patterns of infant handling and relatedness in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) on gibraltar.among papionin primates, the barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. previous investigations showed that infant handling by males is best explained as use of infants to manage relationships with other males. in contrast, ...200818781278
birth of a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus): acoustic and behavioural features. 19892807096
the world's first surviving macaca sylvanus twins in a semifree-ranging colony. 19873454341
the barbary macaque. 198517843075
female reproductive characteristics in semifree-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus l. 1758).mating activities in a group of 178 barbary macaques were studied during the breeding season 1982/83. copulations were observed between the middle of august and the end of march. more than 80% of all copulations were recorded from october to december. number of estrous periods ranged from 1 to 5, most females (67%) had 2 estrous periods. most females (87%) conceived during the first estrus. postconceptional bleedings and 1 postconceptional estrus were observed regularly. mean interval between th ...19846519600
trichoepithelioma in a barbary ape (macaca sylvanus): review of cutaneous tumors in nonhuman primates and case report.a cutaneous tumor was surgically removed from a 10-year-old, male barbary ape (macaca sylvanus). histologically, the tumor was primarily adnexoid in nature and contained structures that resembled abortive hair follicles. the tumor was diagnosed as a trichoepithelioma.19846502689
calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease with concurrent vertebral hyperostosis in a barbary ape. 19836303360
pleistocene macaca from hoxne, suffolk, england.pleistocene macaque remains are uncommon in great britain. in addition to three specimens previously known from three sites, four teeth from hoxne, suffolk are recorded here. closely resembling teeth of modern macaca sylvanus (barbary ape), they were recovered from a middle pleistocene stratum containing stone artifacts (including handaxes) and fauna including cold-climate lemmings.19827042495
female barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. here we aim to clarify the information content and function of barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. in order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. in contrast to a previous stu ...200818089536
genetic markers in primates: pedigree patterns of a breeding group of barbary macaques (macaca sylvana linnaeus, 1758). 19816172345
a twinning event in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar.linear measurements and body proportions for a set of free-ranging macaca sylvanus twins are presented. their measurements are compared to a full-term perinatal dead female. the twins are dizygous and probably 28 days premature.1979113541
the annual reproductive cycle of captive macaca sylvana.the annual reproductive cycle of a captive colony of barbary apes, macaca sylvana, was examined for the 26-year period from 1950 to 1976 and then compared with the annual reproductive cycle of semifree ranging m.sylvania in gibraltar. mating and birthing seasons for the two populations were similar although birth synchrony was more pronounced in the gibraltar colony. the environmental factors influencing the maintenance of the annual cycles in both localities are examined.1978648978
ovarian carcinoma with transcelomic metastasis in a barbary ovarian carcinoma, unique among those recorded from nonhuman primates inasmuch as it contained psammoma bodies and ciliated epithelium, was found in a barbary ape. the tumor was characterized by transcelomic metastasis, a feature common to ovarian and uterine tube malignancies of women.1976824263
intestinal helminths in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar. 1976822934
the social organization of barbary apes (macaca sylvana) on gibraltar. 19704988195
leptospirosis in barbary apes (macaca sylvana). 19695388180
the annual reproductive cycle of the barbary ape (macaca sylvana) in gibraltar. 19665971504
coping with the cold: predictors of survival in wild barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus.we report the death of 30 wild barbary macaques, living in two groups, during an exceptionally cold and snowy winter in the middle atlas mountains, morocco. we examined whether an individual's time spent feeding, the quality and number of its social relationships, sex and rank predicted whether it survived the winter or not. the time an individual spent feeding and the number of social relationships that an individual had in the group were positive and significant predictors of survival. this is ...201323804292
female sexual behavior and sexual swelling size as potential cues for males to discern the female fertile phase in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar.although female catarrhine primates show cyclic changes in sexual behavior and sexual swellings, the value of these sexual signals in providing information to males about timing of the fertile phase is largely unclear. recently, we have shown that in barbary macaques, males receive information from females which enables them to discern the fertile phase and to focus their reproductive effort accordingly. here, we investigate the nature of the cues being used by examining female sexual behavior a ...200717644098
effect of habitat quality on the ecological behaviour of a temperate-living primate: time-budget adjustments.barbary macaques, like other non-human primates living in highly seasonal temperate environments, display high monthly variations in their diet. in addition, their diet changes according to the habitat type they colonize and to the degree of habitat degradation due to resource exploitation by local people, in particular through pastoralism. we studied the time-budget adjustments of wild barbary macaques in three cedar-oak forests impacted by different intensities of grazing pressure from goats a ...201323504042
associations between social behaviour and adrenal activity in female barbary macaques: consequences of study design.faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fgcm) concentrations have been used to evaluate adrenal activity in a variety of species; including as an indicator of the physiological response to social stress. however, across studies, the relationships between dominance rank, social behaviours and adrenal responses can be inconsistent. differences in the relationship between rank and glucocorticoids may be due to the relative costs of social status, and the relative frequencies of social stressors and poten ...201323474330
pediculosis in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar.pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. this is the first published report confirming the presence of pedicinus albidus (rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar. the diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.200717280788
influence of perineal swellings on behavior and stress reaction in levonorgestrel implanted macaca sylvanus females.contraceptives are common tools in controlling the reproductive physiology in primates. levonorgestrel, a synthetic gestagen, can usually enable contraception and does not suppress the extension of perineal swellings.201316648796
patterns of anogenital swelling size and their endocrine correlates during ovulatory cycles and early pregnancy in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of macaques and other cercopithecoid primates, large anogenital swellings (as) are generally found only in those species in which reproduction is not seasonally restricted. in this respect, the barbary macaque is unusual because while it shows a marked degree of reproductive seasonality, it also exhibits a striking, exaggerated swelling of the circumanal region and labia. information on the characteristics of as in female barbary macaques is limited in that it is largely based on semiquantitativ ...200516104035
do barbary macaques 'comment' on what they see? a first report on vocalizations accompanying interactions of third parties.primates acquire knowledge about relationships of third parties and group structure by monitoring their conspecifics. we show that barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) utter specific vocalizations while monitoring interactions of other group members. as they did not direct other behaviours to the interacting group members, we provisionally termed these vocalizations 'vocal comments'. we investigated the acoustic properties of these comments and the social contexts in which they occurred. most adul ...200515316830
an overview of the barbary macaque, macaca sylvanus, vocal repertoire.this study provides an overview of the vocalizations of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus. spectrographic displays of calls are presented along with photographs of the accompanying facial gestures. we give a general description of the contexts in which the different calls are uttered, with special regard to the age and sex of the caller. the vocal repertoire of barbary macaques mainly consists of screams, shrill barks, geckers, low-frequency pants and grunts, with gradation occurring within and ...200312065939
testing the reliability of noninvasive genetic sampling by comparing analyses of blood and fecal samples in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).genetic studies of wild animal populations are often hindered by difficulties in obtaining blood samples. recent advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of noninvasive samples as sources of dna (e.g., hair or feces), but such samples may provide low-quality dna and prevent the determination of true genotypes in subsequent dna analysis. we present a preliminary study aimed at assessing the reliability of using fecal samples for genotyping in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). the test ...200111746278
sequence conservation of nine barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) microsatellite loci: implication of specific primers for genotyping. 200411490133
is male-infant caretaking related to paternity and/or mating activities in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus)?in species with a promiscuous mating system, the functions of male-infant caretaking remain unclear in the absence of genetic paternity tests. we tested paternal investment and hypotheses concerning reproductive tactics in wild groups of barbary macaques, including results of genetic paternity tests. our study revealed that male-infant caretaking was not related to the probability of paternity. in principle, males could use access to females to estimate paternity. however, we found that mating s ...200111476001
perception of female reproductive state from vocal cues in a mammal species.while acoustic signalling by males is known to affect male-male competition, mate attraction and the timing of ovulation, the extent to which sexual selection has shaped the evolution of female acoustic signals is poorly understood. among mammals, experimental evidence indicates that females attract mating partners by using olfactory and visual signals to advertise their reproductive state. whether or not males ascertain female reproductive state from vocal signals has, however, never been syste ...200010821617
perineal swellings: a social and endocrine advantage for barbary macaque females (macaca sylvanus).this study focuses the relationship between social rank, intersexual behavior, age, fecal cortisol equivalent excretion rates and perineal swelling size in contraceptive-treated macaca sylvanus females. behavioral data and fecal samples were collected during a twenty-week period from 24 females. females were categorized with regard to perineal swelling (enlarged or reduced), and to their dominance rank (high or low); we found that swelling size was not associated with it. however, females with a ...199910646220
genetic differentiation within and between isolated algerian subpopulations of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellitesthis study of wild-living algerian barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) was designed to examine genetic variability in subpopulations isolated in residual forest patches, in an attempt to obtain data on the effects of habitat fragmentation. the wild population of this species (estimated at a maximum of 15,000) is vulnerable and this study therefore has direct relevance for conservation measures. data from five microsatellite loci were analysed for 159 individuals from nine different groups living ...199910199007
vigilance during foraging and allogrooming in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques. 19989885342
fecal glucocorticoids document stress in female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).patterns of received aggression and the endocrine response were related to an increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in an intact semifree-ranging group of barbary macaque females in order to quantify the social stress incurred over a 20-week observation period. the novel result showed that immunoreactive cortisol and 11-oxoetiocholanolone found in the feces can indeed determine the endocrine response of the adrenal gland after a social stressor. after hplc separation of pooled fecal sampl ...19999882546
the socioecology of infant handling in primates: is the current model convincing?a strong interest shown by females towards infants other than their own is one of the most consistent behavioral traits found in primates, including humans. species differences exist, however, in the extent mothers allow other group members to interact with their offspring. socioecological theory predicts that in species characterized by relaxed, egalitarian dominance relations mothers should allow extensive interactions between their infants and other individuals from the first weeks of life, w ...199923179530
the function of barbary macaque copulation a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. it has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. the first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). the second proposes that copulation callin ...19989523431
postestrus anogenital swelling in female barbary macaques. the larger, the better? 19979071406
parentage analysis within a semi-free-ranging group of barbary macaques macaca sylvanus.this study of a group of semi-free-ranging barbary macaques macaca sylvanus aimed to determine paternity, to establish whether any individual male achieved prominent mating success and to assess genetic variability. analyses involved electrophoresis of 15 blood protein systems and multilocus dna fingerprinting (isotopic and nonisotopic). genetic variability was low; only two blood protein systems were polymorphic. although all dna-fingerprints were individual-specific, they showed a high average ...19957711950
barbary macaques challenge theory of female choice. 19921631553
dna fingerprinting reveals that infant care by male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) is not paternal investment. 19921612538
social rank and darwinian fitness in a multimale group of barbary macaques (macaca sylvana linnaeus, 1758). dominance reversals and male reproductive a 5-year study data were compared on rank and reproductive success of 3 mature males in a group of barbary macaques who had sired 32 infants on 14 females. the results indicate that the absolute number of offspring as well as the proportion of offspring from higher-ranking females is a function of the male's rank. asymmetrical access to receptive females was produced by either a high basic rank or by the formation of a coalition, or both of these, which resulted in at least partial exclusion ...19817319423
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