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identification of two distinct molt-inhibiting hormone-related peptides from the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon.six peptides belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) family were isolated from extracts of the sinus glands of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. these were designated pem-sgp-a to pem-sga-f (pem, penaeus monodon; sgp, sinus gland peptide) and their amino-terminal amino acid sequences were analyzed. five of the 6 peptides (pem-sgp-a, -b, -d, -e, and -f) exhibited similar amino acid sequences to those of chh peptides that ...200214961272
development of vitellogenin-elisa, an in vivo bioassay, and identification of two vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones of the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the quantification of vitellogenin in the hemolymph of penaeus monodon is reported. lipovitellin from the mature ovary was purified using hydroxylapatite column chromatography and used as the standard protein, which was serially diluted from 3336 to 6.51 microg and gave a linear plot. sensitivity results showed elisa was insensitive to samples that did not contain vitellogenin or lipovitellin. specificity results showed the degree of the d ...200114961329
genetic heterogeneity of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand revealed by rapd and mitochondrial dna rflp analyses.genetic diversity of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) collected from 5 areas, chumphon and trat (gulf of thailand), and phangnga, satun, and trang (andaman sea), was examined by randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and mitochondrial dna (16s ribosomal dna and an intergenic coi-coii) polymorphism. a total of 53 polymorphic fragments from ubc299, ubc273, and ubc268 was consistently scored across all samples. from the respective primers 26, 32, and 30 genotypes were generated. a 260-bp ...200114961335
access to information about harm and safety in spider fearful and nonfearful individuals: when they were good they were very very good but when they were bad they were horrid.this study tests two alternative hypotheses about how phobic information is processed in spider fearful and nonfearful individuals: (1) the threat-related cognitive set hypothesis and (2) the dimensions hypothesis. counter to the traditional cognitive model of fear, the dimensions hypothesis predicts that spider fearful individuals tend to prioritise the harm-safety dimension when evaluating animal stimuli, and the consequent stretching of that evaluative dimension will confer advantage to the a ...200314972673
wild cat bite--a narrow escape.an unusual case is reported of a tiger bite and trauma to the maxillofacial region of a 45-year-old male patient. wild animal assaults on the general population are on the increase in india and it is possible that further such cases will occur. the increased attacks could be a result of massive deforestation, resulting in disturbance to the ecosystem and tampering of the natural habitat of the royal cat.200415005474
an extremely sensitive species-specific arms pcr test for the presence of tiger bone dna.the survival of the tiger (panthera tigris) is seriously threatened by poaching to provide raw materials for traditional chinese medicines (tcms). most highly prized are the tiger's bones, which are used in combination with other animal and plant derivatives in pills and plasters for the treatment of rheumatism and other ailments. hundreds of patent remedies have been produced which claim to contain tiger bone, but proof of its presence is needed, if legislation prohibiting the trade in endanger ...200415017992
an application of visible human database in radiotherapy: tutorial for image guided external radiotherapy (tiger).three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy allow accurate dose delivery on target volumes. due to the different background among specialists involved in target volume definition, the contouring emerges as one of the most questionable steps in treatment planning procedures. a software tool devoted to contouring training, named tutorial for image guided external radiotherapy ('tiger'), based on the visible human project images data-set, is described.200415028403
bite marks--the criminal's calling cards.carnivorous animals, like dogs or tigers, use their teeth in two distinct ways. they kill their prey primarily using their canines and they tear and slice the flesh to produce digestible fragments. human teeth are designed principally to cut and grind food which is usually previously prepared. some people appear to revert to more primitive instincts and use their canines and incisors to inflict bites on unsuspecting victims.200415039746
turning a tiger into a house cat: using legionella pneumophila to study coxiella burnetii. 200415058276
a novel microsatellite (str) marker for forensic identification of big cats in india.india is the home to five of the eight majestic big cats of the world. the three major big cats namely, lion, tiger, and leopard are listed in the schedule i of the indian wildlife protection act, 1972. apart from the severe loss of the habitat, these are continuously facing the danger of extinction mainly due to poaching and hunting for their body parts, which are being greatly valued by apothecaries marketing traditional chinese medicines. with the advent of polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dn ...200415062954
taming the tigers: the case for controlling the tobacco market. 200415078226
fitness advantage and cytoplasmic incompatibility in wolbachia single- and superinfected aedes albopictus.wolbachia are obligate, maternally inherited, intracellular bacteria that infect numerous insects and other invertebrates. wolbachia infections have evolved multiple mechanisms to manipulate host reproduction and facilitate invasion of naive host populations. one such mechanism is cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci) that occurs in many insect species, including aedes albopictus (asian tiger mosquito). the multiple wolbachia infections that occur naturally in a. albopictus make this mosquito a usefu ...200415127087
molecular cloning and characterisation of a cell adhesion molecule, peroxinectin from the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.expression of peroxinectin cdna was obtained from haemocytes of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers based on the peroxinectin sequence of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus. the peroxinectin of l. vannamei was constitutively expressed. the cloning of peroxinectin cdna fragment was subjected to rt-pcr using degenerated primers. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end race method. analysis of nu ...200415145414
a case of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a siberian tiger cub.a three-month-old female siberian tiger cub with hindlimb ataxia was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of konkuk university. the patient was fed only beef without supplementation of calcium and vitamins after weaning. the tiger was presented with ataxia and back pain on digital palpation. in addition, abnormal gait, reluctance to move, and depressed withdrawal reflex were noted at the neurological examination. the overall osteodystrophic change of the lumbosacral vertebrae was observe ...200415187368
evaluation of pseudomonas sp. pm 11 and vibrio fluvialis pm 17 on immune indices of tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.occurrence of widespread epizootics among cultured stock of shrimp has put research programmes on preventive approaches such as application of probiotics on a high priority in aquaculture. in the present study two bacteria, pseudomonas sp. pm 11 and vibrio fluvialis pm 17 were selected as candidate probionts from a pool of bacteria isolated from gut of farm reared sub-adult shrimp and tested for their effect on the immunity indicators of tiger shrimp. sub-adult shrimp, weighing 14 to 22 g were t ...200415212731
trichothiodystrophy: quantification of cysteine in human hair and nails by application of sodium azide-dependent oxidation to cysteic acid.the term "trichothiodystrophy" (ttd) covers several autosomal recessive diseases whose diagnostic hallmark is short, brittle hair low in sulfur and cystine because of impaired synthesis of high-sulfur matrix protein. clinical symptoms associated with ttd represent a variable range of abnormalities in organs derived from ectoderm and neuroectoderm. important laboratory tests of the hair for the diagnosis of ttd comprise polarizing microscopy ("tiger-tail" pattern), electron microscopy, and amino ...200415232704
the in vitro neuromuscular activity of indo-pacific sea-snake venoms: efficacy of two commercially available antivenoms.we examined the neurotoxicity of the following sea snake venoms: enhydrina schistosa (geographical variants from weipa and malaysia), lapemis curtus (weipa and malaysia), laticauda colubrina, aipysurus laevis, aipysurus fuscus and aipysurus foliosquamatus. venom from a terrestrial snake, notechis scutatus (tiger snake), was used as a reference. all venoms (1 and 3 microg/ml) abolished indirect twitches of the chick biventer cervicis muscle and significantly inhibited responses to ach (1 mm) and ...200415246769
conservation of wild animals by assisted reproduction and molecular marker technology.wild animals are an integral component of the ecosystem. their decimation due to abrupt natural calamities or due to gradual human intervention would be disastrous to the ecosystem and would alter the balance in nature between various biotic components. such an imbalance could have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. therefore, there is an urgent need to put an end to the ever increasing list of endangered species by undertaking both in situ and ex situ conservation using tools of modern biology ...200315255374
quantitative real-time rt-pcr demonstrates that handling stress can lead to rapid increases of gill-associated virus (gav) infection levels in penaeus monodon.gill-associated virus (gav) of the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon has been implicated as a cause of periodic production losses in australia since 1996. we report here the development of a real-time quantitative rt-pcr (qrt-pcr) for gav. a dilution series of in vitro transcribed rna was used to determine the sensitivity limit of the qrt-pcr and as a standard for gav quantification. a linear relationship between cycle threshold (ct) values and input rna was obtained over a wide concentration ra ...200415264715
evaluation of attractants and egg-laying substrate preference for oviposition by aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).evaluation of oviposition attractants and substrate preferences of aedes albopictus was carried out under laboratory and field conditions. to obtain candidate oviposition substances we used a water rinse of 3 mollusk species: blood cockle (anadara granosa), carpet shell (paphia undulata), and sea mussel (mytilus smaragdinus), and the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon). the rinse water of carpet shell and giant tiger prawn showed higher attractiveness for ovipostion than the other candidate attr ...200415266742
environment-dependent admixture dynamics in a tiger salamander hybrid zone.after an estimated five million years of independent evolution, the barred tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) was introduced by bait dealers into the native range of the california tiger salamander (a. californiense). hybridization and backcrossing have been occurring in central california for 50-60 years, or an estimated 15-30 generations. we studied genetic and ecological factors influencing admixture of these two divergent gene pools by analyzing frequencies of hybrid genotypes i ...200415266977
validation of the 13c-urea breath test for use in cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) with helicobacter.historically, therapeutic monitoring for prescribed eradication treatment of helicobacter in cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) with associated gastritis has been accomplished only through endoscopic biopsies. the 13c-urea breath test (ubt) can offer an alternative to repeated biopsies for therapeutic monitoring. five male and five female cheetahs and one male sumatran tiger (panthera tigris) were studied. all were clinically healthy before and after this investigation. breath samples of end-tidal expi ...200415305506
from biomedicine to natural history research: est resources for ambystomatid salamanders.establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. we developed ests for mexican axolotl (ambystoma mexicanum) and eastern tiger salamander (a. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories.200415310388
occurrence of vibrio vulnificus in fish and shellfish available from markets in china.vibrio vulnificus is a naturally occurring estuarine bacterium often associated with disease such as septicemia in humans following consumption of raw and lightly cooked seafood. in china and neighboring countries, rapid economic growth has encouraged increased consumption of seafood, and dietary habits are changing, with more people eating raw fish. in this study, the prevalence of v. vulnificus was investigated in 48 samples from 11 species of live seafood available from markets in coastal cit ...200415330524
fusarium incarnatum isolated from black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon fabricius, with black gill disease cultured in vietnam.fusarium incarnatum was isolated from gill lesions of cultured black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in every crop during 2000-2002 in nghe an province, vietnam. infected shrimps showed typical signs of black gill disease and mortalities about a month prior to harvest. detailed morphological examinations, as well as molecular phylogenic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of ribosomal dna, were made on the isolates. an artificial infection of kuruma prawn, penaeus japonicus, using two ...200415357709
infants can rapidly form new categorical representations.young infants learn common categorical distinctions, such as animals versus vehicles. but can they, like adults, rapidly form new categories, such as black-and-white animals? to answer this question, 6-, 10-, and 13-month-old infants were familiarized with four land animals that were black and white in coloring (e.g., a zebra and a black-and-white tiger) and then were tested with novel animals and a truck. the infants responded to an exclusive category that apparently included only black-and-whi ...200415376807
multiple pathogens found in growth-retarded black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon cultivated in thailand.in 2001-2002 throughout thailand, black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon farmers reported very unusual retarded growth. we have called this problem monodon slow growth syndrome (msgs). based on decreased national production, estimated losses due to this phenomenon were in the range of 13 000 million baht (approximately 300 million us dollars) in 2002. since rearing practices had not changed, it was considered possible that the msgs problem may have arisen from a new or existing pathogen. to examine ...200415460852
a dna-based assay identifies batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians.chytridiomycosis caused by batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytridiomycota) has been implicated in declines of amphibian populations on four continents. we have developed a sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay to detect this pathogen. we isolated b. dendrobatidis from captive and wild amphibians collected across north america and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rdna cassette of multiple isolates. we identified two primers (bd1a and bd2a) that are ...200415465708
conserved regulatory elements in the promoters of two allelochemical-inducible cytochrome p450 genes differentially regulate transcription.cyp6b4, a cytochrome p450 gene from the tiger swallowtail papilio glaucus, is transcriptionally induced in the midgut by dietary furanocoumarins, plant allelochemicals that can crosslink dna in their uv-activated form. the cyp6b4 promoter contains an overlapping ecre/are/xre-xan element similar to that used for basal and xanthotoxin-inducible expression of the cyp6b1 promoter from the black swallowtail papilio polyxenes. transfection of the cyp6b4 promoter:cat reporter construct into sf9 cells d ...200415475306
cdna sequence encoding an antimicrobial peptide of chelonianin from the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. 200515475313
morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (cervus elaphus).deer antler offers a unique opportunity to explore how nature solves the problem of mammalian appendage regeneration. annual antler renewal is an example of epimorphic regeneration, which is known to take place through initial blastema formation. detailed examination of the early process of antler regeneration, however, has thus far been lacking. therefore, we conducted morphological observations on antler regeneration from naturally cast and artificially created pedicle/antler stumps. on the na ...200415487018
monoclonal antibodies specific to haemocytes of black tiger prawn penaeus monodon.monoclonal antibodies specific to haemocytes of penaeus monodon were generated from a mouse immunized with a mixture of sds-treated and formalin-fixed haemocytes. hybridoma clones were selected by immunohistochemistry against fixed haemocytes, heart, lymphoid organ, and haemopoietic tissue, and western blot against haemocyte extract and haemolymph. sixteen monoclonal antibodies specific to haemocytes were obtained and could be divided into six groups according to their binding capacities to vari ...200515519539
the efficacy of two antivenoms against the in vitro myotoxic effects of black snake (pseudechis) venoms in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation.neurotoxicity is rarely seen following human systemic envenoming by australasian black snakes (genus pseudechis) with myotoxicity being the most prominent feature following bites by some species. this study investigated the in vitro myotoxicity of venoms from seven species of australasian pseudechis and determined the efficacy of csl black and tiger snake antivenoms. all pseudechis venoms (10 microg/ml) significantly inhibited direct twitches of the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparati ...200415530965
using gis to establish a public library consumer health collection.background: learning the exact demographic characteristics of a neighborhood in which a public library serves, assists the collection development librarian in building an appropriate collection. gathering that demographic information can be a lengthy process, and then formatting the information for the neighborhood in question becomes arduous.as society ages and the methods for health care evolve, people may take charge of their own health. with this prospectus, public libraries should consider ...200415550171
molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) from the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.a lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) cdna was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and rt-pcr. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end race method. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cdna clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. the calculated molecular mass of the m ...200515561560
a systemic iridoviral disease in mullet, mugil cephalus l., and tiger grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus forsskal: a first report and study.a systemic iridoviral disease associated with high mortality was initially recognized in cultured mullet, mugil cephalus l., and tiger grouper, epinephelus fuscoguttatus forsskal, by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. polymerase chain reaction was performed on tissues and viral isolates, using four published primer sets developed for the red sea bream iridovirus (rsiv). an indirect fluorescent antibody test was also performed on virus-infected atcc gruntfin (gf) and seabass, la ...200415575877
antimicrobial peptides discovered in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon using the est approach.two cdna libraries were prepared from hemocytes of normal and vibrio harveyi-challenged black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. a total of 1062 expressed sequence tag (est) clones were sequenced unidirectionally. ests representing the antimicrobial peptide (amp) homologues, antilipopolysaccharide factors (alf), penaeidins and crustins were discovered. they predominated among immune-related genes, representing 29.2% and 64.0% of the normal and challenged libraries, respectively. several types of each ...200415584419
zoo tigers succumb to avian influenza. 200415593440
cloning and molecular characterization of heat shock cognate 70 from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).we cloned the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cdna) of the heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) gene of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). it was 2207 bp long and included a 1959-bp coding region, a 40-bp flanking region at the 5' end, and a 208-bp flanking region at the 3' end. the deduced, 652-amino acid sequence had a molecular mass of 71 481 da and an estimated isoelectric point (pi) of 5.2. based on phylogenetic analysis, the gene is clustered with the hsc70 proteins of invertebrates and vertebr ...200415633291
a dark and constitutively active mutant of the tiger salamander uv pigment.a triple mutant (f86l/t93p/s118t; bovine rhodopsin numbering) of the tiger salamander uv cone pigment appears to be trapped in an open conformation that is metarhodopsin-ii-like. the pigment is able to activate transducin in the dark, and the ligand-free apoprotein is also able to activate transducin constitutively. the pigment permits protons and chloride ions from solution access to the active site as it displays a ph- and nacl-dependent absorption spectrum not observed with the wild-type pigm ...200515641808
evidence for emergence of an amphibian iridoviral disease because of human-enhanced spread.our understanding of origins and spread of emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically because of recent applications of phylogenetic theory. iridoviruses are emerging pathogens that cause global amphibian epizootics, including tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) die-offs throughout western north america. to explain phylogeographical relationships and potential causes for emergence of western north american salamander iridovirus strains, we sequenced major capsid protein and dna me ...200515643965
avian influenza h5n1 in tigers and leopards.influenza virus is not known to affect wild felids. we demonstrate that avian influenza a (h5n1) virus caused severe pneumonia in tigers and leopards that fed on infected poultry carcasses. this finding extends the host range of influenza virus and has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and wildlife conservation.200415663858
molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.cdna encoding prophenoloxidase (propo) of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna using oligonucleotide primers based on the propo sequence of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: af521949) and kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: ab0733223). propo of l. vannamei was ...200515683918
persistent metanephric ducts in a geriatric white tiger.an 18-year-old male intact white tiger (panthera tigris) was euthanized after a clinical diagnosis of severe renal failure. postmortem macroscopic examination of the kidneys revealed unilateral hydronephrosis with renal calculi and bilateral cortical and medullary fibrosis and papillary coagulation necrosis. interestingly, multiple large persistent metanephric ducts were found at the corticomedullary junctions accompanied by marked interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and lymphoplasmacytic in ...200515690963
neurotoxic effects of venoms from seven species of australasian black snakes (pseudechis): efficacy of black and tiger snake antivenoms.1. pseudechis species (black snakes) are among the most widespread venomous snakes in australia. despite this, very little is known about the potency of their venoms or the efficacy of the antivenoms used to treat systemic envenomation by these snakes. the present study investigated the in vitro neurotoxicity of venoms from seven australasian pseudechis species and determined the efficacy of black and tiger snake antivenoms against this activity. 2. all venoms (10 microg/ml) significantly inhibi ...200515730427
cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern new south wales, australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation.harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. the microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. the microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in australia. because information regarding effects of cy ...200515737678
recombinant expression and characterization of five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).four full-length complementary dnas of kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors (spis) were identified from hemocyte cdna libraries of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and recognized as having 4 (spipm1) and 5 (spipm2, spipm3, and spipm4) kazal domains. spipm2 encoding a complete 5-kazal-domain inhibitor was expressed in the escherichia coli system. inhibitory activity of crude proteins against various serine proteases was tested using spi activity gelatin with sodium dodecylsulfate polyacr ...200515756478
production of monoclonal antibodies against grouper nervous necrosis virus (gnnv) and development of an antigen capture elisa.five (2 igg, 3 igm) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the g9508ks strain of grouper nervous necrosis virus (gnnv) were produced and characterized. all 5 mabs showed positive signals in the retina of gnnv-infected grouper larvae and in the cytoplasm of gnnv-infected gf-1 cells using immunohistochemistry staining. two mabs reacted with the denatured capsid protein derived from gnnv-infected gf-1 cells in western blot analysis, but did not react with the gnnv recombinant capsid protein expressed ...200515759800
bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp.new methods were developed to assess immunostimulant efficacy in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. test shrimp were fed with 2 or 4 % yeast extract (ye)-coated feed while controls were fed non-coated feed. after 4 wk of feeding, individual shrimp were assessed for total hemocyte counts (thc), the number of granular hemocytes (gh) and rate of bacterial clearance. for hemocyte counts, formalin-fixed hemolymph was stained with 1.2 % rose bengal in 50 % ethanol for 20 min at room temperature. ...200515759805
molecular cloning and characterization of cdna of penaeidin-like antimicrobial peptide from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a penaeidin-like antimicrobial peptide (amp) complementary dna from the hemocytes of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodoni). a tiger shrimp amp cdna containing the entire coding region of the peptide, determined by rapid amplification of cdna 5' and 3' ends and polymerase chain reaction of the messenger rna isolated from hemocytes of the shrimp, is 683 bp in length with an open reading frame of 222 bp. the deduced amino acid sequence of this antim ...200515776314
polychaete worms--a vector for white spot syndrome virus (wssv).the present work provides the first evidence of polychaete worms as passive vectors of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) in the transmission of white spot disease to penaeus monodon broodstocks. the study was based on live polychaete worms, marphysa spp., obtained from worm suppliers/worm fishers as well as samples collected from 8 stations on the northern coast of tamilnadu (india). tiger shrimp penaeus monodon broodstock with undeveloped ovaries were experimentally infected with wssv by feeding ...200515819425
production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of vibrio harveyi.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against vibrio harveyi were produced from mice immunized with heat-killed and sds-mercaptoethanol-treated highly virulent v. harveyi 639. fifteen mabs were selected and sorted into 6 groups according to their specificity to various proteins of apparent molecular weight ranging from 8 to 49 kda. some antibodies were used for detection of v. harveyi at concentrations as low as 10(4) cfu ml(-1) using immunodot blots. most of the selected mabs did not show cross-reactivi ...200515819431
quaternary structure and functional properties of penaeus monodon hemocyanin.the hemocyanin of the tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, was investigated with respect to stability and oxygen binding. while hexamers occur as a major component, dodecamers and traces of higher aggregates are also found. both the hexamers and dodecamers were found to be extremely stable against dissociation at high ph, independently of the presence of calcium ions, in contrast to the known crustacean hemocyanins. this could be caused by only a few additional noncovalent interactions between amino a ...200515819896
probable tiger-to-tiger transmission of avian influenza h5n1.during the second outbreak of avian influenza h5n1 in thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in january 2004. this finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals.200515890122
dose and host characteristics influence virulence of ranavirus infections.parasites play a prominent role in the ecology, evolution, and more recently, conservation of many organisms. for example, emerging infectious diseases, including a group of lethal ranaviruses, are associated with the declines and extinctions of amphibians around the world. an increasingly important basic and applied question is: what controls parasite virulence? we used a dose-response experiment with three laboratory-bred clutches of tiger salamander larvae (ambystoma tigrinum) to test how the ...200515891818
activity and substrate specificity of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione s-transferase in australian black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) after exposure to cyanobacterial toxins.cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to have a far-reaching impact-from aquatic organisms to human health. aquatic organisms are typically exposed in their natural environment to toxic cyanobacteria, and exposure can occur via ingestion of cyanobacterial cells or by bioaccumulation of water-borne toxin. the aquaculture and fisheries of crustaceans are among the most important seafood industries. concomitant with the growth of this industry, the importance of the health of crustaceans increased. ...200515892065
inhibition of reporter gene and iridovirus-tiger frog virus in fish cell by rna interference.we describe the specific silencing of reporter gene lacz in fhm cells (muscle cells of fathead minnow, a fish cell line) by either expressing small hairpin rnas (shrnas) from plasmids or transfecting small interfering rnas (sirnas) transcribed in vitro. two types of dsrnas could inhibit reporter gene expression, and sirnas were more effective, while both of them worked very well in hela cells. sirnas were tested for silencing expression of the major capsid protein (mcp) encoded by tiger frog vir ...200515932766
individualization of tiger by using microsatellites.in investigating criminal cases of poaching and smuggling involving tigers (panthera tigris), the number of tiger individuals involved is critical for determining the penalty. morphological methodologies do not often work because tiger parts do not possess the distinctive characteristics of the individual. microsatellite dnas have been proved a reliable marker for the individualization of animals. seven microsatellite loci derived from domestic cat (felis catus) were selected to individualize ti ...200515935942
generation of a novel wolbachia infection in aedes albopictus (asian tiger mosquito) via embryonic microinjection.genetic strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes are being investigated as a means to augment current control measures. strategies of vector suppression and replacement are based upon intracellular wolbachia bacteria, which occur naturally in many insect populations. maternally inherited wolbachia have evolved diverse mechanisms to manipulate host insect reproduction and promote infection invasion. one mechanism is cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci) through which wolbach ...200515944085
snake envenomation in dogs in new south wales.to obtain baseline data on the prevalence of elapid snake envenomation in dogs presented to veterinary practices in new south wales and to assess attitudes of veterinarians to this clinical entity.200515957391
avian influenza ravages thai tigers. 200415977605
recombinant expression and anti-microbial activity of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf) from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs), originally characterized from horseshoe crabs, have been recently identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, by a genomic approach. in order to characterize the properties and biological activities of this immune effector in shrimp, alfpm3, the most abundant isoform found in p. monodon, was expressed in the yeast pichia pastoris. large-scale production in fermentor provided 262 mg/l of recombinant alfpm3 which was purified to hom ...200515978281
partial characterization of a novel bacteriophage of vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp culture ponds in thailand.a bacteriophage was isolated together with vibrio harveyi (vh) 1114 a from a black tiger shrimp-rearing pond in thailand. by negative staining transmission electron microscopy (tem), the phage had an icosahedral head (diameter 60-62 nm), a rigid, non-contractile tail (9-10 nm x 100-120 nm) without a collar or terminal fibers and a genome of double stranded dna of approximately 80 kb as determined by analysis of restriction enzyme digestion fragments. since these features would place it in the fa ...200516023243
mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of india: part 2--sundarbans, west bengal.mosquitoes of 19 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 6 genera, aedes, aedeomyia, anopheles, armigeres, culex, and mansonia, were recorded in sundarbans mangrove forest in west bengal, india. with 6 and 5 species, respectively, the 2 genera culex and anopheles were found to be more diverse while less than 3 species were recorded in the other 4 genera. adults were mainly collected resting on walls in the guesthouse, tree holes in the forest, landing on humans in the guesthouse, and in the forest, ...200516033114
white spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (fabricious) in india are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along east coast of india viz. chidambram (tamil nadu), nellore (andhra pradesh) and balasore (orissa), revealed presence of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. infectio ...200516053274
identification and characterization of syntenin binding protein in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.shrimp exhibit a diverse response to viral infection that is manifested in drastic up- and down-regulations of a variety of genes. in our previous work, we identified syntenin of the shrimp penaeus monodon (pm) as a dynamic responder to white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection, its message being greatly upregulated in the acute phase of the infection. in order to further explore the link between pm-syntenin and viral infection, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of a p. monodon cdna lib ...200516055222
pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.although domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. one possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transducti ...200516103917
monitoring of the process of composting of kitchen waste in an institutional scale worm farm.vermicomposting provides an alternative method of managing waste that is ecofriendly and cost-effective. the environmental technology centre (etc) at murdoch university and st. john of god hospital (sjog) signed a memorandum of understanding (mou) to install a vermiculture system in sjog to treat some of the organic waste generated by the on site kitchen facility. this is an effort made by sjog to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill each year and to treat the waste on site as par ...200516104419
physiological function and metabolism of free d-alanine in aquatic animals.aquatic crustaceans and some bivalve mollusks contain a large amount of free d-alanine (up to 100 mumol/g wet wt.) in their tissues. under high salinity stress, crustaceans and bivalve mollusks largely accumulate d- and l-alanine irrespective of species examined, together with l-glutamine, l-proline, and glycine of which increases are species dependent. these data indicate that d-alanine is one of the major compatible osmolytes responsible for the intracellular isosmotic regulation in the tissue ...200516141518
cloning of a crustin-like, single whey-acidic-domain, antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the european lobster, homarus gammarus, and its response to infection with bacteria.degenerate pcr was used to isolate a 221-base pair nucleotide sequence of a new crustin-like antibacterial peptide from the haemocytes of the european lobster, homarus gammarus. rapid amplification of cdna ends was used to extend the sequence to determine the complete open reading frame and un-translated regions. the inferred amino acid sequence of this peptide was found to be similar to crustin-like peptides isolated for several species of shrimp as well as the shore crab, carcinus maenas. the ...200616144710
molecular cloning and characterisation of cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytmn-sod) from the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.a cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytmn-sod) cdna was cloned from the hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) by degenerate primers. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end race method. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cytmn-sod cdna clone consists of 1339 bp with an open reading frame of 858 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids. the calculated ...200616154362
single step multiplex real-time rt-pcr for h5n1 influenza a virus detection.h5n1 influenza a virus causes a rapidly fatal systemic disease in domestic poultry and spreads directly from poultry to mammalian species such as leopards, tigers and humans. the aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time rt-pcr for rapid detection of h5n1 influenza a virus. the selected primers and various labeled taqman mgb reporter probes corresponding to m, h5 and n1 were used in a single step multiplex real-time rt-pcr to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. in orde ...200616183140
genetic characterization of h5n1 influenza a viruses isolated from zoo tigers in thailand.the h5n1 avian influenza virus outbreak among zoo tigers in mid-october 2004, with 45 animals dead, indicated that the avian influenza virus could cause lethal infection in a large mammalian species apart from humans. in this outbreak investigation, six h5n1 isolates were identified and two isolates (a/tiger/thailand/cu-t3/04 and a/tiger/thailand/cu-t7/04) were selected for whole genome analysis. phylogenetic analysis of the 8 gene segments showed that the viruses clustered within the lineage of ...200616194557
butyrylcholinesterase, paraoxonase, and albumin esterase, but not carboxylesterase, are present in human plasma.the goal of this work was to identify the esterases in human plasma and to clarify common misconceptions. the method for identifying esterases was nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis stained for esterase activity. we report that human plasma contains four esterases: butyrylcholinesterase (ec 3.1.1.8), paraoxonase (ec 3.1.8.1), acetylcholinesterase (ec 3.1.1.7), and albumin. butyrylcholinesterase (bche), paraoxonase (pon1), and albumin are in high enough concentrations to contribute signif ...200516213467
effect of salinity on the immune response of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae.addition of nacl at 2.5% to tryptic soy broth (tsb) significantly increased the growth of photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae. tiger shrimp penaeus monodon held in 25 per thousand seawater were injected with p. damsela subsp. damselae grown in tsb containing nacl at 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% at a dose of 8.48 x 10(4)colony-forming units (cfu)shrimp(-1). over 24-96 h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher for the shrimp challenged with p. damselae subsp. damselae grown in 2.5% nac ...200616213751
ribotyping of indian isolates of pasteurella multocida based on 16s and 23s rrna genes.the applicability of ribotyping based on 16s and 23s rrna was evaluated for molecular epidemiological studies. forty-eight isolates of pasteurella multocida isolated from different hosts and geographical locations and one reference isolate were ribotyped. only four ribotypes were found. all the isolates including reference isolate from wild carnivores had the same ribotype, though they had different serotypes. the isolate from a tiger had one band in addition to the bands present in the major ri ...200516215843
aedes (stegomyia) albopictus--a dengue threat for southern australia?aedes albopictus, the so-called 'asian tiger mosquito,' which has invaded areas of the pacific, the americas, africa and europe, and been intercepted in various australian seaports in recent years, has now become established on a number of torres strait islands in northern queensland and threatens to invade mainland australia. as well as being a significant pest with day-biting tendencies, ae. albopictus is a vector of dengue viruses and is capable of transmitting a number of other arboviruses. ...200516220868
public health risk from avian influenza viruses.since 1997, avian influenza (ai) virus infections in poultry have taken on new significance, with increasing numbers of cases involving bird-to-human transmission and the resulting production of clinically severe and fatal human infections. such human infections have been sporadic and are caused by h7n7 and h5n1 high-pathogenicity (hp) and h9n2 low-pathogenicity (lp) ai viruses in europe and asia. these infections have raised the level of concern by human health agencies for the potential reasso ...200516252482
development of gene transfer technology for black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.an effective foreign gene transfer method for shrimp would have several potential uses in the shrimp culture industry, such as in preventing infectious diseases. we evaluated two gene transfer methods and used black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, as a model target species. for a promoter, we used the 1,592-bp promoter region of the ef-1alpha gene, a house-keeping gene, of kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus. the promoter region was linked to either the gene for green fluorescence protein (gfp) ...200516254920
highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1, thailand, 2004.in january 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of the h5n1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in thailand. control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. a total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). outbreaks were concentrated in the central, the southe ...200516318716
concentration-dependent suppressive effect of shrimp head protein hydrolysate on dehydration-induced denaturation of lizardfish myofibrils.to utilize fishery waste products as functional food material, the shrimp head protein hydrolysate (shph) was produced from three species of shrimp wastes, northern pink shrimp, endeavour shrimp and black tiger shrimp, by enzymatic hydrolysis. the shph was used as a natural food preservative by adding to lizardfish myofibrils at concentrations ranging from 2.5% to 10%. their effects on the state of water and the denaturation of myofibrils during dehydration were evaluated. the amount of monolaye ...200616324842
[bacterial 16s rdna sequence analysis of siberian tiger faecal flora].bacterial 16s rdna library of siberian tiger was developed and 15 different clones were obtained using ecor i and hind iii in restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. dna sequencing and similarity analysis showed that 10 clones matched corresponding clostridium sequences, of which 6 sequences had over 99% similarity with clostridium novyi type a, and 4 sequences had 97% similarity with swine manure bacterium rt-18b, which identified as peptostreptococcus spp. the other five 16s rdna se ...200516342753
molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase cdna from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription in relation with the moult stage.expression of prophenoloxidase (propo) cdna was determined from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna using oligonucleotide primers based on the propo sequence of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp penaeus semisulcatus, kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus, and white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. the propo of m. rose ...200616376571
molecular cloning and characterisation of peroxinectin, a cell adhesion molecule, from the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.expression of peroxinectin cdna was determined from haemocytes of giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii using oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) based on the peroxinectin sequence of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, and freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus. the peroxinectin of m. rosenbergii was constitutively expressed. analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cdna clone has an open ...200616377210
evolutionary analysis of a large mtdna translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the panthera genus species.translocation of cymtdna into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (felis catus). we describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five panthera genus species: tiger, p. tigris; snow leopard, p. uncia; jaguar, p. onca; leopard, p. pardus; and lion, p. leo. this nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondrial ...200616380222
a new rna virus found in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon from thailand.a new, apparently innocuous virus was found while investigating the cause of monodon slow growth syndrome (msgs) in cultured black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). it was identified via plasmid vector clones of e. coli containing randomly amplified cdna fragments produced from total nucleic acid extracts of hemolymph from msgs shrimp. of 421 clones, 30 that failed to give positive dot blot hybridization with a digoxigenin (dig)-labeled shrimp dna probe were sequenced and compared to genbank recor ...200616384619
the role of zoos in the rehabilitation of animals in the circus.in 1998, the government of india enforced a ban on performance/exhibition of 5 species of nonhuman animals: (a) lions, (b) tigers, (c) leopards, (d) bears, and (e) monkeys. the ministry of environment and forests gave the responsibility to the central zoo authority (cza) for rehabilitation of these animals. between 1999 and 2001, the cza created rescue centers for rehabilitation of lions and tigers in the off-display areas of 5 zoos: (a) bangalore, (b) chennai, (c) vishakhapatnam, (d) tirupathi, ...200516436032
non-exercise activity thermogenesis: the crouching tiger hidden dragon of societal weight gain.non-exercise activity thermogenesis (neat) is the energy expenditure of all physical activities other than volitional sporting-like exercise. neat includes all the activities that render us vibrant, unique, and independent beings such as working, playing, and dancing. because people of the same weight have markedly variable activity levels, it is not surprising that neat varies substantially between people by up to 2000 kcal per day. evidence suggests that low neat may occur in obesity but in a ...200616439708
useful probability considerations in genetics: the goat problem with tigers and other applications of bayes' theorem.probabilities or risks may change when new information is available. common sense frequently fails in assessing this change. in such cases, bayes' theorem may be applied. it is easy to derive and has abundant applications in biology and medicine. some examples of the application of bayes' theorem are presented here, such as carrier risk estimation in x-chromosomal disorders, maximal manifestation probability of a dominant trait with unknown penetrance, combination of genetic and non-genetic info ...200616463135
identification of sex-specific expression markers in the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).bulked segregant analysis (bsa) and aflp were used for isolation of genomic sex determination markers in penaeus monodon. a total of 256 primer combinations were tested against 6-10 bulked genomic dna of p. monodon. five and one candidate female- and male-specific aflp fragments were identified. female-specific fragments were cloned and further characterized. scar markers derived from fe10m9520, fe10m10725.1, fe10m10725.2 and fe14m16340 provided the positive amplification product in both male an ...200616466636
infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihhnv)-related sequences in the genome of the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon from africa and australia.we found an infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihhnv)-related sequence within the shrimp genome in populations of penaeus monodon from africa and australia. ihhnv is a single-stranded dna virus that has caused severe mortality and stunted growth in penaeid shrimp. recently, ihhnv-related sequences were found in samples of p. monodon from madagascar and tanzania. these sequences vary considerably (14 and 8%, respectively) from that of ihhnv found in association with viral epi ...200616473428
identification of a non-mammalian leptin-like gene: characterization and expression in the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum).leptin is well established as a multifunctional cytokine in mammals. however, little is known about the evolution of the leptin gene in other vertebrates. a recently published set of ests from the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) contains a sequence sharing 56% nucleotide sequence identity with the human leptin cdna. to confirm that the est is naturally expressed in the salamander, a 409bp cdna was amplified by rt-pcr of salamander testis and stomach mrnas. the coding sequence of the cdna i ...200616480984
a five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.a novel five-domain kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, spipm2, identified from the hemocyte cdna library of black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the escherichia coli expression system. the expressed recombinant spipm2 (rspipm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, ph10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. the molecular mass of rspipm2 was determined using maldi-tof mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kda. the inhibitory activi ...200616519941
a non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.this paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. we developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. the entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). it was successfully applied in a sumatran tiger (pan ...200616530816
amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris).a 13-year-old male tiger (panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. also obs ...200616540113
identification of a putative egg-laying hormone in neural and ovarian tissues of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, using immunocytochemistry.the existence of an egg-laying hormone (elh) was identified for the first time in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, by means of immunoenzyme and immunofluorescence techniques. this was achieved using a polyclonal antibody produced against expressed recombinant elh of the female australian blacklip abalone, haliotis rubra. the shrimp elh reactive material was found to be localised within female neurosecretory tissues and the secretory tissue of the antennal gland, but was not identified in ...200616544160
natural and gonadotropin-induced ovarian activity in tigers (panthera tigris) assessed by fecal steroid analyses.fecal samples were collected from female tigers (n = 17) to compare endocrine patterns associated with natural ovarian activity with those after chorionic gonadotropin ovulation induction and artificial insemination (ai). baseline fecal estradiol concentrations were 65.77 +/- 3.61 ng/g with estrual peaks of 167.39 +/- 9.92 ng/g and an anovulatory cycle length of 17.96 +/- 0.70 days. peak fecal estradiol was higher when females were housed with a male for breeding (262.30 +/- 41.43 vs. 165.30 +/- ...200616564049
mode of action of a novel nonchemical method of insect control: atmospheric pressure plasma discharge.atmospheric pressure plasma discharge (appd) has been applied to a number of industrial applications, including the bacterial sterilization of medical equipment of bacteria. appd may also have applications in insect control. a positive correlation was found between exposure time to appd and mortality of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande); tobacco thrips, frankliniella fusca (hinds); asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse); twospotted spider mite, tetranychus urti ...200616573321
geomyces pannorum as a possible causative agent of dermatomycosis and onychomycosis in two patients.chrysosporium pannorum (link) hughes is a soil keratinophilic fungus present in organic residues, on human skin surface and in the general environment of human beings. clear evidence for the pathogenicity of this fungus for human beings was lacking. in 1999, a case of fungal infection in a chow-chow dog and its owner was published, where chrysosporium pannorum (link) hughes was determined as the only possible infection trigger. the state hygiene institute in bratislava repeatedly confirmed the c ...200616603097
a broadly applicable method to characterize large dna viruses and adenoviruses based on the dna polymerase gene.many viral pathogens are poorly characterized, are difficult to culture or reagents are lacking for confirmatory diagnoses. we have developed and tested a robust assay for detecting and characterizing large dna viruses and adenoviruses. the assay is based on the use of degenerate pcr to target a gene common to these viruses, the dna polymerase, and sequencing the products.200616608526
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