receptors acting as pattern recognition receptors (prrs) that are involved in the signaling pathway for innate immunity activation and are genetically conserved from insects to mammals. tolls from penaeid shrimp are found in white leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (ltoll) and black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (pmtoll). however, the molecular ligand-recognition patterns and identification of these penaeid toll classes remain unknown. here, we report cdna cloning of ...200818191582
preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.the objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. in the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra hyphessobrycon eques (also known as serpa tetra h. serpae), tiger barb puntius tetrazona, blue gourami trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail xiphophorus hellerii) ...200718201053
characterization of argonaute cdna from penaeus monodon and implication of its role in rna interference.rna interference (rnai) has recently become a promising strategy for therapeutic of several viral diseases including those in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. however, the protein components that play role in rnai in p. monodon have not yet been identified. here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a cdna encoding argonaute, a principal constituent of rnai pathway in p. monodon. p. monodon's argonaute (pem-ago) exhibited the two signature domains, paz and piwi. substa ...200818201549
sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein: identification as a new allergen of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as crustacean allergens. during purification of arginine kinase from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, we found a new allergen of 20-kda.200818204275
pentobarbital poisoning in sumatran tigers (panthera tigris sumatrae).three sumatran tigers (panthera tigris sumatrae) at the heidelberg zoo in germany presented with severe neurologic signs. physical examination and diagnostic tests did not reveal a definitive diagnosis. two days after initial presenting signs, all of the animals appeared clinically normal. an investigation into this outbreak revealed that all animals received horse meat on the evening before the incident. a toxicologic examination was initiated and serum analysis of the affected female tiger cub ...200718229865
shark attacks in dakar and the cap vert peninsula, senegal: low incidence despite high occurrence of potentially dangerous species.the international shark attack file mentions only four unprovoked shark attacks on the coast of west africa during the period 1828-2004, an area where high concentrations of sharks and 17 species potentially dangerous to man have been observed. to investigate if the frequency of shark attacks could be really low and not just under-reported and whether there are potentially sharks that might attack in the area, a study was carried out in dakar and the cap vert peninsula, senegal.200818231582
chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come?since 2004, several million indigenous cases of chikungunya virus disease occurred in africa, the indian ocean, india, asia and, recently, europe. the virus, usually transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has now repeatedly been associated with a new vector, ae. albopictus. analysis of full-length viral sequences reveals three independent events of virus exposure to ae. albopictus, each followed by the acquisition of a single adaptive mutation providing selective advantage for transmission by ...200818304328
salamander blue-sensitive cones lost during metamorphosis.the tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. in the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors--two types of rods and three types of cones. our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sens ...200818331398
prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, as well as arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in belfast zoological gardens, during july-september 2006. thermophilic campylobacters including campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (1 ...200818331520
do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. we studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout (salmo trutta) in a pyrenees mountain stream (sw france). we found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localiza ...200818338149
three cases of gastric prolapse through the gill slit in sand tiger sharks, carcharhinus taurus (rafinesque). 200818353023
[study on the histopathology of cats inoculated with h5n1 subtype high pathogenic avian influenza virus originated from tigers].in this study, the hpaiv a/tiger/harbin/01/2002 (h5n1) used was originated from tigers and propagated in spf embryonated hen eggs. tcid5, of the virus was 10(-7.36)/0. 05ml on mdck cell. the cats were inoculated through bronchus route and then, the cats of dead and control were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination. meanwhile, the emulsion supernatant fluid of organs and the pharyngeal swab samples of the dead cats were collected for rt-pcr, survived cats and the c ...200718092686
regional variations in trace element concentrations in tissues of black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (decapoda: penaeidae) from south vietnam.the goal of the present study was to examine the specific bioaccumulation of 22 trace elements in muscle, exoskeleton and hepatopancreas of black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon from the mekong river delta (mrd), and the south key economic zone (skez), south vietnam. the general tendency in most trace element concentrations among different tissues were hepatopancreas>exoskeleton>muscle. comparisons of trace element levels in tissues between the two regions showed that concentrations of se in muscle ...200818395229
reappearance of aedes albopictus in sardinia.aedes (stegomyia) albopictus is a vector of major human diseases. from 1979 established populations were found in the mediterranean region. the first record of ae. albopictus in italy goes back to 1990 and at present it is permanently established in several provinces of central and northern italy. ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in sardinia in 1995, and a new record was reported in 1997. after these two isolated episodes, the "tiger-mosquito" was considered apparently eradicated. ...200718412047
aedes albopictus in sardinia: reappearance or widespread colonization?the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse, 1894) was first discovered in the south of sardinia in october 1994, in a tyre depot not far from cagliari-elmas airport. insecticide treatment was thought to have successfully eradicated the mosquito, but in 1996 and 1997 new breeding sites were discovered, a few at some distance from the first. more recently two sites have been reported in the heart of the city of cagliari. it is not known whether the mosquito has spread from the first breeding ...200718416003
induction of the acrosome reaction in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) requires sperm trypsin-like enzyme activity.trypsin-like enzymes in egg water (ew), a natural acrosome reaction (ar) inducer, are known for their importance in shrimp ar. in this report, we describe a unique phenomenon of the ar of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) sperm. it was completed within 45-60 sec and comprised only the acrosomal exocytosis and depolymerization of the sperm head anterior spike. we used peptidyl fluorogenic substrates to show the presence of trypsin-like enzymes in p. monodon ew and sperm, but minimal activities ...200818417715
pericardial mesothelioma in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 17-year-old bengal tiger (panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. during attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. at necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. this is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.200818432108
chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male bengal tiger, panthera tigris.the territorial marking fluid of the male bengal tiger, panthera tigris, consists of a mixture of urine and a small quantity of lipid material that may act as a controlled-release carrier for the volatile constituents of the fluid. using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 98 volatile compounds and elemental sulfur were identified in the marking fluid. another 16 volatiles were tentatively identified. the majority of these compounds were alkanols, alkanals, 2-alkanones, ...200818437496
t2* and fse mri distinguishes four subtypes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (nbia) defines a group of genetic disorders characterized by brain iron deposition and associated with neuronal death. the known causes of nbia include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (pkan), neuroferritinopathy, infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (inad), and aceruloplasminemia.200818443312
geographically variable selection in ambystoma tigrinum virus (iridoviridae) throughout the western usa.we investigated spatially variable selection in ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv) which causes frequent and geographically widespread epizootics of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum. to test for evidence of selection, we sequenced several coding and noncoding regions from virus strains isolated from epizootics throughout western north america. three of the sequenced regions contained homologues for genes putatively involved in host immune evasion and virulence: eif-2alpha, caspase activation ...200818444995
asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) - a threat for switzerland? 200818445441
the cycle for a siphoviridae-like phage (vhs1) of vibrio harveyi is dependent on the physiological state of the host.in a previous report, we isolated vibrio harveyi (vh) 1114 together with its bacteriophage, vhs1, from a black tiger shrimp-rearing pond. the vhs1 has its lysogenic relationship to the vh1114 host as either true lysogen (tl) or pseudolysogen (pl). the characters of tl are based on the extrachromosomal existence of the vhs1 phage genome in the vh host which also simultaneously produces the vhs1 phage particles and is resistant to super-infection. the original vh1114 host exhibits a clear plaque a ...200818448184
do crocodilians get the flu? looking for influenza a in captive crocodilians.it is well established that several wild aquatic bird species serve as reservoirs for the influenza a virus. it has also been shown that the influenza a virus can be transmitted to mammalian species such as tigers and domestic cats and dogs through ingestion of infected birds. another group of animals that should also be considered as potential hosts for the influenza a virus are the crocodilians. many crocodilian species share aquatic environments with wild birds that are known to harbor influe ...200818381628
a key gene of the rna interference pathway in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon: identification and functional characterisation of dicer-1.rna interference (rnai) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which double-stranded rna (dsrna) initiates post-transcriptional silencing of homologous genes. here we report the amplification and characterisation of a full length cdna from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) that encodes the bidentate rnaase iii dicer, a key component of the rnai pathway. the full length of the shrimp dicer (pm dcr1) cdna is 7629bp in length, including a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 130bp, a 3' utr of 7 ...200818166489
up-regulation of ribophorin i after yellow head virus (yhv) challenge in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.this work constitutes the second report from a continuing investigation of shrimp genes that may be involved in apoptosis associated death resulting from yellow head virus (yhv) infection. here, we describe from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, a ribophorin i-like gene that is probably a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex (ost), a key enzyme in n-linked glycosylation that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. the ost complex also contains dad1 (defender against apoptotic deat ...200818468923
molecular cloning and mrna expression of cathepsin c gene in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).cathepsin c (dipeptidyl-peptidase i, dppi) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase belonging to the papain superfamily, which is capable of removing dipeptides sequentially from the amino terminus of peptide and protein substrates. in the present study, the cdna of a cathepsin c was cloned from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (designated pmcathepsinc) by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) approaches. the full-length cdna of pmcathepsinc consisted of 2051 nucleotides with ...200818468929
immunogenicity of novel consensus-based dna vaccines against chikungunya virus.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an emerging arbovirus and is an important human pathogen. infection of humans by chikv can cause a syndrome characterized by fever, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, arthralgia and occasionally neurological manifestations such as acute limb weakness. it is also associated with a fatal haemorrhagic condition. chikv is geographically distributed from africa through southeast asia and south america, and its transmission to humans is mainly through the aedes aeg ...200818471943
resurrection of dna function in vivo from an extinct genome.there is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient dna that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. to assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct dna function. we isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the tasmanian tiger (thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 yea ...200818493600
evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (wssv) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (wssv) on shrimp farms at kundapur and kumta situated in udupi and uttar kannada districts, respectively, of karnataka on the west coast of india. of 12 grow-out farms in kundapur, 6 (f1 to f6) yielded shrimp samples that were negative for wssv by both immunodot test and 1-step pcr from stocking to successful harvest. samples from the other 6 farms (f7 to f12) ...200818500033
identification of two novel membrane proteins from the tiger frog virus (tfv).the tiger frog virus (tfv) belongs to the genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, and its genome was completely sequenced in 2002. in order to better understand the viral structure and functional genes involved in infection and virus-host interactions, two candidate genes, orf001l and orf020r, were selected for our study. orf001l and orf020r were analyzed by genomic comparison and by using the tmhmm software. both genes were conserved in the genus ranavirus, may encode putative membrane prot ...200818538433
preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics.human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. we examined whether this preference is human-specific. three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (experiments 1 and 3). the preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not arise from low-level image differences (experiments 2 and 3). in addition, the spontaneous preference for attractive tiger faces influenced performance ...200818171370
high-density linkage maps and sex-linked markers for the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).we report on the construction of sex-specific high-density linkage maps and identification of sex-linked markers for the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). overall, we identified 44 male and 43 female linkage groups (2n = 88) from the analysis of 2,306 aflp markers segregating in three full-sib families, covering 2,378 and 2,362 cm, respectively. twenty-one putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex-linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage maps. six sex ...200818558652
localization of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alfpm3) in tissues of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and characterization of its binding properties.anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf) is an antimicrobial peptide originally identified from horseshoe crabs and recently found in several shrimp species. alfpm3, the most abundant isoform in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and filamentous fungi. in this study, a potential role for alfpm3 in the shrimp innate immunity was revealed by examining the distribution of the pro ...200818466970
identification of immune-related genes from kidney and spleen of turbot, psetta maxima (l.), by suppression subtractive hybridization following challenge with vibrio harveyi.suppression subtractive hybridization was used to investigate the response of turbot, psetta maxima (l.), to vibrio harveyi, by using a cdna library constructed from artificially infected turbot kidney and spleen mrna. forty-nine expressed sequence tags were obtained. several immune system genes were identified, including a major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ia gene and a heat shock protein 70 gene. some signalling molecules were also present in the cdna libraries, including src-family ...200818577100
microsatellite and mitochondrial haplotype diversity reveals population differentiation in the tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in the indo-pacific region.the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) is an ecologically and economically important penaeid species and is widely distributed in the indo-pacific region. here we investigated the genetic diversity of p. monodon (n = 355) from eight geographical regions by genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci. the average observed heterozygosity at various loci ranged from 0.638 to 0.743, indicating a high level of genetic variability in this region. significant departures from hardy-weinberg equilibrium cause ...200818454804
complete genome analysis of a highly pathogenic h5n1 influenza a virus isolated from a tiger in china.an influenza a virus (a/tig/sh/01/2005 (h5n1) was isolated from lung tissue samples of a dead zoo tiger with respiratory disease in china in july 2005. complete genome analysis indicated that the isolate was highly identical to an h5n1 virus isolated from a migratory duck at poyang lake in china in that year. the genotype of the isolate was k,g,d,5j,f,1j,f,1e, and phylogenetically it was a clade 2.2 virus. molecular characterization of all of the gene segments revealed characteristics of highly ...200818592132
tiger: a database for tissue-specific gene expression and regulation.understanding how genes are expressed and regulated in different tissues is a fundamental and challenging question. however, most of currently available biological databases do not focus on tissue-specific gene regulation.200818541026
a c-type lectin like-domain (ctld)-containing protein (ptlp) from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.c-type lectins play important roles in the non-self innate immune system of invertebrates. in this study, we isolated the full-length cdna of the c-type lectin like-domain (ctld)-containing protein, designated ptlp, from the hepatopancreas of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus, one of the most common edible crabs of east asia. the ptlp cdna consists of 923 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 164 amino acids containing a well-conserved c-type lectin like-domain (ctld). the deduced amino acid ...200818603446
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
cloning and characterization of the tiger shrimp lysozyme.lysozymes are key proteins to invertebrates in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections. a lysozyme gene isolated from tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. the cdna consists of a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature peptide of 140 amino acids. the lysozyme is presumed to be a chicken-type lysozyme for it possesses two catalytic sites and eight cysteine residues which are highly conserved across species of chicken-type lysozymes. the lys ...200918618291
cyclic amp regulation of tylosin biosynthesis and secondary metabolism in streptomyces fradiae.adenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate seems to regulate antibiotic biosynthesis and secondary metabolism in tylosin-producing cultures of streptomyces fradiae c373.1. a dose-dependent response is observed by exogenous additions of dibutyryl cyclic amp (camp), and is related to the nutritional status of the culture. addition of camp to cultures growing in nutritionally lean media caused higher cumulative antibiotic tigers and some cellular differentiation compared with the control. in nutritionall ...199418618744
strict sun protection results in minimal skin changes in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and a novel c.2009delg mutation in xpd (ercc2).we examined the clinical, molecular and genetic features of a 16-year-old boy (xp2go) with xeroderma pigmentosum (xp) and progressive neurological symptoms. the parents are not consanguineous. increased sun sensitivity led to the diagnosis of xp at 2 years of age and a strict uv protection scheme was implemented. besides recurrent conjunctivitis and bilateral pterygium, only mild freckling was present on his lips. he shows absent deep tendon reflexes, progressive sensorineural deafness and progr ...200918637129
expression of clottable protein of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in gonads and its possible role as nutrient source for the embryo.we have investigated the expression of clottable protein (cp) in gonad of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and extent of its phosphorylation. polyclonal antibodies against purified cp were prepared from rabbit serum. using this anti-cp antiserum, the temporal expression of cp in gonads of tiger shrimp was analyzed. it was found that the cp occurs only in mature ovaries but not in immature ovaries and testes. results of rt-pcr confirmed that these tissues expressed low levels of cp mrna transcripts ...200818639931
salmonella prevalence in seafood imported into japan.a total of 353 samples of 29 types of seafood were tested for salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. salmonella enterica serotype weltevreden was isolated from 2 of 47 black tiger prawn samples. the contamination levels of salmonella were in a range of <30 to 40 most probable number per 100 g. in addition, one sample of black tiger prawns and two samples of white shrimp were positive for salmonella inva gene on pcr assay. although the mean aerobic bacterial count was greater than ...200818680947
can the emotional connotation of concepts modulate the lexico-semantic deficits in alzheimer's disease?semantic memory impairments are a common symptom of alzheimer's disease (ad) and may occur at a relatively early stage. these disturbances can be evidenced by a hyperpriming effect (greater semantic priming in ad patients than in controls). up till now, very few studies of semantic memory have included emotionally charged concepts. our aim was therefore to study the semantic processing of such concepts, as opposed to neutral ones, in early ad. given that emotional processes are relatively preser ...200918692515
abundantly expressed transcripts in the lymphoid organ of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and their implication in immune function.the lymphoid organ of penaeid shrimps is proposed to play an important role in the innate immune system. to investigate the potential immune function of the lymphoid organ, we analyzed the expressed genes from the lymphoid organ of normal and vibrio harveyi-infected penaeus monodon using an expressed sequence tag (est) approach. sequence analysis of the est clones derived from the two lymphoid organ cdna libraries (408 clones from the normal and 625 clones from the infected libraries), revealed ...200818692576
decennial experience of the municipality of rome in the fight against asian tiger mosquito.since september 1997 was detected the presence of the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) in the peripheral areas of the city of rome, the environment department has put in a strategy to combat and control the spread of this insect throughout the city, collaboration with the istituto superiore di sanità (iss) to aspects of study and monitoring of the phenomenon and with the azienda municipale ambiente (ama) for actions in the urban environment. in 1998 began the first contrast campaign in th ...200818693571
an overview of the lesson learned in almost 20 years of fight against the "tiger" mosquito.since its introduction in italy in 1990, aedes albopictus has spread quickly across the country, being at present reported in scattered foci in all regions below 600 m of altitude. the most important items of the lesson learned in almost 20 years of fight against the "tiger" in italy are here reported and discussed.200818693574
tiger mosquito control: new approaches to the issue in local context.until recently, the control of mosquitoes has primarily focused on them as a nuisance due to their biting behaviour. this has now evolved into a significant health problem. to deal with this serious issue, a rational approach to vector control should be adopted, with clear, technically sound guidelines enforceable by legislation. the extensive outbreak of chikungunya in the indian ocean during 2005-6 and the subsequent outbreak in the emilia romagna region of italy in august 2007, should prompt ...200818693576
noncanonical dna motifs as transactivation targets by wild type and mutant p53.sequence-specific binding by the human p53 master regulator is critical to its tumor suppressor activity in response to environmental stresses. p53 binds as a tetramer to two decameric half-sites separated by 0-13 nucleotides (nt), originally defined by the consensus rrrcwwgyyy (n = 0-13) rrrcwwgyyy. to better understand the role of sequence, organization, and level of p53 on transactivation at target response elements (res) by wild type (wt) and mutant p53, we deconstructed the functional p53 c ...200818714371
rna transcription analysis and completion of the genome sequence of yellow head nidovirus.yellow head virus (yhv) is a pathogen of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and, with gill-associated virus (gav), is one of two known invertebrate nidoviruses. we describe sequences of the large replicase gene (orf1a) and 5'- and 3'-terminal utrs, completing the 26,662 nt sequence of the yhv genome. orf1a (12,219 nt) encodes a approximately 462,662 da polypeptide containing a putative 3c-like protease and a putative papain-like protease with the canonical c/h catalytic dyad and alpha+beta ...200818582978
shrimp single wap domain (swd)-containing protein exhibits proteinase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities.single wap domain (swd)-containing proteins are small proteins with a c-terminal region containing a single whey acidic protein (wap) domain. in the present study, the cdnas representing three isoforms of swd proteins (swdpm1, swdpm2 and swdpm3) were identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. the deduced peptides revealed that they contain a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and encode for a mature peptide of 69, 68 and 56 amino acids, respectively, which conta ...200818602420
accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) and african lions (panthera leo linnaeus) in china.the accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (pfcs) in the sera of captive wildlife species bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) and african lions (panthera leo linnaeus) from harbin wildlife park, heilongjiang province, in china were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (hplc-ms/ms). perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng ml(-1) in tigers and 2.69 ng ml(-1) in lions. perfluorononanoic ac ...200818789477
molecular cloning, characterization, expression and antibacterial analysis of a lysozyme homologue from fenneropenaeus merguiensis.the gene coding for lysozyme in banana prawn (fenneropenaeus merguiensis) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in pet-32a vector. the deduced amino acid sequence of f. merguiensis lysozyme showed 37-93% similarity with the mouse, human, chicken, and tiger prawn counterparts. the lysozyme was purified to homogeneity and observed as a band of approximately 15 kda in 12% sds-page. semiquantitative rt-pcr analysis demonstrated that mrna transcripts of lysozyme could be mainly detected in the tissues ...200918798009
development of an rt-pcr detection method for mud crab reovirus.mud crab reovirus (mcrv) causes high mortality in the cultivated mud crab. to control better an outbreak of this virus, a rapid, specific and sensitive detection method based on rt-pcr was developed. the mcrv detection method was designed based on the one-step and two-step rt-pcr which resulted in the amplification of predicted products of 433 and 304 bp. the method is specific as no cross-reaction was observed between grass carp hemorrhage virus (gchv), white spot syndrome virus (wssv), tiger f ...200818572256
identification, characterization and expression of sex-related genes in testes of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.isolation and characterization of genes involving gonadal development are an initial step towards understanding reproductive maturation and sex determination of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). in the present study, 896 clones from the testis cdna library were sequenced. a total of 606 ests (67.6%) significantly matched sequences in the genbank (e-value <1e-04) whereas 290 ests (32.4%) were newly unidentified transcripts. the full length cdna of genes functionally involved in testicular ...200918824117
two prophenoloxidases are important for the survival of vibrio harveyi challenged shrimp penaeus monodon.phenoloxidase (po) plays an important role in arthropod melanization. previously, a prophenoloxidase (pmpropo1) gene was cloned and characterized from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. in the present study, we report a novel propo gene (pmpropo2) belonging to the propo family identified from the p. monodon est database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th). the full-length sequence of pmpropo2 consists of 2513bp encoding a predicted 689 amino acid residues with a calculated mole ...200918834900
amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.the commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. in addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which sugges ...200818717688
accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five fish species from the persian gulf.in this study, concentrations of 16 elements were quantified in muscles and livers of 141 fishes belonging to five commercially species. it was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. the grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker and silver pomfret fish species were obtained from abadan, deylam, bushehr-nirogah, dayyer port, lengeh port and abbas port in hormozgan, bushehr and khozesran provinces at the iranian waters of the ...200918850288
loose shell syndrome of farmed penaeus monodon in india is caused by a filterable agent.loose shell syndrome (lss) of farmed black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon has been reported from indian shrimp farms since 1998 and is recognized as a major disease problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture sector. unlike the rapid mortalities associated with viral pathogens such as white spot syndrome virus and yellow head virus, progression of lss is gradual, leading to low-level progressive mortalities. the signs of lss include a flaccid spongy abdomen due to muscular ...200818924381
domain inhibitory and bacteriostatic activities of the five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.serine proteinase inhibitors (spis) in multi-cellular organisms are important modulators of proteinase activities in various biological processes. a five-domain kazal-type spi spipm2 from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon is presumably involved in innate immune response. the spipm2 with the domain p1 residues t, a, e, k and e was isolated from the hemocyte cdna libraries and found to strongly inhibit subtilisin and elastase, and weakly inhibit trypsin. to unravel further the inhibitory acti ...200918930077
molecular epidemiological analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 subtype isolated from poultry and wild bird in thailand.a comprehensive molecular epidemiological analysis was performed on highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses of the h5n1 subtype derived from poultry and wild bird during 2004-2007 in thailand. sequence analysis followed by phylogenetic analysis was applied to all eight segments of the viruses. viruses belonging to clades 1 and 2.3.4 in the ha phylogenetic tree have been shown to circulate in thailand. our analysis revealed differential evolution of the hpai viruses among clade 1 strains ...200818801394
perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) from china.perfluorinated compounds (pfcs) are used in a variety of industrial applications. we tested the hypothesis that, in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), captivity in industrialized areas increases pfc levels, potentially presenting a health risk to these animals. serum samples were collected from 100 tigers from industrialized or nonindustrialized regions in china with nonpoint sources of pfcs. mean concentrations of pfcs in these samples ranged from 1.57 +/- 0.83 ng/ml in nonindustrial hailin ...200818939529
identification of bacterial plant pathogens using multilocus polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-ms, previously known as "tiger") utilizes pcr with broad-range primers to amplify products from a wide array of organisms within a taxonomic group, followed by analysis of pcr amplicons using mass spectrometry. computer analysis of precise masses allows for calculations of base compositions for the broad-range pcr products, which can then be compared to a database for identification. pcr/esi-ms has the benefits of pcr i ...200818943403
from retinal circuitry to eye diseases--in memory of henk spekreijse.this article summarizes our recent works on stratum-by-stratum structure-function rules for synaptic contacts between retinal bipolar cells and third-order retinal neurons in the inner plexiform layer. these rules were derived from large-scale voltage clamp recordings of various types of bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina, and they appear applicable to bipolar cells in the mouse and other mammalian species. this review also gives a brief account of how we used pathway-specific knockout ...200918948133
maldi-tof "fingerprint" phospholipid mass spectra allow the differentiation between ruminantia and feloideae spermatozoa.the detailed comparative analysis of sperm lipids could essentially contribute to a better understanding of membrane function in the context of fertilization and, moreover, of sperm preservation. the application of sensitive analytical methods is particularly necessary for endangered species as the available amount of spermatozoa (and, accordingly, extractable lipids) is strongly limited. it will be shown that matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) mass spectr ...200918950847
introduction, scenarios for establishment and seasonal activity of aedes albopictus in the netherlands.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus was detected for the first time in the netherlands in the summer of 2005. aedes albopictus is a competent vector of several human viral diseases, and therefore the recent appearance of the vector is a concern to local public health authorities. in 2006 and 2007, the mosquito was found repeatedly and regularly at lucky bamboo import companies. to assess whether imported ae. albopictus could establish to produce subsequent generations in the following year ...200918973446
three adolescents with lhermitte-duclos disease.lhermitte-duclos disease (ldd) is a rare, benign cerebellar disorder, characterized by replacement of granular cells and purkinje cells by an overgrowth of cerebellar ganglion cells. ldd can be associated with cowden's syndrome (cs). we studied three adolescent ldd patients, including two with cs. mri revealed the typical tiger-stripe pattern in all patients. cs was diagnosed on the basis of secondary mucocutaneous lesions and a pten/mmac1 gene mutation. adolescent-onset ldd appears to have the ...200919013808
suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) for isolation and characterization of genes related to testicular development in the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) cdna libraries of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, were constructed. in total, 178 and 187 clones from the forward and reverse ssh libraries, respectively, of p. monodon were unidirectionally sequenced. from these, 37.1% and 53.5% expressed sequence tags (ests) significantly matched known genes (e-value < 1e-04). three isoforms of p. monodon progestin membrane receptor component 1: pm-pgmrc1-s (1980 bp), pm-pgmrc1-m (2848 bp), and pm-pgmrc1-l ( ...200819017492
comparisons among the complete genomes of four betanodavirus genotypes.betanodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish, have bipartite positive-sense rna genomes and have been classified (based on analysis of rna2 sequences) into 4 genotypes: tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (tpnnv), barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (bfnnv), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (sjnnv), and redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (rgnnv). full-length genomes of tpnnv and bfnnv were sequenced for the first time in this study. their sequence d ...200818717064
molecular cloning and mrna expression of cyclophilin a gene in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the cyclophilin a (cypa) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the full-length cdna of black tiger shrimp cypa (btscypa) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 81 bp, an orf (open reading frame) of 495 bp encoding a polypeptide of 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.68 kda and a 3' utr of 308 bp. the predicted amino acid sequence of btscypa shared high identity with cypa in other organisms. a ...200919041262
chikungunya: a paradigm of emergence and globalization of vector-borne diseases.chikungunya (chik) fever is a tropical arboviral disease responsible for acute polyarthritis which can last for weeks to months. in 2007, the chikungunya virus (chikv) reached europe. since the beginning of this outbreak, several million cases of chikungunya virus disease have occurred in autochthonous populations and in travelers who were diagnosed after they returned home from epidemic areas. chikv, usually transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has now been repeatedly associated with a new ...200819061754
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