haemaphysalis (h.) sumatraensis sp. n. (ixodoidea: ixodidae), a tick parasitizing the tiger, boar, and sambar deer in indonesia. 19715133889
is there a tiger in your tax return...or a chicken? 19695250665
cyclohexanone as an anesthetic for the leopard and the bengal tiger. 19695388174
paragonimus westermani (kerbert, 1878) from tigers in north sumatra, indonesia. 19685757735
[a tiger under the hood and a donkey at the wheel]. 19655851720
[imitation of tiger bones--a piece of hind leg bone (pigs and oxen)]. 19826216972
[cancer of the mammary gland in a tigress].mammary gland carcinoma in a 14-year-old female tiger kept in the moscow zoo for a long time is described. at autopsy, the outgrowth of the tumor into the surrounding tissue and metastases into the internal organs were found. the tumor was defined as a ductal papillary solid carcinoma with intraductal central necrosis that resembled the comedo type of human mammary gland carcinoma. rapid growth of the tumor, the prevalence of necrosis, and numerous metastases to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes ...19826297433
evidence for orthogonal arrays of particles in the plasma membranes of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons of vertebrates.plasma membranes of sensory neurons from the olfactory and vomeronasal neuroepithelia of the male rat and olfactory neuroepithelium of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) have been examined, using the freeze-fracture technique, for the presence and morphology of orthogonal arrays of particles (oap). numerous oap were scattered on the p-face of plasma membranes of the dendrites and cell bodies from rat vomeronasal sensory neurons. the oap were 720 +/- 200 nm2 in area and they consisted of 4 ...19836311991
a tiger mouse and relatives. variants caused by an activated transposable element?in a laboratory-bred population of wild peruvian house mice, one male had an excessive rate of non-pairing of the x and y chromosomes. after crossing him with laboratory stock mice, a mouse of very unusual phenotype appeared from a yellow (aya) mother. he was yellow with black dorsal stripes; hence tiger. he was mated to many females, and inbred f2 and f3 generations were raised. there were no more tiger phenotypes, but his f1 contained an excess of black-and-tans over yellows, showing him to be ...19846323571
a comparative study of potassium-induced relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of tiger salamanders and rats.this study compares potassium-induced relaxation in vascular tissue of an amphibian (ambystoma tigrinum) and a mammal (rat). aortas (salamanders) and tail arteries (rats) were cut into helical strips for isometric force recording. after norepinephrine-induced contraction in potassium-free solution, arteries relaxed in response to added potassium (1-20 mmol/l). potassium-induced relaxation was greater in rat tail arteries than in salamander aortas. half-maximal relaxation occurred at a potassium ...19846331206
clinical features therapy and epidemiology of tiger snake bite in dogs and cats.snake bite was diagnosed in 125 dogs and 115 cats over 10 years. young sporting dogs and young cats were mainly affected. more dogs (48%) were seen in contact with tiger snakes than cats (7%). one hundred and four (84%) dogs and 89 (76%) cats were bitten in the warmer months of the year (october to march). as the incidence rose in september/october, dogs were bitten on days when the temperature was near 20 degrees c or over. the commonest presenting signs were dilated pupils and absences of pupi ...19846497804
paragonimus heterotremus and other paragonimus spp. in thailand: pathogenesis, clinic and treatment.six species of paragonimus have been reported in thailand: p. siamensis in cat, bandicoot and rat; p. bangkokensis in mongoose; p. harinasutai in cat and dog (experiment); p. macrochis in bandicoot and rat; p. westermani in tiger and p. heterotremus in cat, dog and man. it is interesting to note that in 1965 two immature p. heterotremus worms were recovered for the first time in man, namely in subcutaneous swellings in a boy; in 1981 nine mature p. heterotremus worms were expectorated after praz ...19846542391
chronic encephalomyelitis caused by canine distemper virus in a bengal tiger.a chronic progressive neurologic disease was observed and monitored for 18 months in a young, tamed bengal tiger. clinical, serologic, and neuropathologic evidence of canine distemper virus infection was seen. clinical signs included convulsions, myoclonus, and slowly progressive ataxia. marked increases in neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus were seen in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. neuropathologic findings were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, with perivascular ...19836685717
involution of the auditory neuro-epithelium in a tiger (panthera tigris) and a jaguar (panthera onca).numerical atrophy of the hair cells of the organ of corti of the inner ear in a 14-year-old tiger and a 17-year-old jaguar is described. the decrease in number of sensory hair cells is considered to represent physiological atrophy caused by the process of ageing. the findings are compared with previous observations on man, guinea-pigs, shrews, and bats. the development of the physiological involution of the hearing neuro-epithelium is discussed.19846699224
sarcocystis and related organisms in australian wildlife: iii. sarcocystis murinotechis sp.n. life cycle in rats (rattus, pseudomys and mastocomys spp.) and tiger snakes (notechis ater).sporocysts from tiger snakes (notechis ater) produced thick-walled sarcocysts in laboratory rats (rattus norvegicus). ultrastructurally these organisms were identical with sarcocysts found in native rats, but were different from sarcocystis singaporensis. sarocystis murinotechis sp.n. is proposed for this parasite of rodents and tiger snakes. when naturally-infected rats were fed to kittens (felis domestica), quolls (dasyurus viverrinus) and a masked owl (tyto novaehollandiae) no sporocysts were ...19806768904
gonadotropin regimen for inducing ovarian activity in captive wild felids.five species of felids (cheetah, north chinese leopard, tiger, lion, and puma) were serially injected with a source of follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) to evaluate its effect on ovarian activity. animals were subjected to laparoscopy before and after gonadotropin treatment, and the number and appearance of mature ovarian follicles (mf), corpora hemorrhagica (ch), and corpora lutea (cl) were recorded and photographed. ovarian morphologic features, including mf, ch, and cl anatomy, were similar ...19826816775
complete amino-acid sequence of a non-neurotoxic, non-enzymatic phospholipase a2 homolog from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus.the complete amino acid sequence of notechis ii-1, a non-neurotoxic, non-enzymatic phospholipase a2 homolog from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis s. scutatus has been determined. the protein consists of a single chain of 119 amino acids. the main fragmentation of the reduced and s-carboxymethylated derivative was accomplished by cleavage with staphylococcus aureus v8 protease. tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence, which was determined mainly by automated ...19807007039
envenomation by a king island tiger snake (notechis ater humphreysi).a venomous king island tiger snake (notechis ater humphreysi)bit a herpetologist on the hand on the forty-eight floor of a sydney city building. prompt first-aid treatment, comprising the application of a wide constrictive bandage the length of the limb, combined with immobilisation, delayed central movement of the venom until resuscitative care and antivenom were available. the patient had received tiger-snake antivenom 16 years previously, and also suffered from atopic eczema. administration o ...19827132866
effect of a proprietary rubefacient "tiger balm" on rabbit skin.the effect of continuous exposure to proprietary rubefacients (tiger balm red and tiger balm white), which contain menthol and camphor as well as clove, cajuput and cassia oils, was tested in rabbits. dermal irritancy was determined by a 21-day continuous-application patch test (0.5 g/patch) and was assessed according to the draize method of scoring. at the end of the 21-day test period, the skin was also examined histopathologically. in these tests, tiger balm red (which contained 5% cassia oil ...19827200061
dermatophytosis of tiger caused by microsporum canis.microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a bengal tiger in april, 1979. in clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. the skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. the infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were ar ...19817219512
synaptic action mediating cone responses to annular illumination in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.1. responses of salamander cones to steps of light on their surrounding area were intracellularly recorded through micropipettes filled with 2 m-potassium acetate or 2 m-potassium chloride. 2. using 2 m-potassium acetate, cone step responses showed a larger relaxation for a 1100 micrometers diameter spot than for a 100 micrometers spot, but dim annular illumination failed to evoke any detectable response. with 2 m-potassium chloride the larger spot or an anulus evoked responses that were mainly ...19817230033
isolation and characterization of relaxin from the sand tiger shark (odontaspis taurus).a peptide with relaxin activity in guinea pigs but not in mice has been extracted from the ovaries of pregnant sand tiger sharks (odontaspis taurus). the structural similarity of this peptide to porcine relaxin includes molecular size approximately 6000 daltons), number of chains, and possibly, disulfide cross-links. the relaxin-type peptide isolated from shark ovaries contains the amino acid residues tyrosine, proline, and histidine, which are absent in the porcine hormone. the amino acid compo ...19817250055
a study on the reservoir status of q-fever in avifauna, wild mammals and poikilotherms in uttar pradesh (india).fifteen species of free-living birds (pigeon, mynah, house-sparrow, crow, vulture, owl, swallow, parrot, heron, duck, guinea fowl, hawk, kite, dove and peacock), 11 species of small/large wild mammals (rat, bandicoot, house mouse, shrew, bat, mongoose, ant eater, jackal wild cat, chinkara and tiger) and 5 species of poikilotherms (snakes, python, tortoise, monitor and eel) were screened for evidence of q-fever infection by the capillary agglutination test on sera to detect antibodies and/or by a ...19807251266
hormone-induced ovulation in ambystoma tigrinum: influence of prolactin and thyroxine.treatment of hypophysectomized or intact neotenic tiger salamander larvae (ambystoma tigrinum) with ovine prolactin (prl) increased sensitivity of the ovary to the ovulation-inducing hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone (lh). effects of pretreatment in vivo with prl or thyroxine (t4) on the responsiveness of ovarian fragments in vitro to ovulation-inducing agents, lh, or progesterone (prog) in the presence or absence of prl were observed. in november (prior to normal sp ...19817288386
a study of the major australian snake venoms in the monkey (macaca fascicularis). ii. myolytic and haematological effects of venoms.rhesus monkeys were kept in a restraining apparatus and while conscious injected with the venoms of a range of australian snakes. although the action of restraining itself caused an elevation of the animals' plasma creatine kinase (c.k.), the rise was up to 5 times greater in envenomed monkeys. the venoms of the tiger snake, mulga, beaked sea snake, rough-scaled, copperhead and red-bellied snakes were all powerfully myolytic, and those of the taipan and small-eyed snake less so. no myolytic acti ...19817335377
the multi-ion nature of the cgmp-gated channel from vertebrate rods.1. native cgmp-gated channels were studied in rod outer segments of the larval tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum. the alpha-subunit of the cgmp-gated channel, here referred to as the wild type (wt), and mutant channels were heterologously expressed in xenopus laevis oocytes. these channels were studied in excised membrane patches in the inside-out configuration and were activated by the addition of 100 or 500 microm cgmp. the current carried by monovalent cations was measured under voltage-cl ...19957473247
a tiger behind many doors: multiple genetic pathways to malignant glioma.malignant gliomas are the most common primary human brain tumours, but their classification remains controversial and effective therapies remain elusive. as a result, malignant gliomas have come under intense scientific scrutiny, in the hope of elucidating the molecular basis of glial tumourigenesis. these studies have yielded insights into the genetic events that underlie glioma formation and progression, and have shown multiple distinct genetic pathways that lead to the common malignant endpoi ...19957482768
toxic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.the toxic effects of linear alkybenzene sulfonate (las) on the larvae and juveniles of tiger prawn penaeus monodon were tested. the 24-hr lc50 values of las were 0.06, 0.10, and 3.11 ppm for the zoea 2nd substage, mysis 2nd substage (m2), and postlarva 12th substage (pl12) of the tiger prawn, respectively. the 48-hr lc50 values of las were 0.07, 1.03, and 4.36 ppm for m2, pl12, and postlarva 15th substage of the tiger prawn, respectively. the hepatopancreatic glutathione (gsh) in juvenile tiger ...19937507819
comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (felidae), dogs (canidae), bears (ursidae) and hyaenas (hyaenidae).the structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the felidae, canidae, ursidae and hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. the felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (panthera leo), a panther neonate (panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. the canidae were represented by ...19957649822
a wavelet-based metric for visual texture discrimination with applications in evolutionary ecology.much work on natural and sexual selection is concerned with the conspicuousness of visual patterns (textures) on animal and plant surfaces. previous attempts by evolutionary biologists to quantify apparency of such textures have involved subjective estimates of conspicuousness or statistical analyses based on transect samples. we present a method based on wavelet analysis that avoids subjectivity and that uses more of the information in image textures than transects do. like the human visual sys ...19957696817
analysis of human remains recovered from a shark.trauma caused by marine scavengers and predators, especially sharks, is not well known. this paper describes the effect of shark attack on human remains. they were found in the stomach of a tiger shark caught by fishermen near hollywood beach, florida. the remains belonged to a white male in his late twenties or early thirties with a stature of 175 cm. the damages to the skeleton and the association of these damages with the behaviours of tiger sharks is also analyzed. the trauma affecting long ...19957705731
amino acid sequence of a new type of toxic phospholipase a2 from the venom of the australian tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus).venom from the common tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, contains several toxic acidic proteins which promote hypotension and hemorrhage in mice. one of these toxins, hte, has a phospholipase a2 (pla2) amino acid sequence. it contains 125 amino acids rather than the 119/120 found in other n. s. scutatus pla2s, because it also has the loop of residues (62-66) found in helix d of pancreatic pla2s, the gamma-subunit of taipoxin, and the d-subunit of textilotoxin. high sequence identity is fou ...19957733680
bicuspid evolution of the arterial and venous atrioventricular valves.atrioventricular valves were studied in pisces (shark), amphibians (frog), reptiles (turtle, snake and crocodile) and aves (duck, chicken and quail). dog shark, tiger shark and hammerhead shark have a contractile common atrioventricular orifice with anterior and posterior bridging leaflets. angel shark resembles the frog in having a contractile oval common atrioventricular orifice guarded by two lateral (right and left) and two central bridging (anterior and posterior) leaflets. in turtles and s ...19957742994
[effectiveness of coils and mats for protection against malaria vectors in cameroon].the evaluation of the effectiveness of coils and mats on mosquitoes, especially malaria vectors was carried out in the southern cameroon. the study was performed in the nsimalen village from november 1993 to august 1994. two brands of coils: timor and moon tiger containing 0.15% w/w of esbiothrin and two brands of mats: ars mats (containing d-allethrin) and moon tiger (with s biothrin and diethyl-toluamide) were tested. the evaluation was based on night catches on human bait inside houses. a cat ...19957780671
[changes in the lungs in mice caused by migration of toxocara canis larvae].the influence of t. canis larvae migration on the lung tissue of paratenic host (inbred mice, strain c57bl6/j) was evaluated. first macroscopic manifestation was already observed on day 2 in the time of the highest larval recovery. larvae entering the lung tissue caused numerous small extravasations. their migration from the lungs was manifested from day 6 with an increase in the number and extent of extravasations. the lungs assumed tiger spot appearance (fig. 1). the larval recovery was decrea ...19947863576
the expression of vimentin in satellite cells of regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo.the expression of the intermediate filament protein, vimentin, was studied in skeletal muscle during a cycle of degeneration and regeneration. venom from the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, was used to initiate the breakdown of the soleus muscle of young, mature rats in vivo. cryosections and western blots of muscle samples were labelled using antibodies to vimentin, and examined at fixed time points after venom injection. vimentin was absent in control adult muscle fibres, b ...19947896567
aspects of canine distemper virus and measles virus encephalomyelitis.canine distemper (cd) is a frequently fatal, systemic morbillivirus infection in the dog and other carnivores: encephalomyelitis is the common cause of death. susceptibility to canine distemper virus (cdv) is now recognized in a wide range of non-domestic animals, most recently in captive lions, tigers and leopards. furthermore, closely related viruses have produced cd-like diseases in marine mammals. cdv induces an inclusion-body encephalomyelitis in the dog and demyelination is often a conspic ...19947898614
parasites of south african freshwater fish. vi. nematode parasites of some fish species in the kruger national park.the nematode parasites of 30 spot-tailed robbers, brycinus imberi, five tiger-fish, hydrocynus vittatus, 77 large-scaled yellowfish. barbus marequensis, two mudsuckers, labeo molybdinus, 114 catfish, clarias gariepinus, 46 silver barbel, schilbe intermedius, 66 squeakers, synodontis zambezensis, three eels, anguilla spp., 83 mozambique bream, oreochromis mossambicus, 81 red-breasted bream, tilapia rendalli swierstrae and 32 large-mouthed bream, serranochromis meridianus, caught in the sabie, cro ...19947898896
replacement of the natural wolbachia symbiont of drosophila simulans with a mosquito counterpart.inherited rickettsial symbionts of the genus wolbachia occur commonly in arthropods and have been implicated in the expression of parthenogenesis, feminization and cytoplasmic incompatibility wolbachia from the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, to replace the natural infection of drosophila simulans by means of embryonic microinjection techniques. the transferred wolbachia infection behaves like a natural drosophila infection with regard to its inheritance, cytoskeleton interactions and ab ...19947906391
parasites of wild felidae in thailand: a coprological survey.ninety-two fecal samples were collected from leopards (panthera pardus, n = 54), tigers (p. tigris, n = 19), and leopard cats (felis bengalensis, n = 3) in huai kha wildlife sanctuary, thailand; four samples that may have come from clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa) or asian golden cats (felis temminicki) were identified as from small to medium cats. twelve samples were identified as from large cats. samples preserved in 10% formalin were examined for parasite eggs, larvae, cysts, and oocysts ...19947933301
canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in north america.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection occurred in captive leopards (panthera pardus), tigers (panthera tigris), lions (panthera leo), and a jaguar (panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992. an epizootic affected all 4 types of cats at the wildlife waystation, san fernando, california, with 17 mortalities. cdv-infected raccoons were thought to be the source of infection in these cats. two black leopards died at the naibi zoo, coal valley, illinois, and 2 tigers died at the shambala preserve, acton, calif ...19947948195
laboratory study of predation by solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae) on eggs of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren, punctured and fed on the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse), eggs in the laboratory. the presence and actions of the ants, especially the minima workers, reduced the hatching of egg populations.19947966185
immunostimulation of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocytes for generation of microbicidal substances: analysis of reactive oxygen species.nbt staining was used to determine the presence of superoxide anions (o2-) produced by tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) hemocytes attached to a coverslip. when cells were treated with beta-glucan, blue granules were observed in 41% of studied hemocyte cytoplasm. for zymosan-treated, pma-treated, and control cells, the percentages of hemocytes showing similar blue granules were 31, 9, and 5%, respectively. a comparison of stimulative effects on 15 hemocyte suspensions, each collected from a single ...19948001699
studies on the formation of perceptually based basic-level categories in young infants.a series of experiments examined the abilities of 3- and 4-month-old infants to form categorical representations to exemplars of natural kinds--cats and horses. these experiments also permitted assessment of the relative exclusivity of these representations--the extent to which they exclude exemplars from contrasting basic-level categories from the same superordinate category. we found that categorical representations could be formed for horses that excluded cats, zebras, and giraffes, and for c ...19948045176
common tiger snake envenomation in dogs and mice--relationship between the amount of venom injected and the onset of clinical signs.common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom was injected into mice and dogs at various dose rates calculated on the known lethal dose (ld) for each species. the larger the dose of venom, the earlier was the onset of clinical signs and the more rapid and severe the course of the disease in both species. in dogs injected with 32 ld of venom, there was sudden collapse and death in about one hour from the time of injection without recovery from premonitory depression and before mydriasis occurred. ...19948067944
some toxicity thresholds for the clinical effects of common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) envenomation in the dog.common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom was administered experimentally to dogs at doses from 0.25 lethal dose (ld) to 20 ld. haemolysis and increased creatine kinase values occurred rapidly after injection of sublethal (subparalytic) doses, but the clotting time of blood was extended and blood became incoagulable only when dogs were dosed with 10 ld or more of venom. haemolysis, although of a low threshold of toxicity, was not severe and should not greatly affect the lethality of the venom ...19948067945
myotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom in the dog.the myotoxicity and neurotoxicity of common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom are major factors in the pathogenesis of envenomation in the dog. histological examination of the tissues of experimentally envenomed dogs has demonstrated the importance of muscle damage in affecting the clinical syndrome of tiger snake envenomation. within one hour of injection of the venom into dogs, there was selective involvement of some muscles. cardiac and smooth muscles were not significantly affected. the ...19948067946
[bacterial infections in felines in zoological gardens].the significance of selected bacterial infections of felines in zoological gardens is discussed. anthrax and malleus are in germany of historical interest only, tuberculosis went down very strongly. isolated cases of pseudotuberculosis must be expected in future. infections with bacteria of the genera chlamydia, pasteurella and of the family enterobacteriaceae are also considered. the significance of clostridium perfringens in the so called tiger disease is discussed.19948129702
chronic cryptosporidiosis in australian elapid snakes: control of an outbreak in a captive outbreak of chronic cryptosporidiosis resulting in hypertrophic gastritis occurred in a captive colony of australian elapid snakes. two species of the genus notechis were involved: notechis ater (black tiger snake) and notechis scutatus (eastern or mainland tiger snake). the infection was eventually fatal in all 9 affected snakes. typical histopathological findings of the stomach included mucosal thickening with cystic dilatation of gastric glands, moderate oedema and fibrosis of the lamina p ...19938216094
measurements of faecal oestradiol and progesterone in non-pregnant and pregnant domestic and exotic cats.faecal samples collected for variable periods from 12 animals and five species of cats were assayed for progesterone and oestradiol content by application of standard radioimmunoassays to aliquots (50 microliters) of methanol extracts (4 ml) of a mixture of 0.5 g sample, 0.5 ml water and 1 g aluminium oxide, following partitioning of the total extract with petroleum ether (3 ml), further dilution of assay aliquots and drying. recoveries averaged 100 and 72% for oestradiol and progesterone, respe ...19938229917
a comparative study on the biological properties of venoms from juvenile and adult common tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venoms.1. the biological properties of venoms from juvenile and adult common tiger snakes (notechis scutatus) were compared. 2. the lethality, procoagulant activity and enzymatic activities of the juvenile venom were not substantially different from those of the adult venom. 3. electrophoretic studies, however, indicated some minor differences in the protein composition of the juvenile and adult venoms.19938281760
sodium channels aggregate at former synaptic sites in innervated and denervated regenerating muscles.the role of innervation in the establishment and regulation of the synaptic density of voltage-activated na channels (nachs) was investigated at regenerating neuromuscular junctions. rat muscles were induced to degenerate after injection of the australian tiger snake toxin, notexin. the loose-patch voltage clamp technique was used to measure the density and distribution of nachs on muscle fibers regenerating with or without innervation. in either case, new myofibers formed within the original ba ...19948294497
aedes albopictus in europe: a new challenge for dermatologists.a patient is reported who was bitten by aedes albopictus, commonly known as tiger mosquito. the biology of the insect, originally living in the forests of southeastern asia, and its role in transmitting exotic infectious agents is discussed. up to this day, only albania and northern italy have been colonized, but the biologic characteristics of the insect make its spreading all over europe highly probable, unless serious attempts to eradicate it are quickly undertaken. dermatologists should thin ...19938324281
notechis scutatus venom increases the yield of proliferating muscle cells from biopsies of normal and dystrophic canine muscle--a possible source for myoblast transfer studies.the injection of 1 micrograms notechis scutatus (australian tiger snake) venom (notexin) induces localized necrosis in the muscles of normal and dystrophic dogs. biopsies taken from the muscles on the second day of postnecrotic regeneration provide about 8-16 x 10(6) cells capable of proliferation per g tissue, about 100 fold more than the untreated adult dog muscles. muscle specific markers, such as the capacity of the cells to fuse, surface labelling with n-cam antibodies (leu-19 and 5.1.h11), ...19938329886
effects of prolactin, growth hormone, and triiodothyronine on prolactin receptors in larval and adult tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum).the effects of porcine growth hormone (pgh) or ovine prolactin (oprl) alone and in combination with triiodothyronine (t3) on renal prl receptors were determined in both pre- and post-metamorphic tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum). the protein hormones were given at a dose of 1.0 micrograms/gm body weight/day and the t3 was given at 10.0 ng/gm body weight/day. the duration of treatment was 7 days. effects on growth, and plasma thyroid hormone levels were also determined. ovine prl increased g ...19938354992
peripheral projections of nervus terminalis lhrh-containing neurons in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.the peripheral projections of the nervus terminalis (nt) have been difficult to examine due to the weak immunoreactivity of the processes to various antibodies. we performed two experimental manipulations in the tiger salamander in an attempt to increase the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-immunoreactive (lhrh-ir) labelling in the peripheral processes of the nt:1) the nt was sectioned centrally, or 2) a 100 mg melatonin pellet was embedded subcutaneously for 3 days prior to sacrifice. foll ...19938364959
aedes albopictus: the tyre-travelling tiger. 19938370933
hallervorden-spatz disease: mr and pathologic compare the mr findings of eight cases with clinical diagnosis of hallervorden-spatz disease (hsd) with the pathologic findings of two other cases of hsd.19938427079
mammalian spinal biomechanics. i. static and dynamic mechanical properties of intact intervertebral joints.four-point bending was used to apply pure extension and flexion moments to the ligamentous lumbosacral spine and pelvic girdle of monkey (macaca fascicularis), rabbit (domestic and wild, oryctolagus cuniculus), badger (meles meles), wallaby (wallabia rufogrisea frutica), sheep (ovis aries), seal (phoca vitulina) and tiger (panthera tigris). the absolute ranges of angular change in lumbar-lumbar joints (from x-radiographs) were considerable and similar in monkey and wallaby (greater in flexion) a ...19938440968
mammalian spinal biomechanics. ii. intervertebral lesion experiments and mechanisms of bending resistance.three-point cyclic bending was applied to intervertebral joint complexes (three vertebrae with two intervertebral discs) of monkey (macaca fascicularis), wallaby (wallabia rufogrisea frutica), tiger (panthera tigris), jaguar (panthera onca) and seal (halichoerus grypus). force-displacement loops were recorded for intact specimens in both extension and flexion. reductions in peak forces at given displacements were measured, following lesions of ventral ligaments, superspinous ligaments, interspin ...19938440969
[chronic gastritis caused by ollulanus tricuspis (leuckart, 1865) in a tiger].a chronic gastritis caused by an infestation with o. tricuspis is described. the differential-diagnostic importance of this parasitosis in chronic maldigestive diseases is emphasized. conventional coproscopic diagnostic procedures fail as the life cycle of the parasite is confined to the gastrum of the host.19938457185
proteins isolated from the venom of the common tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) promote hypotension and hemorrhage.notechis scutatus scutatus venom contains several toxic acidic proteins called hta-i which promote hypotension and hemorrhage in mice. they have apparent mol. wts in the 18,000-21,000 range, i.v. ld50 values between 0.5 and 1.5 micrograms/g, and no detectable phospholipase, arginine esterase, proteolytic or hemolytic activities. a polyclonal antibody raised against htg binds to other purified proteins, suggesting that they are isoforms of the same protein. many other elapid crude venoms contain ...19938503133
n-acetyltransferase, hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase and melatonin in the optic lobes of the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.the activities of the enzymes n-acetyltransferase (nat) and hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase (hiomt) and the hormone melatonin were studied in the optic lobe of the subadult giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon. compared with the level in other species, a relatively high level of nat activity that was temperature- and ph-dependent were observed. the nat enzyme had a relatively high maximum velocity (vmax, 100 pmol/hr/micrograms protein) and low michaelis constant (km, 22 microm), when tryptamine ...19958531052
big cat attack: a case study.a 28-year-old man was attacked by a large female tiger at an exotic animal farm, sustaining penetrating injuries to the neck and pharynx as well as a cervical spine fracture. this case and review of the literature demonstrates the ability of these animals to cause significant trauma and occult injuries. furthermore, this case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion when treating these patients, as serious underlying bony and soft tissue damage can easily be overlooked.19968614090
origin and implications of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.all spongiform encephalopathies in animals, including humans, are slow developing infectious diseases. the current working theory links the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) to the feeding of cattle with meat and bone meal prepared from scrapie-infected sheep remains. recycling of cattle meat and bones (mbm) essentially resulted in the selection of a single strain from the "wild type", a mixture of 20 strains. the bse agent is easily transmitted through ingestion, with some eviden ...19968618936
isolation of vibrio harveyi from diseased kuruma prawns penaeus japonicus.outbreaks of high mortality among the cultured kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus without overt gross signs occurred during august and december of 1994 in i-lan, taiwan. eleven luminous bacterial strains were isolated from the hepatopancreas of moribund prawns from five different farms by use of tryptic soy agar (tsa, supplemented with 2% nacl) and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs) agar. these strains, together with our two previously unpublished isolates, were characterized and identi ...19968662185
experimental evidence against replication or dissemination of hepatitis c virus in mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) using detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain 3 laboratory experiments, mosquitoes were fed hepatitis c virus (hcv)-rna positive blood by using membrane feeders, separated into head, thorax, and abdomen, and tested by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for hcv-rna. hcv did not replicate or disseminate in mosquitoes that had ingested blood from patients that were hcv-viremic positive. when yellow fever mosquitoes, aedes aegypti (l.), were held for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d after feeding, hcv-rna was detected in the abdomens of ...19968667387
timing of ovulation after gonadotrophin induction and its importance to successful intrauterine insemination in the tiger (panthera tigris).the ovarian response to equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ecg) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg), the effect of timing of ovulation relative to hcg injection and the use of laparoscopic intrauterine artificial insemination (ai) were examined in two subspecies of tiger (panthera tigris). adult female tigers were subjected to the same ecg/hcg treatment followed by laparoscopy under xylazine/diazapam/ketamine hcl anaesthesia at 39-42 h (group i, n = 9), 46-49 h (group ii, n = 5) or 51-55 h (gro ...19968699434
significant versus insignificant prostate cancer--can we identify the tigers from the pussy cats? 19968709309
effect of changing temperature on the ionic permeation through the cyclic gmp-gated channel from vertebrate photoreceptors.native cgmp-gated channels were studied in rod outer segments of the larval tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum. the alpha subunit of the cgmp-gated channel from bovine rods, here referred to as the wild type (w.t.), and mutant channels were heterologously expressed in xenopus laevis oocytes. these channels were studied in excised membrane patches in the inside-out configuration and were activated by the addition of 100 or 500 microm cgmp. the effect of temperature on the ionic permeation was st ...19968744300
acute, flaccid quadriplegia in three cats with suspected coral snake envenomation.three cats were evaluated for acute, ascending, flaccid quadriplegia; depression; and reduced nociception. complete or partial neuromuscular junction blockade was found on nerve stimulation studies during electromyographic examinations. two of the cases had wounds on the chin or paw compatible with coral snake bites. although a coral snake was found in only one case, coral snake envenomation was suspected because potential for exposure, clinical signs, and electrodiagnostic findings were similar ...19968784725
efficacy and potency of antivenoms in neutralizing the procoagulant effects of australian snake venoms in dog and human plasma.the efficacy and potency of commonwealth serum laboratories (csl) snake antivenoms in neutralizing the procoagulant action of australian snake venoms was studied in vitro. the procoagulant action of venoms from tiger, brown and taipan snakes were measured in pooled canine or pooled human plasma. mixtures of the venoms and their appropriate antivenoms, ranging from 0.1 to 15 times the recommended neutralizing dose of antivenom were then added to pooled canine or pooled human plasma and the effica ...19968805896
a fatal infection in a bengal tiger resembling cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.a young bengal tiger born and kept in a german zoo had died of an unknown protozoal infection in 1984. retrospective histological and electron microscopical examination of the organs showed the changes to be identical with those of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. this is the first report of fatal cytauxzoonosis in a tiger.19968814537
fatal cytauxzoonosis in a captive-reared white tiger (panthera tigris).fatal (panthera tigris) cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old female white tiger. the tiger presented with a 2-day history of anorexia and lethargy. she was mildly dehydrated, with a temperature of 105.2 f and a hematocrit of 26%. over the next day, icterus developed, and her physical condition progressed to recumbency, coma, and death. hematologic findings obtained shortly before death included icteric plasma, severe thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, hematuria, and parasites consistent with ...19968826011
virulence of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from diseased tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.outbreaks of mass mortality among cultured tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) with white spotted syndrome (wss) in the carapace occurred in the summer of 1994 in i-lan, taiwan. a swarming strain val was isolated from hemolymph of the moribund prawns with tryptic soy agar (tsa, supplemented with 1% nacl, oxoid) and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs, difco) agar. this strain was characterized and identified to be vibrio alginolyticus. the strain was susceptible to antibiotics such as chlo ...19968867464
snake envenomation in cats and its detection by rapid determine the usefulness of a snake venom detection kit (svdk) in the management of envenomed cats.19968894022
equivalence of background and bleaching desensitization in isolated rod photoreceptors of the larval tiger salamander.psychophysical experiments have shown an equivalence between sensitivity reduction by background light and by bleaches for the human scotopic system. we have compared the effects of backgrounds and bleaches on the light-sensitive membrane-current responses of isolated rod photoreceptors from the salamander ambystoma tigrinum. the quantum catch loss was factored out from the desensitization due to bleaching to give the fraction of "extra" desensitization due to adaptation. for backgrounds, desens ...19968894981
conservation of living resources in a changing world/ conservation of living resources is no longer parochial in scope; it is a global challenge. ecological, social, political, and business interests operate in a network that reaches across seas, continents, and nations. industries, including the electric utility industry, are diversifying in products and expanding into international markets. they soon discover that, while all nations have common goals for their peoples, conservation and environmental issues in less-developed nations have differe ...19968895415
inter- and intraspecific variation in resistance to desiccation by adult aedes (stegomyia) spp. (diptera: culicidae) from indonesia.desiccation survival times of adult mosquitoes were studied for yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (6 strains), asian tiger mosquito, ae. albopictus (skuse) (5 strains), and ae. paullusi stone & farmer (1 strain) colonized from south sulawesi, indonesia. at both 90 and 70% rh, ae. aegypti males and females outlived the other species. the forest species ae. paullusi was least resistant to desiccation. strains of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus from urban areas were more resistant to desicca ...19968906905
aspirin: tiger or pussy cat? 19968935643
isolation and characterization of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from diseased kuruma prawn, penaeus japonicus.outbreaks of serious mortality among cultured kuruma prawns (penaeus japonicus) with white spotted syndrome in the carapace occurred in the summer of 1993 in i-lan, taiwan. a swarming bacterium, strain swy, was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the moribund prawns using tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% nacl and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar. this strain was characterized and identified as vibrio alginolyticus on the basis of a number of biochemical tests. the swy strain w ...19968936369
myotoxic activity of the toxic phospholipase, notexin, from the venom of the australian tiger snake.notexin is a neurotoxic and myotoxic phospholipase a2 derived from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus. though the phospholipase activity has been implicated in the toxicity of notexin, little is understood of its site and mode of action. in this study we investigated the myotoxicity of notexin on the skeletal muscle of the rat. using immunogold labeling both in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrated that notexin bound exclusively to the sarcolemma. at the early stages when no ...19968957446
aedes albopictus in relating to the discovery and identification of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, in coahuila state, mexico, are presented. infestations are reported for piedras negras and ciudad acuña. samples from a third community were negative for ae. albopictus.19948965073
isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon.bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, penaeus monodon. a selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. the predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection s ...19978979353
in vitro cultivation of wolbachia pipientis in an aedes albopictus cell line.a continuous cell line, aa23, was established from eggs of a strain of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, naturally infected with the intracellular symbiont wolbachia pipientis. the resulting cell line was shown to be persistently infected with the bacterial endosymbiont. treatment with antibiotics cured the cells of the infection. in the course of establishing this cell line it was noticed that rflps in the pcr products of two wolbachia genes from the parental mosquitoes were fixed in ...19979013253
nature and origin of polymorphism in feline mhc class ii dra and drb genes.transcripts of the mhc class ii dra and drb gene homologues of the domestic cat (felis catus) were cloned and sequenced to compare the pattern and process of dr gene divergence. homologous drb exon 2 sequences from 36 feral domestic cats throughout the world plus from three species of felidae (tiger cat, iriomote cat, and geoffroy's cat) were also determined. limited variation in the domestic cat feca-dra gene was observed, but abundant variation in the feca-drb gene was seen comprising 61 disti ...19979058818
distemper: not a new disease in lions and light of recent canine distemper virus (cdv) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of cdv infection in captive lions and tigers in switzerland. the retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. all existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against cdv. the results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified ...19979067652
demonstration of helicobacter pylori-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of captive exotic carnivores.samples of gastric tissue from the cardiac, fundic and pyloric region of 30 carnivores comprising 12 tigers (panthera tigris), 10 lions (panthera leo), three pumas (felis concolor), two leopards (panthera pardus), one serval (felis serval), one wolf (canis lupus) and one hyena (crocuta crocuta) kept at german zoological gardens were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. selected tissue specimens of 12 animals were examined also by electron microscopy. the purpose of ...19979076597
parasites of the asian tiger mosquito and other container-inhabiting mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) in northcentral microorganisms including 4 protozoans, 2 fungi, and a bacterium infected aedes albopictus (skuse) larvae collected from 12 counties in northecentral florida. ae albopictus and 14 other species of mosquitoes were collected from tires, flower-holding vases in cemeteries, other types of artificial containers, and treeholes. ascogregarina taiwanensis (lien & levine) was the most common parasite of ae. albopictus throughout the year. the microsporidium vavraia culicis (weiser) infected aedes ae ...19979103767
the structure and precision of retinal spike trains.assessing the reliability of neuronal spike trains is fundamental to an understanding of the neural code. we measured the reproducibility of retinal responses to repeated visual stimuli. in both tiger salamander and rabbit, the retinal ganglion cells responded to random flicker with discrete, brief periods of firing. for any given cell, these firing events covered only a small fraction of the total stimulus time, often less than 5%. firing events were very reproducible from trial to trial: the t ...19979144251
thyroid hormone receptor genes of neotenic amphibians.since thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in amphibian metamorphosis we used pcr to amplify dna fragments corresponding to a portion of the ligand-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor (tr) genes in several neotenic amphibians: the obligatory neotenic members of the family proteidea the mudpuppy necturus maculosus and proteus anguinus as well as two members of the facultative neotenic ambystoma genus: the axolotl ambystoma mexicanum and the tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum. in addit ...19979169551
purification and characterization of a cysteine protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi.the purification and characterization of an extracellular protease produced by pathogenic luminous vibrio harveyi strain 820514, originally isolated from diseased tiger prawn (penaeus monodon), was presented in this paper. the purification steps included ammonium sulfate precipitation, with columns of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange on fast protein liquid chromatography. the protease is an alkaline cysteine protease, heat labile, inhibited by iodoacetamide, iodoacetic a ...19979175557
random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers for determination of genetic variation in wild populations of the black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) in thailand.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was used to amplify the genome of black tiger prawns (penaeus monodon) to detect dna markers and assess the utility of the rapd method for investigating genetic variation in wild p. monodon in thailand. a total of 200 ten-base primers were screened, and 84 primers yielded amplification products. six positive primers that gave highly reproducible rapd patterns were selected for the analysis of three geographically different samples of thai p. monod ...19979200837
a strain of calicivirus isolated from lions with vesicular lesions on tongue and december 1992, 17 african lions and 7 siberian tigers in a safari park in japan became sick with characteristic clinical symptoms of acute vesicular formations on tongue and snout. the disease was highly contagious since all of these animals showed similar symptoms within two days after the onset of the first case. swabs were taken from affected animals in rubbing tongues, snouts and some from rectums. cytopathic viruses were isolated on crfk cell culture by virological tests. the physicochem ...19979208424
passive immunization of the tiger prawn, penaeus monodon, using rabbit antisera to vibrio harveyi.passive immunization, toxicity neutralization and the persistence of passive protection in the tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) were investigated using rabbit antisera to the formalinized extracellular products (ecp) (r alpha ecp) and/or formalinized bacterial cells (r alpha bc) of luminescent vibrio harveyi strain 820514 originally isolated from diseased tiger prawns. rabbit antiserum to bovine serum albumin (r alpha bsa) or phosphate-buffered saline (pbs, ph 7.2) both served as controls. the toxi ...19979248078
glucan-induced disease resistance in tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).non-specific disease resistance induced by yeast cell wall extract, beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, was demonstrated in the tiger shrimp. in this study beta-1,3-1,6-glucan was administered to shrimps by immersion before culturing and orally during the culturing period. challenge of the treated shrimps with the virulent pathogens, vibrio vulnificus and viral agents extracted from the white spot syndrome victims, yielded promising results. the tolerance of glucan-treated shrimps was slightly enhanced to stre ...19979270870
effects of extracellular products of vibrio alginolyticus on penaeid prawn plasma components.the effects of both crude extracellular products (ecp) and a partially purified protease of vibrio alginolyticus on the plasma components of kuruma prawn (penaeus japonicus) and tiger prawn (p. monodon) were studied using crossed immunoelectrophoresis (cie). a component of the plasma, tentatively identified as coagulogen, apparently disappeared after incubation with the ecp, while the amount of a component tentatively identified as haemocyanin decreased. the coagulogen and an unknown component ( ...19979281857
aedes albopictus in the united states: ten-year presence and public health implications.since its discovery in houston, texas, in 1987, the asian "tiger mosquito" aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. this species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental united states in shipments of scrap tires from northern asia. the early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. the public health service act of 1988 require ...19979284377
kinematics of feeding in bluegill sunfish: is there a general distinction between aquatic capture and transport behaviors?despite numerous studies of food transport in terrestrial vertebrates, little is known about this aspect of the feeding repertoire in aquatic vertebrates. previous work had predicted that the kinematics of aquatic prey capture by suction feeding should be similar to those of prey transport. however, recent analyses of aquatic prey capture and transport in the tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum have contradicted this hypothesis, and document numerous differences between these two behaviors. in t ...19959318463
endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species.high amounts of endogenous nitric oxide (no) have been demonstrated in the human upper airway, but the role of nasal no is still unclear. the present study aims to describe nasal no excretion in different animal species with special living conditions or anatomy.19979366933
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