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cloning and characterisation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod) from the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.a cdna encoding a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) by degenerate primers. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end (race) pcr method. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the mtmnsod full-length cdna consists of 1202bp containing an open reading frame of 654bp, which encodes a protein c ...200616621606
the effect of sodium alginate on the immune response of tiger shrimp via dietary administration: activity and gene transcription.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anions), and superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, as well as expressions of beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (betagbp), prophenoloxidase (propo), peroxinectin (pe), cytosolic sod (cyt-sod), penaeidin-5 (pa-5), and a single whey acidic protein (wap) domain protein (swdp) gene were determined in the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (15.6-19.5g) which had individually been fed diets containing sodium ...200616684609
influence of selected indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection in black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. in order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the wssv, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like cyanodon dactylon, aegle marmelos, tinospora cordifolia, picrorhiza kurooa and eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. the mixed extract was supplemented with various concentration ...200616698283
cloning and characterization of a shrimp clip domain serine protease homolog (c-sph) as a cell adhesion molecule.clip domain serine protease homologs (c-sphs) are involved in various innate immune functions in arthropods such as antimicrobial activity, cell adhesion, pattern recognition, opsonization, and regulation of the prophenoloxidase system. in the present study, we cloned a c-sph cdna from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocytes. it is 1337 bp in length with a coding region of 1068 bp consisting a protein of 355 amino acid residues. the deduced protein includes one clip domain and one catalytically ...200616701896
role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in covert word retrieval: neural correlates of switching during verbal fluency.word retrieval ability is commonly assessed with a semantic verbal fluency task, in which subjects must produce a list of exemplars of a category (e.g., animals). the order in which exemplars are produced is not random; rather, subjects tend to produce "clusters" of semantically related items (e.g., cow, pig, sheep) and occasionally "switch" to other clusters (e.g., lion, tiger, bear). patients with frontal lobe pathology (associated with focal lesions or parkinson's disease) exhibit reduced out ...200616725162
ultrastructure of the domestic tom cat (felis domestica ) and tiger (panthera tigris altaica ) spermatozoa.the ultrastructure of spermatozoa from the domestic tom cat and the siberian tiger was studied. semen was collected from anesthetized tom cats and siberian tigers by electroejaculation. spermatozoa were fixed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy. the principle differences between the spermatozoa from the two species were the head shape, mitochondrial organization in the neck area and structure of the fibrous sheath. tom cat spermatozoa had an elongated oval-shaped he ...198916726601
[construction and experimental immunity of recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of h5n1 subtype tiger influenza virus].h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was highly pathogenic and sometimes even fatal for tigers and cats. to develop a new type of vaccine for felidae influenza prevention, recombinant replication-competent canine adenovirus type 2 expressing hemagglutinin gene of h5n1 subtype tiger influenza virus was constructed. a/tiger/harbin/01/2003 (hsn1) ha gene was cloned into pvax1. the ha expression cassette which included cmv and ha and polya was ligated into the e3 deletion region of pvaxdelta ...200616736595
anuric renal failure in a dog after red-bellied black snake (pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation.a case of red-bellied black snake envenomation resulting in intravascular haemolytic anaemia, rhabdomyolysis and anuric renal failure is described in the dog. a 12-year-old female desexed golden retriever was presented with a 15 hour history of profuse salivation, progressive lethargy, obtundence, inappetence and collapse. significant findings on clinical examination were pallor, icterus, tachypnoea and dyspnoea with increased respiratory sounds and crackles in all lung fields. generalised abdom ...200616739524
isolation of malassezia spp. from cerumen of wild felids.the objective of this study was to determine the presence of different species of the genus malassezia in the healthy external auditory canal of wild felids maintained in captivity. one hundred and thirty-two adult animals (264 samples of cerumen), 77 males (58.3%) and 55 females (41.7%), were studied: large felids (55 animals) - 26 lions (panthera leo), 13 tigers (panthera tigris), 6 leopards (panthera pardus), 6 jaguars (panthera onca), 2 cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), 2 pumas (puma concolor); s ...200616772235
interspecific transfer of wolbachia into the mosquito disease vector aedes albopictus.intracellular wolbachia bacteria are obligate, maternally inherited endosymbionts found frequently in insects and other invertebrates. the evolutionary success of wolbachia is due in part to an ability to manipulate reproduction. in mosquitoes and many other insects, wolbachia causes a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci). wolbachia-induced ci has attracted interest as a potential agent for affecting medically important disease vectors. however, application of the approach ...200616777718
amino acid sequence of the amur tiger prion protein.prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in human and animal associated with conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (prp(c)) into the pathologic isoform (prp(sc)). various data indicate that the polymorphisms within the open reading frame (orf) of prp are associated with the susceptibility and control the species barrier in prion diseases. in the present study, partial prnp from 25 amur tigers (tprnp) were cloned and screened for polymorphisms. four single nucleotide p ...200616780982
disseminated mycobacteriosis due to mycobacterium avium in captive bengal tiger (panthera tigris).a 2-year-old captive female bengal tiger (panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the gwangju uchi park zoo, gwangju, republic of korea. necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. periodic acid-schiff stain and gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. ...200616789727
who ate whom? adaptive helicobacter genomic changes that accompanied a host jump from early humans to large felines.helicobacter pylori infection of humans is so old that its population genetic structure reflects that of ancient human migrations. a closely related species, helicobacter acinonychis, is specific for large felines, including cheetahs, lions, and tigers, whereas hosts more closely related to humans harbor more distantly related helicobacter species. this observation suggests a jump between host species. but who ate whom and when did it happen? in order to resolve this question, we determined the ...200616789826
isolation and pharmacological characterisation of hostoxin-1, a postsynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the stephen's banded snake (hoplocephalus stephensi).envenoming by the stephen's banded snake (hoplocephalus stephensi) is not usually characterised by neurotoxicity. the present study describes the pharmacological characterisation of hostoxin-1 (mw 6660 da), the first neurotoxin to be isolated from the venom of the stephen's banded snake. hostoxin-1 (0.3-1.0 microm) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches of the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. the neurotoxic activity of hostoxin-1 (0.3 microm) was irrevers ...200616806296
cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab scylla serrata.a prophenoloxidase (propo) cdna was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and rt-pcr. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end (race) method. analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cdna clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly a signal. it encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a pred ...200716806468
expression and characterisation of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon penaeidin (mo-penaeidin) in various tissues, during early embryonic development and moulting stages.a penaeidin family, mo-penaeidin was cloned from the haemocytes of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon using genomic polymerase chain reaction (pcr) by gene specific primers. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that this mo-penaeidin consists of 1348 bp containing one intron (680 bp) and two exons (210 and 458 bp). it has an open reading frame (orf) of 222 p, which encodes a protein of 74 amino acids including a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the calculated molecular mass of the mature protein ...200716820207
prediction of heat-induced collagen shrinkage by use of second harmonic generation microscopy.collagen shrinkage associated with denaturation from thermal treatment has a number of important clinical applications. however, individualized treatment is hindered by the lack of reliable noninvasive methods to monitor the process of collagen denaturation. we investigate the serial changes of collagen denaturation from thermal treatment of rat tail tendons at 58 degrees c by use of second harmonic generation (shg) microscopy. we find that rat tail tendon shrinks progressively from 0 to 9 min o ...200616822069
investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging.we apply the technique of second-harmonic generation (shg) microscopy to obtain large area submicron resolution image of type i collagen from rat tail tendon as it is heated from 40 degrees c to 70 degrees c for 0-180 min. the change in the collagen structure as reflected in its shg image is observed at length scales from submicron to hundreds of microns. we observed that heating the tendon below the temperature of 54 degrees c does not produce any change in the averaged shg intensity. at the he ...200616829565
taming clinical research's paper tigers. 200616857781
development of polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites for the extension of the genetic linkage map of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).in this study, microsatellite markers were developed for the genetic linkage mapping and breeding program of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. a total of 997 unique microsatellite-containing expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from 10 100 est sequences in the p. monodon est database. at-rich microsatellite types were predominant in the est sequences. homology searching by the blastn and blastx programs revealed that these 997 ests represented 8.6% known gene products, 27.8% hypo ...200616879347
binding of shrimp cellular proteins to taura syndrome viral capsid proteins vp1, vp2 and vp3.viruses are a major cause of production losses in the world shrimp-farming industry. despite this, little is known about viral-host interactions in shrimp due in part to the lack of continuous shrimp cell lines. here, the yeast two-hybrid assay system was employed to study interactions between three taura syndrome viral capsid proteins (vp1-vp3) and proteins from a cdna library of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. vp1 interacted with beta-actin, elongation factor 1alpha (ef1alpha), lysozym ...200616889862
wolbachia effects on aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) immature survivorship and development.wolbachia bacteria manipulate the reproduction of mosquito hosts via a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci), promoting the spread of infections into host populations. the rate at which an infection invades is affected by host fitness costs associated with the wolbachia infection. here, we examine for an effect of wolbachia infection on the immature fitness of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae). in two experiments, we examine for a wolbac ...200616892625
[aedes albopictus: chronical of a spreading vector].over the last 50 years the asian tiger mosquito aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) has spread to all continents in the old and new world. this anthropophilous species is able to adapt to most climates. although long considered as a secondary disease vector, it has been shown to be competent for arbovirus transmission under laboratory conditions. in several locations that it has invaded, the tiger mosquito has played a major role in arbovirus transmission (dengue fever and chikungunya). a recen ...200616924811
high expression of a novel leucine-rich repeat protein in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a novel leucine-rich repeat (lrr) cdna has been cloned from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon by 5' rapid amplification of cdna ends. the full-length of p. monodon lrr (pmlrr) consisted of 2604 bp with a 1686-bp open reading frame, encoding 561 amino acids. the deduced protein contained a high proportion of leucine residues (17%) and had significant homology to lrr-containing proteins from bacteria to humans. sixteen tandem lrr motifs of 23-24 amino acids in length occurred in ...200716926101
cloning, characterization and tissue specific expression of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) igf-i.insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) plays an important role in regulating gonad function, which is essential for normal reproduction in animals, especially in sexual receptivity and reproductive behavior. in this study, a cdna encoding amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) igf-i was isolated from liver total rna using rt-pcr. the igf-i cdna of amur tiger (atigf-i) was highly homologous to that of other animals, 84.8% to rat, 93.7% to human and horse. alignment analysis showed that the cysteine r ...200616926496
treatment of snakebite in australia: the current evidence base and questions requiring collaborative multicentre prospective studies.despite the wealth of anecdotes and case reports there are fundamental questions of management of snakebite in australia that remain unresolved or for which the current evidence is limited. the efficacy in the field, potential limitations and possibility of improvements in pressure immobilisation first aid need objective studies in humans. optimal bandage sizes, stretch and pressure for different sized limbs need further evaluation, as does the use of pressure pads. better definitions of specifi ...200616930660
genetic characterization of influenza a viruses (h5n1) isolated from 3rd wave of thailand ai outbreaks.three major outbreaks of avian influenza (ai) occurred in thailand. during the third episode in october 2005, we have isolated h5n1 viruses from one human case and three poultry cases. the whole genomes of ai viruses from human, chickens and quail from the outbreaks were characterized. sequence analysis of eight gene segments revealed that the 2005 h5n1 viruses isolated in october 2005 were closely related to those recovered from chicken, tiger(s) and human(s) in january and july 2004. in additi ...200616935377
penaeus monodon gene discovery project: the generation of an est collection and establishment of a database.a large-scale expressed sequence tag (est) sequencing project was undertaken for the purpose of gene discovery in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. initially, 15 cdna libraries were constructed from different tissues (eyestalk, hepatopancrease, haematopoietic tissue, haemocyte, lymphoid organ, and ovary) of shrimp, reared under normal or stress conditions, to identify tissue-specific genes and genes responding to infection and heat stress. a total of 10,100 clones were analyzed by single-p ...200616945489
temperature effects on the development of enteromyxum spp. (myxozoa) in experimentally infected tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes (temminck & schlegel).the effects of water temperature on the development of the enteric myxosporeans, enteromyxum fugu and enteromyxum leei, were investigated in experimentally infected tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes. after naïve tiger puffer were fed gut tissue infected with both e. fugu and e. leei, they were divided into separate tanks and kept at different constant temperature regimes between 10 and 25 degrees c. regardless of the water temperature tested, e. fugu was consistently detected with a high prevalenc ...200616948706
molecular cloning and functional expression of the penaeus monodon 5-ht receptor.serotonin (5-ht) mediates a number of diverse physiological functions in crustaceans by interacting with various 5-ht receptor subtypes. a putative 5-ht receptor cloned from the ovary of the black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) consisted of 2291 nucleotides, encoding a putative 5-ht(1pem) receptor protein of 591 amino acids. transient expression of 5-ht(1pem) in hek293 cells demonstrated a saturable [3h]-5-ht binding with a kd of 10.43+/-1.13 nm and bmax of 1.53+/-0.06 pmol/mg. the putative 5-ht( ...200616949686
independent variation of retinal s and m cone photoreceptor topographies: a survey of four families of mammals.in mammals, cone photoreceptor subtypes are thought to establish topographies that reflect the species-relevant properties of the visual environment. middle- to long-wavelength-sensitive (m) cones are the dominant population and in most species they form an area centralis at the visual axis. short-wavelength-sensitive (s) cone topographies do not always match this pattern. we here correlate the interrelationship of s and m cone topographies in representatives of several mammalian orders with dif ...200616961976
molecular cloning and characterisation of a proteinase inhibitor, alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) from the haemocytes of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.an alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) gene was cloned from the haemocytes of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon by rt-pcr, cloning and sequencing of overlapping pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) method. analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the alpha2-m cdna consists of 4876 bp with an open reading frame (orf) of 4494 bp, a 52 bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 327 bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly a signal. the open reading frame encodes a protein of 1498 amino acids w ...200716982096
electrical coupling, receptive fields, and relative rod/cone inputs of horizontal cells in the tiger salamander retina.light responses, dendritic/axonal morphology, receptive field diameters, patterns of dye coupling, and relative rod/cone inputs of various types of horizontal cells (hcs) were studied using intracellular recording and lucifer yellow/neurobiotin dye injection methods in the flatmount tiger salamander retina. three physiologically and morphologically distinct types of hc entities were identified. 1) the a-type hcs are somas that do not bear axons, with average (+/-se) soma diameters of 20.01 +/- 0 ...200616998920
collaborating to conserve large mammals in southeast asia.depressed mammal densities characterize the interior of many southeast asian protected areas, and are the result of commercial and subsistence hunting. local people are part of this problem but can participate in solutions through improved partnerships that incorporate local knowledge into problem diagnosis. the process of involving local people helps build a constituency that is more aware of its role (positive and negative) in a protected area and generates site-specific conservation assessmen ...200617002757
genetic diversity of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand revealed by pcr-sscp of polymorphic est-derived markers.a total of 90 ests from normal and 157 from subtractive ovarian cdna libraries of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) were sequenced. sscp analysis of disulfide isomerase (dsl), zinc finger protein (zfp), pmo920, and pmt1700 was carried out for population genetic studies of p. monodon in thai waters. the number of codominant alleles per locus for overall samples was 6 for pmo920, 5 for pmt1700, and 12 for zfp, and there were 19 dominant alleles for dsi. the observed heterozygosity of each g ...200617028786
twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in australia.it was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by bancroft in queensland and martin in sydney and melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of australian toxinology. this australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from europe and the americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. the subsequent systematic study of australian venoms and toxins t ...200617030053
phenotypic and molecular typing of vibrio harveyi isolates and their pathogenicity to tiger shrimp larvae.the objective of the present study was to identify the biotype(s) and molecular type(s) of vibrio harveyi associated with pathogenicity in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) larvae.200617032233
genotyping faecal samples of bengal tiger panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: a pilot study.bengal tiger panthera tigris tigris the national animal of india, is an endangered species. estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. dna methods based on non-invasive sam ...200617044939
hepatopancreatic nuclease of black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon unlikely to be involved in viral triggered apoptosis.nucleases are phosphodiesterases that hydrolyze dna and/or rna. in a search for shrimp nucleases involved in apoptosis, we discovered a nuclease from hepatopancreatic cdna of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. the full-length nuclease gene was amplified and revealed to contain 1668bp corresponding to 381 deduced amino acid residues in the mature enzyme. sequence analysis indicated 83% nucleic acid identity and 89% amino acid identity to a nuclease from the kuruma shrimp penaeus japonicus (a ...200717049271
h5n1 oseltamivir-resistance detection by real-time pcr using two high sensitivity labeled taqman probes.a single amino acid substitution, from histidine to tyrosine at position 274 of the neuraminidase gene has converted oseltamivir sensitive h5n1 influenza a virus into a resistant strain. currently, oseltamivir is being stockpiled in many countries potentially affected by the influenza a virus subtype h5n1 epidemic. to identify this change in oseltamivir-treated patients, a method based on real-time pcr using two labeled taqman probes was developed for its rapid detection. in order to validate th ...200717055070
involvement of host recognition by oncomiracidia and post-larval survivability in the host specificity of heterobothrium okamotoi (monogenea: diclidophoridae).heterobothrium okamotoi, a monogenean gill parasite, shows high host specificity for tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes. in the present study, in vivo and in vitro experimental infections were conducted using various fish species, including t. rubripes, to understand the mechanisms of specificity. in in vivo experiments, t. rubripes, grass puffer, takifugu niphobles, olive flounder, paralichthys olivaceus, and red sea bream, pagrus major, were exposed to oncomiracidia of h. okamotoi labelled with a ...200717055510
functional response of the tiger beetle megacephala carolina carolina (coleoptera: carabidae) on twolined spittlebug (hemiptera: cercopidae) and fall armyworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae).the functional response of the tiger beetle megacephala carolina carolina l. (coleoptera: carabidae) was determined on adult twolined spittlebug, prosapia bicincta (say) (hemiptera: cercopidae), and fourth instars of fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (j.e. smith) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), in single-prey and two-prey systems. in the laboratory, m. carolina carolina demonstrated a type ii functional response for p. bicincta and s. frugiperda in both single- and two-prey systems. search efficien ...200617066786
cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the present study was conducted to examine the effect of cell culture conditions, antioxidants, protease inhibitors (pi), and different levels of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) for the promotion of synchronization of different cell cycles of siberian tiger skin fibroblasts. we also compared the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the siberian tiger in pig cytoplasts and to support early development after reconstruction. cell cycle synchronization between nuclear donor and recipient cells is considered t ...200717075834
osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to k(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.an 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (oc) and regulation of k(+), na(+), ca(2+) and mg(2+) of penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to k(+) deficient inland saline water (isw) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). the survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (r(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. at the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of isw and showed no changes in oc when transferred ...200717129740
occurrence and density of vibrio parahaemolyticus in live edible crustaceans from markets in china.vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium causing foodborne disease. occurrence of the bacterium was investigated in six species of edible crustaceans available from markets in mainland china. the bacterium was detected in 22 of 45 whole-body, shell, and feces samples, including mitten crabs, which are supposed to be produced in freshwater ponds. the mean densities ranged from 2.8 log cfu/g in mitten crabs (eriocheir sinensis) to 5.1 cfu/g in giant tiger prawns (penaeus monodon). in hemolymp ...200617133820
expression of interleukin-10 in intestinal lymphocytes detected by an interleukin-10 reporter knockin tiger mouse.to identify interleukin-10 (il-10)-producing cells in vivo, we generated a knockin mouse where an internal ribosome entry site (ires) green fluorescence protein (gfp) element was inserted immediately before the polyadenylation site of the il-10 gene. gfp fluorescence in cells from these mice was found to correlate positively with il-10 protein expression. with this model, we found that after multiple t cell receptor (tcr) stimulations, strong expression of il-10 was produced specifically by intr ...200617137799
experimental transmission of enteromyxum leei to freshwater fish.the myxosporean enteromyxum leei is known to infect a wide range of marine fish hosts. the objective of the present study was to determine whether freshwater fish species are also receptive hosts to this parasite. seventeen species of freshwater fish were experimentally fed e. leei-infected gut tissue from donor gilthead sea bream sparus aurata obtained from a commercial sea bream cage farm. four of the tested species, tiger barb puntius tetrazona, zebra danio danio rerio, oscar astronotus ocell ...200617140140
molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.among the 37 living species of felidae, the clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the panthera lineage of great cats. this secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast asian subspecies (figure 1a). we used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic orig ...200617141620
neutralizing antibodies against feline parvoviruses in nondomestic felids inoculated with commercial inactivated polyvalent vaccines.the virus neutralization (vn) antibody titers of serum samples from 18 individuals representing 8 carnivore species vaccinated with commercial polyvalent vaccines optimized for domestic cats containing inactivated feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) were evaluated against canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv2). in addition, the titers among 5 individuals from 4 carnivore were evaluated against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses; fplv, cpv2, cpv2a, cpv2b, cpv2c, mink enteritis virus type 1 (mev1) a ...200617146178
characterization of two paralogous muscleblind-like genes from the tiger pufferfish (takifugu rubripes).muscleblind-like (mbnl) proteins are required for terminal muscle differentiation in mammals. in this study we have identified two mbnl paralogues from the tiger pufferfish, tmbnl2a and tmbnl3, which are the first examples of non-mammalian mbnl genes. tmbnl2a and tmbnl3 were found in regions of conserved synteny and had a high degree of global conservation with their mammalian homologues. phylogenetic analysis showed that the t. rubripes genome contains one mbnl3 gene and two copies of mbnl1 and ...200717157048
molecular cloning, characterization and expression of a masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a full-length cdna of a masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue (pmmassph) of penaeus monodon was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification cdna end (race) method. the complete cdna sequence of 1958bp contains an open reading frame (orf) of 1572bp, encoding a 523 amino acid protein including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. the calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (504 amino acids) is 51.58kda with an estimated pi of 4.86. pmmassph has most of the structural characteristics o ...200717174571
the genetic effective and adult census size of an australian population of tiger prawns (penaeus esculentus).this study compares estimates of the census size of the spawning population with genetic estimates of effective current and long-term population size for an abundant and commercially important marine invertebrate, the brown tiger prawn (penaeus esculentus). our aim was to focus on the relationship between genetic effective and census size that may provide a source of information for viability analyses of naturally occurring populations. samples were taken in 2001, 2002 and 2003 from a population ...200717181726
atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.pathogenic diseases and environmental contaminants are two of the leading hypotheses for global amphibian declines, yet few studies have examined the influence of contaminants on disease susceptibility. in this study, we examined effects of ecologically relevant doses of atrazine (0, 1.6, 16, and 160 microg/l), sodium nitrate (0, 6.8, 68 mg/l), and their interactions on susceptibility of four laboratory-bred tiger salamander families to ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv), a pathogen implicated in gl ...200617205907
shrimp culture in thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among southeast asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. food brokers in japan and the united states purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. however, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. can the ne ...200017208685
dopamine depresses immunity in the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen photobacterium damsela were measured when tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (13.5+/-1.5 g) were individually injected with saline or dopamine at 10(-8), 10(-7), or 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1). results showed that a transient period of immunosuppression occurred between 2 and 8 ...200717210259
a transglutaminase from chinese shrimp (fenneropenaeus chinensis), full-length cdna cloning, tissue localization and expression profile after challenge.transglutaminase can catalyze the cross-linking reaction between soluble clotting protein molecules from the plasma for prevention of excess blood loss from a wound and obstructing micro-organisms from invading the wound in crustaceans. a novel transglutaminase (fctg) gene was cloned from hemocytes of chinese shrimp fenneropenaeus chinensis by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) pcr. the full-length cdna consists of 2972bp, encoding 757 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass ...200717218114
immobilization antibodies of tiger puffer takifugu rubripes induced by i.p. injection against monogenean heterobothrium okamotoi oncomiracidia do not prevent the infection.we examined whether infection by the monogenean heterobothrium okamotoi induces production of specific antibodies against oncomiracidia and their cilia, larvae on the gills, and adults on the branchial cavity wall of tiger puffer takifugu rubripes. we also investigated whether specific antibody production participates in acquired protection against h. okamotoi. sera from persistently infected fish immobilized h. okamotoi oncomiracidia 89 days after exposure and antibody levels (measured by enzym ...200717234044
molecular cloning and characterization of a cyclin b gene on the ovarian maturation stage of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the cyclin b gene from black tiger shrimp. the full length cdna of black tiger shrimp cyclin b (btscyclin b) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 102 bp, an orf of 1,206 bp encoding a polypeptide of 401 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 45 kda and a 3' utr of 396 bp. the searches for protein sequence similarities with blast analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btscyclin b was homolog ...200717245552
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 virus in cats and other carnivores.the asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus is a known pathogen of birds. only recently, the virus has been reported to cause sporadic fatal disease in carnivores, and its zoonotic potential has been dominating the popular media. attention to felids was drawn by two outbreaks with high mortality in tigers, leopards and other exotic felids in thailand. subsequently, domestic cats were found naturally infected and experimentally susceptible to h5n1 virus. a high susceptib ...200717250978
microtar: predicting microrna targets from rna duplexes.the accurate prediction of a comprehensive set of messenger rnas (targets) regulated by animal micrornas (mirnas) remains an open problem. in particular, the prediction of targets that do not possess evolutionarily conserved complementarity to their mirna regulators is not adequately addressed by current tools.200617254305
molecular cloning of tropomyosins identified as allergens in six species of crustaceans.although tropomyosin is known to be a major allergen of crustaceans, its structural information is limited to only five species. in this study, tropomyosin was confirmed to be a major allergen in six species of crustaceans (black tiger prawn, kuruma prawn, pink shrimp, king crab, snow crab, and horsehair crab) by immunoblotting. then, the amino acid sequences of tropomyosins from these crustaceans were elucidated by a cdna cloning technique. sequence data for crustacean tropomyosins including th ...200717263503
dna vaccines encoding viral envelope proteins confer protective immunity against wssv in black tiger shrimp.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) is a major cause of mortality in shrimp and poses a huge threat to aquaculture industry. till now no comprehensive or individual strategy has been established to combat white spot disease. previous efforts by other investigators have given insight of protein vaccination and its efficacy to protect shrimp against wssv infection. in this study, we have explored the protective efficacy of dna vaccination and tissue distribution of the immunised recombinant plasmid i ...200717267079
interspecific scaling of the morphology and posture of the limbs during the locomotion of cats (felidae).for phylogenetically diverse mammals, ranging from small rodents to large ungulates, the generalization that limb erectness increases with increased size is supported by some size-dependent scaling relationships of appendicular skeletal anatomy as well as a limited number of direct observations of limb posture during locomotion. if size alone is the causal basis for different limb posture, then the erectness of limbs should increase significantly with increased size within a phylogenetically nar ...200717267650
profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-msh) in the japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr-fia) and immunohistochemistry. a tr-fia for alpha-msh was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. a competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-msh antibodies, samples, and e ...200717286977
changes in tissue defence system in white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infected penaeus monodon.the present study examined the changes occurring in the pro phenoloxidase system and antioxidant defence status in haemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infected penaeus monodon. tiger shrimps (p. monodon) were infected with white spot virus by intramuscular injection of the virus inoculum. levels of lipid peroxides and the activities of phenoloxidase, glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (gpx), glutathione-s-transferase (gs ...200717287147
differential regulation of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of myod.splice variants of the basic helix-loop-helix myoblast determination factor (myod) have not been previously found in vertebrates. here we report the identification and characterization of three alternative transcripts of a myod paralogue from the tiger pufferfish (takifugu rubripes). the t. rubripes myod1 gene (tmyod1) has 3 exons and 2 introns and it is present on scaffold 104, in a region of conserved synteny with zebrafish. the isoform tmyod1-alpha is a putative protein of 281 residues that c ...200717292566
adenosine inhibits voltage-dependent ca2+ influx in cone photoreceptor terminals of the tiger salamander retina.endogenous adenosine has already been shown to inhibit transmitter release from the rod synapse by suppressing ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated ca(2+) channels. however, it is not clear how adenosine modulates the cone synapse. cone photoreceptors, like rod photoreceptors, also possess l-type ca(2+) channels that regulate the release of l-glutamate. to assess the impact of adenosine on ca(2+) influx though voltage-gated ca(2+) channels in cone terminals, whole-cell perforated-patch clamp reco ...200717304584
disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive indochinese tiger (panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.a 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female indochinese tiger (panthera tigris corbetti) from the el paso zoo (el paso, texas, usa) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. pyogranulomatous pneumonia ...200617315442
cloning, purification, and nucleotide-binding traits of the catalytic subunit a of the v1vo atpase from aedes albopictus.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, is commonly infected by the gregarine parasite ascogregarina taiwanensis, which develops extracellularly in the midgut of infected larvae. the intracellular trophozoites are usually confined within a parasitophorous vacuole, whose acidification is generated and controlled by the v(1)v(o) atpase. this proton pump is driven by atp hydrolysis, catalyzed inside the major subunit a. the subunit a encoding gene of the aedes albopictus v(1)v(o) atpase was clo ...200717321148
comparative analysis of barnacle tropomyosin: divergence from decapod tropomyosins and role as a potential allergen.tropomyosin, a myofibrillar protein of 35-38 kda, represents a major and cross-reactive allergen in decapod crustaceans. this study was initiated to clarify whether decapod-allergic patients also recognize tropomyosins of barnacles, crustaceans phylogenetically remote from decapods, which are locally consumed as a delicacy. on sds-page, a 37 kda protein was observed in all the heated extracts prepared from two species of decapods (american lobster homarus americanus and black tiger prawn penaeus ...200717321773
tolerance to white spot syndrome virus (wssv) in the freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii is associated with low vp28 envelope protein expression.the freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii was experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (wssv) by intramuscular injection. infection was confirmed by positive, single-step, wssv polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays targeting the vp28 gene from day 2 up to day 90 post injection (p.i.). although no mortality of wssv-infected prawns was observed, bioassays with the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon using hemolymph from day 90 pcr-positive prawns resulted in white spot disease ( ...200717330738
[research on sailong boneextracts on proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblast cells].to investigate the metabolic regulation and apoptosis of sailong bone extracts on rat osteoblast cells in vitro.200617348198
characterization and tissue expression of apoptosis-related alg-2 interacting protein alix/aip1 from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. 200717383199
spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito aedes albopictus.aedes albopictus, commonly known as the asian tiger mosquito, is currently the most invasive mosquito in the world. it is of medical importance due to its aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, lacrosse, and west nile. invasions into new areas of its potential range are often initiated through the transportation of eggs via the international trade in used tires. we use a genetic algorithm, genetic algorithm for rule set production (garp), t ...200717417960
tissue-specific expression and regulation of the haemolymph clottable protein of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the clottable protein (cp) involved in penaeus monodon haemolymph coagulation has previously been characterized and cloned. polyclonal antibodies against purified cp were also prepared from rabbit serum. by western blot analyses, we showed occurrence of cp in the shrimp central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ. results of rt-pcr further indicated that the central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ transcribed more cp, heart and hepatopancreas transcribed less, while the haemocytes ...200717442588
identification and characterization of a putative agglutination/immobilization antigen on the surface of cryptocaryon irritans.the ciliated protozoan cryptocaryon irritans, a parasite of seawater fishes, was found to express an antigen that elicits antibodies in rabbits and tiger puffer (takifugu ruburipes). serum from rabbits and fish immunized with theronts had agglutination/immobilization activity against theronts in vitro; fish serum antibody levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: elisa) correlated with this activity. anti-theront antibody levels in fish were significantly higher in the immunized gr ...200717445323
characterization of a shrimp serine protease homolog, a binding protein of yellow head virus.a serine protease homolog (sph) cdna namely sph516 was identified via a yeast two-hybrid screen between yellow head virus (yhv) proteins and hemocyte proteins of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. initially, the c-terminal region of sph516 (sph516-c) was found to interact with a putative metal ion-binding domain (mib) encoded by open-reading of frame orf1b of the yhv genome. subsequently, the full-length of sph516 cdna was obtained using 5' rapid amplification of cdna ends (5' race) and it ...200717451807
cross-neutralisation of australian brown and tiger snake venoms with commercial antivenoms: cross-reactivity or antivenom mixtures?recently it has been suggested that the australian snake antivenoms made by csl ltd. are in fact not truly monovalent and may contain antibodies to other snake venoms because the horses are injected with multiple snake venoms. it is unclear to what extent various monovalent antivenoms can neutralise the effect of other venoms, whether this is due to a mixture of antibodies or true cross-reactivity, and whether this has any clinical significance. we aimed to study the immunological and functional ...200717467763
measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, t4; triiodothyronine, t3) in captive nondomestic felids.the aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, t4; triiodothyronine, t3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (panthera onca), n = 49; puma (puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (herpailurus yaguaro ...200717469287
molecular cloning and expression of a toll receptor in the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.invertebrates rely completely for their protection against pathogens on the innate immune system. this non-self-recognition is activated by microbial cell wall components with unique conserved molecular patterns. pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) are recognised by pattern recognition receptors (prrs). toll and its mammalian homologs toll-like receptors are cell-surface receptors acting as prrs and involved in the signalling pathway implicated in their immune response. here we descri ...200717470397
expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (propo), peroxinectin (prx), crustin (crus), penaeidin (pen), transglutaminase (tgase), haemocyanin (hc) and astakine (ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (n4), protozoea 1 and 3 (z1 and 3), mysis 3 (my 3), post-larvae 3 (pl3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. semi-quantitative r ...200717490892
surveillance activities and molecular analysis of h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from thailand, 2004-2005.avian influenza (ai) outbreaks were first reported in thailand in january 2004. in the past 2 yr, ai viruses have caused three epidemic waves. disease prevention and control in all aspects have been actively carried out. active and passive surveillance based on clinical observation and laboratory analysis were intensively conducted, as well as monitoring of genetic variation of the viruses. h5n1 viruses isolated from different avian species from different cases and locations were selected. we ha ...200717494553
susceptibility of the endangered california tiger salamander, ambystoma californiense, to ranavirus infection.emerging infectious diseases are implicated in the declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. ranaviruses in the family iridoviridae are a global concern and have caused amphibian die-offs in wild populations in north america, europe, south america, and in commercial populations in asia and south america. the movement of amphibians for bait, food, pets, and research provides a route for the introduction of ranaviruses into naive and potentially endangered species. in this report, we demon ...200717495315
captive tiger attack: case report and review of the literature.tigers, as well as other large predators, are being held in private settings with increasing frequency. unregulated private "zoos" are cropping up in many rural and suburban settings across the country. the number of attacks from captive predators also is on the rise. this case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild animals held in captivity. treatment principals and wounding patterns of large cat attacks are emphasized.200717521011
phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of planctomycetes from anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich zodletone spring, oklahoma.we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic capabilities of members of the phylum planctomycetes in the anaerobic, sulfide-saturated sediments of a mesophilic spring (zodletone spring) in southwestern oklahoma. culture-independent analyses of 16s rrna gene sequences generated using planctomycetes-biased primer pairs suggested that an extremely diverse community of planctomycetes is present at the spring. although sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with cultured heterotro ...200717545322
detection of toxolasma gondii in captive wild felids.toxoplasma gondii can infect all species of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and causes serious diseases in immunocompromized hosts. live tachyzoites derived from serial passage in hela culture were used in the sabin-feldman dye test for detection of toxoplasma gondii antibody in serum samples of 21 captive wild felids including one fishing cat (prion nailurus viverrina), one leopard (panthera pardus), two flat-headed cats (prion nailurus planiceps), 6 tigers (panthera tigris), two leopar ...200617547043
environmental effects on the behavior of zoo-housed lions and tigers, with a case study of the effects of a visual barrier on pacing.tigers and lions in the wild are nocturnal nonhuman animals who may hunt and mate opportunistically during daylight hours. in captivity, they spend most time on exhibit sleeping or pacing. to better understand their activity budget, this study examined the daily behavior patterns of 2 sumatran tigers and 3 african lions in different housings. the proportion of scans the large felids spent engaged in stereotypic pacing varied by time of day and environment. the tigers spent different amounts of t ...200717559318
stress-induced gene expression profiling in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.cultured shrimp are continuously exposed to variable environmental conditions that have been associated with stress and subsequent outbreaks of disease. to investigate the effect of environmental stress on penaeus monodon gene expression, a 3,853 random cdna microarray chip was generated with clones originating from six stress-enriched hemocyte libraries generated by suppression subtractive hybridization and a normal hemocyte cdna library. changes in temporal gene expression were analyzed from s ...200717566080
cloning, expression and antimicrobial activity of crustinpm1, a major isoform of crustin, from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.crustin antibacterial homologues, containing a whey acidic protein (wap) domain, have been identified from the haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. sequence analysis of these cdnas indicates the presence of several isoforms of crustin in p. monodon. crustinpm1, the most abundant isoform, contains an open reading frame of 435bp encoding a precursor of 145 amino acids that comprises 17 amino acid signal peptides and 128 amino acid mature peptides. the peptides contain a gl ...200817573111
purification and identification of a glycoprotein that induces the attachment of oncomiracidia of neobenedenia girellae (monogenea, capsalidae).neobenedenia girellae, a monogenean skin parasite, shows low host specificity. n. girellae is an important pathogen in marine cultured fish such as yellowtail and amberjack. an effective control method is required but none has yet been established. to clarify the mechanisms of host specificity, we purified and identified the attachment-inducing substances of oncomiracidia from tiger puffer fish. the attachment-inducing substances were mainly included in skin mucous extract. skin mucous extract l ...200717582417
photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae associated with diseased black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon fabricius in india.to characterize and identify photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae present in black gill diseased penaeus monodon collected from east coast of india.200717594465
changes in integument histology and protein expression related to the molting cycle of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.we investigated changes in the histology and protein expression in the epidermis and sub-epidermis of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monondon) during the molting cycle. the epidermis consists of a cell layer located beneath the cuticle, while the sub-epidermis is mainly composed of sub-epidermal cells and tegumental glands. during the molting cycle, the epidermal cells increase in cell height and number, and the sub-epidermis increases in its storage of carbohydrate, protein, mucus, and other u ...200717601758
differential expression of immune-related genes and transposable elements in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.the health of aquatic species is dependent on interactions between the environment, pathogens and the host. under intensive shrimp aquaculture, environmental conditions can degrade, causing significant stress to the cultured organisms. to investigate the effect of environmental stress on shrimp hemocyte gene expression profiles, we applied suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) in juvenile penaeus monodon exposed to hyperthermal, hypoxic or hyposmotic conditions. random sequencing of 258 cl ...200717613247
cloning and characterization of a caspase gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon)-infected with white spot syndrome virus (wssv).a black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) caspase cdna homologue (pmcasp) has been identified from a hemocyte library using a previously identified caspase homologue from the banana shrimp (penaeus merguiensis) as a probe. the full-length pmcasp was 1202bp with a 954bp open reading frame, encoding 317 amino acids. the deduced protein contained a potential active site (qacrg pentapeptide) conserved in most caspases. it had 83% identity with caspase of p. merguiensis and 30% identity with drice prote ...200717617486
molecular cloning and characterization of an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (iap) from the tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (iaps) play important roles in both apoptosis and innate immunity. here, we report the first cloning and characterization of a novel iap family member, pmiap, from penaeus monodon. the full-length pmiap cdna is 4769bp, with an orf encoding a protein of 698 amino acids. the pmiap protein contains three bir domains and a c-terminal ring domain, and its mrna was expressed in all analyzed tissues. in insect cells, pmiap, together with spodoptera frugiperda iap, ac ...200817628672
molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (ef-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.the techniques of homology cloning and anchored pcr were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (ef-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). the full length cdna of black tiger shrimp ef-2 (btsef-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 73 bp, an orf of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kda, and a 3( utr of 112 bp. the searches for protein sequence similarities with blast analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence ...200817629788
a survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.the used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of america, africa, oceania, and europe. a strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in spain during 2003-2004 by evitar (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). a survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. eight autochthonous species of mo ...200717633420
development of y chromosome intraspecific polymorphic markers in the felidae.y chromosome haplotyping based on microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) has proved to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies of humans. however, the promise of the approach is hampered in the majority of nonhuman mammals by the lack of y-specific polymorphic markers. we were able to identify new male-specific polymorphisms in the domestic cat felis catus and 6 additional felidae species with a combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic approaches including 1 ...200717646273
carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.the continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. i used variation in the distribution of four holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. by simulating the presence of wolves (canis lupus), tigers (panthera tigris), and brown bears (ursus arctos) at 19 ...200717650259
expressed sequence tag analysis for identification and characterization of sex-related genes in the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.sex-related genes expressed in vitellogenic ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, were identified by an est approach. a total of 1051 clones were unidirectionally sequenced from the 5 terminus. nucleotide sequences of 743 est (70.7%) significantly matched known genes previously deposited in the genbank (e-value <10(-4)) whereas 308 ests (29.3%) were regarded as newly unidentified transcripts (e-value >10(-4)). a total of 559 transcripts (87 contigs and 472 singletons) were obtained ...200717669265
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