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immunocytochemical localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporters in the tiger salamander retina.gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) plasma membrane transporters (gats) play an important role in regulating gaba neurotransmission in the nervous system. the distribution of two gats, gat 1 and gat 3, in salamander retina was investigated by using affinity-purified polyclonal antisera directed to the predicted c-terminals of rat gat 1 and rat gat 3. gat 1-immunoreactivity (-ir) was found in type ib and iib orthotopic bipolar cells (bcs) located in the distal and middle of the inner nuclear layer (in ...19979390763
phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes derived from penaeus monodon and macrobrachium rosenbergii.the phenoloxidase (po) activity of hemocyte lysate supernatant (hls) from both tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and giant freshwater prawn (macro-branchium rosenbergii) was examined by treating hls with various factors, such as an increase in temperatures from 25 to 70 degrees c, one of four elicitors (beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, zymosan, heat-killed vibrio cells, and lipopolysaccharide), trypsin, one of three protease inhibitors (soybean trypsin inhibitor, p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate, and benzami ...19989446734
[anatomo-functional consideration of an aponeurosis on the caudal radiocarpus in the tiger, lion and domestic cat (panthera tigris, panthera leo and felis catus)].this study describes a strong aponeurosis on the caudal surface of the antebrachium, between the mm. flexoris and the m. pronator quadratus. this aponeurosis has not been experimentally validated. by dissection and macroscopic examination of formaldehyde-prepared material, and experimental surgical transection of the structure in f. catus, the aponeurosis is described and its functional capacity is determined. the origin of the aponeurosis is the facies caudalis, margo medialis of the radius and ...19979454511
action potentials are required for the lateral transmission of glycinergic transient inhibition in the amphibian retina.transient lateral inhibition (tli), the suppression of responses of a ganglion cell to light stimuli in the receptive field center by changes in illumination in the receptive field surround, was studied in light-adapted mud puppy and tiger salamander retinas using both eyecup and retinal slice preparations. in the eyecup, tli was measured in on-off ganglion cells as the ability of rotating, concentric windmill patterns of 500-1200 micron inner diameter to suppress the response to a small spot st ...19989482814
spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (scmc) in various mammalian species and chickens: selective reaction pattern and different mechanisms.cultured cell lines derived from donors of various species served as 75se- or 51cr-labelled targets in microcytotoxicity assays. as in human donors, considerable spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (scmc) was exhibited by peripheral blood lymphoid effector cells from healthy chickens, mink, swine, cattle, horses and tigers. although all target lines tested could be lysed in scmc, there was no 'general scmc target' for all species or all individuals of one species. the selectivity, the kinetic ...19809537048
generalized aa-amyloidosis in siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition.generalized amyloidosis with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition was found in four closely related siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) suffering from end stage kidney diseases. only minimal to mild amounts of amyloid were deposited in various organs outside the kidneys with individually variable organ involvement. the congo red staining affinity of amyloid deposits was sensitive to potassium permanganate oxidation. the deposits were further characterized as being of the amyloid- ...19989545138
snake bites recorded by veterinary practices in australia.to determine the extent of the snake bite problem in domestic animals, its regional significance and the effects of antivenom treatment.19989578756
isolation and characterization of laminin-10/11 secreted by human lung carcinoma cells. laminin-10/11 mediates cell adhesion through integrin alpha3 beta1.a panel of human tumor cell lines was screened for selective expression of laminin alpha5 chain, a newly identified laminin subunit comprising laminin-10 (alpha5 beta1 gamma1) and -11 (alpha5 beta2 gamma1). the lung adenocarcinoma cell line a549 was found to express the alpha5 chain at relatively high levels but no detectable amounts of other alpha chains. the laminin variants containing alpha5 chain were purified from the conditioned medium of a549 cells by immunoaffinity chromatography using t ...19989624186
age-related changes in the tiger salamander retina.tiger salamanders have been used in visual science because of the large size of their cells and the ease of preparation and maintenance of in vitro retinal preparations. we have found that salamanders over 27 cm in length show a variety of visual abnormalities. compared to smaller animals (15-23 cm), large animals exhibited a decrease in visual responses determined by tests of the optomotor reflex. small animals responded correctly an average of 84.5% of the time in visual testing at three light ...19989631666
a preliminary study of ribosomal dna polymorphism in the tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.the preliminary study of rdna polymorphisms in p. monodon showed that inter- and intraindividual polymorphisms of rdna were clearly observed in this species. individual-specific rdna restriction patterns were observed when digested with bamhi and saci. the intergenic spacers (igs) region of p. monodon rdna plays an important role in length heteroplasmy at both between- and within-individual levels in this species.19989701643
volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns.analysis of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from king (penaeus plebejus), banana (p. merguiensis), tiger (p. esculentus/semisulcatus) and greasy (metapenaeus bennettae) prawns stored in ice or ice slurry, which is effectively an environment of low oxygen tension, indicated the presence of amines at the early stages of storage (less than 8 days) irrespective of the nature of the storage media. esters were more prevalent in prawns stored on ice (normal oxygen conditions ...19989706797
chronic gastritis in tigers associated with helicobacter acinonyx.helicobacter pylori-like organisms (hplos) were isolated from the gastric mucosa of two sumatran tigers and identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis as helicobacter acinonyx. at histological examination, both tigers revealed a chronic gastritis associated with hplos as demonstrated by immunolabelling and electron microscopy. this is the first isolation of h. acinonyx from tigers, in which, as previously reported in cheetahs, it may be a cause of gastritis.19989717128
gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.nine small cats, including one bobcat (felis rufus), one pallas cat (f. manul), one canada lynx (f. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (f. viverrina), two margays (f. wiedii), and two sand cats (f. margarita), necropsied between june 1995 and march 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one african lion (panthera leo), two snow leopards (p. uncia), one siberian tiger (p. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (p. onca), necropsied during the same period ha ...19989732040
diurnal variation and effects of feeding on blood glucose in the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.previous studies on crustacea have demonstrated significant diurnal rhythms in blood glucose. however, glucose concentration in the blood of food-deprived penaeus monodon, held in indoor or outdoor tanks, did not exhibit a diurnal rhythm under photoperiods of 8 h light and 16 h darkness (8l: 16d) or under a 13.5l: 9.5d photoperiod, with simulated or natural full moon conditions. prawns held on photoperiods of constant light, 20l : 4d, 16l : 8d, 12l : 12d, 8l : 16d, 4l : 20d, or continuous darkne ...19989754534
experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) from crabs to shrimp penaeus monodon.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) of the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in thailand and elsewhere in asia. three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. these were sesarma sp., scylla serrata and uca pugilator. all these crabs could be infected with wssv by injection and they sustained heavy viral in ...19989789973
histopathology of cultured shrimp showing gross signs of yellow head syndrome and white spot syndrome during 1994 indian epizootics.two epizootics of cultured shrimp occurred in india in 1994. the first case of mass mortalities of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in july 1994 was very similar to that caused by yellowhead virus (yhv) infection with regard to gross clinical signs, host species and size of shrimp affected, but it was histologically atypical. very interestingly, intranuclear inclusions typical of a white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection were present in shrimp showing gross signs of yellow head syndrome, suggesti ...19989789974
the cardiovascular, coagulation and haematological effects of tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom.the cardiovascular, coagulation and haematological effects of tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom were investigated in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. intravenous infusion of venom caused dose-related systemic hypotension, low cardiac output, pulmonary hypertension and raised pulmonary artery occlusion pressure. these effects occurred within several minutes of venom administration but recovered over 30 to 40 minutes. they were accompanied by prolongation of prothrombin and activat ...19989807609
the cardiovascular, coagulation and haematological effects of tiger snake (notechis scutatus) prothrombin activator and investigation of release of vasoactive substances.the cardiovascular, coagulation and haematological effects of prothrombin activator from tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom were investigated in anaesthetized mechanically ventilated dogs. infusion caused dose-related systemic hypotension, marked decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume, marked increases in pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. effects occurred within several minutes but abated over 30 to 40 minutes. evidence of ...19989807610
severe multi-system failure following delayed presentation with tiger snake envenomation.a 68 year-old-man presented some twelve hours after a presumed tiger snake bite with coagulopathy, paralysis and muscle necrosis. he suffered multi-system failure requiring prolonged ventilation, haemodialysis and supportive care, to be discharged after 26 days. delays to antivenom therapy after tiger snake envenomation can result in significant morbidity. australian snakes are the most venomous in the world.19989807618
entomoplasma freundtii sp. nov., a new species from a green tiger beetle (coleoptera: cicindelidae).a mollicute (strain barc 318t) isolated from gut tissue of a green tiger beetle (coleoptera: cicindelidae) was found by dark-field microscopy to consist of non-helical, non-motile, pleomorphic coccoid forms of various sizes. in ultrastructural studies, individual cells varied in diameter from 300 to 1200 nm, were surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and showed no evidence of cell wall. the organisms were readily filterable through membrane filters with mean pore diameters of 450 and 300 nm, with ...19989828421
genetic structure in wild populations of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) using randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was used to examine genetic variation in wild black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. specimens were collected from five geographically separated locations (satun-trang, phangnga, and medan in the andaman sea and chumphon and trad in the gulf of thailand). a total of 100 p. monodon individuals were investigated using seven arbitrarily selected primers. fifty-eight (72.5%) of eighty reproducible rapd fragments ranging in size from 200 to 2200 bp wer ...19989852621
regulation of sperm function by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in diverse wild felid species.protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction in several mammalian species. changes in phosphorylation of a 95-kda protein in human, mouse, and domestic cat spermatozoa are known to be influenced by capacitation and exposure to zona pellucida (zp) proteins. we previously reported diminished phosphorylation of 95- and 160-kda proteins in spermatozoa from teratospermic cats, compared with normospermic domestic cats. to determine if these proteins ...19989876019
the hemolymph clottable proteins of tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and related species.a clottable protein was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) by sequential deae anion-exchange chromatography. the protein formed stable clots in the presence of ca2+ and the transglutaminase in hemocyte lysate. it is thermostable at temperatures up to 66 degrees c. the molecular mass of the clottable protein was determined to be 380 kda by sds-page and maldi-tof mass spectrometry, and the protein exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. the size and amino ac ...19989972292
deficiency of cytosolic arylamine n-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single nat1-like gene.the purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine n-acetyltransferase (nat), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, nat1 and nat2. n-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean km = 2.1 microm) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an nat1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean km > 10 mm) f ...199810022754
convergent strabismus in a white bengal tiger.a white bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. the tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. a fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically ...199910197239
contaminated soiled linens: a tiger or a pussy cat. part ii. 198910292459
contaminated soiled linens: a tiger or a pussy cat. part iii. 198910292731
contaminated soiled linens: a tiger or a pussy cat. part iv. 198910294059
contaminated soiled linen: a tiger or a pussy cat. 198910314335
comparative genome organization of the major histocompatibility complex: lessons from the felidae.the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has taught both immunologists and evolutionary biologists a great deal about the patterns and processes that have led to immune defenses. driven principally by human and mouse studies, comparative mhc projects among other mammalian species offer certain advantages in connecting mhc genome characters to natural situations. we have studied the mhc in the domestic cat and in several wild species of felidae. our observations affirm class i and cla ...199910319256
mitochondrial dna diversity in three populations of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.: mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtdna-rflp) was utilized for determination of genetic variation and population structure in penaeus monodon collected from satun (the andaman sea) and surat and trat (the gulf of thailand). twenty-eight composite haplotypes were generated from 52 restriction profiles of p. monodon mtdna digested with 11 restriction endonucleases. the size of the entire p. monodon mitochondrial genome was estimated to be 15.913 +/- 0.177 kb. the averag ...199910373619
complementary dna encoding nm23/ndp kinase gene from the korean tiger shark scyliorhinus torazame.: a new tumor suppressor gene, snm23, homologous to the gene for human nucleoside diphosphate kinase nm23/ndp was first cloned from korean tiger shark (scyliorhinus torazame) skin lambda zap-ii complementary dna library. the gene (named snm23) containing the tumor metastasis suppressor protein was sequenced. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of snm23 revealed an open reading frame of 450 bp that corresponded to a protein of 150 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass ...199910373621
cysteine protease is a major exotoxin of pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi in the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.the role of an extracellular cysteine protease, produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi strain 820514 originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), in the disease process in the prawns was studied. the protease was lethal to p. monodon with an ld50 value of 0.3 microgram protein g-1 prawn. the lethal toxicity of the extracellular products (ecp) of the bacterium was neutralized by pre-incubation of the ecp with rabbit antiserum to the cysteine protease. pre-incubation of ...199910389258
molecular cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.a cdna encoding shrimp, penaeus monodon, prophenoloxidase (propo) was obtained by screening a hemocyte library by plaque hybridization using a propo cdna fragment from freshwater crayfish, pacifastaceus leniusculus, as a probe. the 3,002 bp cdna contains an open reading frame of 2,121 bp and a 881 bp 3'-untranslated region. the molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (688 amino acids) is 78,700 da with an estimated pi of 5.8. two putative copper binding sites are present and they have ...199910402205
aedes albopictus in the united states: current status and prospects for further spread.since its initial discovery in the continental usa in 1985, the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, has spread rapidly throughout the eastern part of the country. infestations of ae. albopictus now have been reported to the centers for disease control and prevention from 919 counties in 26 states in the continental usa. this species is believed to be established in 911 counties in 25 states. single individuals or small numbers of ae. albopictus have been intercepted and destroyed in 3 additi ...199910412117
sharp-force trauma analysis and the forensic anthropologist: techniques advocated by william r. maples, ph.d.forensic anthropological tenets supported by william r. maples, ph.d. provide the bases for a case study from the c.a. pound human identification laboratory. using a multidisciplinary team that included police investigators, pathologists, odontologists, entomologists, and anthropologists, a biological profile and trauma analysis was constructed. our analysis determined that the decedent was a middle-aged hispanic male, approximately 5'6"-5'7" in stature, who had died a minimum of three months be ...199910432606
pathology, isolation, and preliminary molecular characterization of a novel iridovirus from tiger salamanders in saskatchewan.all iridovirus was confirmed to be the cause of an epizootic in larval and adult tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum diaboli) from four separate ponds in southern saskatchewan (canada) during the summer of 1997. this organism also is suspected, based on electron microscopic findings, to be the cause of mortality of larval tiger salamanders in a pond over 200 km to the north during the same year. salamanders developed a generalized viremia which resulted in various lesions including: necrotizin ...199910479075
active immunisation of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) against vibriosis in thailand.mechanisms of host defence in crustaceae and vibriosis in shrimp and methods for its prevention are discussed as introduction. the own work deals with the development of a site-specific multivalent anti-vibrio vaccine and its application in thailand. the vaccine was produced in a continuous bioreactor system from field strains of vibrio alginolyticus, v. harveyi, v. parahaemolyticus and v. vulnificus, purified through ultrafiltration, and inactivated by formalin. it was applied to penaeus monodo ...199910486986
ovarian function in the giant tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) as determined by in vitro bioassay.ovary tissue fragments of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon were incubated in vitro with l-methionine[35s] plus l-cysteine[35s] as a metabolic labeling reagent. the labeled cytoplasmic and secreted proteins synthesized in vitro during incubations under various conditions were subjected to sds polyacrylamide electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. vitellogenin (vg) was immunologically identified and shown to be actively synthesized and released into the incubation medium. the synth ...199910521326
tissue-specific expressed sequence tags from the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.: expressed sequence tag data were generated from complementary dna libraries created from cephalothorax, eyestalk, and pleopod tissue of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). significant database matches were found for 48 of 83 nuclear genes sequenced from the cephalothorax library, 22 of 55 nuclear genes from the eyestalk library, and 6 of 13 nuclear genes from the pleopod library. the putative identities of these genes reflected the expected tissue specificity. for example, genes for dige ...199910525681
molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).to investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kda was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) by sequential deae anion exchange chromatography. the purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of ca2+. the clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. its conformation is stable in buffer of ph 4-9. to solve its primary ...199910561606
hemostasis of tiger prawn penaeus monodon affected by vibrio harveyi, extracellular products, and a toxic cysteine protease.the effects of bacterial cells, extracellular products (ecp) and a purified cysteine protease of vibrio harveyi on hemostasis and plasma components of tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) were studied. the clotting ability of the hemolymph withdrawn from moribund prawns pre-injected with the bacteria, ecp, cysteine protease of pbs (control) was observed for 2 h at 25 c. of these, only the control group was clottable while all the other groups were unclottable. a component of the plasma, previously iden ...199910575544
immunochemical analysis and immunocytochemical localization of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the eyestalk of macrobrachium rosenbergii.heptapeptide (yanavqv-nh2 = t-) and octapeptide (yanavqtv-nh2 = t+), the putative c-terminus of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) from the eyestalk of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii, was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and conjugated to bovine serum albumin, then used for immunization in swiss mice. specificity of the antisera against both peptides was determined by indirect immunoperoxidase elisa. the best response of antiserum against each peptide was us ...199910582322
cannabinoid cb1 receptors and ligands in vertebrate retina: localization and function of an endogenous signaling system.cb1, a cannabinoid receptor enriched in neuronal tissue, was found in high concentration in retinas of rhesus monkey, mouse, rat, chick, goldfish, and tiger salamander by using a subtype-specific polyclonal antibody. immunolabeling was detected in the two synaptic layers of the retina, the inner and outer plexiform layers, of all six species examined. in the outer plexiform layer, cb1 was located in and/or on cone pedicles and rod spherules. labeling was detected in some amacrine cells of all sp ...199910588745
electrophoretic characterization of a novel cysteine protease produced by vibrio harveyi.electrophoretic characterization of a novel cysteine protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi, originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn penaeus monodon in taiwan, is demonstrated in the present study using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native page), sodium dodecyl sulfate-page (sds-page), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie) and isoelectric focusing (ief) gels. the protease has a pi of 6.4 and exhibits a fast-migrating feature in native-page and cie gels indicatin ...199910608698
progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in thailand.primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, in double-strength leibovitz's l-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/l nacl, 15% shrimp meat extract. the optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in l-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees c and incubation in a normal atmosphere. however, basal medium supplemented ...199910627677
genetic characterization of feline parvovirus sequences from various carnivores.infections with viruses of the feline parvovirus subgroup such as feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), mink enteritis virus (mev) and canine parvovirus (cpv-2) [together with its new antigenic types (cpv-2a, cpv-2b)] have been reported from several wild carnivore species. to examine the susceptibility of different species to the various parvoviruses and their antigenic types, samples from wild carnivores with acute parvovirus infections were collected. viral dna was amplified, and subsequently anal ...200010644832
sulfakinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. isolation, identification andtissue localization in the tiger prawn penaeus monodon.the sulfakinin (sk) family of neuropeptides are characterized by a c-terminal octapeptide sequence that begins with two acidic residues (most commonly dd), and ends with yghmrf-nh2, usually with the tyrosyl residue sulfated. so far, sulfakinins have only been identified in insects and the present study was initiated to investigate if the family is more widely distributed within the arthropods. purification of an extract of the central nervous system of the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon has r ...200010672025
the neurotoxicity of the venom phospholipases a(2), notexin and taipoxin.the presynaptically active, toxic phospholipases known as notexin and taipoxin are principal components of the venom of the australian tiger snake and the australian taipan respectively. the inoculation of the toxins into one hind limb of rats caused, within 1 h, the depletion of transmitter from the motor nerve terminals of the soleus muscle. this was followed by the degeneration of the motor nerve terminals and of the axonal cytoskeleton. by 24 h 70% of muscle fibers were completely denervated ...200010686073
clinical toxicology: a tropical australian perspective.tropical australia has an amazing diversity of venomous fauna, from "the world's most venomous creature," the multi-tentacled (chirodropid) box jellyfish chironex fleckeri, to aggressive spiders whose venom remains to be characterized. all genera of highly venomous australasian elapid snakes are present, except for tiger snakes. most notable is the taipan (oxyuranus scutellatus), with the most efficient "snap-release" biting mechanism of any snake and venom components causing the full constellat ...200010688264
tiger bites. 199910692912
subcutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis in captive tiger quolls (dasyurus maculatus).from july 1989 to october 1998, 9/37 (24%) adult captive tiger quolls (dasyurus maculatus) were diagnosed with atypical mycobacterial infection involving the subcutis and skin. females were more often affected than males (seven females, two males). grossly, lesions presented as focal thickenings, plaques, and abscesses within the subcutis, often with fistulous tracts. the subcutis and skin overlying cervical and thoracic regions were the primary sites of infection. cytology of subcutaneous impre ...200010714642
embryo technology in conservation efforts for endangered felids.most of the 36 species of wild cats are classified as threatened, vulnerable or endangered due to poaching and habitat loss. the important role of assisted reproduction techniques (art) as part of a multifaceted captive breeding program for selected wild cat species is gradually gaining acceptance. this recognition is a result of the progress made during the last decade in which the feasibility of oocyte recovery from gonadotropin-treated females, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation ...200010735071
lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by vibrio alginolyticus strains in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus.toxicity of the extracellular products (ecp) and the lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by five pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus strains from various sources in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus were studied. the ecps of organisms originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn or small abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta were more lethal (ld50 value of 0.48 or 0.41 microg protein/g prawn) than those from diseased tiger prawn p. monodon, yellowfin porgy acanthopagrus latus or horse mac ...200010739107
identification and purification of vitamin k-dependent proteins and peptides with monoclonal antibodies specific for gamma -carboxyglutamyl (gla) residues.novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize gamma-carboxyglutamyl (gla) residues in proteins and peptides have been produced. as demonstrated by western blot and time-resolved immunofluorescence assays the antibodies are pan-specific for most or all of the gla-containing proteins tested (factors vii, ix, and x, prothrombin, protein c, protein s, growth arrest-specific protein 6, bone gla protein, conantokin g from a cone snail, and factor xa-like proteins from snake venom). only the ...200010779512
diagnosis of penaeus monodon-type baculovirus by pcr and by elisa of occlusion bodies.the black tiger prawn penaeus monodon is a valuable aquaculture product in taiwan. two specific diagnostic methods were established for p. monodon-type baculovirus, one using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology and the other enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) technology. monodon-type baculovirus (mbv) was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation from occlusion bodies of mbv-infected postlarvae of p. monodon. mbv dna was subsequently purified from the occlusion bodies and its pre ...200010782342
inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) pathogen vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.expression of luminescence in the penaeus monodon pathogen vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is n-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in v. harveyi are coregulated. in this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone ...200010788385
five crustacean hyperglycemic family hormones of penaeus monodon: complementary dna sequence and identification in single sinus glands by electrospray ionization-fourier transform mass spectrometry.five novel neuropeptides, designated pm-sgp-i to -v, of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) family have been identified from the giant tiger prawn penaeus monodon by isolation of the preprohormone genes from an eyestalk complementary dna library. on the basis of sequence similarity, the encoded peptides have been classified as chh-like type i hormones, which include all known chhs and the molt-inhibiting hormone (mih) of the lobster homarus americanus. consistent with chh type i preprohor ...200010804243
the penaeus monodon chitinase 1 gene is differentially expressed in the hepatopancreas during the molt cycle.we have isolated a full-length chitinase complementary dna from the tiger shrimp penaeus monodon that encodes a 621 amino acid protein possessing the functional domains of the chitinase protein family. the penaeus monodon chitinase 1 (pmchi-1) gene product is 81.8% identical to a chitinase 1 protein expressed in the hepatopancreas of penaeus japonicus. analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) indicates that pmchi-1 messenger rna is detectable in the hepatopancreas and ...200010811951
genomic ancestry of the american puma (puma concolor).puma concolor, a large american cat species, occupies the most extensive range of any new world terrestrial mammal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude from the canadian yukon to the straits of magellan. until the recent holocene, pumas coexisted with a diverse array of carnivores including the american lion (panthera atrox), the north american cheetah (miracynonyx trumani), and the saber toothed tiger (smilodon fatalis). genomic dna specimens from 315 pumas of specified geographic origin (261 cont ...200010833043
the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the crustacean penaeus monodon: are malacostracan crustaceans more closely related to insects than to branchiopods?the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon (arthropoda, crustacea, malacostraca), is presented. the gene content and gene order are identical to those observed in drosophila yakuba. the overall at composition is lower than that observed in the known insect mitochondrial genomes, but higher than that observed in the other two crustaceans for which complete mitochondrial sequence is available. analysis of the effect of nucleotide bias on codon compo ...200010833192
the envenomation syndrome caused by the australian red-bellied black snake pseudechis porphyriacus.the australian elapids inject venom which is characteristic of each species; and which cause characteristic and specific envenomation syndromes in human victims of snakebite. because many of the medically significant australian elapids look similar, when glimpsed in the field by snakebite victims, defining human envenomation syndromes with secure species identification has been a slow process. correlations between securely identified species and the human envenomation syndromes which they produc ...200010858512
suppressive actions of betaxolol on ionic currents in retinal ganglion cells may explain its neuroprotective effects.betaxolol, a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist, is widely used in the treatment of glaucoma. in addition to its ocular hypotensive effects, betaxolol has been suggested to act as a retinal neuroprotective agent (osborne et al., 1997). to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects, we tested the actions of betaxolol on ion channels and calcium signaling in isolated retinal ganglion cells. betaxolol (50 microm) reduced by about 20% the high-voltage-activated (hva ...200010870519
relating middle-ear acoustic performance to body size in the cat family: measurements and models.is the acoustic performance of the mammalian middle ear dependent on body size? we focus on the cat family, because of its qualitatively uniform (and distinctive) middle-ear structure, large size range, and the extensive data available from domestic cats which provide a framework for relating middle-ear acoustics to structure. we report measurements of acoustic admittance in 17 live adult ears of 11 exotic species, ranging in size from sand cat (3 kg) to tiger (180 kg). for low frequencies, the ...200010879948
degenerative spinal disease in large felids.degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. in contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (panthera leo), 16 tigers (panthera tigris), 4 leopards (panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (panthera onca) from the knoxville zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. the medical record, radiograph ...200010884118
a new bacterial white spot syndrome (bwss) in cultured tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and its comparison with white spot syndrome (wss) caused by virus.this paper describes a new bacterial white spot syndrome (bwss) in cultured tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. the affected shrimp showed white spots similar to those caused by white spot syndrome virus (wssv), but the shrimp remained active and grew normally without significant mortalities. the study revealed no evidence of wssv infection using electron microscopy, histopathology and nested polymerase chain reaction. electron microscopy indicated bacteria associated with white spot formation, and wi ...200010907134
study on the free amino acid levels in the hemolymph, gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of penaeus monodon exposed to elevated ambient ammonia.tiger shrimp penaeus monodon following 24 h exposure to 0.002 (control), 0.072 and 0.718 mm ammonia were examined for the free amino acid (faa), ammonia and urea levels in the hemolymph, gill, hepatopancreas and muscle. control shrimps contained total faa in hemolymph (1.19 µmol ml(-1)), gill (21.81 µmol g(-1)), hepatopancreas (100.81 µmol g(-1)) and muscle (239.54 µmol g(-1)). glycine and arginine were the major contributors to the total faa pool, and made up of 90% of the total faa in the musc ...200010930648
recovery of penaeus monodon from functional anaemia after exposure to sublethal concentration of nitrite at different ph levels.tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (14.79+/-0.19 g) which had been exposed individually to 0.72 mm nitrite at ph 6.8, 8.2 and 9.8 after 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h were examined for the water nitrite concentration, hemolymph nitrite, oxyhemocyanin, protein and osmolality levels. same parameters were examined for shrimp depurated in nitrite-free water after 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following 48 h exposure to nitrite. in the nitrite-exposed test, nitrite influx, hemolymph nitrite and osmotic differential (medium osm ...200010930651
cloning and functional characterization of salamander rod and cone arrestins.to clone, localize, and determine functional binding characteristics of rod and cone arrestins from the retina of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum).200010937552
microsatellite polymorphism and the population structure of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) in thailand.genetic variation and differentiation of thai penaeus monodon from five geographic locations (chumphon, trad, phangnga, satun, and trang) were investigated using five microsatellite loci (cupmo18, di25, di27, cscupmo1, and cscupmo2). the number of alleles across the five loci ranged from 19 to 30, and heterozygosities ranged from 0.49 to 0.95. the mean number of alleles and effective number of alleles per locus were 21.0 to 26.6 and 13.1 to 20.4, respectively. the average heterozygosity across a ...200010960123
helicobacter acinonychis eradication leading to the resolution of gastric lesions in tigers. 200010975334
immunomodulation by dietary beta-1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the present study evaluated the effectiveness of beta-1,3-glucan derived from schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder penaeus monodon. pond-reared p. monodon adults (135 +/- 25 g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing beta-1,3-glucan (2.0 g kg(-1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. their survival was compared. the brooders reared in indoor tanks were analysed at day ...200011016585
characterisation of different morphological features of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) haemocytes using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for penaeus monodon haemocytes were produced by immunising mice with membrane lysates of shrimp haemocytes. four mabs (wsh 6, wsh 7, wsh 8 and wsh 16) were characterised using flow cytometry, light microscopy, laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy and immunoprecipitation. wsh 6 recognised a carbohydrate determinant on an 85 kda molecule. wsh 7, wsh 8 and wsh 16 recognised 50, 35 and 115 kda molecules, respectively. for all mabs, differences in amoun ...200011016586
pharmacological adrenalectomy with mitotane.the potential of mitotane (ortho, para'-ddd, commonly used to treat adrenal carcinomas in humans and dogs) was investigated as an alternative to surgical adrenalectomy in birds, salamanders, and lizards. house sparrows (passer domesticus) were injected twice daily with vehicle or one of two doses of mitotane (225 or 450 mg/kg), and basal and stress-induced levels of corticosterone (cort) were measured 3 and 5 days after injections. mitotane reduced basal cort levels to nondetectable and abolishe ...200011042008
[origin of lepidoptera fauna of the southern transural region].the butterfly fauna of the southern transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the urals and kazakhstan, since the end of the cretaceous period to the end of paleogen, the transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. as this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with kazakhstan and the urals. they were the first to be populated by lepidoptera. during the pleocene and then after the pleistocene cooling events, insects sett ...200011042964
polymicrobial tenosynovitis with pasteurella multocida and other gram negative bacilli after a siberian tiger bite.mammalian bites present a considerable clinical problem because they are often associated with bacterial infections. pasteurella multocida is a microorganism that commonly infects both canine and small feline bites. zoonotic infections developing after large feline bites have been recognised, although their reports are limited. we describe a 35 year old man who was bitten by a siberian tiger and who developed infectious tenosynovitis secondary to p multocida, bergeyella (weeksella) zoohelcum, an ...200011127273
use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns penaeus monodon.a newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm rose bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns penaeus monodon and their rearing water. for comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. from the 35 isolates, 8 ...200011145455
spontaneous discrimination of natural stimuli by chimpanzees (pan troglodytes).six chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were presented with pairs of color photographic images of 5 different categories of animals (cat, chimp, gorilla, tiger, fish). the subjects responded to each pair using symbols for "same" and "different." both within- and between-category discriminations were tested, and all chimpanzees classified the image pairs in accordance with the 5 experimenter-defined categories under conditions of nondifferential reinforcement. although previous studies have demonstrate ...200011149543
[medical treatment of dystocia in zoo animals].kasuistics of zoo animals with dystocia (anoa, giraffe, snow goat, scimitar horned antelope, bactrian camel, tiger, diana monkey) treated with special pharmaceuticals (glukokortikoids, cienbuterol, denaverine, carbetocin) and distance injections by blow darts are introduced. these procedures are described as very effective and save methods of obstetrics especially in zoo animals.200011155524
introducing foreign dna into tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) by electroporation.electroporation was used to introduce pflag-cmv-1-bap, a dna fragment that includes a bacterial alkaline phosphatase gene driven by a human cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter, into penaeus monodon zygotes. the transgenic tiger shrimp was achievedby using 10kv, 28 pulses, 120 g sec pulse time, 10 cycles, and a dna concentration of 37.5 microg/ml. the hatching rate of electroporated zygotes (46%) was significantly lower than that of zygotes in the untreated group (89%). the survival rate of postlarvae ...200011191866
gastric ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) with chronic vomiting.gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus). gastric spiral bacteria (helicobacter spp.) and the very small, viviparous nematode ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. three sibling cheetahs at wellington zoo, new zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. their parents were both south african-born. response to antibacterial treatment was poor. endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphopla ...200011212940
hallervorden-spatz syndrome in two siblings diagnosed by clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging.the hallervorden-spatz syndrome (hss) is a rare condition characterized by extrapyramidal and pyramidal signs, dystonia, dysarthria, retinal degeneration, dementia and a progressive course. the development of magnetic resonance imaging (mri) has increased the number of clinical and pathological reports of hss. mri pallidal abnormalities are called "eye of the tiger" signs. the combination of clinical features and mri findings can be considered as highly suggestive of a diagnosis of hss. patient ...200011253896
dna fragmentation, an indicator of apoptosis, in cultured black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon infected with white spot syndrome virus (wssv).fifty black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon from commercial cultivation ponds in malaysia were examined by tdt-mediated dutp nick-end labeling (tunel) fluorescence assay and agarose gel electrophoresis of dna extracts for evidence of dna fragmentation as an indicator of apoptosis. from these specimens, 30 were grossly normal and 20 showed gross signs of white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection. of the 30 grossly normal shrimp, 5 specimens were found to be positive for wssv infection by normal his ...200111324818
peroxinectin, a cell adhesive protein associated with the propo system from the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.upon activation of the prophenoloxidase activating system in the shrimp, penaeus monodon, a cell adhesion activity in the haemolymph is generated. a cell adhesion assay showed that a high number of granular cells (60%) adhered to coverslips coated with a shrimp haemocyte lysate supernatant, whereas a very low number of cells adhered to coverslips coated with bovine serum albumin. inhibition of adhesion by an antiserum against crayfish peroxinectin, a cell adhesion protein, revealed that the cell ...200111356216
results from black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon culture ponds stocked with postlarvae pcr-positive or -negative for white-spot syndrome virus (wssv).commercial, intensive, earthen shrimp ponds (188) in southern thailand were stocked with postlarvae (pl) of penaeus monodon that had tested positive or negative for white-spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. all the pl were grossly healthy. at 2 wk intervals after stocking, shrimp from each pond were examined for gross wssv lesions and tested for wssv by pcr. shrimp from all the ponds stocked with wssv-pcr-positive pl (group 0, n = 43) eventually showed ...199911407401
high permissivity of the fish cell line ssn-1 for piscine nodaviruses.seventeen isolates of piscine nodavirus from larvae or juveniles of 13 marine fish species affected with viral nervous necrosis (vnn) were examined for their infectivity to a fish cell line ssn-1. based on cytopathic effects (cpe) and virus antigen detection by fluorescent antibody technique (fat) after incubation at 25 degrees c, the infectivity of these virus isolates was divided into 4 groups. group 1, including 9 virus isolates from 4 species of grouper, 2 species of sea bass, barramundi, ro ...199911407403
vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis: crouching tiger or hidden dragon? 200111419899
penaeus monodon (tiger shrimp) hemocyanin: subunit composition and thermostability.penaeus monodon (class crustacea, order decapoda) is one of the largest shrimps of the penaeidea family from the indo-west pacific region. the dioxygen-transporting protein hemocyanin, isolated from the hemolymph of this invertebrate, is composed of three 75-76 kda structural/functional subunits designated as pm1, pm2 and pm3. the n-terminal sequences of the chains were determined and compared with those of other decapodan hemocyanin subunits. pm2 and pm3 are highly homologous and electrophoreti ...200111421459
differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.in our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (mne) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the mne diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. the number of spontaneous mne that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and no ...200111423355
birth of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) cubs after transvaginal artificial insemination.a captive 9-yr-old female siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at the lisbon zoo was treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin followed 80 hr later by human chorionic gonadotropin to stimulate follicular development and ovulation, respectively. forty-one hours after the second hormone administration, the tiger was subjected to transvaginal artificial insemination with diluted fresh semen containing 500 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa obtained from an 8-yr-old male siberian tiger via electroejacu ...200011428407
white spot syndrome virus envelope protein vp28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp.white spot syndrome virus (wssv) is a large dna virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. the virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (vp26, vp24, and vp15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (vp28 and vp19) reside in the envelope. the mode of entry and systemic infection of wssv in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, and the role of these proteins in these processes are not known. a specific polyclonal antibody was generated against t ...200111437657
hepatopancreas is the extraovarian site of vitellogenin synthesis in black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.the site of yolk protein synthesis in crustaceans has long been a subject of controversy. the vitellogenin gene structure was partially reported only very recently in macrobrachium rosenbergii, after which the hepatopancreas was confirmed as the extraovarian site of vitellogenin synthesis in that species. ovaries are the most frequently reported as the site of yolk protein synthesis in penaeid shrimp. using cdna reversed-transcribed from mrna isolated from the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic fema ...200111440876
lingering doubts about spongiform encephalopathy and creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) is an infectious disease and has been transmitted orally to many other animals, including humans. there is clear evidence of maternal transmission, although disagreement on the source of the bse agent remains. the current theories link the origin of bse to common scrapie in sheep. twenty different strains of the scrapie agent have been isolated from sheep. a search of the literature indicates two distinct clinical syndromes in sheep, both of which have been ...200111444100
salamander uv cone pigment: sequence, expression, and spectral properties.the visual pigment from the ultraviolet (uv) cone photoreceptor of the tiger salamander has been cloned, expressed, and characterized. the cdna contains a full-length open reading frame encoding 347 amino acids. the phylogenetic analysis indicates that the highest sequence homology is to the visual pigments in the s group. the uv opsin was tagged at the carboxy-terminus with the sequence for the 1d4 epitope. this fusion opsin was expressed in cos-1 cells, regenerated with 11-cis retinal (a1) and ...200111497415
[desulfacinum subterraneum sp.nov.--a new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a high temperature oil field ].a new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the high-temperature white tiger oil field (vietnam) is described. cells of the bacterium are oval (0.4-0.6 by 0.6-1.8 microns), nonmotile, non-spore-forming, and gram-negative. growth occurs at 45 to 65 degrees c (with an optimum at 60 degrees c) at nacl concentrations of 0 to 50 g/l. in the course of sulfate reduction, the organism can utilize lactate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, ethanol, salts of fatty acids (formate, acetate, propio ...200111558281
occupational fatalities due to animal-related events.to better understand the extent of animal-related fatalities in the workplace.200111562015
sequencing and two-dimensional structure prediction of a phospholipase a(2) inhibitor from the serum of the common tiger snake (notechis scutatus).a phospholipase a(2) inhibitor has been identified in the serum of the common tiger snake (notechis scutatus). the inhibitor is composed of two chains, an alpha-chain and a beta-chain, that form a non-covalently associated complex capable of inhibiting the enzymatic activity of all phospholipase a(2) enzymes it was tested against. the alpha and beta-chains have been purified to homogeneity, digested and sequenced. from the peptide sequence generated, degenerate pcr primers were designed and used ...200111575939
globalization and health: results and options.the last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. if properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. ...200111584731
cytochrome b gene for species identification of the conservation animals.a partial dna sequence of cytochrome b gene was used to identify the remains of endangered animals and species endemic to taiwan. the conservation of animals species included in this study were: the formosan gem-faced civets, leopard cats, tigers, clouded leopards, lion, formosan muntjacs, formosan sika deers, formosan sambars, formosan serows, water buffalo, formosan pangolins and formosan macaques. the control species used included domestic cats, domestic dogs, domestic sheeps, domestic cattle ...200111587860
infectivity of aquabirnavirus strains to various marine fish species.to determine the infectivity of marine birnavirus (mabv) in various marine fish species, experimental infection was performed in combination groups of 5 fish species with 7 strains of mabv and 1 strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv). mortality was observed in yellowtail seriola quinqueradiata and amberjack s. dumerili infected with mabv strains y-6, y-10k and h-1, but not in other infected species. mabv was reisolated from most combination groups, but the virus isolation rate and ...200111678225
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