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infectivity of aquabirnavirus strains to various marine fish species.to determine the infectivity of marine birnavirus (mabv) in various marine fish species, experimental infection was performed in combination groups of 5 fish species with 7 strains of mabv and 1 strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv). mortality was observed in yellowtail seriola quinqueradiata and amberjack s. dumerili infected with mabv strains y-6, y-10k and h-1, but not in other infected species. mabv was reisolated from most combination groups, but the virus isolation rate and ...200111678225
aortic valvular endocarditis associated with pasteurella haemolytica in a tiger (panthera tigris). 200111700929
single-strand conformation polymorphism-based analysis reveals genetic variation within spirometra erinacei (cestoda: pseudophyllidea) from australia.this study examined genetic variability within spirometra erinacei (cestoda: pseudophyllidea) from different host species and geographical origins in australia using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based mutation detection approach, followed by dna sequencing. part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (p cox 1) was amplified by pcr, scanned for sequence variation by single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp), and representative samples from different host species were selected for dn ...200212030766
genetic manipulations in aquaculture: a review of stock improvement by classical and modern technologies.the aim of this review was to highlight the extent to which the genetic technologies are implemented by the aquaculture industry. the review shows that some of the modern genetic technologies are already extensively applied by the diverse aquaculture industries, though not to the same extent for all important aquacultured species (according to fao 1998 figures). some species (common carp, atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, channel catfish, nile tilapia, and the pacific oyster) received concentrated ...200111841164
vertical transmission of gill-associated virus (gav) in the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon.chronic gill-associated virus (gav) infection is endemic in penaeus monodon broodstock captured from north-east queensland in australia and in farmed shrimp produced from these. we investigated the role of vertical transmission in perpetuating the high prevalence of these chronic gav infections. reverse transcription (rt)-nested pcr detected gav in spermatophores and mature ovarian tissue from broodstock and in fertilized eggs and nauplii spawned from wild-fertilized females. in laboratory-reare ...200212180710
the role of the haematopoietic tissue in haemocyte production and maturation in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).the haematopoietic tissue (hpt) of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) is located in different areas in the cephalothorax, mainly at the dorsal side of the stomach and in the onset of the maxillipeds and, to a lesser extent, towards the antennal gland. in young and in experimentally stimulated animals, the hpt is expanded in relatively larger and more numerous lobules throughout the cephalothorax. four cell types could be identified in the hpt by electron microscopy. the type 1 cells are th ...200211931020
wound infection with neisseria weaveri and a novel subspecies of pasteurella multocida in a child who sustained a tiger bite.a 7-year-old girl developed a wound infection as a result of a tiger bite she sustained. dna sequence analysis revealed that the causative organisms were neisseria weaveri and what is, to our knowledge, a previously undescribed subspecies of pasteurella multocida, for which we propose the designation "pasteurella multocida subspecies tigris subspecies nov."200212032914
impacts of diclidophorid monogenean infections on fisheries in japan.many monogeneans are pathogenic to economically important fish in japan. however no other monogenean is comparable with the diclidophorids, heterobothrium okamotoi and neoheterobothrium hirame, on the scale of impacts they inflict on japanese fisheries. the shared importance of the two monogenean infections lies in their pathogenicity, fecundity and tolerance to chemical treatment. heterobothrium okamotoi infects the gills and wall of the branchial cavity of the tiger puffer, takifugu rubripes ( ...200211835977
results from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon culture ponds stocked with postlarvae pcr-positive or -negative for white-spot syndrome virus (wssv).commercial, intensive, earthen shrimp ponds (188) in southern thailand were stocked with postlarvae (pl) of penaeus monodon that had tested positive or negative for white-spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. all the pl were grossly healthy. at 2 wk intervals after stocking, shrimp from each pond were examined for gross wssv lesions and tested for wssv by pcr. shrimp from all the ponds stocked with wssv-pcr-positive pl (group 0, n = 43) eventually showed ...199911407401
high permissivity of the fish cell line ssn-1 for piscine nodaviruses.seventeen isolates of piscine nodavirus from larvae or juveniles of 13 marine fish species affected with viral nervous necrosis (vnn) were examined for their infectivity to a fish cell line ssn-1. based on cytopathic effects (cpe) and virus antigen detection by fluorescent antibody technique (fat) after incubation at 25 degrees c, the infectivity of these virus isolates was divided into 4 groups. group 1, including 9 virus isolates from 4 species of grouper, 2 species of sea bass, barramundi, ro ...199911407403
detection of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) of shrimp by means of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to an envelope protein (28 kda).the vp28 gene encoding an envelope protein (28 kda) of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) was amplified from wssv-infected tiger shrimp that originated from malaysia. recombinant vp28 protein (r-28) was expressed in escherichia coli and used as an antigen for preparation of monoclonal antibodies (mabs). three murine mabs (6f6, 6h4 and 9c10) that were screened by r-28 antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were also able to recognize viral vp28 protein as well as r-28 on western bl ...200212093036
sequence analysis of the complete genome of an iridovirus isolated from the tiger frog.we have isolated a tiger frog virus (tfv) from diseased tiger frogs, rana tigrina rugulosa. the genome was a linear double-stranded dna of 105,057 basepairs in length with a base composition of 55.01% g+c. about 105 open reading frames were identified with coding capacities for polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1294 amino acids. computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 39 of 105 putative gene products showed significant homology to functionally characterized pro ...200211878922
joint action of elevated ambient nitrite and nitrate on hemolymph nitrogenous compounds and nitrogen excretion of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.penaeus monodon (12.13+/-1.14 g) exposed individually to six different nitrite and nitrate regimes (0.002, 0.36 and 1.46 mm nitrite combined with 0.005 and 7.32 mm nitrate), at a salinity of 25 ppt, were examined for hemolymph nitrogenous compounds and whole shrimp's nitrogen excretions after 24 h. nitrogen excretion increased directly with ambient nitrite and nitrate. hemolymph nitrite, nitrate, urea and uric acid levels increased, while hemolymph ammonia, oxyhemocyanin and protein were inverse ...200211912055
a syntenin-like protein with postsynaptic density protein (pdz) domains produced by black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in response to white spot syndrome virus infection.we report the isolation and characterization of products from a subtractive cdna library from the haemolymph of penaeus monodon experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (wssv). one cdna derived from up-regulated mrna was identified. a homology search indicated similarity to the putative protein syntenin (te8). the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of te8 was obtained by rapid amplification of cdna (race). its putative protein product contained a tandem repeat of pdz domains (post ...200212093037
evidence for apoptosis correlated with mortality in the giant black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon infected with yellow head virus.histological, cytochemical and ultrastructural changes in giant black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon were investigated at various time intervals after injection with yellow head virus (yhv). hemocytes, lymphoid organs (lo) and gills were the main focus of the study. after injection with yhv, onset of mortality varied from 36 h onward. by normal hematoxylin and eosin staining, the 3 tissues showed clear and increasing prevalence of nuclear condensation, pyknosis and karyorrhexis from approximately ...200212005239
clearing mechanisms of vibrio vulnificus biotype i in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.vibrio species' infections are a common sequelae to environmental stress or other disease processes in shrimp, but the mechanism by which the shrimp eliminate the bacteria is poorly understood. in this study, the penetration, fate and the clearing of v. vulnificus were investigated in penaeus monodon. a bacterial disease isolate from a shrimp farm was identified as v. vulnificus biotype i. polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the bacterium and the specificity was verified by elisa ...200212005240
seven novel fmrfamide-like neuropeptide sequences from the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon.fmrfamide-like immunoreactivity (fli) was localized in the eyestalk of penaeus monodon by immunohistochemistry using a combination of three anti-fmrfamide-like peptide (flps) monoclonal antibodies. approximately 3000 small neuronal cell bodies in the lamina ganglionalis; 100 medium to large size at the ganglion between the medulla interna and the medulla terminalis; and 250 medium size around the medulla terminalis were stained intensely. the neuronal processes in neuropils of the medulla extern ...200211959015
problems and solutions with the design and execution of an epidemiological study of white spot disease in black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in vietnam.white spot disease (wsd) is caused by white spot syndrome virus (wssv) and is an acutely fatal pandemic disease of crustaceans. it has resulted in massive losses to the shrimp-farming industry in asia and has now spread to the americas. this paper reports the problems and solutions associated with the design and execution of a longitudinal epidemiological study of shrimp (penaeus monodon) health on farms practising a crop rotation of rice and shrimp in the mekong delta of vietnam. the pre-sampli ...200211821141
lingering doubts about spongiform encephalopathy and creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) is an infectious disease and has been transmitted orally to many other animals, including humans. there is clear evidence of maternal transmission, although disagreement on the source of the bse agent remains. the current theories link the origin of bse to common scrapie in sheep. twenty different strains of the scrapie agent have been isolated from sheep. a search of the literature indicates two distinct clinical syndromes in sheep, both of which have been ...200111444100
a beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.a beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (gbp) has been isolated from a shrimp hemocyte cdna library. its open reading frame consists of 1314 nucleotides with a polyadenylated sequence and a poly a tail. it encodes a polypeptide of 370 amino acids including a 17 amino acid-signal peptide. the mature protein has an estimated molecular mass of 39.5 kda and a predicted pi of 5.5. sequence comparison shows a high degree of similarity to invertebrate recognition proteins with glucanase-like domains for exam ...200211755673
a tiger tale. 200212202788
an extremely sensitive species-specific arms pcr test for the presence of tiger bone dna.the survival of the tiger (panthera tigris) is seriously threatened by poaching to provide raw materials for traditional chinese medicines (tcms). most highly prized are the tiger's bones, which are used in combination with other animal and plant derivatives in pills and plasters for the treatment of rheumatism and other ailments. hundreds of patent remedies have been produced which claim to contain tiger bone, but proof of its presence is needed if legislation prohibiting the trade in endangere ...200212084490
meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. the animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of ...200212088319
mitochondrial dna variation in indo-pacific populations of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.surveys of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) variation in the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms have provided the first clear evidence that the indo-west pacific region is a site of accumulation of genetic diversity rather than a site of origin of genetic diversity. no haplotyes were found in common between a group of five southeast african populations and a group of five australian (including western australia) and three southeast asian populations. the ...200212453239
serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (felis caracal), cheetah (acinonyx jubatus), cougar (felis concolor), fishing cat (felis viverrinus), leopard (panthera pardus), lion (panthera leo), ocelot (felis pardalis), pallas cat (felis manul), sand cat (felis margarita), serval (felis serval), snow leopard (panthera uncia) and tiger (panthera tigris). diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (broo ...200312514284
secretion of pem-cmg, a peptide in the chh/mih/gih family of penaeus monodon, in pichia pastoris is directed by secretion signal of the alpha-mating factor from saccharomyces cerevisiae.the chh/mih/gih peptide family of black tiger prawn (paneaus monodon) is important in shrimp reproduction and growth enhancement. in this study, the cdna that encodes the complete peptide that is related to the chh/mih/gih family (so-called, pem-cmg) in the eyestalk of p. monodon was successfully expressed in a methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris under the control of an alcohol oxidase promoter. in order to obtain the secreted pem-cmg, a secretion signal of either the saccharomyces cerevisiae a ...200212359089
ultrastructure of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development in vitro in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the application of assisted reproduction techniques to wild cats has been stalled by a lack of basic knowledge of the reproductive biology in these species. in this study, the ultrastructure of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) cumulus-oocyte-complexes (cocs), as well as in vitro produced (ivp) zygotes and embryos were investigated, to estimate the normality of the manipulated reproduction processes. adult female tigers were subjected to a purified porcine pfsh/plh stimulation treatment f ...200212211064
acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats.acute renal failure was diagnosed in 6 cats that had ingested easter lily or tiger lily plants. all 6 were treated medically; 2 underwent hemodialysis. three cats survived the acute episode, and although they had chronic renal failure, they survived for more than 1.5 years. two cats died despite aggressive medical management, including hemodialysis. one cat was euthanatized shortly after the diagnosis was made. three of the cats were oliguric or anuric at the time of initial examination, and all ...200212680447
a retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats.the easter, japanese, stargazer and tiger lilies (lilium sp) are nephrotoxic to cats. this study examined risks posed to cats by the common daylily (hemerocallis sp: h. dumortierei, h. fulvi, h. graminea, h. seiboldii) following ingestion. records describing ingestion of hemerocallis sp between january 1998 and june 2002 were reviewed for signalment, quantity ingested, clinical signs (onset, severity, duration), treatments administered, and outcome. twenty-two cases of confirmed exposure resulti ...200312583697
preliminary study on haemocyte response to white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) has been a major cause of shrimp mortality in aquaculture in the past decade. in contrast to extensive studies on the morphology and genome structure of the virus, little work has been done on the defence reaction of the host after wssv infection. therefore, we examined the haemocyte response to experimental wssv infection in the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. haemolymph sampling and histology showed a significant decline in free, circulating haemocytes afte ...200212363087
hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (panthera leo), jaguar (panthera onca), tiger (panthera tigris), cheetah (acinonyxjubatus) and domestic cat (felis silvestris f. catus).structures of the hyoid apparatus, the pharynx and their topographical positions in the lion, tiger, jaguar, cheetah and domestic cat were described in order to determine morphological differences between species or subfamilies of the felidae. in the lion, tiger and jaguar (species of the subfamily pantherinae) the epihyoideum is an elastic ligament lying between the lateral pharyngeal muscles and the musculus (m.) thyroglossus rather than a bony element like in the cheetah or the domestic cat. ...200212363272
host age effect and expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility in field populations of wolbachia-superinfected aedes albopictus.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse), is a known vector of dengue in south america and southeast asia. it is naturally superinfected with two strains of wolbachia endosymbiont that are able to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci). in this paper, we report the strength of ci expression in crosses involving field-caught males. ci expression was found to be very strong in all crosses between field males and laboratory-reared uninfected or walba infected young females. in addition, ...200211920134
allatostatins of the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon (crustacea: penaeidea).more than 40 peptides belonging to the -y/fxfgl-nh(2) allatostatin superfamily have been isolated and identified from the central nervous system (cns) of the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon (crustacea: penaeidea). the peptides can be arranged in seven sub-groups according to the variable post-tyrosyl residue represented by ala, gly, ser, thr, asn, asp, and glu. two of the residues (thr and glu) have not been observed in this position previously in either insects or crustaceans. also reported for th ...200212126730
pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (hallervorden-spatz syndrome).the arguments over the nomenclature of the syndrome are reviewed. ethical considerations favour replacing the present eponyms with the title of panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (pkan), now that more is known about the cause of the condition. the symptoms and signs of the syndrome are described, and these can present from infancy to adult life. dystonia, involuntary movements and spasticity are prominent causes of disability. if the onset is delayed the presentation can be unusua ...200212374576
computer simulations to determine the efficacy of different genome resource banking strategies for maintaining genetic diversity.genome resource banks (grbs) and assisted reproductive techniques are increasingly recognized as useful tools for the management and conservation of biodiversity, including endangered species. cryotechnology permits long-term storage of valuable genetic material. although, the actual application to endangered species management requires technical knowledge about sperm freezing and thawing, a systematic understanding of the quantitative impacts of various germ plasm storage and use scenarios is a ...200212151267
purification, properties, and partial amino acid sequences of alanine racemase from the muscle of the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon.alanine racemase [ec 5.1.1.1], which catalyzes the interconversion between d- and l-alanine, was purified to homogeneity from the muscle of black tiger prawn penaeus monodon. the isolated enzyme had a molecular mass of 44 kda on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 90 kda on gel filtration, indicating a dimeric nature of the enzyme. the enzyme was highly specific to d- and l-alanine and did not catalyze the racemization of other amino acids. k(m) values toward both d- a ...200212431412
expression of hemocyanin and digestive enzyme messenger rnas in the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.in order to define the cellular site of synthesis for hemocyanin and digestive enzymes in the decapod hepatopancreas, we studied the expression of messenger ribonucleic acids (rnas) for these molecules in the epithelium lining hepatopancreas tubules. in situ hybridisation of gene probes for the digestive enzymes amylase, cathepsin-l, cellulase, chitinase-1 and trypsin to tissue sections of the shrimp hepatopancreas confirmed that the f-cells lining tertiary, secondary and primary ducts are the s ...200212381378
four novel pyfs: members of npy/pp peptide superfamily from the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon.an immunocytochemical method was used for localization of pancreatic polypeptide (pp) immunoreactive substances in the eyestalk of penaeus monodon using anti-c-terminal hexapeptide of pp (anti-pp6) antiserum. approximately 200 neuronal cell bodies were recognized in the ganglia between the medulla interna (mi) and medulla terminalis (mt) and surrounding mt in conjunction with the neuronal processes in medulla externa (me), mi, mt and sinus gland. about half of the pp immunoreactive neurons were ...200212431727
efficacy of porcine gonadotropins for repeated stimulation of ovarian activity for oocyte retrieval and in vitro embryo production and cryopreservation in siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica).a comparison of the amino acid sequences demonstrated that siberian tiger gonadotropins are more homologous with those of porcine than any other commercially available preparation. the present study measured the efficacy of repeated ovarian stimulation with purified porcine gonadotropins on the follicular, hormonal, and immunogenic responses in siberian tigers as well as on the ability of oocytes retrieved by laparoscopic follicular aspiration to fertilize and cleave in vitro. controlled rate an ...200312493701
[neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, type-i (nbia-i) (formerly hallervorden-spatz, disease). par i: clinical manifestation and treatment].this is a rare syndrome, most likely of several genetically determined neurodegenerative disorders with similar pathogenesis. two forms of the disease are distinguished: familial occurring in about 50% of cases and sporadic with about 15% of cases in which parental consanguinity is found. clinically, nbia-1 is characterised by a slow progression of extrapyramidal symptoms and progressive dementia, mostly in children. relentlessly progressive course is obvious, but the progress may be very slow, ...200212523119
differential expression of cmg peptide and crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (chhs) in the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon.mouse antiserum against c-terminal amide of pem-cmg (a peptide in the family of chh/mih/gih) penta-deca peptide (rprqrnqyraalqrlamide=cmg-15) was generated and used for localization of the peptide in tissue and extract of the eyestalk of penaeus monodon by means of immunohistochemistry and dot-elisa in comparison with anti-t+ antiserum (t+=yanavqtvamide : the putative c-terminal amide of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) of macrobrachium rosenbergii). the anti-cmg-15 antiserum did not show ...200212431732
microbial quality of shrimp products of export trade produced from aquacultured shrimp.bacteriological quality of individually quick frozen (iqf) shrimp products produced from aquacultured tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) has been analysed in terms of aerobic plate count (apc), coliforms, escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, salmonella, and listeria monocytogenes. eight hundred forty-six samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-on (rpto), 928 samples of cooked, peeled, and deveined tail-on (cpto), 295 samples of headless, undeveined shell-on (hlso), and 141 samples o ...200312593924
adaptation to temporal contrast in primate and salamander retina.visual adaptation to temporal contrast (intensity modulation of a spatially uniform, randomly flickering stimulus) was examined in simultaneously recorded ensembles of retinal ganglion cells (rgcs) in tiger salamander and macaque monkey retina. slow contrast adaptation similar to that recently discovered in salamander and rabbit retina was observed in monkey retina. a novel method was developed to quantify the effect of temporal contrast on steady-state sensitivity and kinetics of light response ...200111739598
control of pathogenic vibrio spp. by bacillus subtilis bt23, a possible probiotic treatment for black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the present study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic effect of bacillus against the pathogenic vibrios.200312535126
use of animal products in traditional chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards.traditional chinese medicine (tcm) has been increasingly practised in many countries of the world. some recent textbooks of tcm still recommend formulas containing various animal tissues such as tiger bones, antelope, buffalo or rhino horns, deer antlers, testicles and os penis of the dog, bear or snake bile. usually, animal tissues are combined with medical herbs. in most of the cases, the medical use of the preparations is justified in terms of the rules of tcm. so far, little research has bee ...200312801499
impact of overexploitation of shellfish: northeastern coast of india.india has a very extensive coastline of about 7515 km, rich in diverse living resources. these resources continue to deteriorate with rampant harvesting or are altered for other uses such as aquaculture and fisheries. the present paper deals with degrading coastal habitats in northeastern india, and projects the intensity of the stress arising from the collection of tiger prawn seeds (penaeus monodon) for aquacultural farms and molluskan shells for poultry feed and edible lime. indiscriminate ex ...200312691495
enumeration of coliforms and escherichia coli in frozen black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon by conventional and rapid methods.conventional (most probable number, mpn) and rapid methods-including chromocult coliform agar (cca), fluorocult(r) lmx broth (lmx), and petrifilm escherichia coli count plates (pec) for enumeration of coliforms and e. coli in frozen black tiger shrimp from thailand were compared in order to assess the possibility of using one of the rapid methods for routine analysis. enumeration of coliforms and e. coli from 18 samples of regular frozen black tiger shrimp and 156 samples of frozen black tiger s ...200312457585
the people and the tiger.wildlife protection activities in ranthambhore in rajasthan state in 1993, and conditions of overpopulation and expanded grazing were described. project tiger is an ambitious program begun in the 1970s to protect the habitat of the tiger in ranthambhore national park. forest park protection is limited by corrupt, poorly trained staff, who are unmotivated to protect the established sanctuaries. tiger counts declined from 45 in the 1980s to 25 in 1993. between 1988 and 1993, the ranthambhore f ...199412318865
tiger cubs and little flowers.short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in morocco. descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (fp) knowledge, the impact of fp outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. in morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. in rural areas girls are hidden by having them ...199312318178
induction of peroxide and superoxide protective enzymes and physiological cross-protection against peroxide killing by a superoxide generator in vibrio harveyi.vibrio harveyi is a causative agent of destructive luminous vibriosis in farmed black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon). v. harveyi peroxide and superoxide stress responses toward elevated levels of a superoxide generated by menadione were investigated. exposure of v. harveyi to sub-lethal concentrations of menadione induced high expression of genes in both the oxyr regulon (e.g., a monofunctional catalase or kata and an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit c or ahpc), and the soxrs regulon (e.g., ...200312694915
exotic snake bite: a challenge for the scandinavian anesthesiologist?venomous snake bites are uncommon in the scandinavian countries. envenomation from exotic snakes do however occur, mostly amongst snake handlers. this case report documents the effects and treatment for envenomation from hoplocephalus bungaroides, or the broad-headed snake, native to eastern and southern australia. snakes of the genus hoplocephalus have previously been described as of 'lesser medical importance' because of their rarity.200312631054
preparation of spent brewer's yeast beta-glucans with a potential application as an immunostimulant for black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.spent brewer's yeast was autolysed and the insoluble yeast cell wall fraction obtained was used as a raw material for the preparation of brewer's yeast beta-glucan (byg). a simple alkaline extraction was applied and optimized. the byg with significantly (p</=0.05) high carbohydrate and glucan contents of 92% and 51% (w/w), respectively and with a low protein content of 1.6% (w/w) was obtained by a single alkaline extraction using 5 volumes of 1.0 n naoh at 90 degrees c for 1 h. in vitro, this gl ...200312573564
vulnerable to hiv / aids. migration.this special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in southeast asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and hiv/aids, and spatial mobility and social networks. migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. effective control of hiv/aids among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. programs should critically revi ...199812294627
cannabinoid receptor activation differentially modulates ion channels in photoreceptors of the tiger salamander.cannabinoid cb1 receptors have been detected in retinas of numerous species, with prominent labeling in photoreceptor terminals of the chick and monkey. cb1 labeling is well-conserved across species, suggesting that cb1 receptors might also be present in photoreceptors of the tiger salamander. synaptic transmission in vertebrate photoreceptors is mediated by l-type calcium currents-currents that are modulated by cb1 receptors in bipolar cells of the tiger salamander. presence of cb1 receptors in ...200312740409
complete mitochondrial dna sequence of a tadpole shrimp (triops cancriformis) and analysis of museum samples.the complete mitochondrial dna (mtnda) of the tadpole shrimp triops cancriformis was sequenced. the sequence consisted of 15,101 bp with an a+t content of 69%. its gene arrangement was identical with those sequences of the water flea (daphnia pulex) and giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), whereas it differed from that of the brine shrimp (artemia franciscana) in the arrangement of its genes for trnas. phylogenetic analysis revealed t. cancriformis to be more closely related to the water flea th ...200212481263
irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at brookfield zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. fifteen cats, two african lions (panthera leo), two amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), one amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (felis caracal), one bobcat (felis rufus), and five fishin ...200112785680
toxoplasma gondii antibodies in exotic wild felids from brazilian zoos.serum samples from 37 captive exotic felids in 12 zoos from six brazilian states were assayed for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. titers greater than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 24 of 37 (64.9%) felids, including one european lynx (lynx lynx), two jungle cats (felis chaus), two servals (leptailurus serval), two tigers (panthera tigris), three leopards (panthera pardus), ...200112785684
adult hallervorden-spatz syndrome simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.hallervorden-spatz syndrome (hss) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, dystonia, ataxia, and rigidity. an atypical form of adult-onset hss was observed in a 36-year-old man presenting with progressive dysarthria. markedly dysarthric speech and a weak atrophic tongue associated with a neurogenic pattern of motor unit recruitment in bulbar-supplied muscles on electromyography led to an initial impression of bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als). lack of expec ...200312811783
aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed and effects of aflatoxin addition to feed on shrimp production.one hundred fifty samples of shrimp feed were collected from the eastern and southern regions of thailand, and aflatoxins b1, b2, g1, and g2 (afb1, afb2, afg1, and afg2) in them were analyzed. afb1 contamination ranged from a nondetectable level (< 0.003 ppb) to 0.651 ppb. metabolites of afb1 were less abundant than afb1. to study the effects of aflatoxin in feed on shrimp production, black tiger shrimp were divided into four groups of 30 shrimp per group, tested in triplicate, and fed diets con ...200312747701
living amidst large wildlife: livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of bhadra tiger reserve, south india.conflict with humans over livestock and crops seriously undermines the conservation prospects of india's large and potentially dangerous mammals such as the tiger (panthera tigris) and elephant (elephas maximus). this study, carried out in bhadra tiger reserve in south india, estimates the extent of material and monetary loss incurred by resident villagers between 1996 and 1999 in conflicts with large felines and elephants, describes the spatiotemporal patterns of animal damage, and evaluates th ...200312677293
comparison of the in vitro neuromuscular activity of venom from three australian snakes (hoplocephalus stephensi, austrelaps superbus and notechis scutatus): efficacy of tiger snake antivenom.1. tiger snake antivenom, raised against notechis scutatus venom, is indicated not only for the treatment of envenomation by this snake, but also that of the copperhead (austrelaps superbus) and stephen's banded snake (hoplocephalus stephensi). the present study compared the neuromuscular pharmacology of venom from these snakes and the in vitro efficacy of tiger snake antivenom. 2. in chick biventer cervicis muscle and mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations, all venoms (3-10 microg/ml) produ ...200312603339
time-course and levels of apoptosis in various tissues of black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon infected with white-spot syndrome virus.this study focused on apoptosis in various tissues of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon following white spot syndrome virus (wssv) injection. the study included: (1) light microscopy (lm) and transmission electron microscopy (tem) of various tissues; (2) fluorescent lm of nuclear dna by staining with 4, 6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole dihydrochloride (dapi) and tdt-mediated dutp nick-end labelling (tunel) techniques; and (3) determination of caspase-3 activity. juvenile p. monodon were injected ...200312887248
pharmacological characterization of p2y receptor subtypes on isolated tiger salamander müller cells.müller cells express a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that permit them to "sense" the extracellular environment within the retina. we have used a battery of agonists and antagonists to characterize the purinergic receptor subtypes expressed on isolated tiger salamander müller cells. changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([ca(2+)](i)) in müller cells were measured using the ca(2+) indicator dye fura-2 and digital imaging microscopy. atp, 2-methylthio-atp, 2-methylthio-adp, adp ...200312655599
conservation of biodiversity of the coastal resources of sundarbans, northeast india: an integrated approach through environmental education.the indian sundarbans, a diversified coastal wetland on the southern fringe of the state of west bengal, harbors a luxuriant biodiversity and acts as a potential refuge of living marine resources. girdled with thick mangrove foliage, this estuarine delta system offers an excellent nursery ground for most of the brackishwater finfish and shellfish. since supply of hatchery-produced tiger prawn seed (penaeus monodon) is highly inadequate in west bengal, the aquaculture farms of this region largely ...200312787629
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of herbicide resistance in creeping bentgrass and colonial bentgrass.embryogenic calli were induced from the seeds of creeping bentgrass (agrostis palustris huds.) cv. regent and colonial bentgrass (agrostis tenuis sibth. fl. oxen.) cv. tiger. the embryogenic calli were precultured on fresh medium for 4-7 days and then co-cultivated with agrobacterium tumefaciens, lba4404, which contains plasmid vector-psbgm harboring bar coding region, synthetic green fluorescent protein (sgfp) coding region and matrix attachment region (mar). after 3 days of co-cultivation, the ...200312765291
unraveling the hallervorden-spatz syndrome: pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is the name.after the recent discovery of the major genetic defect in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (nbia, formerly hallervorden-spatz syndrome), this heterogeneous group of disorders can now be differentiated by clinical, radiographic, and molecular features.200314631201
enhanced growth and resistance to vibrio challenge in pond-reared black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon fed a bacillus probiotic.the bacterial probiont bacillus s11 (bs11) was used as a supplement in feed (pf) for black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in 2 earthen pond field-trials carried out for 100 d during 2 different seasons in thailand. growth and survival were compared with those of shrimp receiving an unsupplemented feed (uf). in the hot and cool seasons, respectively, shrimp fed pf grew significantly larger and had significantly higher survival than shrimp fed uf (p < 0.05). projected yields on an annual basis (two ...200312911065
diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events.in 1998 viruses were isolated from tiger salamander larvae (ambystoma tigrinum diaboli and a. tigrinum melanostictum) involved in north dakota and utah (usa) mortality events and spotted salamander (a. maculatum) larvae in a third event in maine (usa). although sympatric caudates and anurans were present at all three sites only ambystomid larvae appeared to be affected. mortality at the north dakota site was in the thousands while at the utah and maine sites mortality was in the hundreds. sick l ...200314567216
animal fats. 6. the component acids of tiger fat and of puma fat. 195514363118
australian tiger snake (notechis scutatus) and mexican coral snake (micruris species) antivenoms prevent death from united states coral snake (micrurus fulvius fulvius) venom in a mouse model.wyeth-ayerst has discontinued production of antivenin (micrurus fulvius). currently, there is no other approved coral snake antivenom available in the united states.200312645961
[unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. these glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi ...200312942753
susceptibility of cultured juveniles of several marine fish to the sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus.piscine nodaviruses (betanodaviruses) have been tentatively divided into four genotypes (sjnnv, rgnnv, tpnnv and bfnnv) and it is suggested that host specificity is different among these genotypes. in the present study, a betanodavirus [sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (sgnnv)] belonging to the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (rgnnv) genotype, to which most betanodaviruses from warm water fish are identified, was evaluated for its pathogenicity to hatchery-reared juveniles of s ...200312962219
[enhanced expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription in lung tissue of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rat models].to investigate the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription (stats) in the lung tissue of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (hph) rat models.200314636463
mucus ph of the tiger puffer takifugu rubripes is an important factor for host identification by the monogenean heterobothrium okamotoi.we examined a host-finding factor of the monogenean heterobothrium okamotoi oncomiracidia to develop an alternative prophylaxis. h. okamotoi oncomiracidia attached preferentially to gill filaments and skin mucus from the tiger puffer takifugu rubripes compared with corresponding material from other tested fishes (amber jack seriola dumerili, red sea bream pagrus major, japanese flounder paralichthys olivaceus and spotted halibut verasper variegatus). the body mucus ph of the tiger puffer was 6.4 ...200312964825
evidence for multiple pleistocene refugia in the postglacial expansion of the eastern tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum.pleistocene glaciations were important determinants of historical migration and, hence, current levels of genetic diversity within and among populations. in many cases, these historical migrations led to the existence of disjunct populations of plants and animals. however, the origin and timing of arrival of these disjunct populations is often debated. in the current study, we identify potential refugia and estimate the timing of vicariance events of the eastern tiger salamander, ambystoma tigri ...200312683533
genomic sequence of a ranavirus (family iridoviridae) associated with salamander mortalities in north america.disease is among the suspected causes of amphibian population declines, and an iridovirus and a chytrid fungus are the primary pathogens associated with amphibian mortalities. ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv) and a closely related strain, regina ranavirus (rrv), are implicated in salamander die-offs in arizona and canada, respectively. we report the complete sequence of the atv genome and partial sequence of the rrv genome. sequence analysis of the atv/rrv genomes showed marked similarity to other ...200314599794
quantification of listeria spp. contamination on shell and flesh of cooked black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon).to quantify listeria levels on the shell and flesh of artificially contaminated cooked prawns after peeling, and determine the efficacy of listeria innocua as a model for l. monocytogenes in this system.200312969494
culture and phenotypic characterization of a wolbachia pipientis isolate.the recent isolation of wolbachia pipientis in the continuous cell line aa23, established from eggs of a strain of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus, allowed us to perform extensive characterization of the isolate. bacterial growth could be obtained in c6/36, another a. albopictus cell line, at 28 degrees c and in a human embryonic lung fibroblast monolayer at 28 and 37 degrees c, confirming that its host cell range is broader than was initially thought. the bacteria were best visualized ...200314662922
establishment of proliferative cell nuclear antigen gene as an internal reference gene for polymerase chain reaction of a wide range of archival and fresh mammalian tissues.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from paraffin-embedded tissues provides a powerful tool to amplify dna from a variety of recent and archival material. because dna from paraffin-embedded samples is more degraded than from fresh material, the amplification of reference genes is essential to exclude false-negative results. this study describes the use of the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (pcna) gene as a reference gene in a range of animal species and in humans. the pcna-pcr to amplify a fragm ...200314667025
a novel xenopus sws2, p434 visual pigment: structure, cellular location, and spectral analyses.the purpose of this study was to clone and characterize the green rod pigment in xenopus laevis.200312764253
drug resistance in nematodes: a paper tiger or a real problem?the purpose of this review is to illustrate where drug resistance in parasitic nematodes has become a major problem. the mechanisms underlying anthelmintic resistance, the possible reasons for the development of anthelmintic resistance, and recommendations to minimize the further development of anthelmintic resistance in humans will be addressed.200314624106
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
tiger-snake venom: attempted resuscitation in rabbits. 195413193255
crouching tiger, hidden dragon: the laboratory diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. 200414699466
helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats.insights into bacterium-host interactions and genome evolution can emerge from comparisons among related species. here we studied helicobacter acinonychis (formerly h. acinonyx), a species closely related to the human gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori. two groups of strains were identified by randomly amplified polymorphic dna fingerprinting and gene sequencing: one group from six cheetahs in a u.s. zoo and two lions in a european circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybr ...200414702304
antagonism between the actions of staphylococcal toxin and tiger snake venom. 195813566063
identification of haemobartonella felis (mycoplasma haemofelis) in captive nondomestic cats.this study was undertaken to determine whether haemobartonella felis (mycoplasma haemofelis), the causative bacterial agent of feline infectious anemia, infects nondomestic cats. routine complete blood count and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were performed to detect the gene for 16s ribosomal rna for the organism. sixty-four blood samples were collected from 54 nondomestic cats, including tigers (panthera tigris), cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), lions (p. leo), mountain lions (felis concolor), sn ...200312885130
molecular cloning and characterization of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) transglutaminase.transglutaminases (tg) are important for blood coagulation and post-translation remodeling of proteins. using a plaque screening assay, we isolated cdna encoding a novel tg from a shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocyte cdna library. the tg cdna consists of 2988 bp with an open reading frame of 2271 bp. the deduced protein has 757 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 84,713 da and an isoelectric point of 5.56. neither a typical hydrophobic leader sequence nor a transmembrane domain coul ...200414698215
blastomycosis in nondomestic felids.blastomycosis was diagnosed in six nondomestic felids from eastern tennessee, including two asian lions (panthera leo persicus), one african lion (panthera leo), one siberian tiger (panthera tigris), one cheetah (acinonyx jubatus), and one snow leopard (panthera uncia). clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, dyspnea, sneezing. ataxia, and paresis. variable nonspecific changes included leukocytosis, monocytosis, moderate left shift of neutrophils, moderate hypercalcemia, hyperpr ...200314582783
[changes of interleukin-6 and janus kinases in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].to investigate the expressions of interleukin 6 (il-6) and janus kinases (jaks) in rats with hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension (hph).200314703438
immunolocalization of allatostatin-like neuropeptides and their putative receptor in eyestalks of the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.allatostatin (ast)-like immunoreactivity (ir) was localized in the eyestalk of penaeus monodon by immunohistochemistry using four anti-ast antibodies. depending on the antisera, ast-like immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal bodies of the lamina ganglionalis, cell bodies anterior to the medulla externa and cell bodies on the anterior and posterior of the medulla terminalis. neuronal processes in neuropiles of the medulla externa, medulla terminalis, sinus gland and nerve fibers in the optic ...200314706535
expression of biologically active crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) of penaeus monodon in pichia pastoris.crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh), molt-inhibiting hormone (mih), and gonad-inhibiting hormone (gih) are members of a major peptide family produced from the x-organ sinus gland complex in the eyestalk of crustaceans. this peptide family plays important roles in controlling several physiologic processes such as regulation of growth and reproduction. in this study the complementary dna encoding a peptide related to the chh/mih/gih family (so-called pem-cmg) of the black tiger prawn penaeus mo ...200314719165
pulmonary tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in captive siberian tiger.we report the first case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in a captive siberian tiger, an endangered feline. the pathogen was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained by bronchoscopy. this procedure provided a reliable in vivo diagnostic method in conjunction with conventional and molecular tests for the detection of mycobacteria.200314718093
serological relationships among genotypic variants of betanodavirus.betanodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, are divided into 4 genotypes based on the coat protein gene (rna2). in the present study, serological relationships among betanodavirus genotypic variants were examined by virus neutralization tests using rabbit antisera raised against purified virions of strains representative of each genotype. all 20 isolates examined shared epitopes for neutralizing, but they fell into 3 major serotypes (a ...200314735917
neural impacts on the regeneration of skeletal muscles.the regeneration of skeletal muscles is a suitable model to study the development and differentiation of contractile tissues. neural effects are one of the key factors in the regulation of this process. in the present work, effects of different reinnervation protocols (suture or grafting) were studied upon the regenerative capacity of rat soleus muscles treated with the venom of the australian tiger snake, notexin, which is known to induce complete necrosis and subsequent regeneration of muscles ...200314740009
identification of gyrkppfngsifamide (crustacean-sifamide) in the crayfish procambarus clarkii by topological mass spectrometry analysis.a new concept relating to the purification protocol for biological proteins and peptides has been designed as "topological mass spectrometry analysis," in combination with maldi-tof ms using slices of tissues, chromatographic purification from the extract of tissues, molecular cloning for the determination of the precursor structure, and capillary lc-ms/ms analysis for elucidation of its posttranslational modifications. in an actual application, we identified an alpha-amidated neuropeptide from ...200414723891
identification of immune-related genes in hemocytes of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).an expressed sequence tag (est) library was constructed from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) to identify genes associated with immunity in this economically important species. the number of complementary dna clones in the constructed library was approximately 4 x 10(5). of these, 615 clones having inserts larger than 500 bp were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed by homology searches against data in genbank. significant homology to known genes was found in 314 (51%) of ...200214961242
development of vitellogenin-elisa, an in vivo bioassay, and identification of two vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones of the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the quantification of vitellogenin in the hemolymph of penaeus monodon is reported. lipovitellin from the mature ovary was purified using hydroxylapatite column chromatography and used as the standard protein, which was serially diluted from 3336 to 6.51 microg and gave a linear plot. sensitivity results showed elisa was insensitive to samples that did not contain vitellogenin or lipovitellin. specificity results showed the degree of the d ...200114961329
genetic heterogeneity of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand revealed by rapd and mitochondrial dna rflp analyses.genetic diversity of the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) collected from 5 areas, chumphon and trat (gulf of thailand), and phangnga, satun, and trang (andaman sea), was examined by randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and mitochondrial dna (16s ribosomal dna and an intergenic coi-coii) polymorphism. a total of 53 polymorphic fragments from ubc299, ubc273, and ubc268 was consistently scored across all samples. from the respective primers 26, 32, and 30 genotypes were generated. a 260-bp ...200114961335
access to information about harm and safety in spider fearful and nonfearful individuals: when they were good they were very very good but when they were bad they were horrid.this study tests two alternative hypotheses about how phobic information is processed in spider fearful and nonfearful individuals: (1) the threat-related cognitive set hypothesis and (2) the dimensions hypothesis. counter to the traditional cognitive model of fear, the dimensions hypothesis predicts that spider fearful individuals tend to prioritise the harm-safety dimension when evaluating animal stimuli, and the consequent stretching of that evaluative dimension will confer advantage to the a ...200314972673
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