aelurostrongylus abstrusus in wild felids of south africa.the increasing interest on respiratory nematodes of domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) has recently stimulated several studies on their epidemiology and geographic distribution. at the same time, there are still important gaps in our knowledge of the infections caused by respiratory nematodes in wild felids. the present study investigated the occurrence of pulmonary parasites in wild hosts housed in sanctuaries and protected areas of south africa. faecal samples collected from seven species ...201627230016
angiostrongylus chabaudi biocca, 1957: a new parasite for domestic cats?natural infection with a species of angiostrongylus has been reported only once in wildcats from central italy by biocca in 1957. the causative species of this infection was identified as angiostrongylus chabaudi. following this report, this parasite had never been found in either wild or domestic cats.201425515026
canine distemper virus (cdv) in another big cat: should cdv be renamed carnivore distemper virus?one of the greatest threats to the conservation of wild cat populations may be dogs or, at least, one of their viruses. canine distemper virus (cdv), a single-stranded rna virus in the paramyxoviridae family and genus morbillivirus, infects and causes disease in a variety of species, not just canids. an outbreak of cdv in wild lions in the serengeti, tanzania, in 1994 was a wake-up call for conservationists, as it demonstrated that an infectious disease could swiftly impact a previously healthy ...201324045642
virological survey in free-ranging wildcats (felis silvestris) and feral domestic cats in determine the presence of viral pathogens in natural areas a survey was conducted on an opportunistic sample of fifty eight wild (felis silvestris silvestris) and feral cats (f. s. catus). the biological materials included serum, lung tissue extract and stool. feline leukemia virus p27 antigen was detected in 13/50 serum/lung tissue extract samples (26%), canine distemper virus antibodies were detected in 2/26 serum/lung tissue extract samples (7.7%), feline coronavirus rna was present in 6/2 ...201222424865
broad-spectrum inhibitors against 3c-like proteases of feline coronaviruses and feline caliciviruses.feline infectious peritonitis and virulent, systemic calicivirus infection are caused by certain types of feline coronaviruses (fcovs) and feline caliciviruses (fcvs), respectively, and are important infectious diseases with high fatality rates in members of the felidae family. while fcov and fcv belong to two distinct virus families, the coronaviridae and the caliciviridae, respectively, they share a dependence on viral 3c-like protease (3clpro) for their replication. since 3clpro is functional ...201525694593
x-ray structure and inhibition of the feline infectious peritonitis virus 3c-like protease: structural implications for drug design.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is a deadly disease that effects both domestic and wild cats and is caused by a mutation in feline coronavirus (fcov) that allows the virus to replicate in macrophages. currently, there are no treatments or vaccines available for the treatment of fip even though it kills approximately 5% of cats in multi-cat households per year. in an effort to develop small molecule drugs targeting fip for the treatment of cats, we screened a small set of designed peptidomime ...201526592814
evaluation of protective efficacy of the synthetic peptide vaccine containing the t-helper 1 epitope with cpg oligodeoxynucleotide against feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in cats.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in the prevention of fip. thus, induction of the cellular immune response is essential in vaccines against fip virus (fipv) infection.201424458025
large-scale serosurvey of besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in spain.the disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti. the identity of the definitive host (dh) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. with the aim of advancing in the identification of b. besnoiti dh, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in spain was studied. the study included 16 wolves (canis lupus), 41 ...201222770702
exposure to selected pathogens in to selected pathogens in geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central argentina.wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 geoffroy's cats (leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central argentina (lihué calel national park, la pampa, and campos del tuyú national park, buenos aires), as well as five domestic ca ...201223060491
survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris schreber, 1777) by scat collection.wildcats are endangered felid species living in europe, asia, and africa. regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. in the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of european wildcats living in the etna park (sicily, italy). scat collection was performed from may to september 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. samples w ...201626377843
feline histoplasmosis in brazil: clinical and laboratory aspects and a comparative approach of published reports.the present study described clinical and epidemiological aspects of three cases of feline histoplasmosis and compared them to previously described cases. a detailed mycological identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of each isolate are presented. secondarily, a serological survey for anti-histoplasma antibodies was performed with domestic and wild cats. diseased animals presented nodular to ulcerated skin lesions and respiratory disorders as main clinical signs. h. ...201122006110
generation, characterization and therapeutic potential of anti-feline tnf-alpha mabs for feline infectious peritonitis.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is a lethal infectious disease affecting domestic and wild cats. several reports suggested that tnf-alpha is related to the progression of fip. thus, the administration of a feline tnf-alpha-neutralizing antibody to cats with fip may reduce the disease progression. in this study, we have prepared nine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that recognize feline tnf-alpha. all mabs neutralized recombinant tnf-alpha. the 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50) of the mabs fo ...201324095161
effect of chloroquine on feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. several studies have investigated potential treatments for fip. however, there have been no reports on agents that have exhibited a therapeutic effect. recently, chloroquine has been reported to antiviral effect. we investigated whether chloroquine can be used to treat fip in vitro and in vivo. it was demonstrated that chloroquine has inhibitory effect against the replication of fipv and ...201323648708
integrative taxonomy at work: dna barcoding of taeniids harboured by wild and domestic modern taxonomy, dna barcoding is particularly useful where biometric parameters are difficult to determine or useless owing to the poor quality of samples. these situations are frequent in parasitology. here, we present an integrated study, based on both dna barcoding and morphological analysis, on cestodes belonging to the genus taenia, for which biodiversity is still largely underestimated. in particular, we characterized cestodes from italian wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris), free-r ...201222233209
could the domestic cat play a significant role in the transmission of echinococcus multilocularis? a study based on qpcr analysis of cat feces in a rural area in france.echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in europe. it involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. the parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. moreover, the role of domestic cats is ...201627739398
development of a real-time pcr for a sensitive one-step coprodiagnosis allowing both the identification of carnivore feces and the detection of toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis.studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. detecting and quantifying toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in european carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. a rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative pcr (qpcr) allowing detection of e. multilocularis and toxocara spp. w ...201626969697
aristaless-like homeobox protein 1 (alx1) variant associated with craniofacial structure and frontonasal dysplasia in burmese cats.frontonasal dysplasia (fnd) can have severe presentations that are medically and socially debilitating. several genes are implicated in fnd conditions, including aristaless-like homeobox 1 (alx1), which is associated with fnd3. breeds of cats are selected and bred for extremes in craniofacial morphologies. in particular, a lineage of burmese cats with severe brachycephyla is extremely popular and is termed contemporary burmese. genetic studies demonstrated that the brachycephyla of the contempor ...201526610632
apparent total tract macronutrient and energy digestibility of 1- to- 3-day-old whole chicks, adult ground chicken, and extruded and canned chicken-based diets in african wildcats (felis silvestris lybica).our objectives were to evaluate the composition of whole 1- to- 3-day-old chicks (whole), ground adult chicken (ground), chicken-based canned diet (canned), and chicken-based extruded diet (extruded); and evaluate apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of these diets by four captive african wildcats (felis silvestrus lybica) utilizing a latin square design. we analyzed diets for macronutrient and mineral (ca, p, k, na, mg, fe, cu, mn, zn, and s) composition, and screened for ...201323818436
the european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris) as reservoir hosts of troglostrongylus brevior (strongylida: crenosomatidae) lungworms.the increasing reports of troglostrongylus brevior lungworm in domestic cats from italy and spain raised questions on its factual distribution and on the role wildcats play as reservoirs of these parasites. carcasses of 21 wildcats were collected in natural parks of southern italy (i.e., catania, sicily n=5 and matera, basilicata n=16) and biometrically and genetically identified as felis silvestris silvestris, but two as hybrids. troglostrongylus brevior and eucoleus aerophilus lungworms were f ...201425027610
lungworm disease in cats: abcd guidelines on prevention and management.cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in europe. a number of helminth parasites may be involved. the most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is aelurostrongylus abstrusus. oslerus rostratus and troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. the trichurid capillaria aerophila has a low host specificity and is not uncommon in cats. additionally the lung flukes paragonimus species are reported in many species outside of europe, including cats.201526101316
simultaneous infection by four feline lungworm species and implications for the diagnosis.besides aelurostrongylus abstrusus, other parasites belonging to the superfamily metastrongyloidea, namely oslerus rostratus, troglostrongylus brevior and to the family trichuridae, i.e. eucoleus aerophilus (syn. capillaria aerophila), have also been reported as agents of respiratory infection in domestic cats. a case of simultaneous infection by four feline lungworm species in sardinia is herein described. an adult female cat (felis silvestris catus), road-killed in the southeast part of sardin ...201525367212
use of a commercial serologic test for angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of a. chabaudi in wildcats and a. daskalovi in badgers.three species of the genus angiostrongylus are known to infect european carnivores: a. vasorum (mainly in canids but also in other carnivores), a. chabaudi (in felids) and a. daskalovi (in mustelids). a. vasorum is responsible for clinically severe disease in domestic dogs, most commonly diagnosed based on fecal examination and serological detection of circulating antigens. considering the poorly known host range and the challenging larval differentiation in the feces between the three species o ...201728043379
hepatozoon silvestris sp. nov.: morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of hepatozoon (adeleorina: hepatozoidae) from the european wild cat (felis silvestris silvestris).based on morphological and genetic characteristics, we describe a new species of hepatozoon in the european wild cat (felis silvestris silvestris), herein named hepatozoon silvestris sp. nov. the study also provides the first data on the occurrence of h. felis in this wild felid. hepatozoon meronts were observed in multiple cross-sections of different organs of four (44%) cats. additionally, extracellular forms, resembling mature gamonts of hepatozoon, were found in the spleen and myocardium of ...201727938443
seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) in shelter cats on the island of newfoundland, canada.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. these viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. we tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of newfoundland for fiv and felv. the overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for fiv and felv, respectively. two sites had s ...201424688176
molecular and morphologic characterization of sarcocystis felis (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae) in south american wild felids from brazil.wild felids are thought to share parasites with domestic cats. however, little is known of the coccidian parasites of wild felids. we investigated the presence of sarcocystis spp. in tissues of 6 species of 90 neotropical small felids killed in road accidents in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil by using microscopic and molecular techniques. formalin-fixed tissues from 28 felids were examined, and sarcocystis felis-like sarcocysts were detected in 4 wild cats (2 puma yagouaroundi and 2 leop ...201626827854
snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.the exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (cpv/fplv), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in portugal from 2008 to 2011, including egyptian mongoose (herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (martes foina, n = 3), common genet (genetta genetta, n = 3) and eurasian badger (meles meles, n = 4). a high prevalence of parvovirus dna (63%) w ...201323527182
occurrence and molecular genotyping of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wild mesocarnivores in spain.there is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. in this molecular epidemiological su ...201728215875
endoparasites in mammals from seven zoological gardens in romania.animals from seven zoological gardens located in romania, including 18 species of herbivores, 10 species of carnivores, and 13 species of omnivores, were screened for the presence of parasites. overall, the prevalences of parasites identified in the sampled population were 54.2% (58/107) for herbivores, 54.5% (24/44) for carnivores, and 32.6% (17/52) for omnivores. in herbivores, eimeria spp., dicrocelium lanceolatum, and pulmonary and digestive strongyles were detected. in carnivores, the gener ...201425000683
first detection of cytauxzoon spp. infection in european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris) of italy.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted, protozoan disease affecting domestic and wild felids and caused by cytauxzoon felis, cytauxzoon manul and cytauxzoon spp. this study aimed to determine the presence of infection with cytauxzoon spp. in felis silvestris silvestris in italy, in order to enhance the comprehension of its pattern distribution among domestic cat populations. in addition, wildcats were tested for other endemic vector-borne pathogens in italy. the carcasses of 21 f. s. si ...201627150590
what makes a feline fatal in toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? infected rats choose wild cats.toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. the innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. previous research has demonstrated that t. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. although uninfected rats disp ...201424907200
thelazia callipaeda in wild carnivores from romania: new host and geographical records.thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne zoonotic nematode parasitizing the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans, with a vast distribution in asia and the former soviet union. in europe, the nematode has an emerging trend, being reported in italy, france, switzerland, germany, spain, portugal, bosnia and herzegovina, croatia, romania, greece and serbia, with human cases known in italy, france, spain, serbia and croatia. in romania, the infection was so far reported o ...201627316971
cytauxzoon infections in wild felids from carpathian-danubian-pontic space: further evidence for a different cytauxzoon species in european felids.parasitic protists of the genus cytauxzoon are detected in a wide range of wild and domestic felids. bobcats are a confirmed reservoir of cytauxzoon felis in north america while domestic cats are susceptible hosts suffering from severe or fatal illness. cytauxzoon infections are mainly reported from american felids and, recently, several sub-clinical and clinical findings were reported from european, asian, and african felids. in 2014, the collection of organs of 4 eurasian lynx and 12 wild cats ...201626741977
evidence for widespread leishmania infantum infection among wild carnivores in l. infantum periendemic northern spain.leishmania spp. infection was investigated in tissue samples of wild carnivores from the spanish basque country (bc), by pcr and dna sequencing. the region is at the northern periphery of leishmania infantum endemic iberian peninsula and infection in the dog (reservoir) or other species has not been previously reported. leishmania kinetoplast dna was detected by real-time pcr (rtpcr) in 28% (44/156) of animals. specifically, in 26% of eurasian badgers (n=53), 29% of foxes (n=48), 29% of stone ma ...201424380572
trophoblast apoptosis through polarization of macrophages induced by chinese toxoplasma gondii isolates with different virulence in pregnant mice.toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite capable of transplacental transmission to cause spontaneous abortion or significant disease in the surviving neonate. different from the dominant genotypes of t. gondii strains in european and north american which belong to three distinct clonal lineages, type i, type ii, and type iii, isolates from china possess the predominant genotype of china 1(toxodb#9) with a different virulence. the genotype-associated pathogenesis has been investigated previo ...201323722717
annotated features of domestic cat - felis catus genome.domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. a rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly in ...201425143822
cheetah interspecific scnt followed by embryo aggregation improves in vitro development but not pluripotent gene expression.the aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of domestic cat (dc, felis silvestris) oocytes to reprogram the nucleus of cheetah (ch, acinonyx jubatus) cells by interspecies scnt (iscnt), by using embryo aggregation. dc oocytes were in vitro matured and subjected to zona pellucida free (zp-free) scnt or iscnt, depending on whether the nucleus donor cell was of dc or ch respectively. zp-free reconstructed embryos were then cultured in microwells individually (dc1x and ch1x groups) or in coup ...201525820926
use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus).regional anaesthetic techniques have been used in combination with systemic analgesics during small animal surgery to provide multimodal analgesia. brachial plexus nerves block using local anaesthetics provides analgesia of the thoracic limb through desensitization of the nerves that provide sensory and motor innervation. this has been shown to reduce intra-operative anesthetic requirements and provide postoperative pain relief. decreasing the doses of general anaesthetics allows more stable car ...201425301165
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlviii. ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern africa.ticks collected from domestic cats (felis catus), cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus),caracals (caracal caracal), african wild cats (felis lybica), black-footed cats (felis nigripes), a serval (leptailurus serval), lions(panthera leo), and leopards (panthera pardus) were identified and counted. thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. the domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. t ...201023327159
what's inside your cat's head? a review of cat (felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris). this review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity a ...201526154131
genetic characterisation of toxoplasma gondii isolates from european beavers (castor fiber) and european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris).six free-ranging european beavers (castor fiber) from berlin greater metropolitan area and twelve european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris) originating from the german federal state of saxony-anhalt were found dead and their carcasses were submitted for necropsy. brain and lung samples were analysed for the presence of toxoplasma gondii dna. histo-pathologic analysis of one beaver revealed several cyst-like protozoal structures in parts of the brain. tissue dna isolated from all animal sam ...201322989954
environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (sus scrofa), france.toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting humans and animals. wild boars sus scrofa are a potential source of human infection and an appropriate biological model for analyzing t. gondii dynamics in the environment. here, we aimed to identify environmental factors explaining the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in french wild boar populations. considering 938 individuals sampled from 377 'communes', overall seroprevalence was 23% (95% confidence interval: [22-24]). using a poisson regres ...201222820902
the role of the wolf in endemic sylvatic trichinella britovi infection in the abruzzi region of central italy.during the period 2004-2014 in the abruzzi region (central italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for trichinella larvae according to european union regulations. although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. six species were found to harbor trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), ...201627522469
the population origins and expansion of feral cats in australia.the historical literature suggests that in australia, the domestic cat (felis catus) had a european origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with aboriginal settlement from asia. the origin of cats in australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupi ...201626647063
assessing the status of wild felids in a highly-disturbed commercial forest reserve in borneo and the implications for camera trap survey design.the proliferation of camera-trapping studies has led to a spate of extensions in the known distributions of many wild cat species, not least in borneo. however, we still do not have a clear picture of the spatial patterns of felid abundance in southeast asia, particularly with respect to the large areas of highly-disturbed habitat. an important obstacle to increasing the usefulness of camera trap data is the widespread practice of setting cameras at non-random locations. non-random deployment in ...201324223717
how the leopard hides its spots: asip mutations and melanism in wild cats.the occurrence of melanism (darkening of the background coloration) is documented in 13 felid species, in some cases reaching high frequencies at the population level. recent analyses have indicated that it arose multiple times in the felidae, with three different species exhibiting unique mutations associated with this trait. the causative mutations in the remaining species have so far not been identified, precluding a broader assessment of the evolutionary dynamics of melanism in the felidae. ...201223251368
first evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging namibian cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus).infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in iberian lynxes (lynx pardinus), eurasian lynxes (lynx lynx), european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris), african lions (panthera leo) in tanzania and domestic cats in south africa. the prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern africa. in this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheet ...201323123173
[isolation and characterization of a streptococcus suis serotype 9 from a wild cat].streptococcus suis (s. suis) is an emerging zoonotic pathogenic bacterium capable of infecting piglets and human and with sporadic infections in a variety of mammalian species. the aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of s. suis in wild cats.201627373075
precision medicine in cats: novel niemann-pick type c1 diagnosed by whole-genome sequencing.state-of-the-art health care includes genome sequencing of the patient to identify genetic variants that contribute to either the cause of their malady or variants that can be targeted to improve treatment. the goal was to introduce state-of-the-art health care to cats using genomics and a precision medicine approach. to test the feasibility of a precision medicine approach in domestic cats, a single cat that presented to the university of missouri, veterinary health center with an undiagnosed n ...201728233346
mucopolysaccharidosis vi in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.the release of new dna-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. over 70 different dna variants are now known for the cat, including dna variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. the impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. if used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseas ...201627370326
more or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.we examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. in experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. in experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. again, subjects chose ...201627106666
not another type of potato: mc1r and the russet coloration of burmese cats.the burmese is a breed of domestic cat that originated in southeast asia and was further developed in the united states. variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r) causes common coat colour phenotypes in a variety of mammalian species but only limited colour variation in the domestic cat. known as the extension (e) locus, melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r) interacts with the agouti locus to produce the eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments. recently, a novel reddish coloration, which is termed russet, ...201727671997
environmental aspects of domestic cat care and management: implications for cat welfare.domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the us with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help i ...201627774506
conservation of spermatogonial stem cell marker expression in undifferentiated felid spermatogonia.spermatogonial stem cells (sscs) are distinct in their ability to self-renew, transmit genetic information, and persist throughout the life of an individual. these characteristics make sscs a useful tool for addressing diverse challenges such as efficient transgenic production in nonrodent, biomedical animal models, or preservation of the male genome for species in which survival of frozen-thawed sperm is low. a requisite first step to access this technology in felids is the establishment of mol ...201627129396
cat serum contamination by phthalates, pcbs, and pbdes versus food and indoor air.a wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (edcs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. three classes of edcs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (pbdes), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and phthalates (paes), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (felis s ...201626841781
domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) do not show signs of secure attachment to their owners.the ainsworth strange situation test (sst) has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments), and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. however methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, opera ...201526332470
concurrent transitional meningioma and ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma in a scottish wildcat hybrid (felis silvestris).the scottish wildcat (felis silvestris) is an iconic and endangered subpopulation of the european wildcat (f. silvestris silvestris). there is much research devoted to the ecology, genetics and conservation of this animal, but little published information on pathology and disease. the investigation and reporting of such information is vital to furthering understanding of the effects of hybridization, a factor that is crucial if we are to secure a future for the scottish wildcat. this report desc ...201726778210
environmental conditions during early life accelerate the rate of senescence in a short-lived passerine bird.environmental conditions experienced in early life may shape subsequent phenotypic traits including life history. we investigated how predation risk caused by domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) and local breeding density affected patterns of reproductive and survival senescence in barn swallows (hirundo rustica) breeding semicolonially in denmark. we recorded the abundance of cats and the number of breeding pairs at 39 breeding sites during 24 years and related these to age-specific survival ...201526230016
unknown age in health disorders: a method to account for its cumulative effect and an application to feline viruses interactions.parasite interactions have been widely evidenced experimentally but field studies remain rare. such studies are essential to detect interactions of interest and access (co)infection probabilities but face methodological obstacles. confounding factors can create statistical associations, i.e. false parasite interactions. among them, host age is a crucial covariate. it influences host exposition and susceptibility to many infections, and has a mechanical effect, older individuals being more at ris ...201525979281
a deletion in foxn1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in birman autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the birman cat breed (felis silvestris catus). we hypothesized that a foxn1 (forkhead box n1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in birman cats. to the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in foxn1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. we identified ...201525781316
feline mitochondrial dna sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough!pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. the power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. in a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic ...201525531059
bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from easter lily (lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.several lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (felis silvestris catus), among them easter lilies (lilium longiflorum). although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. we thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. the bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tenta ...201425269117
acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial dna in a criminal proceeding.shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. mitochondrial dna is often the only option for dna analysis of shed hair. human mitochondrial dna analysis has been accepted in the us court system since 1996. the murder trial of the state of missouri versus henry l. polk, jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial dna analysis was introduced into evidence. the mitochond ...201425086413
a new view on the european feline population from mtdna analysis in polish domestic cats.domestic cats from eastern europe have been poorly represented in studies on mitochondrial dna diversity for forensic purposes until now. the aim of the present study was to contribute to closing this gap. the genetic structure and the origin of a cat population in poland were examined against the background of human migrations over the centuries. one hundred and eighty-one cats from animal shelters in seven cities were genotyped. twenty-one mtdna haplotypes were found, with only one haplotype p ...201728068530
effect of melatonin implants on spermatogenesis in the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus).the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of subcutaneous melatonin implants to temporarily and reversibly suppress spermatogenesis in male cats. tomcats (n = 8) were housed in a conditioned room with alternating long and short 2-month photoperiod cycles to maintain sperm production and quality. animals were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. four animals received a subcutaneous melatonin implant (mel, 18 mg; syntex, argentina), whereas the other four received a subcutaneous ...201425082022
social interaction, food, scent or toys? a formal assessment of domestic pet and shelter cat (felis silvestris catus) preferences.domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using pavlovian and operant methods increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. this disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be mos ...201728343989
a subjective domestic cat (felis silvestris catus) temperament assessment results in six independent dimensions.the study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. we applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. to do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point likert scale for trait. the responses were analyzed with factor analysis, ...201728341144
highly stable individual differences in the emission of separation calls during early development in the domestic of the development of individuality is often hampered by rapidly changing behavioral repertoires and the need for minimally intrusive tests. we individually tested 33 kittens from eight litters of the domestic cat in an arena for 3 min once a week for the first 3 postnatal weeks, recording the number of separation calls and the duration of locomotor activity. kittens showed consistent and stable individual differences on both measures across and within trials. stable individual differences ...201728323347
apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (felis silvestris catus).there has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (felis silvestris catus). data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (who), ground adult chicken product (gro), a chicken-based canned diet (can), and a chicken-based extruded diet (ext) on apparent total ...201425074451
blood group system in a captive population of european wildcats (felis silvestris). 200617056656
structure of liganded t-state haemoglobin from cat (felis silvestris catus), a low oxygen-affinity species, in two different crystal forms.haemoglobin (hb) is an iron-containing metalloprotein which plays a major role in the transportation of oxygen from the lungs to tissues and of carbon dioxide back to the lungs. hb is in equilibrium between low-affinity tense (t) and high-affinity relaxed (r) states associated with its unliganded and liganded forms, respectively. mammalian species can be classified into two groups on the basis of whether they express `high' or `low' oxygen-affinity hbs. although hbs from the former group have be ...201425004966
extent of linkage disequilibrium in the domestic cat, felis silvestris catus, and its breeds.domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. in the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (ld) are essential for efficient association studies. the objective of this study is to investigate the extent of ld in the domestic cat, felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. a custom illumina goldengate assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) ...201323308248
effect of natural photoperiod on epididymal sperm quality and testosterone serum concentration in domestic cat (felis silvestris catus).the aim of this study was to assess epididymal sperm characteristics and serum testosterone concentration in cats under natural photoperiod. the hypothesis was that natural photoperiod induces seasonal changes in spermatozoal quality and serum testosterone concentration. mixed breed tomcats (n = 43) that underwent bilateral orchiectomy at a municipal public pet shelter were used in the study. epididymides were divided into two groups according to time of castration. in group i, toms were castrat ...201223279507
vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (felis silvestris catus). 201223259698
paw preferences in cats (felis silvestris catus) living in a household environment.unrestrained, naı̈ve cats (felis silvestris catus) (n=48: 28 males and 20 females), living in a natural domestic environment, were studied for paw preferences using a food reaching test. a total of 46% were right-preferent, 44% were left-preferent and 10% were ambilateral. 60% of the cats in our sample used one paw 100% of the time. this preference was stable over time (10 weeks), and was not influenced by the presence of food residue on the cats' non-preferred paw. there was no difference betwe ...199724897330
whole genome sequencing in cats, identifies new models for blindness in aipl1 and somite segmentation in hes7.the reduced cost and improved efficiency of whole genome sequencing (wgs) is drastically improving the development of cats as biomedical models. persian cats are models for leber's congenital amaurosis (lca), the most severe and earliest onset form of visual impairment in humans. cats with innocuous breed-defining traits, such as a bobbed tail, can also be models for somite segmentation and vertebral column development.201627030474
mother-offspring recognition in the domestic cat: kittens recognize their own mother's call.acoustic communication can play an important part in mother-young recognition in many mammals. this, however, has still only been investigated in a small range mainly of herd- or colony-living species. here we report on the behavioral response of kittens of the domestic cat, a typically solitary carnivore, to playbacks of "greeting chirps" and "meows" from their own versus alien mothers. we found significantly stronger responses to the chirps from kittens' own mother than to her meows or to the ...201626935009
a glance at recombination hotspots in the domestic cat.recombination has essential roles in increasing genetic variability within a population and in ensuring successful meiotic events. the objective of this study is to (i) infer the population-scaled recombination rate (ρ), and (ii) identify and characterize regions of increased recombination rate for the domestic cat, felis silvestris catus. snps (n = 701) were genotyped in twenty-two east asian feral cats (random bred). the snps covered ten different chromosomal regions (a1, a2, b3, c2, d1, d2, d ...201626859385
earliest "domestic" cats in china identified as leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).the ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in south-west asia. a recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in china some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (f. silvestris). the application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from china dating between 5,500 to 4,900 bp, instead reveal these and othe ...201626799955
first evidence of the european wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris) as definitive host of angiostrongylus chabaudi.angiostrongylus chabaudi (strongylida, angiostrongylidae) is a parasitic nematode described for the first time last century from the pulmonary arteries of six european wildcats (felis silvestris silvestris) in central italy. since then, this parasite remained practically unknown until recently, when immature a. chabaudi have been reported from one wildcat in germany and two domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) in italy. the present report describes the first record of a. chabaudi in greece and ...201626637312
strong spatial segregation between wildcats and domestic cats may explain low hybridization rates on the iberian peninsula.the european wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris) is an endangered felid impacted by genetic introgression with the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus). the problem of hybridization has had different effects in different areas. in non-mediterranean regions pure forms of wildcats became almost extinct, while in mediterranean regions genetic introgression is a rare phenomenon. the study of the potential factors that prevent the gene flow in areas of lower hybridization may be key to wildcat con ...201526358989
tiger, bengal and domestic cat embryos produced by homospecific and interspecific zona-free nuclear transfer.the aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iscnt) using bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of felis silvestris and prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (panthera tigris) donor cells. in experiment 1, zona-free (zp-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that invol ...201526332056
toward a genome-wide approach for detecting hybrids: informative snps to detect introgression between domestic cats and european wildcats (felis silvestris).endemic gene pools have been severely endangered by human-mediated hybridization, which is posing new challenges in the conservation of several vertebrate species. the endangered european wildcat is an example of this problem, as several natural populations are suffering introgression of genes from the domestic cat. the implementation of molecular methods for detecting hybridization is crucial for supporting appropriate conservation programs on the wildcat. in this study, genetic variation at 15 ...201526103945
genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between african wildcats (felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (f. s. catus) in south africa.hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. except for tropical forests and true deserts, african wildcats occur across the african continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. for example, in south africa it has been ar ...201525691958
the genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the european wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (felis silvestris catus).studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. the european wildcat, felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. we here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. we used microsatellites and mtdna sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure a ...201425162450
personality structure in the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus), scottish wildcat (felis silvestris grampia), clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (panthera uncia), and african lion (panthera leo): a comparative study.although the study of nonhuman personality has increased in the last decade, there are still few studies on felid species, and the majority focus on domestic cats. we assessed the structure of personality and its reliability in five felids-domestic cats, clouded leopards, snow leopards, african lions, and previous data on scottish wildcats-and compared the results. in addition to the benefits of understanding more about this taxon, comparative studies of personality structure have the potential ...201425111629
viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. this exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans.201424886057
tnr and conservation on a university campus: a political ecological to manage the impact of free-ranging cats on native wildlife is a polarizing issue. conservation biologists largely support domestic cat euthanasia to mitigate impacts of free-ranging cat predation on small animal populations. above all else, animal welfare activists support the humane treatment of free-ranging cats, objecting to euthanasia. clearly, this issue of how to control free-ranging cat predation on small animals is value laden, and both positions must be considered and comprehended ...201424711965
development of snp markers identifying european wildcats, domestic cats, and their admixed progeny.introgression can be an important evolutionary force but it can also lead to species extinction and as such is a crucial issue for species conservation. however, introgression is difficult to detect, morphologically as well as genetically. hybridization with domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) is a major concern for the conservation of european wildcats (felis s. silvestris). the available morphologic and genetic markers for the two felis subspecies are not sufficient to reliably detect hybri ...201323398610
the plant physical features selected by wildcats as signal posts: an economic approach to fecal marking.the chemical signals of solitary and territorial felid species are essential for their intraspecific communication. we studied the selection of plant substrates during the fecal marking behavior of the european wildcat felis silvestris from september 2008 to june 2009 in a protected area in northwest spain. the aim of the study was to examine the selection of plants as signal posts with respect to their physical characteristics. we hypothesized that wildcats deposit their fecal marks on plants w ...201222926138
cats of the pharaohs: genetic comparison of egyptian cat mummies to their feline contemporaries.the ancient egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the late period (664 - 332 bc). the overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient egyptians. the mummy dna was extracted in a dedicated ancient dna laboratory at the university of california - davis, then direc ...201222923880
first findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from serbia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. during the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild ca ...201424951168
molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of neotropical wild cat.hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations. here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the neotropical cat genus leopardus. we show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (l. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (l. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuc ...201324291091
endoparasites of eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) (linnaeus, 1758) from an enclosure of western pomeranian nature society in jablonowothe aim of this study was to describe parasites of three lynx living in an enclosure of western pomeranian nature society in jablonowo. during analysis of 3 gram faecal samples eggs of toxascaris leonina, toxocara cati, ancylostoma sp. and oocysts of cystoisospora felis were found. to our knowledge this is the first report of c. felis infection in lynx from poland. presented research show that wild cats in captivity are particularly exposed on parasitic infections and demand regular examination.201728601059
filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in romania.filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. in europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. in romania, infections with dirofilaria spp. and acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. the aim of the present study was ...201728705255
larval development of angiostrongylus chabaudi, the causative agent of feline angiostrongylosis, in the snail cornu aspersum.nematodes of the angiostrongylidae family, such as angiostrongylus vasorum and angiostrongylus cantonensis, may cause potentially life-threatening diseases in several mammal species. alongside these well-known species, angiostrongylus chabaudi has been recently found affecting the cardiopulmonary system of domestic and wild cats from italy, germany, greece, romania and bulgaria. nonetheless, significant gaps in the understanding of a. chabaudi epidemiology include the lack of information of spec ...201728805181
who's behind that mask and cape? the asian leopard cat's agouti (asip) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the bengal cat breed.coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with mendelian inheritance. a 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (asip) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and asian leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. the complete coding region of asip was directly sequenced in asian leopard, domesti ...201425143047
lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (felis silvestris).research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. the present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. the animals' temperament was subse ...201627359075
angiostrongylus chabaudi (biocca, 1957) in wildcat (felis silvestris silvestris, s) from romania.angiostrongylus chabaudi is a rare cardio-pulmonary nematode infecting felids. although almost 60 years have passed since the original description of the species in italy, this parasite has been seldom found in domestic and wildcats in southern europe. the present study aims to report a new case of patent a. chabaudi infection in a road-killed wildcat from maramureș county in northern romania. the necropsy revealed the presence of parasites in the pulmonary arteries and the right ventricle, and ...201627106235
real-time pcr as a surveillance tool for the detection of trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife.trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission f ...201222541794
considering extinction of dependent species during translocation, ex situ conservation, and assisted migration of threatened hosts.translocation, introduction, reintroduction, and assisted migrations are species conservation strategies that are attracting increasing attention, especially in the face of climate change. however, preventing the extinction of the suite of dependent species whose host species are threatened is seldom considered, and the effects on dependent species of moving threatened hosts are unclear. there is no published guidance on how to decide whether to move species, given this uncertainty. we examined ...201222443127
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