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effects of presynaptic polypeptide neurotoxins from tiger snake venom (notechis-ii-5 and notexin) on frog neuromuscular junction. 197832567
rationalisation of first-aid measures for elapid snakebite.the plasma of monkeys envenomated with tiger snake (notechis scutatus) venom was monitored by radioimmunoassay for both crude venom and a neurotoxin. when the injected limb was immobilised and a pressure of 55 mm hg applied to the injection site, only very low levels of circulating venom or neurotoxin were detectable. in practical terms, venom movement can be effectively delayed for long periods by the application of a firm crepe bandage to the length of the bitten limb combined with immobilisat ...197984206
further observations on the pathological responses of rat skeletal muscle to toxins isolated from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus.1. some aspects of the response of mammalian skeletal muscle following the injection of purified toxins from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, are described. 2. the toxins used were notexin, notechis ii-5, notechis ii-1 and a modified form of notexin (pbp-notexin). they were injected into the dorso-lateral aspect of one himd limb so that the soleus muscle would be exposed to the toxins. 3. within 1 h after the injection of notexin, the soleus muscles were oedem ...1978152684
phenylethylamine as a biochemical marker of tiger.pheromones of the tiger happen to be a mixture of amines which are "fixed" by lipids. one of these, found always in all the four tigers investigated, is phenylethylamine. this may be a biochemical marker at a species level.1979158904
blood corticosteroids in australian marsupial and placental mammals and one monotreme.peripheral blood corticosteroid levels were determined in nine species of australian marsupial (eastern grey kangaroo, black-tailed, bennett's and pademelon wallabies, quokka, wombat, koala and western native and tiger cats), one species of monotreme (echidna) and one placental australian mammal (dingo). animals were obtained or bled with minimal disturbance and came from areas considered to have adequate sodium content of the vegetation. aldosterone, corticosterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycorticoste ...1976181514
the effects of a toxin isolated from australian tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) venom on autonomic neuromuscular transmission.1 the effects on mammalian autonomic neuromuscular transmission of a purified toxin from the crude venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus, have been investigated. 2 the toxin had no measurable effect on transmission in either the rat anococcygeus, the rat vas deferens, or the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum. 3 the toxin induced a contraction of longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum. the tissue relaxed in spite of the continued presence of the toxin, and remained ins ...1978205289
synaptic transmission to the horizontal cells in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.1. the receptive field diameter for most horizontal cells far exceeds the lateral spread of processes for any cell. therefore horizontal cells probably receive synaptic input from neighbours as well as from the photoreceptors. the electrical effects of these two synaptic inputs were studied. 2. we have characterized the electrical properties of the horizontal cell inputs by determining the current-voltage curves in dark and light. these curves were compared with those obtained in the presence of ...1990209177
transmission along and between rods in the tiger salamander retina.1. the electrical pathways that couple the rods and that link the outer segments of the rods to the coupled network, were evaluated. two separate micro-electrodes were inserted into the inner or outer segments of the same or neighbouring rods under visual control. current was passed through one electrode, and the resulting potential recorded with the other. 2. the input resistance, measured at the inner or outer segment in a rod in the network, is strongly outward rectifying. it is typically nea ...1988211229
contacts between receptors and electrophysiologically identified neurones in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.1. following the intracellular recording of bipolar and horizontal cell responses, each unit was injected with horseradish peroxidase and a histochemical staining used to identify it at the level of the light and electron microscopes.2. centre-depolarizing bipolar cells made contact with rods and cones at basal and ribbon junctions, the latter being fewer. centre-hyperpolarizing bipolar cells made the same types of contacts with the receptors, but ribbon junctions predominated.3. it appears, the ...1978217992
[work environment legislation: paper tiger without concrete direction]. 1973246338
a tabby with a tiger in his tank? 1979256128
responses to light of solitary rod photoreceptors isolated from tiger salamander retina.single, isolated rod photoreceptors were obtained by enzymatic dissociation of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) retina. these solitary cells retained the morphological features of rods of the intact retina and could be maintained in culture for several days. when impaled with micropipettes for electrophysiological recording, dark-adapted solitary rods had during darkness a resting potential of approximately -45 mv and a steady-state slope resistance of 500 momega at rest. the current-vo ...1978277954
tissue lesions of tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum): relationship to sewage effluents.a population of facultative neotenous tiger salamanders (a. tigrinum) inhabiting a sewage lagoon at reese afb, hurlwood, texas, was found to have an exceptionally high rate of spontaneous tissue lesions. the population is composed of an estimated 28,000 large, reproductively mature larvae that are restricted to the lagoon. only about 17% of the population metamorphoses normally. in contrast, tiger salamanders from uncontaminated lagoons in the same general vicinity metamorphose normally; however ...1978280184
tigers and elephants: an appreciation of craniofacial team nursing. 1978281274
riding the wave of dental insurance: taming the paper tiger. 1978289513
[disorders of swimming ability in tiger dachsunds]. 1977319978
the aib: an ailing tiger still has teeth and claws. 1978350370
[effect of presynaptic neurotoxin notechis ii-5 from tiger snake venom on the motor nerve endings of mice].the neurotoxin notechis ii-5 (n-ii-5) from tiger snake venom (notechis scutatus) induces three-phasic changes in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency recorded in the mouse diaphragm muscle: an initial fall of frequency followed by increase and decrease in mepp frequency up to complete blockade. the effect of n-ii-5 was enhanced with rising of the solution temperature from 20 to 30 and 35 degrees c. removal of ca2+ from the solution prevented the presynaptic effect of n-ii-5. after wash ...1979387107
synaptic inputs to the ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina.the postsynaptic potentials (psps) that form the ganglion cell light response were isolated by polarizing the cell membrane with extrinsic currents while stimulating at either the center or surround of the cell's receptive field. the time-course and receptive field properties of the psps were correlated with those of the bipolar and amacrine cells. the tiger salamander retina contains four main types of ganglion cell: "on" center, "off" center, "on-off", and a "hybrid" cell that responds transie ...1979438772
[operation on a congenital cataract in a siberian tiger].a cataract operation in a young siberian tiger is reported. this 5-month-old tiger, presenting with blindness, showed bilateral residual pupillary membranes and anterior polar cataracts combined with nuclear cataracts. after unilateral intracapsular extraction of the lens, the tiger adapted well to the improvement in sight and behaved almost like an animal with normal vision. the animal died 3 months post-operatively from unknown cause. histological examination of the aphakic eye showed, at the ...1979440702
snake bite in dogs.in 7 years snake bite was diagnosed in 80 dogs. sporting breeds figured prominently. the average was 3.6 years. the commonest presenting signs were salivation, vomiting, dilated pupils, absence of the pupillary light reflex, depression and generalised muscle weakness, hindlimb ataxia and respiratory distress. sixty-seven cases (84%) occurred in 6 warmer months on the year. fifty-one dogs (64%) were seen either to be bitten or in contact with a snake. tiger and brown snakes were implicated on 32 ...1979444166
temporal patterns and selectivity in the unitary responses of olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander to odor stimulation.temporal patterns and selectivity in unitary responses of 100 single olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander to odor stimulation were investigated. an olfactometer which permitted control of stimulus concentration, duration, and flow rate was calibrated with a gas chromatograph. stimulus pulses were monitored by recording the electroolfactogram from the surface of the olfactory epithelium. both diphasic and triphasic spikes were recorded extracellularly. no discernible differences in types o ...1979479819
adaptation and cross-adaptation to odor stimulation of olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander.we have used the effects of self- and cross-adaptation on the unitary responses of olfactory receptors of the tiger salamander to odor stimulation to investigate the stimulus-specific components of these responses and to provide information about the cross-cell variations in the numbers and numbers of types of constitutent receptive sites. an olfactometer delivered sequential odorous pulses, either juxtaposed or separated by a variable time delay. we used four pairs of odorants judged to be simi ...1979479820
word context effects on letter recognition.24 subjects were asked to determine whether a target letter was present in a tachistoscopically exposed word. the presence of the target was detected faster if the target was clarly sounded in the word, that is, the target g in the word tiger was detected faster than the target g in the word right. this effect was strongest among subjects whose over-all response time was below the median value. this result was interpreted as evidence that (1) a word is recognized as a whole before its component ...1979482048
reduction of sodium dependent stump currents disturbs urodele limb regeneration.we have asked the question whether the natural electric currents which leave urodele limb stumps are in any way needed for their regeneration. as an initial test, we have greatly reduced such currents in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, by applying 0.5 mm amiloride to the stump skin or by immersion of the animals in sodium depleted media. we have also reduced such currents in the red spotted newt, notophthalmus viridescens, by such immersion. limb regeneration in half of the amiloride-t ...1979490133
allopurinol-induced melanism in the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum).the enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh), has been examined in ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum with respect to its role in pigmentation. it now seems probable that the melanoid gene (m) either codes directly for xdh or is somehow intimately connected with the normal function of this enzyme. inhibition of xdh using the drug, allopurinol, results in animals which appear to be phenocopies of melanoid mutants as described for the mexican axolotl (ambystoma mexicanum). the effects of allopurinol in term ...1979490138
amino acid sequence of a postsynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus.although 60 percent of the protein in tiger snake (notechis scutatus scutatus) venom consists of the basic per-synaptically neurotoxic and myotoxic phospholipases notexin and notechis ii-5 and other phospholipase homologs such as notechis ii-1, several post-synaptic "curaremimetic" neurotoxins are present in small amounts. the major one of these is a typical "long" neurotoxin containing 73 amino acids in a single peptide chain cross-linked by five disulfide bridges. the formula weight calculated ...1979497256
a voltage-clamp study of the light response in solitary rods of the tiger salamander.1. single, isolated, rod photoreceptors were obtained by enzymatic dissociation of the tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum) retina. these solitary cells retained the morphological features of rods of the intact retina and could be maintained in culture for several days. solitary cells were penetrated with one or two micropipettes and their electrophysiology was studied by the voltage-clamp technique. 2. intracellular recording with two micropipettes demonstrated that the inner segment of a soli ...2004529060
structure and function of neuro- and myotoxic phospholipases: modification with ethoxyformic anhydride of notechis ii-5 from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus. 1979573053
plasma melatonin in the neotenic tiger salamander (ambystoma tigrinum): effects of photoperiod and pinealectomy. 1979573224
thyroid function in pre- and postspawning neotenic tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum). 1977598694
amino acid sequences of the two polypeptide chains in beta1-bungarotoxin from the venom of bungarus multicinctus.the two dissimilar composite polypeptide chains (a and b) in beta1-bungarotoxin were isolated as their reduced and carboxymethylated derivatives as reported in the preceding paper. the n-terminal sequences were determined with a sequenator up to the 39th residue for the rcm-a chain and up to the 25th residue for the rcm-b chain with repetitive yields of 90-95%. the tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from the two chains were isolated and their structures were determined by manual edman degradation ...1978624701
studies on the effects of bleaching amphibian rod pigments in situ. i. the absorbance spectra of axolotl and tiger salamander rhodopsin and porphyropsin. 1978639883
some biochemical responses of rat skeletal muscle to a single subcutaneous injection of a toxin (notexin) isolated from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus.1. some biochemical responses of mammalian skeletal muscle to a single subcutaneous injection of a purified toxin from the venom of the australian tiger snake, notechis scutatus scutatus, have been investigated to determine the role of changes in peptide hydrolase enzymes in the muscle wasting caused by notexin administration. 2. within 6 h of injection, serum creatine kinase activity was increased by five- to ten-fold, and remained elevated for at least 24 h. 3. there was an initial inflammator ...1978648033
renal papillary necrosis in the tiger.two examples of renal papillary necrosis in the tiger are described. the necrosis was characterised by large zones of liquefaction with minimal inflammation and was associated with pronouced scarring in the cortex. both animals had been vomiting terminally and were severely dehydrated. it is suggested that papillary necrosis was precipitated by the reduced renal perfusion associated with dehydration in kidneys in which the medullary blood supply was already compromised by chronic cortical scarri ...1978655037
the relationship of a monoamine fiber system to a somatosensory tectal projection in the salamander ambystoma tigrinum.after hemisection of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata, a projection has been traced to the inner half of the tectal white of the tiger salamander, using fink-heimer degeneration staining. by microelectrode recording it was found that the tectal projection forms a topographic somatosensory map of the contralateral half of the body. this map is in register with the overlying retino-tectal visual projection. using the falck-hillarp technique, it was found that the somatosensory tectal input is ...1978691065
paragonimus westermanni in tigers (panthera tigris) in india.paragonimus westermanni was found in the lungs of two young tigers (panthera tigris). cysts were focally distributed in the lungs, initiating an emphysematous response together with extensive fibrosis in the vicinity of the cysts.1978691124
regulation of arterial blood pressure in australian tiger snakes.1. blood pressure was measured in the dorsal aorta of restrained, unanaesthetized tiger snakes (notechis scutatus) at different body temperatures during graded, passive tilt. aortic blood pressure in horizontal snakes showed no significant change over a range of body temperatures between 18 and 33 degrees c (mean of measurements on 16 snakes = 42.2 +/- i.98 mmhg), while heart rate increased logarithmically (q10 approximately 2.5). blood pressure was stable during heating and cooling between body ...1978702045
the physician and the nurse specialist, or the tiger and the lady. 1978704506
snake bite in cats.in 6 years snake bite was diagnosed in 41 cats, with an average age of 20 months. the commonest presenting signs were dilated pupils, absence of the pupillary light reflex, depression and generalised muscle weakness. other frequent findings were vomiting, dyspnoea, hindlimb ataxia and complete flaccid paralysis. thirty-seven cases (90%) occurred in the 6 warmer months of the year. tiger snakes were positively identified in 7 cases. a recovery rate of 89% was obtained in cases receiving 3000 unit ...1978743057
physician contributions to nonmedical science. william tiger dunlop, soldier, editor, lecturer and warden of the forests. 1976788883
absorption spectra and linear dichroism of some amphibian photoreceptors.absorption spectra and linear dichroism of dark-adapted, isolated photoreceptors of mudpuppies, larval and adult tiger salamanders, and tropical toads were measured microspectrophotometrically. spectral half-band width, dichroic ratio, and transverse specific density were determined using averaged polarized absorptance spectra and photomicrographs of seven types of rod outer segments. two classes of cells were found, one with higher specific density and dichroic ratio, associable with the presen ...1975808586
neoplastic and possibly related skin lesions in neotonic tiger salamanders from a sewage lagoon.tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum) inhabiting a sewage sedimentation lagoon become neotenic, and approximately one-third develop neoplastic skin lesions including cancer. circumstances suggest a chemical etiology for the neoplasms.1977847473
telencephalic efferents of the tiger salamander ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (green).the efferent projections of the telencephalon in the tiger salamander were examined by the nauta and fink-heimer methods following unilateral hemispherectomies, rostral hemispheric ablations and pallial lesions. the cerebral hemisphere connects with most areas of the contralateral hemisphere via the pallial, anterior and habenular commissures. the descending fibers travel in the medial and lateral forebrain bundles and in the tracts comprising the stria medullaris. degenerating fibers and termin ...1977864026
position discrimination in the salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.twenty larval tiger salamanders (ambystoma tigrinum) were collected from a playa lake in west texas and maintained in the laboratory for 7 days prior to the beginning of position training. ten subjects in the larval state were trained on a position problem in a t-maze for 5 trials per day to a criterion of 80% correct responses, using a self-correction procedure. following metamorphosis to the adult stage, these subjects were tested for retention. the remaining 10 subjects were allowed to metamo ...1977873065
three instructive cases of tiger snake (notechis scutatus) envenomation--and how a radioimmunoassay proved the diagnosis.three unusual cases are described, in which, in separate incidents, young snake bite victims were found comatose. tiger snake vemon was detected by radioimmunoassay in the urine and serum, and in one case on the clothing of these children. gross myoglobinuria was present in all cases. the three cases demonstrate clearly the myolytic potential of tiger snake venom if specific treatment (administration of antivenom) is delayed. extreme elevation of serum enzyme levels was found in the two victims ...1977904526
an unusual snake bite story.the case is reported of a seven-year-old girl who was bitten by a tiger snake and sustained severe liver, skeletal muscle and myocardial muscle damage as a result of envenomation. she recovered after treatment with polyvalent snake bite antivenom preceded by promethazine.1977904529
crystallization and crystallographic data of notexin: a neurotoxic basic phospholipase a from the venom of australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus. 1977906027
transfer properties of rod and cone cells in the retina of the tiger salamander. 1976941414
letter: specialization--another tiger by the tail. 1976941841
mast cells in mammalian brain.mast cells, which had until recently been believed to be not present in the mammalian brain, were studied in the brains of 29 mammalian species. although there was considerable intraspecific and interspecific variation, mast cells were most numerous within the leptomeninges (especially in those overlying the cerebrum and the dorsal thalamus - most rodents, most carnivores, chimpanzees, squirrel monkeys and elephant), the cerebral cortex (most rodents, tiger, fox, chimpanzee, tarsier, and elephan ...1976961335
heterochromatin polymorphism and colour pattern in the tiger swallowtail butterfly papilio glaucus l. 1976980105
tumorous growths of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum, associated with treated sewage effluent. 1976981691
isolation of a non-neurotoxic, non-enzymatic phospholipase a homologue from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus. 1976992096
histological, histochemical and electron microscopical studies on the nervous apparatus of the pineal organ in the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum.150-190 photoreceptor cells form a basic structural component of the pineal organ of ambystoma tigrinum. most of the outer and inner segments of these cells project into the lumen horizontally. only 10% of the total number of photoreceptor cells are located within the pineal roof which is composed of a single cell layer. the photoreceptor cells are connected with nerve cells by synapses displaying characteristic ribbons. different types of synaptic contacts, i.e. simple, tangential, dyad, triad ...19761000587
isolation and amino acid sequence of a neurotoxic phospholipase a from the venom of the australian tiger snake notechis scutatus scutatus.the complete amino acid sequence of notechis 5, a neurotoxic phospholipase a from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. the main fragmentation of the 119-residue peptide chain was accomplished by digesting the reduced and s-carboxymethylated derivative of the protein with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence of the four staphylococcal protease peptides. the sequence w ...19761002692
[hip dislocation in a siberian tiger]. 19761008767
an account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.a description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. it has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. an examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. corrugations are present in all these animals, except the h ...19761010796
postsynaptic and musculotropic effects of notexin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake). 19761014037
the white-tiger enigma. 19751038910
irs...the paper tiger. 20051069705
[accelerated method of preparing tiger ointment and its analysis]. 20131083811
cerebral paragonimiasis.the first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by otani in japan in 1887. this was nine years after kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by baelz and manson. the first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. the patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. the postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the ...19751095292
human snake bite victims: the successful detection of circulating snake venom by radiommunoassay,.a new solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which allows positive identification of the type of snake venom in human tissue and fluids and its accurate quantitation. tiger snake venom at a level of 210 ng/ml was detected post mortem in the serum of a child, and brown snake venom was detected in two adults bitten by unidentified snakes. apart from forensic applications, the assay will be useful in studying clinical aspects of envenomation and the use of antivenenes.19751128354
take that tiger by the tail--but mind how you do it. 20131136922
amino acid sequence of a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake).the complete amino acid sequence of notexin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. the protein consists of a single chain of 119 amino acids cross-linked by seven disulfide bridges and has a formula weight of 13,578. the main fragmentation of the peptide chain was accomplished with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. a cyanogen bromide fragment and tryptic peptides were used to align the five major ...19961158892
snakebite in the horse.four cases of snakebite in horses are presented. diagnosis was made on clinical signs in all, plus fang punctures in 2 cases. tiger snake antivenene was used in the treatment of 2 patients and these recovered rapidly. of the 2 in which antivenene was not used, 1 severely affected horse died. the clinical signs which were observed were those of progressive general paralysis and were entirely referable to the neurotoxic component of the venom.19751164270
the use of diazepam and methocarbamol in the treatment of toxaphene poisoning in a bangal tiger.a 12-year-old female bengal tiger was presented with clinical signs of acute chlorinated hydrocarbon poisoning and a history of recent consumption of food contaminated with toxaphene. hyperreflexia and periodic convulsions were controlled by initial intramuscular injections of 30 mg diazepam and 2 g methocarbamol, followed at 6-hour intervals with intramuscular injections of 30 mg diazepam each, for 2 additional treatments. following the initial treatment, hyperreflexia and convulsions did not r ...19751176351
horizontal cell responses in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.the responses to light of horizontal cells were recorded intracellularly in the retina of the larval tiger salamander. 2. all the units studied had a large summation area and were hyperpolarized by circles of light of any wave-length centred on the recording electrode, but two types could be distinguished according to the properties of their receptive fields. type a units were hyperpolarized following illumination of any portion of their receptive field, while type b units were not hyperpolarize ...19751185613
mycotic granuloma in a tiger salamander.an unidentified brown-pigmented fungus was the cause of a granuloma in the left lumbar musculature of a captive female tiger salamander. histologically, the fungus appeared in the granulomatous tissue both as round yeastlike budding cells and as long septate hyphae.19751195496
the martial arts and the caucasian knee: "a tiger by the tail". 20061195699
acute renal failure with myoglobinuria after tiger snake bite.this report concerns a cause of snake bite by a tiger snake (notechis scutatus) in which the predominant pathological feature was acute massive rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria, hypocalcaemia and acute renal failure.19751207542
[pulmonary lesions observed in victims of an aircraft accident].the authors have studied the lungs of some of the victims of a recent important aircraft accident. the results have been compared to the literature and to an experimental study of decompression effects on animals. the observed injuries were those which are classically reported, consisting of pulmonary haemorrhage, acute traumatic pseudo-emphysema and laceration. there was no characteristic distribution except for the traumatic emphysema which was mostly subpleural and on the edges of pulmonary l ...19751225776
the role of phospholipase activity in the action of a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of notechis scutatus scutatus (australian tiger snake). 19761245225
olfactory epithelium of necturus maculosus and ambystoma tigrinum.the morphological study presented here provides a general description of the elements of the olfactory epithelium in the mud puppy and tiger salamander,, and gives evidence about their dynamic activity and interrelationships. there are morphological indications of local bursts of reduplication and a continual line of differentiation of receptor cells from basal cell progenitors through stages of mature development to senescence (indicated by the accumulation of pigment granules) and cell death a ...19761249589
purification and properties of a carboxylesterase from the liver of tiger shark (galeocerdo cuvier).a procedure is described for the purification of a carboxylesterase from shark liver, using a chloroform-acetone powder prepared from the liver as the starting material. the yield of purified enzyme is approximately 50 mg from 530 g of chloroform-acetone powder. the preparation is electrophoretically homogeneous. active-site titrations with paraoxon gave an equivalent weight of approximately 83 000. the molecular weight, found from sedimentation equilibrium experiments, is approximately 80 000. ...19761276972
ionic selectivity of ih channels of rod photoreceptors in tiger salamanders.ionic selectivity of ih channels of tiger salamander rod photoreceptors was investigated using whole-cell voltage clamp. measured reversal potentials and the goldman-hodgkin-katz voltage equation were used to calculate permeability ratios with 20 mm k+ as a reference. in the absence of external k+, ih is small and hard to discern. hence, we defined ih as the current blocked by 2 mm external cs+. some small amines permeate ih channels, with the following permeability ratios (px/pk):nh4+, 0.17; me ...19921282144
synapse-specific expression of acetylcholine receptor genes and their products at original synaptic sites in rat soleus muscle fibres regenerating in the absence of innervation.to test the hypothesis that synaptic basal lamina can induce synapse-specific expression of acetylcholine receptor (achr) genes, we examined the levels mrna for the alpha- and epsilon-subunits of the achr in regenerating rat soleus muscles up to 17 days of regeneration. following destruction of all muscle fibres and their nuclei by exposure to venom of the australian tiger snake, new fibres regenerated within the original basal lamina sheaths. northern blots showed that original mrna was lost du ...19921282861
calcium homeostasis in the outer segments of retinal rods from the tiger salamander.1. the processes regulating intracellular calcium in the outer segments of salamander rods have been investigated. the main preparation used was the isolated rod loaded with the ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein aequorin, from which outer segment membrane current and free [ca2+]i could be recorded simultaneously. two other preparations were also used: outer segment membrane current was recorded from intact, isolated rods using a suction pipette, and from detached outer segments using a whole-cell pi ...19921282928
localization of gabaa receptor subtypes in the tiger salamander retina.dry autoradiography was used to determine the distribution of gabaa binding sites in tiger salamander retina. high-affinity binding of [3h]-flunitrazepam [( 3h]-fnz) was used to localize benzodiazepine receptors (bzr) and [3h]-muscimol was used to localize the gabaa recognition site. specific [3h]-fnz binding was present only in the inner retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer (ipl). co-incubation with gaba enhanced [3h]-fnz binding by 20-50%. [3h]-muscimol binding was found throughout t ...19921310871
the spatial relationship between müller cell processes and the photoreceptor output synapse.glutamate is the neurotransmitter released by photoreceptors in the retina. the postsynaptic action of glutamate is terminated partly by uptake into glial (müller) cells. the anatomical distribution of müller cell processes around the synaptic terminals of photoreceptors was investigated electron microscopically in the tiger salamander retina. müller cells wrap around the synaptic terminals of both rods and cones and come within 1-3 microns of the sites of glutamate release, close enough to cont ...19921325248
contribution of ca and ca-activated cl channels to regenerative depolarization and membrane bistability of cone photoreceptors.1. cone photoreceptors in several vertebrate species generate ca-dependent regenerative depolarizations (e.g., ca spikes lasting up to 2 s) in response to current injection or surround illumination and may remain in a state of prolonged depolarization (e.g., a permanent plateau near 0 mv) after these stimuli. this paper, while confirming the role of ca channels in the regenerative depolarization, demonstrates that ca-activated cl channels either enhance or hinder prolonged depolarization, depend ...19921331354
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a lentivirus.an african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
ability of thawed tiger (panthera tigris) spermatozoa to fertilize conspecific eggs and bind and penetrate domestic cat eggs in vitro.electroejaculates from tigers were collected and half was used fresh to inseminate tiger eggs in vitro and domestic cat eggs stored in a hypertonic salt solution. the remainder was pelleted, frozen in a solution of 20% egg yolk, 11% lactose and 4% glycerol, thawed and cultured with tiger and domestic cat eggs. the motility index ((sperm % motility)+(status rating x 20))/2 for thawed spermatozoa was about 86% of that in fresh aliquots. of the 49 tiger oocytes inseminated in vitro with fresh sperm ...19921339836
bi-directional transmission of molecular information by photon or electron beams passing in the close vicinity of specific molecules, and its clinical and basic research applications: 1) diagnosis of humans or animal patients without any direct contact; 2) light microscopic and electron microscopic localization of neuro-transmitters, heavy metals, oncogen c-fos (ab2), etc. of intracellular fine structures of normal and abnormal single cells using light or electro-microscopic indirect bi-digital o-ring test.in 1985, omura, y. discovered that, when specific molecules were placed anywhere in the close vicinity of the path of a light beam (laser), their molecular information, as well as information on electrical & magnetic fields, is transmitted bi-directionally along the path of this light beam. namely, this information is transmitted in the direction the light beam is projected and towards the direction from which the light beam is coming. this finding was applied to the following clinical and basic ...19921351338
gaba-mediated positive autofeedback loop controls horizontal cell kinetics in tiger salamander retina.horizontal cells (hcs) appear to release, and also to be sensitive to, gaba. the external gaba concentration is increased with depolarization of the hc membrane via an electrogenic gaba transporter. this extracellular gaba opens a gabaa-gated cl- channel in the hc membrane. since the equilibrium potential for cl- (ecl) is near -20 mv, gaba released by the hc further depolarizes the hc. the gaba transporter and the gabaa receptor thus constitute a positive feedback loop in the hc membrane. this l ...20061351934
two types of glutamate receptors differentially excite amacrine cells in the tiger salamander retina.1. excitatory inputs to amacrine cells in the salamander retinal slice preparation were examined using whole-cell patch pipette voltage-clamp techniques. in strychnine (500 nm) and bicuculline (100 microm), two types of amacrine cell were easily distinguished by their light-evoked excitatory responses: transient and sustained. 2. in transient amacrine cells the current-voltage (i-v) relation for the peak light-evoked current was non-linear with a negative slope region between -50 and -70 mv. res ...19921355793
a double-label analysis demonstrating the non-coexistence of tyrosine hydroxylase-like and gaba-like immunoreactivities in amacrine cells of the larval tiger salamander retina.previous studies have localized tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) to amacrine cell populations in the larval tiger salamander retina. double-label immunocytochemistry was used to examine if tyrosine hydroxylase-like and gaba-like immunoreactivities colocalize in tiger salamander amacrine cells. a total of 2,162 tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive amacrine cells were observed in double-labelled sections. none of ...19921363755
intracellular injection of vital dyes into single cells in the salamander olfactory epithelium.intracellular vital dye injection was used to examine the morphology of single sustentacular and receptor cells and the developmental fate of individual basal cells in the olfactory epithelium of the tiger salamander. in acute experiments, lucifer yellow injections were used to identify single basal, receptor or sustentacular cells on the basis of their overall morphology. dye-coupling between a number of the different epithelial cells was observed. progeny of basal cells were examined by follow ...19921380147
cation interactions within the cyclic gmp-activated channel of retinal rods from the tiger salamander.1. the ionic dependence of current through the 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic gmp)-activated channels of salamander rods was studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from isolated outer segments. voltage-clamp experiments on transducing rods were performed so that the channels in intact cells could be compared with those in excised patches. 2. the reversal potential of the cyclic gmp-induced patch current was close to the na+ equilibrium potential when the concentration of na ...19921381754
pharmacological properties of n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors on ganglion cells of an amphibian retina.1. the pharmacological characteristics of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) receptors on amphibian retinal ganglion cells were studied to determine their similarities or differences from nmda receptors found in mammalian central nervous system (cns) cells. cells were tested with a variety of nmda antagonists acting at sites on the nmda receptor/ion channel complex. 2. whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from ganglion cells of the larval tiger salamander with a retinal slice preparati ...19921382121
changes in carbohydrate metabolism of pila globosa in response to crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.hyperglycemia was caused in the snail pila globosa by the injection of the hyperglycemic hormones obtained from fresh water crabs (oziotelphusa senex senex) and marine tiger prawns (penaeus monodon). tissue glycogen and total carbohydrates presented a significant decrease which indicated that the source of hyperglycemia was the tissue carbohydrates. the hyperglycemic principles also increased the tissue phosphorylase activity and provided evidence for a possible action of the crustacean hypergly ...19921382680
amines in the marking fluid and anal sac secretion of the tiger, panthera tigris.analysis of the marking fluid of two tigers (one bengal and one sumatran) by gc using an amine-specific column and a nitrogen-specific detector has shown the presence of the following amines: ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, propylamine, and butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine). in contrast to previously published reports, we were unable to detect 2-phenylethylamine. the anal sac secretion was found to have a similar amine content.20161388518
correlation of sperm viability with gamete interaction and fertilization in vitro in the cheetah (acinonyx jubatus).sperm-oocyte interaction in vitro was studied in the cheetah, a species known to produce poor quality ejaculates and to experience low rates of fertility. twelve female cheetahs were injected (i.m.) with ecg followed by hcg 84 h later. twenty-four to 26 h post hcg, each was subjected to laparoscopic oocyte aspiration. a sperm motility index (smi) was calculated for each of 9 cheetah sperm donors that produced ejaculates averaging 41.3 +/- 22.9 x 10(6) motile sperm and 28.4 +/- 4.9% structurally ...19921391303
[immunological identification of tiger-bone].anti-tiger sera were prepared by using tiger serum proteins to immunize the rabbits. tiger-bone can be identified by the specific serological reaction between the anti-tiger sera and the tiger-bone proteins.19921418546
ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry of the neuroepithelial bodies in the lung of the tiger salamander, ambystoma tigrinum (urodela, amphibia).light and electron microscopy of the lungs of ambystoma tigrinum (urodela) revealed a relatively complex pattern of the neuroendocrine (ne) cells. in the apical parts of smaller septa single ne cells not associated with nerve fibres were covered and surrounded by pneumocytes. the larger septa possessed small areas of ciliated epithelium, in which the ne cells were grouped in a form of neuroepithelial bodies (neb) consisting of 3-5 cells and covered by goblet cells. ne cells possessed a large nuc ...19921443667
hallervorden-spatz disease: clinical and mri study of 11 cases diagnosed in life.the diagnosis of hallervorden-spatz disease (hsd) has usually been made post mortem, although the recent description of characteristic abnormalities in the globus pallidus has suggested the possibility of an in vivo diagnosis. we present the clinical histories, neurological features and mri findings of 11 patients, diagnosed as having hsd. generalized dystonia with predominance of oromandibular involvement, behavioural changes followed by dementia and retinal degeneration were present in all the ...19921447570
deaths from snake bite in australia, 1981-1991.to obtain and analyse data relating to snake bite fatalities in australia.19921453996
antinutrients content of some locally available legumes and cereals in nigeria.plant protein is the cheapest source of protein available to mankind but unfortunately the protein is accompanied by antinutrients. the quantity of oxalate and tannin in acha, bambara groundnut, guinea corn, millet, sesame seed, soybean and tiger nut were chemically analyzed. the white variety of sesame seed and soybean have the highest oxalate and tannin contents of 8.25 mg/g and 0.15 mg/g respectively. among the cereals the black and brown varieties of millet have the highest oxalate and tanni ...19921455533
neuronal ectopia in tiger retina.ocular pathology in a ten week-old tiger is described. in the retinae of both glaucomatous eyes, venous congestion and scattered hemorrhages were observed; rare perivascular infiltrates were seen. the basal lamina of the inner limiting membrane was considerably thickened, and serous exudates were widely distributed within the vitreous body. the retina was studied with a series of specific antibodies. müller (glial) cells were well developed and could be immuno-labelled by antibodies against both ...19921479197
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