serological survey for selected diseases in the endangered san joaquin kit fox (vulpes macrotis mutica).blood from endangered san joaquin kit foxes (vulpes macrotis mutica) inhabiting the elk hills naval petroleum reserve, kern county, and the elkhorn plain, san luis obispo county, california, was collected in 1981, 1982 and 1984 and sera were tested for antibodies against 10 selected pathogens. proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against pathogens were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981-1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis virus, 6% in 1981-1982 and 21% in 1984; canine di ...19882836636
chromosomal evolution of the canidae. ii. divergence from the primitive carnivore karyotype.the giemsa-banding patterns of chromosomes from the arctic fox (alopex lagopus), the red fox (vulpes vulpes), the kit fox (vulpes macrotis), and the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) are compared. despite their traditional placement in different genera, the arctic fox and the kit fox have an identical chromosome morphology and g-banding pattern. the red fox has extensive chromosome arm homoeology with these two species, but has only two entire chromosomes in common. all three species share ...19873568762
land use as a driver of patterns of rodenticide exposure in modeled kit fox populations.although rodenticides are increasingly regulated, they nonetheless cause poisonings in many non-target wildlife species. second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide use is common in agricultural and residential landscapes. here, we use an individual-based population model to assess potential population-wide effects of rodenticide exposures on the endangered san joaquin kit fox (vulpes macrotis mutica). we estimate likelihood of rodenticide exposure across the species range for each land cover ty ...201526244655
sarcoptic mange in endangered kit foxes (vulpes macrotis mutica): case histories, diagnoses, and implications for conservation.the san joaquin kit fox ( vulpes macrotis mutica) is a federally endangered small carnivore whose distribution is limited to the san joaquin valley in central california. population decline is due to profound habitat loss, and conservation of all remaining populations is critical. a robust urban population occurs in the city of bakersfield. in spring of 2013, putative cases of mange were reported in this population. mites from affected animals were confirmed to be sarcoptes scabiei morphological ...201727669012
serum chemistry values of the endangered san joaquin kit fox (vulpes macrotis mutica).serum chemistry values were obtained from 64 adult san joaquin kit foxes (vulpes macrotis mutica) in western kern county, california (usa). the goal of the study was to establish normal chemistry values for this endangered species. no significant differences were found for mean values of alanine aminotransferase (217.1 iu/l), alkaline phosphatase (44.2 iu/l), cholesterol (145.6 mg/dl), total protein (5.8 g/dl), creatinine (0.63 mg/dl), calcium (8.2 mg/dl), albumin (3.0 g/dl), glucose (129.2 mg/d ...19921512873
a description of helminths in a kit fox (vulpes macrotis). 19806901443
vigilance of kit foxes at water sources: a test of competing hypotheses for a solitary carnivore subject to predation.animals that are potential prey do not respond equally to direct and indirect cues related to risk of predation. based on differential responses to cues, three hypotheses have been proposed to explain spatial variation in vigilance behavior. the predator-vigilance hypothesis proposes that prey increase vigilance where there is evidence of predators. the visibility-vigilance hypothesis suggests that prey increase vigilance where visibility is obstructed. alternatively, the refuge-vigilance hypoth ...201323305800
finding a fox: an evaluation of survey methods to estimate abundance of a small desert carnivore.the status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. historically, kit foxes (vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern north america, but is now considered rare throughout its range. survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monito ...201425148102
field cost of activity in the kit fox, vulpes macrotis.field metabolic rates and daily movement distances were measured in 26 individual kit foxes (vulpes macrotis) over a 29-mo period in the southern mojave desert of california. kit foxes traveled long distances (up to 32 km d(-1)), with males usually traveling farther than females. daily movement distances were affected by season, since males traveled the greatest distances in spring and females traveled farthest in summer. individual foxes tracked multiple times demonstrated repeatability of dail ...200611247738
evaluation of scat deposition transects versus radio telemetry for developing a species distribution model for a rare desert carnivore, the kit fox.development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. while noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. historically kit foxes (vulpes macrotis) occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern north america. once the most abundant carnivore in the great basin desert of ...201526465332
selenium accumulation in mammals exposed to contaminated california irrigation may 1984, 332 mammals of 10 species were collected at kesterson reservoir (san joaquin valley, merced co., ca), which had received selenium-laden irrigation drainwater, and at the nearby volta wildlife area, which had not. the study concentrated on the california vole (microtus californicus); 88 were taken at kesterson, 89 at volta. mean selenium concentrations in livers were as much as 522 times higher at kesterson. there were species-to-species differences at kesterson; higher selenium conc ...19873685946
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. we took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations ...200818477029
viral antibodies in coyotes from california.prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav) were determined among 152 coyotes (canis latrans) at the naval petroleum reserves (nprc; california, usa) from 1985 to 1990. overall prevalence of antibodies to cpv, cdv, and cav was 66%, 37%, and 68%, respectively. prevalence of cpv and cdv varied significantly among years. antibody prevalence did not differ between sexes for any disease, but did vary significantly among ag ...19989577772
a noninvasive method for distinguishing among canid species: amplification and enzyme restriction of dna from dung.endangered san joaquin kit foxes vulpes macrotis mutica can be sympatrically distributed with as many as four other canids: red fox, gray fox, coyote and domestic dog. canid scats are often found during routine fieldwork, but cannot be reliably identified to species. to detect and study the endangered kit fox, we developed mitochondrial dna markers that can be amplified from small amounts of dna extracted from scats. we amplified a 412-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene from scat ...19979161016
water developments and canids in two north american deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments) to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit ...201323844097
hematologic values of the endangered san joaquin kit fox, vulpes macrotis mutica.between 1981 and 1982 blood samples were collected from 64 adult san joaquin kit foxes, vulpes macrotis mutica, in western kern county, california. the goal of the study was to establish normal blood values for this endangered species, and to determine whether changes in them could be used to assess the possible effects of petroleum developments on these foxes. none of the values differed significantly between the sexes, or between foxes sampled in developed habitats compared with foxes sampled ...19873820416
eimeria macrotis sp. n. from vulpes macrotis neomexicanus merriam, 1902.oocysts of eimeria macrotis sp. n. are described from the kit fox, vulpes macrotis neomexicanus merriam, 1902, at white sands national monument, otero county, new mexico, usa. a comparison between e. macrotis and all other eimeria spp. from vulpes spp. is given.19807376697
balancing sample accumulation and dna degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores.noninvasive genetic sampling, or noninvasive dna sampling (nds), can be an effective monitoring approach for elusive, wide-ranging species at low densities. however, few studies have attempted to maximize sampling efficiency. we present a model for combining sample accumulation and dna degradation to identify the most efficient (i.e. minimal cost per successful sample) nds temporal design for capture-recapture analyses. we use scat accumulation and faecal dna degradation rates for two sympatric ...201525454561
sampling variability and estimates of density dependence: a composite-likelihood is well known that sampling variability, if not properly taken into account, affects various ecologically important analyses. statistical inference for stochastic population dynamics models is difficult when, in addition to the process error, there is also sampling error. the standard maximum-likelihood approach suffers from large computational burden. in this paper, i discuss an application of the composite-likelihood method for estimation of the parameters of the gompertz model in the prese ...200616634310
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