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colitis cystica superficialis: a report of a case in a barbary ape (macaca sylvana).a case of colitis cystica superficialis is described in a barbary ape. early mucosal herniations through the muscularis mucosae were identified, suggesting a possible relationship between this condition and colitis cystica profunda.2000102745
a twinning event in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar.linear measurements and body proportions for a set of free-ranging macaca sylvanus twins are presented. their measurements are compared to a full-term perinatal dead female. the twins are dizygous and probably 28 days premature.1979113541
geographic distribution and habitat diversity of the barbary macaque sylvanus l.during a 15-month behavioral study in morocco and a 3-month survey in morocco and algeria, the present distribution of the barbary macaque was determined. in algeria, monkeys are found in seven constricted and disjunct localities in the grande and petite kabylie mountain ranges. these localities are severely restricted in space and are located in remote or inaccessible areas which support only small populations. their habitats include mixed cedar and holm oak forests, humid portuguese and cork o ...1977403111
the annual reproductive cycle of captive macaca sylvana.the annual reproductive cycle of a captive colony of barbary apes, macaca sylvana, was examined for the 26-year period from 1950 to 1976 and then compared with the annual reproductive cycle of semifree ranging m.sylvania in gibraltar. mating and birthing seasons for the two populations were similar although birth synchrony was more pronounced in the gibraltar colony. the environmental factors influencing the maintenance of the annual cycles in both localities are examined.1978648978
intestinal helminths in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar. 1976822934
ovarian carcinoma with transcelomic metastasis in a barbary ape.an ovarian carcinoma, unique among those recorded from nonhuman primates inasmuch as it contained psammoma bodies and ciliated epithelium, was found in a barbary ape. the tumor was characterized by transcelomic metastasis, a feature common to ovarian and uterine tube malignancies of women.1976824263
dna fingerprinting reveals that infant care by male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) is not paternal investment. 19921612538
barbary macaques challenge theory of female choice. 19921631553
social climber: independent rise in rank by a female barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus). 20072227725
birth of a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus): acoustic and behavioural features. 19892807096
rank relations of juvenile and subadult natal males of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) at affenberg salem.rank relations of more than 100 juvenile and subadult natal barbary macaque males were analyzed. hierarchical relations among individuals of the same age were established early during the first year of life. with few exceptions concerning infants from very high-ranking genealogies, males dominated female peers regardless of maternal rank. males started to outrank females from older cohorts during the second year of life and completed the process of rank reversal with adult females at 5-6 years o ...19883251819
the world's first surviving macaca sylvanus twins in a semifree-ranging colony. 19873454341
[demography and reproduction of macaca sylvanus in different habitats in algeria].usually described as a cedar forest monkey, the barbary macaque in effect has colonized a great variety of habitat types. at the moment, it is not known to what extent these different habitats are suitable for the species' survival. we tried to answer this question by comparing the demography of three monkey troops: one lives in a deciduous oak forest; the second lives in an nondeciduous cedar-green oak forest while the third is found on rocky ridges of mountains without any arborescent vegetati ...19854043874
the social organization of barbary apes (macaca sylvana) on gibraltar. 19704988195
leptospirosis in barbary apes (macaca sylvana). 19695388180
the annual reproductive cycle of the barbary ape (macaca sylvana) in gibraltar. 19665971504
genetic markers in primates: pedigree patterns of a breeding group of barbary macaques (macaca sylvana linnaeus, 1758). 19816172345
calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease with concurrent vertebral hyperostosis in a barbary ape. 19836303360
trichoepithelioma in a barbary ape (macaca sylvanus): review of cutaneous tumors in nonhuman primates and case report.a cutaneous tumor was surgically removed from a 10-year-old, male barbary ape (macaca sylvanus). histologically, the tumor was primarily adnexoid in nature and contained structures that resembled abortive hair follicles. the tumor was diagnosed as a trichoepithelioma.19846502689
female reproductive characteristics in semifree-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus l. 1758).mating activities in a group of 178 barbary macaques were studied during the breeding season 1982/83. copulations were observed between the middle of august and the end of march. more than 80% of all copulations were recorded from october to december. number of estrous periods ranged from 1 to 5, most females (67%) had 2 estrous periods. most females (87%) conceived during the first estrus. postconceptional bleedings and 1 postconceptional estrus were observed regularly. mean interval between th ...19846519600
pleistocene macaca from hoxne, suffolk, england.pleistocene macaque remains are uncommon in great britain. in addition to three specimens previously known from three sites, four teeth from hoxne, suffolk are recorded here. closely resembling teeth of modern macaca sylvanus (barbary ape), they were recovered from a middle pleistocene stratum containing stone artifacts (including handaxes) and fauna including cold-climate lemmings.19827042495
social rank and darwinian fitness in a multimale group of barbary macaques (macaca sylvana linnaeus, 1758). dominance reversals and male reproductive success.in a 5-year study data were compared on rank and reproductive success of 3 mature males in a group of barbary macaques who had sired 32 infants on 14 females. the results indicate that the absolute number of offspring as well as the proportion of offspring from higher-ranking females is a function of the male's rank. asymmetrical access to receptive females was produced by either a high basic rank or by the formation of a coalition, or both of these, which resulted in at least partial exclusion ...19817319423
blood groups of barbary apes (macaca sylvanus).32 barbary macaques were all found to be secretors of the a and h blood group substances and to have an m-like agglutinogen on their red cells. hemagglutination tests for other human-type red cell specificities were negative. in contrast, several so-called simian-type specificities were detected on the erythrocytes of barbary apes by means of the cross-reacting rhesus and baboon antisera. among these, only the specificities of the graded drh blood group system were found to be polymorphic in thi ...19817319424
parentage analysis within a semi-free-ranging group of barbary macaques macaca sylvanus.this study of a group of semi-free-ranging barbary macaques macaca sylvanus aimed to determine paternity, to establish whether any individual male achieved prominent mating success and to assess genetic variability. analyses involved electrophoresis of 15 blood protein systems and multilocus dna fingerprinting (isotopic and nonisotopic). genetic variability was low; only two blood protein systems were polymorphic. although all dna-fingerprints were individual-specific, they showed a high average ...19957711950
concurrent central nervous system toxoplasmosis and simian immunodeficiency virus-induced aids encephalomyelitis in a barbary macaque (macaca sylvana). 19957725605
effects of tourists on barbary macaques at gibraltar.interactions between tourists and barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) at queen's gate, gibraltar, are described. interaction rates are high, with 99.6 interactions/h at peak times. macaques spend 13.2% of their day interacting with tourists and 41.9% inactive. an overall ratio of 3.2:1 between human-initiated and macaque-initiated interactions was found. of interactions involving humans, 85% concerned tourists. diurnal activity patterns of the macaques were adapted to tourist visitation patterns. ...19938188123
prevalence of shigellosis and other enteric pathogens in a zoologic collection of primates.an epidemiologic study of shigellosis was the preliminary step in the formulation of a plan for the control of devastating infectious diseases in nonhuman primates at the national zoological park. data were collected from primate groups with enzootic shigellosis and included the following species: white-cheeked and siamong gibbons (hylobates concolor and h syndactylies); lion-tailed, celebes, and barbary macaques (macaca silenus, m nigera, and m sylvanus); black and white colobus monkeys (colobu ...19938407446
molecular phylogeny of macaques: implications of nucleotide sequences from an 896-base pair region of mitochondrial dna.we determined the nucleotide sequences of an 896-base pair region of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from 20 primates representing 13 species of macaques, a baboon, and a patas. we compared these sequences and the homologous sequences from four macaques and a human against each other and deduced the phylogenetic relationships of macaques. the results from the phylogenetic analyses revealed five groups among the macaques: (1) barbary macaque, (2) two species of sulawesi macaques, (3) japanese, rhesus, ...19968752012
postestrus anogenital swelling in female barbary macaques. the larger, the better? 19979071406
differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (macaca fascicularis, m. fuscata, and m. sylvanus).macaque societies are typically characterized by despotic dominance styles and strong bonds between related individuals. interspecies variation in dominance style, however, has been recently documented. this study investigated whether kinship effects on social interactions vary depending on the species dominance style. reconciliation was chosen as as a measure of relationship quality between group members. groups of japanese (macaca fuscata) and long-tailed (m. fascicularis) macaques were select ...19979090139
eikenella corrodens-caused botryomycosis-type pneumonia in a barbary ape (macaca sylvanus).an 18-year-old female barbary ape in a safari park died from a mixed bacterial infection. staphylococus aureus was isolated from a purulent necrotic mastitis and from a chronic purulent granulomatous sialoadenitis of the sublingual glands, eikenella corrodens from a botryomycosis-type pneumonia. as judged by histopathology, mixed infection of s. aureus and e. corrodens was present in the sialoadenitis, and e. corrodens botryomycosis-type bacterial colonies were also present in the pancreatic par ...19979236863
behavioral responses of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in algeria.in this study, the behavioral responses of barbary macaques to seasonal and interhabitat variations in resource availability were analyzed over an entire annual cycle. two groups, one in an evergreen cedar-oak forest (djurdjura) and the other in a deciduous oak forest (akfadou), were observed. in this paper, references to data on resource availability published elsewhere are made. time budget has been studied. variations in foraging and moving time, in day-range lengths, and in time moving in tr ...19979403094
phylogenetic relationships of the macaques (cercopithecidae: macaca), as revealed by high resolution restriction site mapping of mitochondrial ribosomal genes.molecular phylogenetic relationships among all recognized species within the genus macaca, were assessed using high-resolution restriction site mapping of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. by outgroup comparisons to other members of the cercopithecine subfamily, the macaques appear to be a monophyletic assemblage. within the genus, the relationships are in general consistent with previous genetic studies, though they are less concordant with the separation of the species into four distinct spec ...19989467779
the function of barbary macaque copulation calls.in a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. it has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. the first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). the second proposes that copulation callin ...19989523431
barbary macaques categorize shrill barks into two call types.in response to disturbances in their surroundings, barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus, utter a distinctive call, the 'shrill bark'. differences within this call type correlate with the stimulus eliciting the calling. i tested whether monkeys categorized calls according to the eliciting stimulus and whether their perception of calls coincided with the classification derived from the acoustic analysis. different playback designs using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm were created in which ca ...19989632468
local variation in barbary macaque shrill barks.we examined vocalizations of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus, given in response to a dog, in two populations, at rocamadour, france, and salem, germany. calls were recorded from 16 individuals in rocamadour and 23 individuals in salem. despite an overall similarity, an acoustic analysis revealed significant differences in the call structure between populations. to test the perceptual salience of these acoustic differences, we conducted playback experiments in both populations in which calls fr ...19989784211
fecal glucocorticoids document stress in female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).patterns of received aggression and the endocrine response were related to an increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in an intact semifree-ranging group of barbary macaque females in order to quantify the social stress incurred over a 20-week observation period. the novel result showed that immunoreactive cortisol and 11-oxoetiocholanolone found in the feces can indeed determine the endocrine response of the adrenal gland after a social stressor. after hplc separation of pooled fecal sampl ...19999882546
vigilance during foraging and allogrooming in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques. 19989885342
genetic differentiation within and between isolated algerian subpopulations of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellitesthis study of wild-living algerian barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) was designed to examine genetic variability in subpopulations isolated in residual forest patches, in an attempt to obtain data on the effects of habitat fragmentation. the wild population of this species (estimated at a maximum of 15,000) is vulnerable and this study therefore has direct relevance for conservation measures. data from five microsatellite loci were analysed for 159 individuals from nine different groups living ...199910199007
monkey business in pompeii--unique find of a juvenile barbary macaque skeleton in pompeii identified using osteology and ancient dna techniques. 199910563020
coalition formation among male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).a coalition is formed when one animal intervenes in an ongoing conflict between two parties to support one side. since support of one party is also an act against the other party, coalitions are triadic interactions involving a supporter, a recipient, and a target. the purpose of this study was to test which of three possible theories explains coalition formation among male barbary macaques: 1) males support kin to enhance their indirect fitness (kin selection). 2) males support nonkin to receiv ...200010588434
perineal swellings: a social and endocrine advantage for barbary macaque females (macaca sylvanus).this study focuses the relationship between social rank, intersexual behavior, age, fecal cortisol equivalent excretion rates and perineal swelling size in contraceptive-treated macaca sylvanus females. behavioral data and fecal samples were collected during a twenty-week period from 24 females. females were categorized with regard to perineal swelling (enlarged or reduced), and to their dominance rank (high or low); we found that swelling size was not associated with it. however, females with a ...199910646220
perception of female reproductive state from vocal cues in a mammal species.while acoustic signalling by males is known to affect male-male competition, mate attraction and the timing of ovulation, the extent to which sexual selection has shaped the evolution of female acoustic signals is poorly understood. among mammals, experimental evidence indicates that females attract mating partners by using olfactory and visual signals to advertise their reproductive state. whether or not males ascertain female reproductive state from vocal signals has, however, never been syste ...200010821617
demographic analysis of the washington regional primate research center pigtailed macaque colony, 1967-1996.this work presents the results of a demographic analysis of 30 years of breeding records from the university of washington's recently closed primate field station at medical lake, washington. summaries of population growth, age-specific fertility and mortality rates, first-year survival, and seasonality of reproduction are presented, as well as an analysis of survival by decade. in addition, we present data on interbirth intervals in this population. in general, pigtailed macaques represent a ty ...200011132112
fossil macaca remains from rdb quarry (villafranca d'asti, italy): new data and overview.mentioned in faunal lists since the late 1960s, macaca remains from villafranca d'asti (early villafranchian, italy) were never described in detail. if some doubts were reported in the past about the related stratigraphic position, at present, partly thanks to the original acquisition labels, there is enough information to place these finds within the updated stratigraphic and biochronologic framework of the villafranca d'asti area. the reported sample consists of upper dentition and postcranial ...200111180985
is male-infant caretaking related to paternity and/or mating activities in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus)?in species with a promiscuous mating system, the functions of male-infant caretaking remain unclear in the absence of genetic paternity tests. we tested paternal investment and hypotheses concerning reproductive tactics in wild groups of barbary macaques, including results of genetic paternity tests. our study revealed that male-infant caretaking was not related to the probability of paternity. in principle, males could use access to females to estimate paternity. however, we found that mating s ...200111476001
sequence conservation of nine barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) microsatellite loci: implication of specific primers for genotyping. 200411490133
[dna pcr typing of non-human primates].human beings and non human primates show similarities in the non coding dna range too, but up to now there are only a few data. this paper presents first results of a study dealing with a larger spectrum of species and individuals, considering the genetic marker hla-dqa1, ldlr, gypa, hbgg, d7s8, gc (partionally coding) and vwa, fes, f13b, th01, cd4, fga (not coding). the results show that not only the apes can be typed but also macaca sylvanus as a member of the cercopithecoidea. in contrast to ...200111591051
testing the reliability of noninvasive genetic sampling by comparing analyses of blood and fecal samples in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).genetic studies of wild animal populations are often hindered by difficulties in obtaining blood samples. recent advances in molecular biology have allowed the use of noninvasive samples as sources of dna (e.g., hair or feces), but such samples may provide low-quality dna and prevent the determination of true genotypes in subsequent dna analysis. we present a preliminary study aimed at assessing the reliability of using fecal samples for genotyping in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). the test ...200111746278
an overview of the barbary macaque, macaca sylvanus, vocal repertoire.this study provides an overview of the vocalizations of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus. spectrographic displays of calls are presented along with photographs of the accompanying facial gestures. we give a general description of the contexts in which the different calls are uttered, with special regard to the age and sex of the caller. the vocal repertoire of barbary macaques mainly consists of screams, shrill barks, geckers, low-frequency pants and grunts, with gradation occurring within and ...200312065939
experimental transfection of macaca sylvanus with cloned human hepatitis b virus.due to the absence of easily accessible animal models for the study of hepatitis b virus (hbv), the possibility of using macaca sylvanus, a monkey originating from morocco, north africa, was investigated. three monkeys were intrahepatically inoculated with a replication-competent head-to-tail hbv dna plasmid dimer construct. the hbv surface antigen and hbv dna were detected prior to alanine aminotransferase elevation in the serum of two of three hbv-inoculated monkeys at day 2 post-transfection ...200212075082
the use of vocal signals in the social play of barbary macaques.field studies in various species of macaca (cercopithecidae) provided evidence for specific visual displays that typically accompany playful interactions. the aim of our study was to examine whether and when playing individuals would use auditory displays, i.e. vocalizations that often occur during social play as well. the study was conducted on a population of semi-free barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) with a special focus on the composition and dynamics of playful wrestling (synonymous term: ...200212091743
west nile virus encephalitis in a barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus).an aged barbary ape (macaca sylvanus) at the toronto zoo became infected with naturally acquired west nile virus encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. the diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation.200415200866
do barbary macaques 'comment' on what they see? a first report on vocalizations accompanying interactions of third parties.primates acquire knowledge about relationships of third parties and group structure by monitoring their conspecifics. we show that barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) utter specific vocalizations while monitoring interactions of other group members. as they did not direct other behaviours to the interacting group members, we provisionally termed these vocalizations 'vocal comments'. we investigated the acoustic properties of these comments and the social contexts in which they occurred. most adul ...200515316830
plasticity of face processing in infancy.experience plays a crucial role for the normal development of many perceptual and cognitive functions, such as speech perception. for example, between 6 and 10 months of age, the infant's ability to discriminate among native speech sounds improves, whereas the ability to discriminate among foreign speech sounds declines. however, a recent investigation suggests that some experience with non-native languages from 9 months of age facilitates the maintenance of this ability at 12 months. nelson has ...200515790676
phylogeography of barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the gibraltar colony.the barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus macaca and the only extant african representative, all other species being asiatic. once distributed throughout north africa, m. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in algeria and morocco. the species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in algeria (96 samples) and morocco (116 samples) were examined ...200515870193
a comparative study of adult facial morphology and its ontogeny in the fossil macaque macaca majori from capo figari, sardinia, italy.this study examines the morphology of the face in the fossil macaque macaca majori from capo figari (north-eastern sardinia, italy) in a comparative ontogenetic context. thus, a fairly complete face from an adult representative of this fossil species is compared with 3 extant macaque species: macaca sylvanus (of which species it is questioned whether it is a subspecies, m. sylvanus majori), macaca mulatta and macaca fascicularis. additional incomplete subadult and adult specimens are also examin ...200515900103
patterns of anogenital swelling size and their endocrine correlates during ovulatory cycles and early pregnancy in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar.in macaques and other cercopithecoid primates, large anogenital swellings (as) are generally found only in those species in which reproduction is not seasonally restricted. in this respect, the barbary macaque is unusual because while it shows a marked degree of reproductive seasonality, it also exhibits a striking, exaggerated swelling of the circumanal region and labia. information on the characteristics of as in female barbary macaques is limited in that it is largely based on semiquantitativ ...200516104035
comparison of different enzyme-immunoassays for assessment of adrenocortical activity in primates based on fecal analysis.most studies published to date that used fecal glucocorticoid measurements to assess adrenocortical activity in primate (and many nonprimate) species applied a specific cortisol or corticosterone assay. however, since these native glucocorticoids are virtually absent in the feces of most vertebrates, including primates, the validity of this approach has recently been questioned. therefore, the overall aim of the present study was to assess the validity of four enzyme-immunoassays (eias) using an ...200616477600
influence of perineal swellings on behavior and stress reaction in levonorgestrel implanted macaca sylvanus females.contraceptives are common tools in controlling the reproductive physiology in primates. levonorgestrel, a synthetic gestagen, can usually enable contraception and does not suppress the extension of perineal swellings.201316648796
are there preconceptional determinants of mammalian sex? a response to boklage (2005).boklage (2005, hum reprod 20,583-587) wrote: 'changes in, or mediated by, the epigenetic environment of embryogenesis provide the most plausible prospects for causes of changes in secondary sex ratio'. without impugning this notion, i suggest here that other causes of variation in secondary sex ratio antedate fertilization or, in other words, that there are circumstances under which unequal numbers of male and female zygotes are formed. it will be documented here that this suggestion has repeate ...200616772280
phylogeny of primate t lymphotropic virus type 1 (ptlv-1) including various new asian and african non-human primate strains.to further unravel intra- and interspecies ptlv-1 evolution in asia and africa, we phylogenetically analysed 15 new stlv-1 ltr and env sequences discovered in eight different asian and african non-human primate species. we show that orang-utan stlv-1s form a tight, deeply branching monophyletic cluster between asian stlv-1 macaque species clades, suggesting natural cross-species transmission. novel viruses of macaca maura, macaca nigra and siamang cluster with other sulawesian stlv-1s, demonstra ...200716931175
pediculosis in macaca sylvanus of gibraltar.pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. this is the first published report confirming the presence of pedicinus albidus (rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar. the diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.200717280788
grooming in barbary macaques: better to give than to receive?it is well established that grooming underpins sociality in group-living primates, and a number of studies have documented the stress-reducing effects of being groomed. in this study, we quantified grooming behaviour and physiological stress (assessed by faecal glucocorticoid analysis) in free-ranging barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus. our results indicate that it is the giving rather than the receiving of grooming that is associated with lower stress levels. these findings shed important new li ...200717327200
the function of teeth chattering in male barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).teeth chattering is seen in many primate species and has been proposed to have a range of social functions. this observational study tested specific hypotheses relating to the function of teeth chattering in a semi-free-ranging group of barbary macaques, macaca sylvanus. during focal watches of males, the outcome of male-male dyadic social interactions in which teeth chattering was present or absent was compared. using these data, we tested the predictions of four hypotheses: teeth chattering fu ...200717358007
tickborne encephalitis in naturally exposed monkey (macaca sylvanus).we describe tickborne encephalitis (tbe) in a monkey (macaca sylvanus) after natural exposure in an area at risk for tbe. tbe virus was present in the brain and could be identified as closely related to the european subtype, strain neudoerfl.200717553233
female ovarian cycle phase affects the timing of male sexual activity in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar.although all macaques have a multimale multifemale mating system, the degree of promiscuity shown by the barbary macaque is considered to be extreme in terms of both mating frequency and number of mating partners. how mating activity is distributed throughout the female menstrual cycle and whether or not copulations are concentrated around the fertile phase as in other members of the genus is, however, not known. to examine this, we collected data on rates of copulation throughout 29 ovarian cyc ...200817577208
reproductive success in relation to dominance rank in the absence of prime-age males in barbary macaques.in some primate species dominance rank of males is correlated with reproductive success, whereas in other species this relationship is inconsistent. barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) live in a promiscuous mating system in which males are ranked in a dominance hierarchy that influences their access to females. high-ranking males usually monopolize fertile females during their estrous period and show increased mating activities. subadult males generally rank below adult males. for barbary macaque ...200817583557
chronic levonorgestrel treatment in macaca sylvanus: effects on perineal swelling size and fecal sex steroid excretion.administered levonorgestrel enables contraception under normal cyclicity of the ovaries and does not suppress the development of cyclic perineal swellings. this study investigated the influence of levonorgestrel on fecal gonadal steroid excretion rates and the expression of perineal swelling size.200717627271
female sexual behavior and sexual swelling size as potential cues for males to discern the female fertile phase in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) of gibraltar.although female catarrhine primates show cyclic changes in sexual behavior and sexual swellings, the value of these sexual signals in providing information to males about timing of the fertile phase is largely unclear. recently, we have shown that in barbary macaques, males receive information from females which enables them to discern the fertile phase and to focus their reproductive effort accordingly. here, we investigate the nature of the cues being used by examining female sexual behavior a ...200717644098
the barbary macaque. 198517843075
female barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome.in a number of primate species, females utter loud and distinctive calls during mating. here we aim to clarify the information content and function of barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) copulation calls by testing (i) whether or not copulation calls advertise the female fertile phase and (ii) whether and how copulation calls influence male ejaculatory behaviour. in order to do this, we combined hormone measurements with acoustic analysis and behavioural observations. in contrast to a previous stu ...200818089536
seroprevalence of sv40-like polyomavirus infections in captive and free-ranging macaque species.to investigate the seroprevalence of polyomavirus infections in macaques, we analyzed 1579 sera from nine different species for antibodies cross-reactive with simian virus 40 (sv40) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. most samples were collected from captive animals, but we also investigated a colony of free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).200818194222
an experimental investigation of referential looking in free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).the authors examined looking behavior between 15 barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) infants and their mothers in the presence of a rubber snake (experimental period) and in the absence of the snake (control period). two of the 15 infants looked referentially at their mother in the experimental period. including both referential and nonreferential looks, the six older infants (aged 5 to 12 months) displayed a higher frequency of looks to mother than nine younger infants (aged 3 to 4.5 months) in t ...200818298286
hand preferences in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).nearly 90% of humans are right-handed, raising the question of the evolutionary origins of this trait. while lateralisation of certain actions appears to be widespread in vertebrates, the question of whether nonhuman primates exhibit hand preferences at the population level is often contested. we observed barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) living in the outdoor enclosure "la forêt des singes" at rocamadour, france, while performing simple unimanual and coordinated bimanual tasks. for the unimanu ...200818302057
mitochondrial dna sequence phylogeny of 4 populations of the widely distributed cynomolgus macaque (macaca fascicularis fascicularis).we studied the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) polymorphism of 304 macaca fascicularis fascicularis (m. f. fascicularis) individuals, representative of 4 cynomolgus macaque populations (indochina, indonesia, philippines, and mauritius). by sequencing a 590-bp fragment in the hypervariable ii region of the d-loop region, we defined 70 haplotypes. the homologous region was also characterized in 22 chinese macaca mulatta and 2 macaca sylvanus. the phylogenetic analysis confirms the monophyly of m. f. fas ...200818334507
unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in gibraltar macaques.because gibraltar's macaques (macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. all macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus b, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.200818598634
patterns of infant handling and relatedness in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus) on gibraltar.among papionin primates, the barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. previous investigations showed that infant handling by males is best explained as use of infants to manage relationships with other males. in contrast, ...200818781278
when dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in gibraltar macaques (macaca sylvanus).barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of morocco and algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on gibraltar. for many decades, the gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from north africa. moreover, because of complete isolation, gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences ...200819238704
brief communication: self-suckling in barbary macaque (macaca sylvanus) mothers before and after the death of their infant.we report here self-suckling in four wild female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus), living in two troops (i.e. "flat face" and "large" troop) in the middle-atlas mountains, morocco. the four females lost their infants due to predation or for unknown causes. self-suckling was observed before and after the infants died in the four females living in the "flat face" troop. when the infants were still alive, self-suckling was of short duration and it was probably a method to improve milk flow when t ...200919591209
fallback foods of temperate-living primates: a case study on snub-nosed monkeys.only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. we present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus bieti) in the samage forest, northwest yunnan, prc. the snub-nosed monkeys adjusted intake of plant food items corresponding with changes in ...200919890849
facial expressions modulate the ontogenetic trajectory of gaze-following among monkeys.gaze-following, the tendency to direct one's attention to locations looked at by others, is a crucial aspect of social cognition in human and nonhuman primates. whereas the development of gaze-following has been intensely studied in human infants, its early ontogeny in nonhuman primates has received little attention. combining longitudinal and cross-sectional observational data from barbary macaques at 'la forêt des singes', we show here that gaze-following among conspecifics develops within the ...201020977562
adult but not juvenile barbary macaques spontaneously recognize group members from pictures.for group-living animals, it is crucial to distinguish one's own group members from those of other groups. studies applying operant conditioning revealed that monkeys living in relatively small groups are able to recognize their own group members when tested with photographs of group members and other conspecifics. employing a simple looking time paradigm, we here show that barbary macaques living in two social groups comprising 46 and 57 individuals, respectively, at the enclosure 'la forêt des ...201121318387
dietary adaptations of temperate primates: comparisons of japanese and barbary macaques.habitat, diet and leaf chemistry are compared between japanese and barbary macaques to reveal the similarities and differences in dietary adaptations of temperate primates living at the eastern and western extremes of the genus macaca. tree species diversity and proportion of fleshy-fruited species are much higher in japan than in north africa. both species spend considerable annual feeding time on leaves. japanese macaques prefer fruits and seeds over leaves, and barbary macaques prefer seeds. ...201121340696
first evidence of macaca sylvanus (primates, cercopithecidae) from the late pleistocene of lezetxiki ii cave (basque country, spain). 201121481922
reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques.evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. it is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species a ...201121769908
seroprevalence of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in naturally exposed monkeys (macaca sylvanus) and sheep and prevalence of tbe virus in ticks in a tbe endemic area in germany.in a recently published study, a clinical case of severe tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in a monkey (macaca sylvanus) was described after natural exposure (tick bite) in a tbe endemic area in germany, and from the tissue of this monkey the strain 'salem', closely related to the strain 'neudoerfl', was isolated and characterized. in this study, it was our aim to test all the available data for characterizing a tbe endemic area like tbe cases in humans and animals, tbe virus (tbev) in ticks, and tb ...201021771521
temporal resolution of dynamic angiography using flat panel volume ct: in vivo evaluation of time-dependent vascular pathologies.background and purpose: recently introduced fpvct scanners can capture volumetric (4d) time-varying projections enabling whole-organ dynamic cta imaging. the main objective of this study was to assess the temporal resolution of dynamic cta in discriminating various phases of rapid and slow time-dependent neurovascular pathologies in animal models. materials and methods: animal models were created to assess phasic blood flow, subclavian steal phenomena, saccular aneurysms, and neuroperfusion unde ...201121835945
Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic im ...201121881959
estrogen and progestogen correlates of the structure of female copulation calls in semi-free-ranging barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).females of many old world primates produce conspicuous vocalizations in combination with copulations. indirect evidence exists that in barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus), the structure of these copulation calls is related to changes in reproductive hormone levels. however, the structure of these calls does not vary significantly around the timing of ovulation when estrogen and progestogen levels show marked changes. we here aimed to clarify this paradox by investigating how the steroid hormones ...201121892238
fossil remains of macaca sylvanus florentina (cocchi, 1872) (primates, cercopithecidae) from the early pleistocene of quibas (murcia, spain).the macaque material from the early pleistocene site of quibas (albanilla, murcia, spain), including dentognathic remains, isolated teeth and some postcranial bone fragments, is described. both metrically and morphologically, this sample must be attributed to macaca sylvanus (the barbary macaque). this species is currently distributed through north africa and gibraltar, but was much more widely distributed during the plio-pleistocene, being represented by several european fossil subspecies. metr ...201122014683
grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild barbary macaques.in animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. the tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair) in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). the relationship repair function of post- ...201122046398
exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).social relationships between group members are a key feature of many animal societies. the quality of social relationships has been described by three main components: value, compatibility and security, based on the benefits, tenure and stability of social exchanges. we aimed to analyse whether this three component structure could be used to describe the quality of social relationships in wild barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus). moreover, we examined whether relationship quality was affected by ...201122194923
an experimental study of behavioural coping strategies in free-ranging female barbary macaques (macaca sylvanus).a fundamental goal of stress research is to understand how individuals cope with challenges. studies on a range of vertebrate species suggest that three groups of behaviour--affiliative, aggressive and self-directed behaviours--serve as coping strategies. to date, experimental studies of coping behaviour have tended to be conducted in captive conditions; the limited number of studies in free-ranging or wild settings have been observational in nature. we investigated coping behaviours in free-ran ...201222356252
mating skew in barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male-male coalitions.a fundamental question of sexual selection theory concerns the causes and consequences of reproductive skew among males. the priority of access (poa) model (altmann, ann ny acad sci 102:338-435, 1962) has been the most influential framework in primates living in permanent, mixed-sex groups, but to date it has only been tested with the appropriate data on female synchrony in a handful of species. in this paper, we used mating data from one large semi-free ranging group of barbary macaques: (1) to ...201122448085
male mating behaviour in relation to female sexual swellings, socio-sexual behaviour and hormonal changes in wild barbary macaques.in many cercopithecine primates females display probabilistic cues of fertility to indicate the periovulatory period to males. these cues may include female behaviour, acoustic signals, and morphological signs such as the anogenital swelling. however, the extent to which males can utilise this information varies between species. we describe male sexual behaviour in relation to changes in anogenital swelling size, timing of ovulation and female socio-sexual behaviour in wild barbary macaques (mac ...201323146839
the socioecology of infant handling in primates: is the current model convincing?a strong interest shown by females towards infants other than their own is one of the most consistent behavioral traits found in primates, including humans. species differences exist, however, in the extent mothers allow other group members to interact with their offspring. socioecological theory predicts that in species characterized by relaxed, egalitarian dominance relations mothers should allow extensive interactions between their infants and other individuals from the first weeks of life, w ...199923179530
the evolutionary history and palaeo-ecology of primate predation: macaca sylvanus from plio-pleistocene europe as a case study.in this article we briefly review primate interactions with predators throughout their evolutionary history. like today, predators of past primates were taxonomically diverse, including crocodilians, aquatic mammals, hyaenids, raptors and other primates. there is strong evidence for felid predation of extinct primates, with most work undertaken on the african plio-pleistocene fossil record. felid predation of plio-pleistocene primates from other areas, including europe, is much less well underst ...201223363585
social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions) to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. this process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. it is unclear how no ...201323457569
associations between social behaviour and adrenal activity in female barbary macaques: consequences of study design.faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fgcm) concentrations have been used to evaluate adrenal activity in a variety of species; including as an indicator of the physiological response to social stress. however, across studies, the relationships between dominance rank, social behaviours and adrenal responses can be inconsistent. differences in the relationship between rank and glucocorticoids may be due to the relative costs of social status, and the relative frequencies of social stressors and poten ...201323474330
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