oxidative stress, protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon, following exposure to endosulfan and deltamethrin.the impact of commonly used pesticides, endosulfan and deltamethrin, on the molecular stress level in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, was assessed using classical oxidative stress biomarkers, protein carbonylation profiles, and levels of heat shock proteins. results showed that 4 days exposure to 0.1 ++g l(-1) deltamethrin significantly (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (lpo) level in gills (64.3 -¦ 3.2 compared to 34.2 -¦ 5.3 nmol mda equiv.g(-1) tissue at day 0). however, no pesticide ...200921784020
disseminated histoplasmosis in a bengal tiger (panthera tigris).disseminated infection with histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female bengal tiger (panthera tigris). clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. h. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine h. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. this report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosi ...201122204071
Accountability, governance and biobanks: the ethics and governance committee as guardian or as toothless tiger?The huge potential of biobanks/genetic databases for the research community has been recognised across jurisdictions in both publicly funded and commercial sectors. But although there is tremendous potential there are likewise potential difficulties. The long-term storage of personal health information and samples poses major challenges. This is an area is fraught with ethical and legal uncertainties. Biobanks raise many questions of the control of rights, of consent, of privacy and confidential ...201121938513
co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin bacterial communities in wild populations.although all plant and animal species harbor microbial symbionts, we know surprisingly little about the specificity of microbial communities to their hosts. few studies have compared the microbiomes of different species of animals, and fewer still have examined animals in the wild. we sampled four pond habitats in colorado, usa, where multiple amphibian species were present. in total, 32 amphibian individuals were sampled from three different species including northern leopard frogs (lithobates ...201121955991
transcranial sonography in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.after it was reported that increased tissue iron concentrations were associated with increased echogenicity of the substantia nigra (sn) obtained with transcranial sonography (tcs) in animal and postmortem studies, our goal was to use this method in a disorder characterized with iron accumulation in human brain tissue. therefore, magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and tcs were conducted in 5 unrelated patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (pkan), caused by pank2 mutations. ...201122057405
Specific PCR detection of tiger, leopard, and lion ingredients from test samples.A PCR method was developed for specific detection of tiger, leopard, and lion DNA from test specimens for inspection and quarantine or for law-enforced animal protection. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of tiger, leopard, and lion and used in the PCR testing. To mimic the effect of food processing on the sensitivity of the test, the tiger muscle and bovine bonemeal powder samples were treated at 133 degrees C for 30 min. At this processi ...201121919352
a chikungunya outbreak associated with the vector aedes albopictus in remote villages of gabon.abstract chikungunya virus (chikv) recently caused major urban outbreaks in central african countries such as the democratic republic of congo (drc), cameroon, and gabon. in gabon, the tiger mosquito aedes albopictus was shown to be the main chikv vector during the 2007 outbreak. this invasive asian species was first identified in gabon in early 2007, and was thought to be restricted mainly to coastal provinces where urban epidemic chikv foci were recorded. here we report a chikv outbreak in a ...201122141733
Traumatic tiger attack.Attacks on humans by large cats are uncommon occurrences and thus the principles of managing such injuries are not well documented. The authors here report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was mauled by a privately owned tiger. The attack resulted in multiple cranial lacerations and fractures, dissection of the internal carotid artery, and persistent neurological deficits. This case outlines the multiple sources of injury and pathology that can result from such an attack. Discussion is focused ...201122044381
host-feeding patterns of native culex pipiens and invasive aedes albopictus mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in urban zones from barcelona, spain.the feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the amplification and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. the establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) represents an example of how an invasive species can alter the risk of viral transmission to humans. blood meal molecular identification from two sympatric mosquito species ...201121845962
insights into eyestalk ablation mechanism to induce ovarian maturation in the black tiger shrimp.eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. the molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. this is the first study to employ cdna microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) ...201121915325
first report in italy of the exotic mosquito species aedes (finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and the veneto region (north-eastern italy) an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) in 1991. during the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded italian fauna.201121951867
identification and expression analysis of the broad-complex core protein isoform 6 (br-c z6) gene in the giant tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (penaeidae: decapoda).broad-complex (br-c) is an early ecdysone-responsive gene encoding a family of zinc-finger transcription factors that function during metamorphosis in insects. we identified two full-length cdnas of br-c z6 in the giant tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). they were 2422 and 2060 bp in length, containing open reading frames of 1440 and 1443 bp, corresponding to polypeptides of 479 and 480 amino acids, respectively. tissue distribution analysis indicated that pmbr-c z6 was abundantly expressed i ...201122002123
using pgfm (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin f2α) as a non-invasive pregnancy marker for felids.understanding the complex endocrine interactions that control reproduction in felids is essential for captive breeding management. the most important demand is a quick and reliable pregnancy diagnosis. however, the occurrence of pseudopregnancies in felids complicates matters. we investigated whether the fecal prostaglandin metabolite (pgfm) recently suggested for pregnancy diagnosis in the lynx is suitable for all felid species. we found that increased levels of pgfm during the last trimester i ...201122192399
molecular characterization of hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered indian wild felids and canids.hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. the objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of hepatozoon spp. in asiatic lion, indian tiger, indian leopard, indian wild dog, indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18s rrna gene sequences from hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 indian tigers, 2 out of ...201122154254
missense pank2 mutation without "eye of the tiger" sign: mr findings in a large group of patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (pkan).purpose: to present some unusual mr findings in a group of patients from the south-west of the dominican republic suffering from pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (pkan). materials and methods: twenty patients and one preclinical case homozygous for the pank2 mutation, 13 heterozygous gene carriers and 14 healthy volunteers were scanned prospectively using a 3 tesla system. results: all patients showed the typical signal reduction within the globus pallidus and the substantia nigr ...201122127788
mitogenomic analysis of the genus panthera.the complete sequences of the mitochondrial dna genomes of panthera tigris, panthera pardus, and panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. the lengths of the complete mitochondrial dna sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. each of the three mitochondrial dna genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trna, two rrna, one o(l)r, and one control region. the structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of felis catu ...201122038004
comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. the variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed.201122013373
oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger.the tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. fossils attributable to extant pantherine species-lineages are less than 2 mya and the earliest tiger fossils are from the calabrian, lower pleistocene. molecular studies predict a much younger age for the divergence of modern tiger subspecies at <100 kya, although their cranial morphology is readily distinguishable, indicating that early pleistocene tigers would likely have differed mar ...201122016768
[new and reemerging viral fever carriers--a threat of epidemic complications in southern europe and russia].issues of emergence and spread of viral fever and malaria carriers in non-endemic areas are discussed. the role of asian tiger mosquito global spread--a dangerous arbovirus carrier--is noted. epidemic consequences of emergence of west nile fever virus in the new world that is presumably connected with culex pipiens complex mosquitoes are discussed. rigorous monitoring and prophylaxis measures are suggested.201121916044
histological and immunocytochemical study of deferens ducts in the chinese rat snake (zaocys dhumnades).to investigate the relationship between structure and function of the deferens ducts in the chinese rat snake (zaocys dhumnades), morphological changes within an annual cycle were observed by routine histological techniques. also, the correlation of androgen receptor (ar), estrogen receptor (er), progesterone receptor (pr) and aromatase (ar) expressions in the vas deferens and testis were studied immunohistochemically. to confirm that the sperm and the spherical structure existed in deferens duc ...201122184027
A comparative study of antimicrobial properties of crustinPm1 and crustinPm7 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.Several isoforms of crustin have been identified in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These cationic cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides contain a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the C-terminus and exhibit antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this paper, we investigate the binding properties and antimicrobial actions of crustinPm1 and crustinPm7, the two most abundant crustin isoforms found in the haemocyte of P. monodon. Previously, ...201221855569
bacterial community associated with the intestinal tract of p. monodon in commercial farms.the potentially important roles of intestinal bacteria on immune response, disease resistance, and nutrition for the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon have been increasingly investigated. however, so far, little is known about the intestinal bacterial community of the shrimp in the commercial aquaculture settings. in this study, the intestinal bacterial communities of juvenile p. monodon (70 individuals) from eight commercial farms in thailand were examined using 16s rdna pcr-dgge, and seven 16 ...201121915632
potential roles of transglutaminase and thioredoxin in the release of gonad-stimulating factor in penaeus monodon: implication from differential expression in the brain during ovarian maturation cycle.the synthesis of vitellogenin during ovarian maturation in crustacean is induced by gonad-stimulating factor(s) that are synthesized in the brain and thoracic ganglia. this process is negatively regulated by a gonad-inhibiting hormone (gih) from the eyestalk. this study utilized differential-display rt-pcr technique to identify putative genes in brain and thoracic ganglia that may be involved in ovarian maturation of the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon under the condition in which the expres ...201122118640
fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women.latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. the most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. while most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes in olfactory fun ...201122087345
TIGER: Toolbox for integrating genome-scale metabolic models, expression data, and transcriptional regulatory networks.Several methods have been developed for analyzing genome-scale models of metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Many of these methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis, use constrained optimization to predict relationships between metabolic flux and the genes that encode and regulate enzyme activity. Recently, mixed integer programming has been used to encode these gene-protein-reaction (GPR) relationships into a single optimization problem, but these techniques are often of limited generality ...201121943338
a new species of the genus heterobothrium (monogenea: diclidophoridae) parasitizing the gills of tiger puffer fish tetraodon lineatus (tetraodontidae). a light and scanning electron microscopic the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of heterobothrium lineatus, a monogenean gill parasite infecting the gills and wall of the bronchial cavity of the tiger pufferfish tetraodon lineatus, were described by means of light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time from the river nile at qena governorate, south valley, egypt. in wet mount preparation, the adult worms exhibited an elongated body with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends. the adult wo ...201121853225
evaluation of the sub-acute toxicity of the sclerotium of lignosus rhinocerus (cooke), the tiger milk mushroom.lignosus rhinocerus (known locally as 'tiger milk mushroom') is the most important medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities of malaysia to treat fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. the sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. lignosus rhinocerus was hitherto unexploited commercially because of limited supply. recently, the mushroom was successfully cultivated.201121930194
identification of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of three australian copperheads (austrelaps spp.) and the efficacy of tiger snake antivenom to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.the venom of the australian lowlands copperhead, austrelaps superbus, produces significant and potentially lethal neurotoxic paralysis in cases of clinical envenomation. however, little is known about the neurotoxic components within this venom or venoms from the related alpine copperhead (austrelaps ramsayi) or pygmy copperhead (austrelaps labialis). using the isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, all austrelaps venoms were found to exhibit potent and rapid inhibition of ne ...201121854797
combined effects of deltamethrin, temperature and salinity on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).this study aimed to investigate the interactions of two abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid pesticide) exposure on some oxidative stress biomarkers as well as on acetylcholinesterase activity (ache) in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle of black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon). a combination of three temperatures (24, 29 and 34°c), two salinities (15 and 25 ppt), and the absence or presence of 0.1 μg l(-1) deltamethrin was applied on shrimp during 4 d under labor ...201222075054
Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators?Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral pre ...201121887286
identification of major and minor allergens of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) and king prawn (penaeus latisulcatus).prawns and shrimp are a frequent cause of seafood allergy mediated by ige antibodies. penaeus monodon and penaeus latisulcatus, commonly known as black tiger prawn and king prawn, respectively, are among the most frequently consumed prawns in malaysia. the aim of this study was to identify the ige-binding proteins of these 2 prawn species.201122135598
population genetic structure of penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in southwest, east and andaman coastal waters of india.the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the indo-pacific region. genetic diversity in p. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in southwest, east and andaman coastal waters of india (n=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (coromandel coast) to 0.753 (south andaman). pairwise f(st) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) ...201222020227
A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is capable of neutralization and protection of hemocytes from the white spot syndrome virus.A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 is abundantly expressed in the hemocytes and shown to be involved in innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon. The SPIPm2 is expressed and stored in the granules in the cytoplasm of semigranular and granular but not the hyaline hemocytes. Upon WSSV challenge and progression of infection, the SPIPm2 was secreted readily from the semigranular and granular hemocytes. The more they secreted the SPIPm2, the less they were ...201122032902
mathematical studies on the sterile insect technique for the chikungunya disease and aedes albopictus.chikungunya is an arthropod-borne disease caused by the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus. it can be an important burden to public health and a great cause of morbidity and, sometimes, mortality. understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken is key to curtail its spread. dumont and chiroleu (math biosc eng 7(2):315-348, 2010) showed that the use of chemical control tools such as adulticide and larvicide, and mechanical control, which consists of reducing the breeding si ...201122038083
role of vitelline envelope during fertilization in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.animal eggs possess investments through which sperm must penetrate. the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the egg coating, the vitelline envelope, during sperm-egg interactions in the black tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon. the site(s) of primary binding between sperm and egg and the possible binding molecule(s) for sperm were identified. in vitro adsorption of the vitelline envelope protein onto the sperm surface showed that primary binding occurred between the sperm anterior ...201122178117
Identification and cloning of a transglutaminase from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and its transcription during pathogen infection and moulting.Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus; tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon; kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus; and crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. The 2722-bp cDNA contained a ...201121854853
thrombotic microangiopathy in two tiger snake envenomations.thrombotic microangiopathies are a rare group of disorders with features such as microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. thrombotic microangiopathy has been previously reported in association with envenomation from a number of snake species. we present the first two reported cases of thrombotic microangiopathy caused by envenomation from the common tiger snake (notechis scutatus). both patients had classical features of thrombotic microangiopathy with microangiop ...201122165369
reproductive technologies relevant to the genome resource bank in carnivora.carnivora is one of the most species-rich order of mammalia. some species, e.g. domestic cats, dogs and ferrets, are among the most popular pets; others, such as minks and farmed foxes, have economic value for the fur breeding industry. still others, such as tigers, bears and other top predators, have great impact on the health of natural ecosystems. most if not all carnivora species have great cultural and aesthetic importance for man. there are enormous differences between mammalian species in ...201121883515
A mammalian like interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4), a TIR signaling mediator in intestinal innate immunity of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) has been identified as a central signal transduction mediator of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) pathways in vertebrate innate immunity. An IRAK-4 homologue was cloned from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (PmIRAK-4) and it shares domains and structures with other IRAK-4s. It was found to be mainly expressed in the hemocytes and midgut but also to a lower extent in several other tissues in shrimp. The ...201122182410
molecular characterization and expression profile of map2k1ip1/mp1 gene from tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon.mapk kinase 1 interacting protein 1 (map2k1ip1) is an important scaffold proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway that form an active signaling module and enhance the specificity and spatiality of mapk signaling. in the present study, we identified and characterized a map2k1ip1 cdna from tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (designated as pmmap2k1ip1). the open reading frame of pmmap2k1ip1 is 372 bp encoding 123 amino-acid residues with a mapk interaction domain. the predicted pmm ...201122209950
notecarin d binds human factor v and factor va with high affinity in the absence of membranes.notecarin d (notd) is a prothrombin (prot) activator in the venom of the tiger snake, notechis scutatus, and a factor xa (fxa) homolog. notd binds specifically to the fxa binding site expressed on factor v (fv) upon activation to factor va (fva) by thrombin. notd active site-labeled with 5-fluorescein ([5f]ffr-notd) binds fv and fva with remarkably high affinity in the absence of phospholipids (k(d) 12 and ≤ 0.01 nm, respectively). in the presence of membranes, the affinity of [5f]ffr-notd for f ...201121911491
genetic evidence of tiger population structure and migration within an isolated and fragmented landscape in northwest india.majority of the tiger habitat in indian subcontinent lies within high human density landscapes and is highly sensitive to surrounding pressures. these forests are unable to sustain healthy tiger populations within a tiger-hostile matrix, despite considerable conservation efforts. ranthambore tiger reserve (rtr) in northwest india is one such isolated forest which is rapidly losing its links with other tiger territories in the central indian landscape. non-invasive genetic sampling for individual ...201222253791
enteroactinococcus coprophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., of the family micrococcaceae isolated from panthera tigris amoyensis feces, transfer of yaniella fodinae dhanjal et al. 2011 to the genus enteroactinococcus as enteroactinococcus fodinae comb. nov.a novel actinobacterium, designated strain yim 100590t, was isolated from panthera tigris amoyensis feces collected from yunnan wild animal park in yunnan province, south-west china. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequence data showed that strain yim 100590t is a member of the family micrococcaceae. its cells were coccoid to oval (0.7-1.5 µm in diameter) singly or in cluster. growth was observed in the temperature range between 10-37°c (optimum 28°c) and ph 7.0-11.0 (optimum ph 8.0 ...201222228667
an outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.canine distemper virus (cdv), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. since december 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in japan, and cdv was isolated from four of these animals. in the subsequent months (january to february 2010), 12 tigers (panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastroin ...201122214864
occurrence of gnathostoma spinigerum in free range tigress.postmortem examination of free-range tigress of pench tiger reserve, mp, india, aged approx 15 years revealed nodule in the pyloric part of the stomach packed with worms and was identified as gnathostoma spinigerum on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs.201122654319
seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) of sundarbans, west bengal, india.there is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. the present study showed that peneaus monodon of sundarbans serve as a ho ...201122654317
barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (panthera tigris) and concomitant fatal botulism of one.zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. the occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids ...201122616441
discovery of larval gnathostoma nipponicum in frogs and snakes from jeju-do (province), republic of korea.a survey was performed to find out the intermediate hosts of gnathostoma nipponicum in jeju-do (province), the republic of korea. in august 2009 and 2010, a total of 82 tadpoles, 23 black-spotted pond frogs (rana nigromaculata), 7 tiger keelback snakes (rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus), 6 red-tongue viper snakes (agkistrodon ussuriensis), and 2 cat snakes (elaphe dione) were collected in jeju-do and examined by the pepsin-hcl digestion method. total 5 gnathostome larvae were detected in 3 (50%) of ...201122355217
validation of reference genes for real-time pcr of reproductive system in the black tiger shrimp.gene expression of reproductive system of the black tiger shrimp (peneaus monodon) has been widely studied to address poor maturation problem in captivity. however, a systematic evaluation of reference genes in quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) for p. monodon reproductive organs is lacking. in this study, the stability of four potential reference genes (18s rrna, gapdh, β-actin, and ef1-α) was examined in the reproductive tissues in various conditions using bioinformatic tools: normfinder and ge ...201223285145
marine yeast candida aquaetextoris s527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon.a marine yeast candida aquaetextoris s527 as a source of immunostimulant in penaeus monodon was studied. yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% c. aquaetextoris s527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in p. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (wssv). immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium re ...201223262396
willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the asian tiger mosquito in new jersey.using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus, implemented in monmouth and mercer counties, nj. we estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. the mean (+/- se) perceived monetary benefits fo ...201223833903
chemical composition, larvicidal action, and adult repellency of thymus magnus against aedes albopictus.thymus magnus, an endemic species, is found in the republic of korea. the volatile compounds extracted by spme from t. magnus were investigated for their chemical composition and electrophysiological response against the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus. the volatile compounds of t. magnus as determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were gamma-terpinene (33.0%), thymol (29.9%), beta-bisabolene (8.9%), p-cymene (8.3%), alpha-terpinene (5.0%), myrcene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4. ...201223833899
understanding "tiger parenting" through the perceptions of chinese immigrant mothers: can chinese and u.s. parenting coexist?how chinese immigrant mothers perceive "chinese" and "u.s." parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in chinese parenting particularly in response to a. chua's (2011) controversial book on "tiger mothers". the present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. participants included 50 first-generation chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 year ...201323914284
rna-seq reveals early distinctions and late convergence of gene expression between diapause and quiescence in the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus.dormancy is a critical adaptation allowing insects to withstand harsh environmental conditions. the pre-programmed developmental arrest of diapause is a form of dormancy that is distinct from quiescence, in which development arrests in immediate response to hardship. much progress has been made in understanding the environmental and hormonal controls of diapause. however, studies identifying transcriptional changes unique to diapause, rather than quiescence, are lacking, making it difficult to d ...201323913949
the effects of a probiotic on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations in large felids.chronic kidney disease is a common finding in older captive exotic felids. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic to reduce blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in large felids. fifteen adult, large felids (6 tigers [panthera tigris], 5 lions [panthera leo], 3 cougars [puma concolor], and 1 leopard [panthera pardus]) were administered a probiotic twice daily after a baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry panel was obtained. plasma chemistry valu ...201122950314
coloboma of the optic nerve head in bengal tiger kittens (panthera tigris tigris). 20144036750
topologic and connectional analysis of the dorsal thalamus of triturus alpestris (amphibia, urodela, salamandridae).a morphological and connectional analysis was performed on the dorsal thalamus of the alpine newt, triturus alpestris. we have used a graphic reconstruction technique for the evaluation of the connectional (hrp) data. on the basis of these reconstructions, we propose a subdivision of the salamandrid dorsal thalamus into subhabenular, anteroventral, and posterodorsal zones. each of these zones is defined by its telencephalic projections ("ascending thalamofugal systems"). the posterodorsal zone p ...20123346376
effects of cnqx, apb, pda, and kynurenate on horizontal cells of the tiger salamander retina.effects of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (cnqx), 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (apb), cis-2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid (pda), and kynurenate (kyn) on the depolarizing actions of glutamate and kainate on horizontal cells (hcs) were studied in the larval tiger salamander retina. apb, pda, and kyn hyperpolarized the hcs, but they failed to block either the actions of glutamate and kainate, or the hc light responses. apb and pda did not cause membrane polarizations in either rods or cones, ...20082577265
potassium conductance block by barium in amphibian müller cells.the effect of barium on müller cell k+ conductance was evaluated in the tiger salamander using enzymatically dissociated cells and cells in situ (retinal slice and isolated retina). barium effects were similar in both cases. in dissociated cells, 50 microm ba2+ depolarized cells 14.7 mv and raised cell input resistance from a control value of 16.0 to 133 m omega. for cells in situ, 50 microm ba2+ depolarized cells 6.9 mv and raised cell resistance from 12.5 to 50.4 m omega. at corresponding ba2+ ...20092790485
interrenal activity during metamorphosis of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.plasma corticosterone concentrations were low in premetamorphic tiger salamander larvae (norman stage i; m. f. norman (1985) anat. rec. 211, 102-109). corticosterone levels were significantly elevated at midmetamorphosis (norman stage iv) but decreased at the end of metamorphosis (norman stage vii). corticosterone levels remained low 2 weeks after metamorphosis. interrenal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was low in premetamorphic larvae (norman stage i) but was significantly elevate ...20113165899
interactions between enkephalin and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the larval tiger salamander retina.both double-label and intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques were utilized to investigate the interactions between enkephalin and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the larval tiger salamander retina. double-label studies revealed that the vast majority (greater than 96%) of enkephalin-immunostained amacrine cells also exhibit high affinity uptake of [3h]gamma-aminobutyric acid. electrophysiological evidence demonstrated that morphine and gamma-aminobutyric acid exert opposite effects o ...20133594214
hallervorden-spatz syndrome: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlations.two women with a presumptive diagnosis of hallervorden-spatz syndrome had a combination of dystonia and parkinsonism. one had retinitis pigmentosa. neuropsychological testing revealed decreased verbal fluency and visuoconstructional and motor deficits. magnetic resonance imaging performed with a high-field-strength unit (1.5 tesla) showed striking abnormalities in the globus pallidus bilaterally ("eye-of-the-tiger" sign). magnetic resonance imaging may prove useful in the diagnosis of hallervord ...20113202617
amino acid sequence of a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake).the complete amino acid sequence of notexin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. the protein consists of a single chain of 119 amino acids cross-linked by seven disulfide bridges and has a formula weight of 13,578. the main fragmentation of the peptide chain was accomplished with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. a cyanogen bromide fragment and tryptic peptides were used to align the five major ...19961158892
[work environment legislation: paper tiger without concrete direction]. 1973246338
synaptic transmission to the horizontal cells in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.1. the receptive field diameter for most horizontal cells far exceeds the lateral spread of processes for any cell. therefore horizontal cells probably receive synaptic input from neighbours as well as from the photoreceptors. the electrical effects of these two synaptic inputs were studied. 2. we have characterized the electrical properties of the horizontal cell inputs by determining the current-voltage curves in dark and light. these curves were compared with those obtained in the presence of ...1990209177
a voltage-clamp study of the light response in solitary rods of the tiger salamander.1. single, isolated, rod photoreceptors were obtained by enzymatic dissociation of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) retina. these solitary cells retained the morphological features of rods of the intact retina and could be maintained in culture for several days. solitary cells were penetrated with one or two micropipettes and their electrophysiology was studied by the voltage-clamp technique. 2. intracellular recording with two micropipettes demonstrated that the inner segment of a soli ...2004529060
neural interactions mediating the detection of motion in the retina of the tiger salamander.the neural circuitry underlying movement detection was inferred from studies of amacrine cells under whole-cell patch clamp in retinal slices. cells were identified by lucifer yellow staining. synaptic inputs were driven by "puffing" transmitter substances at the dendrites of presynaptic cells. spatial sensitivity profiles for amacrine cells were measured by puffing transmitter substances along the lateral spread of their processes. synaptic pathways were separated and identified with appropriat ...20052856477
irs...the paper tiger. 20051069705
patch testing of 11 common herbal topical medicaments in hong kong.11 common herbal topical medicaments in hong kong were selected for patch testing to study whether they could cause skin reactions under occlusive conditions. these included white flower oil, hung far oil, kwan loong medicated oil, tiger oil, jaminton oil, bee brand oil, tiger balm, au kah chuen skin lotions, mopiko ointment, oronineh ointment and mentholatum. the former 7 were traditional chinese herbal medicaments, the last one was made in usa and the remaining 2 were japanese products. 20 pat ...20072335084
ultrastructural localization and identification of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the olfactory mucosa.pharmacological and ultrastructural methods were used to demonstrate alpha-adrenergic regulation of secretory granule content of acinar cells of bowman's glands and to localize and identify adrenergic and cholinergic axonal varicosities and terminals in the olfactory mucosa of the tiger salamander. the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine caused secretory granule depletion from bowman's glands; the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine partially blocked this effect. these observations were ...20082817441
the tiger mosquito in shanghai, by r.c. robertson and stephen m.k. hu, 1935. 20103057116
enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase activity in ambystoma liver slices by ovine prolactin: an evaluation of possible mediators.prolactin has been shown to increase the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in a variety of mammalian tissues and in the pigeon crop sac. this study demonstrates a similar effect of ovine prolactin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in liver slices taken from larval tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum). an evaluation of potential mediators of prolactin action in liver slices revealed that the effect of the hormone on enzyme activity was not blocked by ouabain, an inhibitor of the sodium pump ...20113141245
adrenergic innervation of the gills, pulmonary arterial plexus, and dorsal aorta in the neotenic salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.the presence of adrenergic innervation was investigated in four different vascular segments of the neotenic tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, by histofluorescent staining for catecholamines. the segments were the respiratory section of the gill, the branchial shunt vessels, a vascular plexus in the pulmonary artery, and the dorsal aorta. no adrenergic fibers were detected in the respiratory section of the gill or the pulmonary arterial plexus. in contrast, the branchial shunt vessels contain ...20133746913
neither lions nor tigers: disorders which lie between schizophrenia and affective disorder.are schizophrenia and major affective disorders truly distinct conditions? the answer remains debatable, but it is suggested that lack of recognition of intermediate disorders is a factor in preventing an authoritative answer to the question.20133607709
prescriptions in triplicate--a deluge of paper tigers. 20154510200
editorial: the saga of a "louisiana tiger". 20164950743
transmission along and between rods in the tiger salamander retina.1. the electrical pathways that couple the rods and that link the outer segments of the rods to the coupled network, were evaluated. two separate micro-electrodes were inserted into the inner or outer segments of the same or neighbouring rods under visual control. current was passed through one electrode, and the resulting potential recorded with the other. 2. the input resistance, measured at the inner or outer segment in a rod in the network, is strongly outward rectifying. it is typically nea ...1988211229
incorporation of calcium buffers into salamander retinal rods: a rejection of the calcium hypothesis of phototransduction.the suction-electrode technique was used to monitor the photocurrent of isolated retinal rods from the tiger salamander, by drawing in the light-sensitive outer segment, or sometimes the inner segment. calcium buffers or other agents were then introduced into the rod cytoplasm by the 'whole-cell patch-clamp' technique. a patch pipette was sealed against the region of the rod protruding from the suction pipette (usually the inner segment), and the membrane patch was ruptured to obtain a whole-cel ...20113088263
contact allergy to colophony in chinese musk and tiger-bone plaster. 20051809536
gaba-mediated positive autofeedback loop controls horizontal cell kinetics in tiger salamander retina.horizontal cells (hcs) appear to release, and also to be sensitive to, gaba. the external gaba concentration is increased with depolarization of the hc membrane via an electrogenic gaba transporter. this extracellular gaba opens a gabaa-gated cl- channel in the hc membrane. since the equilibrium potential for cl- (ecl) is near -20 mv, gaba released by the hc further depolarizes the hc. the gaba transporter and the gabaa receptor thus constitute a positive feedback loop in the hc membrane. this l ...20061351934
the off-overshoot responses of photoreceptors and horizontal cells in the light-adapted retinas of the tiger salamander.depolarizing overshoot responses at the cessation of a test light step were observed in horizontal cells (hcs) and in a population of photoreceptors (rodcs) in light-adapted retinas of the tiger salamander. an anode break regenerative conductance may contribute to the overshoot responses in rodcs(o-wave). the overshoot responses in hcs consist of two components: a fast alpha-wave whose amplitude and time course follow those of the o-wave; and a slow beta-wave whose amplitude and time course vary ...20123409996
electron microscopic, genetic and protein expression analyses of helicobacter acinonychis strains from a bengal tiger.colonization by helicobacter species is commonly noted in many mammals. these infections often remain unrecognized, but can cause severe health complications or more subtle host immune perturbations. the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative novel helicobacter spp. from bengal tigers in thailand. morphological investigation (gram-staining and electron microscopy) and genetic studies (16srrna, 23srrna, flagellin, urease and prophage gene analyses, rapd dna fingerprinting and ...201323940723
bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain bdhsh06 (genbank accession no. ef011103) as the test strain for bdellovibrio and like organisms (balos) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. the results showed that bdhsh06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. an 85-day black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. the shrimp survival rate ...201425107962
pathology in captive wild felids at german zoological gardens.this retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by german zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial ( ...201526086731
bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) under different growth stages.intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. to identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (pl15), 1- (j1), 2- (j2), and 3-month-old (j3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time pcr and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) approaches. a total of ...201323577162
tiger mosquito - generated devastation in the biosphere!!! 201627041891
phytochemical profiles and inhibitory effects of tiger milk mushroom (lignosus rhinocerus) extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a rodent model of asthma.lignosus rhinocerus (l. rhinocerus), which is known locally as tiger milk mushroom, is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma by indigenous communities in malaysia. however, to date, its efficacy on asthma has not been confirmed by scientific studies and there is also sparse information available on its active constituents. in this study, the volatile constituent of l. rhinocerus hot water extract was investigated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gc-ms). the potential effects o ...201627255587
a survey of pathogens associated with cyperus esculentus l (tiger nuts) tubers sold in a ghanaian city.cyperus esculentus l, is a minor but important crop in ghana. they are noted mostly by their aphrodisiac properties among others. the nuts are often eaten raw as an unprocessed snack due to its rich flavour and texture. though eaten raw, the nuts are sometimes handled unhygienically, posing a public health threat. this study therefore aimed at determining the level and distribution of parasitic and bacterial contaminants associated with the crop as it is sold.201424906387
evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching.western equine encephalitis virus (weev), highlands j virus (hjv), and fort morgan virus (fmv) are the sole representatives of the wee antigenic complex of the genus alphavirus, family togaviridae, that are endemic to north america. all three viruses have their ancestry in a recombination event involving eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) and a sindbis (sin)-like virus that gave rise to a chimeric alphavirus that subsequently diversified into the present-day weev, hjv, and fmv. here, we pr ...201425463613
temperature and dengue virus infection in mosquitoes: independent effects on the immature and adult stages.temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting biological processes of mosquitoes, including their interactions with viruses. in these studies, we show independent effects of rearing temperature on the immature aquatic stages and holding temperature on the adult terrestrial stage in terms of alterations in adult survival and progression of dengue-1 virus infection in the asian tiger mosquito aedes (stegomyia) albopictus. our studies show that adult survival was determin ...201323382163
native wolbachia from aedes albopictus blocks chikungunya virus infection in cellulo.wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral and parasitic infections, a phenotype called "pathogen blocking". however, in some cases wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-wolbachia-pathogen combination. the tiger mosquito aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of wolbachia, walba and walbb, and is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (denv) and chiku ...201525923352
salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system.salmonid alphavirus (sav) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. a commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature provides effective protection against sav infections. alphaviruses (family togaviridae) are generally transmitted between vertebrate hosts via blood-sucking arthropod vectors, typically mosquitoes. sav i ...201424418177
the effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from jeju island, south korea on the potential for asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from vietnam rather than japan.climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (vbds) such as dengue, west nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. an estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an est ...201323894312
aggressive asian tiger mosquito invades europe. 201323695607
distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito aedes koreicus [hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern italy.the container breeding species belonging to the genus aedes (meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. invasive aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. a new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern italy: aedes (finlaya) koreicus [hulecoeteomyia koreica]. the aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current d ...201324457085
first report of the invasive mosquito species aedes koreicus in the swiss-italian border 2012 and 2013, an entomological survey of aedes albopictus, the asian tiger mosquito, was carried out in the border region of southern switzerland and northern italy, using ovitraps. in july 2013, besides a. albopictus already known to the region several unusual eggs were recovered.201526223377
detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of aedes flavivirus in northern italy.during recent years, numerous novel 'insect flaviviruses' have been discovered in natural mosquito populations. in a previous study we described the presence of flavivirus dna sequences integrated in aedes albopictus (asian tiger mosquito) populations from northern italy in 2007.201223043958
terra and aqua satellites track tiger mosquito invasion: modelling the potential distribution of aedes albopictus in north-eastern italy.the continuing spread of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus in europe is of increasing public health concern due to the potential risk of new outbreaks of exotic vector-borne diseases that this species can transmit as competent vector. we predicted the most favorable areas for a short term invasion of ae. albopictus in north-eastern italy using reconstructed daily satellite data time series (modis land surface temperature maps, lst). we reconstructed more than 11,000 daily modis lst maps ...201121812983
suitability of european climate for the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus: recent trends and future scenarios.the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) is an invasive species that has the potential to transmit infectious diseases such as dengue and chikungunya fever. using high-resolution observations and regional climate model scenarios for the future, we investigated the suitability of europe for a. albopictus using both recent climate and future climate conditions. the results show that southern france, northern italy, the northern coast of spain, the eastern coast of the adriatic sea and western t ...201222535696
the asian tiger hunts in maputo city--the first confirmed report of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse, 1895) in mozambique.increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in mozambique. larvae of both the afrotropical vector aedes aegypti and its subspecies, ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. despite reports of the invasive oriental vector ae. albopictus on the islands in the mozambique channel and nearby indian ocean, the species has not yet been reported in mozambique.201626856329
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