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melioidosis in imported non-human primates.in 1969, five cases of melioidosis in three separate outbreaks were diagnosed in nonhuman primates in the united states. in the first outbreak, two stump-tailed macaque monkeys (macaca arctoides) developed signs of the disease approximately 6 months after purchase. a third animal, a chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), probably acquired its infection from one of these monkeys. two other unrelated cases involving a pig-tailed monkey (macaca nemestrina) and a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) were diagnosed ...197016512115
study of antiangiogenic agents with possible therapeutic applications in neoplastic disorders and macular degeneration.using a previously developed method (ambrus, et al., 1991), we found that pentoxifylline and thalidomide potentiate each others antiangiogenic effect induced by human malignant melanoma cells in the cornea of macaca arctoides monkeys.200011508321
searching beneath the shelf in macaque monkeys: evidence for a gravity bias or a foraging bias?the reasons underpinning search biases in 2 species of macaque monkeys (macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides) were explored over the course of 3 experiments requiring monkeys to search for a hidden food reward. the results reveal that monkeys are adept at exploiting perceptual cues to locate a food reward but are unable to use physical constraints such as solidity as cues to the reward's location. monkeys prefer to search for a food reward beneath a solid shelf, not because they have an expectati ...200616893269
the effects of dose protraction on hematopoiesis in the primate and dog.the modifying effects of dose protraction by fractionation or continuous low dose-rate exposure are not well known in the primate. comparative studies between the two mammalian species dog and monkey with widely differing acute ld50 values have not been made. a program to study dose-rate effects on injury and recovery of the bone marrow in dogs and monkeys under simultaneous and similar exposure conditions is in progress. the equivalent residual dose (erd) assumptions of 10% irreparable injury a ...197211898835
protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic plaque on aortas in monkeys.policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax with concomitant antiplatelet effects. previous studies have shown that policosanol prevents lipofundin-induced atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits and rats, including foam cell formation, as well as the development of foam cells in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats. policosanol also inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation induced on rabbit cuffed artery and on forceps-induced arterial wall damage. furthermore, polico ...200516099319
sleep characterization of a one-month-old freely moving stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides): a pilot study.electroencephalographic (eeg) activity during both human and adult primates' sleep has been proven to be similar and consequently, it could be assessed under similar parameters. however, there is no information regarding this eeg activity in the early stages of development in non-human primates. therefore, the aim of this study was to describe eeg sleep patterns in a 1-month-old macaca arctoides with a non-invasive and free-movement method. sleep stages were initially scored using the criteria o ...200919470081
transformation of rabbit lymphocytes by an epstein-barr virus-related herpesvirus from macaca arctoides.herpesvirus macaca arctoides (hvma), an epstein-barr virus (ebv)-related herpesvirus of macaque origin, induces malignant lymphomas in rabbits. to get more insights into the oncogenesis of the ebv/hvma infection the aim of the present study was to prove the in vitro transforming ability of hvma for rabbit lymphocytes as well as human umbilical cord blood lymphocytes. as a result, b-cell transformation could be demonstrated after infection with hvma in all mononuclear cell samples of 20 rabbits. ...200415168196
thyroid receptor agonists for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.a thyroid hormone receptor beta subtype-selective thyromimetic 5 was found to be efficacious in both mouse and monkey hair growth models after topical applications. it penetrates the skin according to the test in human cadaver skin mounted onto franz diffusion chambers. the serum drug level of 5 is below the limit of quantification during tests in the bald stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). it is tested negative in the 3t3 neutral red uptake (nru) phototoxicity test, indicating a low risk ...201019900809
decreased pituitary responsiveness and inhibition of the luteinizing hormone surge and ovulation in the stumptailed monkey (macaca arctoides) by chronic treatment with an agonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. 19806766380
trim5 suppresses cross-species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species.simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (sivsm) are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to hiv-2 in humans, sivmac in rhesus macaques, and sivstm in stump-tailed macaques. cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for trim5alpha, the product of the trim5 gene, in suppressing interspecies transmission and emergence of retroviruses in nature. here, we investigate the in vivo role of trim5 directly, focusing on tr ...201020808775
modification of reconciliation behavior through social experience: an experiment with two macaque species.reconciliation, defined as a friendly reunion between former opponents shortly after an aggressive encounter, is common in the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides) but rare in the rhesus macaque (m. mulatta). juveniles of the two species were cohoused for 5 months, after which they were observed with conspecifics only. control rhesus monkeys, matched in age and sex to the experimental subjects, went through the same procedure without exposure to the other species. a threefold increase in the pro ...19938339702
antibody-mediated lung endothelium targeting: in vivo model on primates.we have recently provided evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) is a rational target and anti-ace monoclonal antibodies (mabs) are suitable molecules for directing gene/drug delivery into the pulmonary endothelium of rodents. as a step towards gene therapy clinical trials using this approach, the present study evaluated the potential of anti-ace mabs for in vivo lung endothelium targeting in 10 species of primates. cross-reactivity of 10 distinct mabs directed to human ace with ace f ...200211896467
effects of hypertrichotic agents on follicular and nonfollicular cells in vitro.our previous studies revealed that topical minoxidil induced an increased rate of dna synthesis in both dermal papilla and follicular germinal cells in early anagen and bulbar matrix as well as outer root sheath and perifollicular fibrocytic cells in mid and late anagen follicles in the bald scalp of the stump-tailed macaque. however, the epidermis and dermal fibrocytes showed no response. to determine the specific action of hypertrichotic agents on follicular cells, we examined the effects of t ...19968868027
frequency of stages of the seminiferous cycle in the thick-tailed bush baby (otolemur garnetti), a prosimian primate: possible phylogenetic implications?spermatogenesis in the thick-tailed bush baby, otolemur garnetti, was studied using light microscopy. the stages and stage frequencies of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium were determined using semithin sections stained with methylene blue-azure ii. these sections were obtained from the testes of six healthy adult males (n = 6). they revealed 11 stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in this species. the mean relative frequencies of the stages i-xi were 10.9, 6.0, 5.9, 7.3, 13.2, 10. ...200515895272
characterization of a simian foamy virus isolated from a spontaneous primate lymphoma.examination of tissues from a stump-tailed monkey (macaca arctoides) with a spontaneous lymphoid malignancy by light and electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a diffuse lymphoma of intermediate cell type. membranes showed positivity with anti-ia-like antisera and negativity with all other markers. in vitro cocultivation of affected tissues resulted in the isolation of an agent found to have properties idenitical to those described for simian foamy virus type 1. there was no evidence for ...19817345142
a study of the social relationships in a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). 1978352367
neural uptake of catecholamines and their molecular structures: a histopharmacologic study.using ultrastructural and histofluorescence methods, we investigated the uptake mechanism of catecholamines by the nerve terminals in the cutaneous smooth muscles of stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). this in vivo approach ultilized the observed cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on these catecholamine-containing terminals and the protective effects of simultaneous treatment with catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine), their 3-0-methylated derivatives (metanephrine ...1998107369
phylogeny of the macaques (cercopithecidae: macaca) based on alu elements.genus macaca (cercopithecidae: papionini) is one of the most successful primate radiations. despite previous studies on morphology and mitochondrial dna analysis, a number of issues regarding the details of macaque evolution remain unsolved. alu elements are a class of non-autonomous retroposons belonging to short interspersed elements that are specific to the primate lineage. because retroposon insertions show very little homoplasy, and because the ancestral state (absence of the sine) is known ...200919497354
shared means and meanings in vocal expression of man and macaque.vocalisations of six macaca arctoides that were categorised according to their social context and judgements of naive human listeners as expressions of plea/submission, anger, fear, dominance, contentment and emotional neutrality, were compared with vowel samples extracted from simulations of emotional-motivational connotations by the finnish name saara and english name sarah. the words were spoken by seven finnish and 13 english women. humans and monkeys resembled each other in the following re ...200314582828
novelty-seeking temperament in captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) and spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi).novelty-seeking temperament is defined as the reaction to novel or risk situations and objects, and by the global disposition to explore such stimuli. our purpose was to describe and compare this trait in primates. for this purpose, a risk-taking index, a curiosity index, and a novelty-seeking index were correlated to several biosocial variables using 22 captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) and 7 captive spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). spider monkeys scored higher than macaques, male ...201020476821
cloning of oestrogen receptor beta from old and new world primates: identification of splice variants and functional analysis.oestrogens have a major impact on reproductive function in both males and females. two oestrogen receptor genes known as eralpha (esr1nr3a1) and erbeta (esr2nr3a2) have been cloned. splice variant isoforms of the erbeta gene have been identified in human, bovine and rodents and it has been suggested that the existence of these forms can influence oestrogen responsiveness. in the human, splicing of an alternative eighth exon results in the formation of a c-terminal variant called herbetacx, or he ...200415171710
immunophenotypical characteristics of permanent cultures of lymphoid cells from papio hamadryas and macaca arctoides.immunophenotypical characteristics of primate cells were studied by enzyme immunoassay and flow cytofluorometry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to human b- and t-lymphocyte antigens. specific features of immunophenotype of cultured cells were detected. simian lymphoid cultures consist of a mixture of b- and t-cells with mosaic antigenic structure expressing markers of b and t cell specificity.200415273772
a historical perspective: simian aids-an accidental windfall.for the past 30 years, simian aids has provided an indispensible animal model for the human disease. this historical perspective highlights the circumstances leading to the creation of this experimental model.201627640332
[identification of the trim5/trimcyp heterozygous genotype in macaca assamensis].the lack of appropriate animal models that utilizes hiv-1 as the challenge virus is a major impediment to hiv/aids research. a major reason underlying the inability of hiv-1 to replicate in nonhuman primate cells is the existence of host antiviral restriction factors. the intrinsic antiviral proteins in host cells are described as restriction factors. the understanding of restriction factors and their mechanism in different primates would undoubtedly facilitate the development of hiv/aids animal ...201121341383
the sukhumi primate monkey model for viral lymphomogenesis: high incidence of lymphomas with presence of stlv-i and ebv-like virus.t-cell leukemia virus-like proviral sequences (stlv-i) as well as ebv-like sequences were detected in pbls and tissues of non-human primates (papio hamadryas baboons, green monkeys and macaca arctoides; sukhumi primate center/georgia) by pcr. surprisingly, two different types of stlv-i within papio hamadryas baboons were found. one of its represents the baboon prototype stlv-i-su described earlier, present in lymphomatous baboons from the "high-lymphoma stock", which shows about 83% homology to ...19938395624
estrogen receptor and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor in the primate ovary.we have previously shown by immunocytochemistry and autoradiography the presence of estrogen receptors (er) in rhesus monkey ovary. intense chromogen staining showed specific binding for er in nuclei of germinal epithelium and granulosa cells of antral follicles; and radiolabeled ligand bound specifically to functional corpora lutea (cl). although it is accepted that the germinal epithelium of the primate ovary contains er, some controversy still persists regarding the intraovarian localization ...199621153083
a potential aphrodisiac for female macaques.earlier studies suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists may enhance sexual activity in human and nonhuman male primates. it is not known whether these compounds influence the sexual behavior of female primates. we determined whether the administration of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (atipamezole), a dopamine receptor agonist (apomorphine), or their combination to female macaca arctoides (stumptail macaque) monkeys produces changes in sexual behav ...200415388293
local and landscape correlates of primate distribution and persistence in the remnant lowland rainforests of the upper brahmaputra valley, northeastern india.habitat fragmentation affects species distribution and abundance, and drives extinctions. escalated tropical deforestation and fragmentation have confined many species populations to habitat remnants. how worthwhile is it to invest scarce resources in conserving habitat remnants within densely settled production landscapes? are these fragments fated to lose species anyway? if not, do other ecological, anthropogenic, and species-related factors mitigate the effect of fragmentation and offer conse ...201424471780
discrimination learning and multiple reversals in young adult and older monkeys (macaca arctoides).two groups of five young adult an older stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides) were tested on a visual discrimination task followed by a reversal upon attainment of criterion; task and reversal were repeated until 20 reversals with the same pair of objects had been completed. both groups required more trials to learn the first reversal than the original discrimination, with no significant difference between the groups. older monkeys tended to show more perseverative errors on early reversals, b ...19968828396
cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers in pig-tailed and stump-tailed macaques. 201121677413
intra- and interspecific variation in macaque molar enamel thickness.enamel thickness has played an important role in studies of primate taxonomy, phylogeny, and functional morphology, although its variation among hominins is poorly understood. macaques parallel hominins in their widespread geographic distribution, relative range of body sizes, and radiation during the last five million years. to explore enamel thickness variation, we quantified average and relative enamel thickness (aet and ret) in macaca arctoides, macaca fascicularis, macaca fuscata, macaca mu ...201425146639
male tibetan macaques'(macaca thibetana) choice of infant bridging partners.adult male tibetan (macaca thibetana), barbary (m. sylvanus), and stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides) engage in bridging, a ritualized infant-handling behavior. previous researchers found a bias toward the use of male infants for this behavior, but its function is debated. explanations include three hypotheses: paternal care, mating effort, and agonistic buffering. we studied a group of habituated, provisioned tibetan macaques to test whether adult males' affiliative relationships with females ...201424866493
effect of photoperiod on characteristics of semen obtained by electroejaculation in stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides).some environmental variables determining seasonal reproduction in mammals are temperature, humidity, food availability, and photoperiod. among these, photoperiod is considered the main regulator of primates' seasonal reproduction, thus the latitudinal distribution of primate populations is a key factor determining the appearance of seasonal reproduction. the present work presents supporting discrete seasonality in male stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). we investigated whether semen quali ...201424585247
effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana), also known as chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. although tibetan macaques are old world monkeys in the genus of macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. we used 69 apparently healthy tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. significant a ...201424411774
identification of mhc class i sequences in four species of macaca of china.tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana), stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides), assamese macaques (m. assamensis), and northern pig-tailed macaques (m. leonina) are four major species of macaca in china. in order to effectively use these species in biomedical research, thorough investigations of their mhc immunogenetics are required. in this study, we identified mhc class i sequences using cdna cloning and sequencing on a cohort of six m. thibetana, three m. arctoides, three m. assamensis, and three ...201324045838
births in captive stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides).in this report, nighttime births of 3 stump-tailed macaques observed at the aizawl zoological park, india, are described. continuous focal observations were collected a long with video and still photographs, on the 3 parturitions, from the first observed onset of labour. the average time taken for infant birth, beginning with visibility of the head at the vaginal opening, was 45 s. the births observed were similar in many respects, regardless of parity and social context. the average time taken ...201324037229
environmental enrichment for captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).the behavior of animals is modified by captivity. environmental enrichment (ee) is a program designed to enhance the welfare of confined animals by providing them with a more stimulating background. this is carried out by the implementation of a series of activities that encourages them to present behaviors typical of their species, as well as keeps them active. the aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of the ee in the behavioral variables in a colony of 24 stumptail macaques (m ...201019878431
gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (cetrorelix) therapy fails to protect nonhuman primates (macaca arctoides) from radiation-induced spermatogenic failure.treatment of men of reproductive age with radiation or alkylating agents often produces prolonged azoospermia. we previously demonstrated that suppression of testosterone (t) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) analogs restored spermatogenesis following atrophy induced by radiation or chemotherapy in rats. this study tested whether gnrh antagonist therapy could reverse radiation-induced testicular injury in primates with a similar protocol. adult male stump-tailed macaques were given eith ...200515713828
gnrh receptor mrna expression by in-situ hybridization in the primate pituitary and ovary.gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) receptors are present on the ovary as well as in the anterior pituitary gland. gnrh analogues may exert their actions in part via these ovarian receptors. however, in the primate ovary, gnrh receptors are of low affinity and their significance is questionable. the aim of the present study was to compare pituitary and ovarian expression of the gnrh receptor mrna by in-situ hybridization to gain further information on the possible significance of the ovarian ...19969238668
[comparative analysis of the sequenced fragment of the macaca arctoides stlv-1 env gene encoding the immunodominant region gp46 and the similar fragments in htlv-1 (atk) and stlv-1 from various primate species]. 19979303743
does alzheimer's disease exist in all primates? alzheimer pathology in non-human primates and its pathophysiological implications (ii).introduction: in the ageing process there are some species of non-human primates which can show some of the defining characteristics of the alzheimer's disease (ad) of man, both in neuropathological changes and cognitive-behavioural symptoms. the study of these species is of prime importance to understand ad and develop therapies to combat this neurodegenerative disease. development: in this second part of the study, these ad features are discussed in the most important non-experimental ad model ...201121871692
impaired detection of repetitive stimulation following interruption of the dorsal spinal column in primates.transection of the dorsal spinal column in monkeys has been previously shown to spare detection, localization and a variety of discriminations between spatial attributes of tactile stimuli. in contrast, performance on certain tests involving stimulus sequences is substantially impaired, such as tactile direction sensitivity and frequency discrimination. the present study extends these findings to show that a repetitive cutaneous stimulus is undetectable following complete interruption of the ips ...19989730116
sequence evolution of the ccr5 chemokine receptor gene in primates.the chemokine receptor ccr5 can serve as a coreceptor for m-tropic hiv-1 infection and both m-tropic and t-tropic siv infection. we sequenced the entire ccr5 gene from 10 nonhuman primates: pongo pygmaeus, hylobates leucogenys, trachypithecus francoisi, trachypithecus phayrei, pygathrix nemaeus, rhinopithecus roxellanae, rhinopithecus bieti, rhinopithecus avunculus, macaca assamensis, and macaca arctoides. when compared with ccr5 sequences from humans and other primates, our results demonstrate ...199910486970
reconciliation patterns among stumptailed macaques: a multivariate approach.this study focused on two aspects of the dynamics of reconciliation in stumptailed macaques, macaca arctoides. first, we investigated the combined effects of multiple variables (i.e. sex, age, rank, conflict intensity, outcome, or number of participants, interopponent distance, kinship and friendship) on the occurrence of reconciliation. second, we investigated whether opponents used different behaviour patterns in their postconflict reunions depending on the characteristics of their conflicts o ...199910413553
the evolution of "egalitarian" and "despotic" social systems among macaques.recent studies of captive macaques have revealed considerable inter-species differences in dominance styles among females. in "egalitarian" species such as stumptail (macaca arctoides) or tonkean macaques (m. tonkeana), social interactions are more symmetrical and less kin-biased than in "despotic" species such as japanese (m. fuscata) or rhesus macaques (m. mulatta). field observations of moor macaques (m. maurus), close relatives of tonkean macaques, suggest that tolerance during feeding chara ...199923179529
observations on task-related behaviour of macaca arctoides. 19958713540
characterization of the gorilla carboxyl ester lipase locus, and the appearance of the carboxyl ester lipase pseudogene during primate evolution.in this study we report on the isolation and characterization of the gorilla carboxyl ester lipase gene, cel, and the corresponding cel pseudogene. we also report on the age of the cel pseudogene. the gorilla cel gene is 10.5kb long and comprises 11exons intervened by introns similar to the situation in man, mouse and rat. the encoded protein is 998amino acids long and includes a 23amino acid-long leader peptide. comparison of the coding sequence, excluding exon 11, of cel from gorilla and man r ...199910548728
the effects of caretaker-primate relationships on primates in the laboratory.as contact with caretakers is likely to make up the majority of human-primate interactions in laboratories, caretakers represent an important influence in the lives of captive primates. the aim of this study was to determine how caretaker-primate relationships affected the behavior of primates in the laboratory. we examined whether stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) who were evaluated by caretakers as being either friendly or unfriendly differed in the quality and quantity of interactions ...200216221081
las islas de los changos (the monkey islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of los tuxtlas, veracruz, mexico.this study evaluates the popularity and economic impact of las islas de los changos (the monkey islands) as an ecotourism site on lake catemaco in the los tuxtlas region of veracruz, mexico. two small island colonies of exotic primates, stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides), have proved to be highly beneficial for the local economy as the main attraction for tourists in this region. from july 1991 to june 1992, data were collected on the number of tourists who took boat trips to visit the primat ...200616541437
video-induced yawning in stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).this study reports the first experimental exploration of possible contagious yawning in monkeys. twenty-two stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) were presented with video clips of either yawns or control mouth movements by conspecifics. at a group level, monkeys yawned significantly more often during and just after the yawn tape than the control tape. supplementary analysis revealed that the yawn tape also elicited significantly more self-directed scratching responses than the control tape, whi ...200617148320
fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (dm) is common in several species of old and new world nonhuman primates. fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of dm. however, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced dm in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgu ...201121838972
breast cancer in intraductal carcinogen-treated non-human primates.eight female macaca arctoides monkeys were given dimethylbenzanthracene (dmba) directly into the milk ducts. during a 4-year observation period, ending with euthanasia and autopsy, no mammary cancers were noticed. however, one animal developed a superficial localized squamous cell carcinoma. dmba is highly carcinogenic in rodents, e.g. producing a high incidence of breast cancer in c3h mice. it was concluded that carcinogenicity testing should be extended beyond testing in rodents to non-human p ...200418084884
continued copulation of ovariectomized adrenal-suppressed stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). 1998107108
vascular endothelial growth factor trap suppresses ovarian function at all stages of the luteal phase in the macaque.fertility is dependent on a functioning corpus luteum, the formation of which is associated with intense angiogenesis. the role of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), in luteal function has yet to be defined in primates.200516046580
sexual behaviour during ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation in group-living stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).sexual interactions were studied in a large, well-integrated group of stumptail macaques, continuously living together. copulations with the highest-ranking male and with young males were equally distributed over the ovarian cycle. copulations with other adults males also occurred during all cycle phases, but were most frequent peri-ovulatory. this was most distinct in conceptive cycles. copulatory activity continued during early pregnancy, but was virtually absent during the middle and latter p ...20133624423
testosterone, testis size, seasonality, and behavior in group-living stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).during a 28-month period, data were collected on physiological parameters and sociosexual behavior of 13 adult male members of a large mixed-sex group of stumptail macaques living in an outdoor cage. monthly measurements of plasma testosterone, testis size, and body weight revealed no systematic seasonality. seasonal variations did occur in branch shaking and grooming (both with low rates in winter), but not in other behaviors studied (copulation, masturbation, aggression). dominance ranks were ...20133610055
scaling of organ weights in macaca arctoides.the allometric scaling of nine internal organs was examined for macaca arctoides. significant organ weight-body weight regressions were obtained for heart, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, thyroid, liver, and testes. the spleen and adrenal glands exhibited strong variability and were only loosely correlated to body weight. using allometry as a criterion of subtraction, observed sex differences in mean organ weights were seen to be primarily the result of differences in average body weight. it is postul ...200198058
effects of periodic removal and reintroduction on the social and sexual behavior of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). 20051307077
the effects of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa) on copulation-related and agonistic behaviors in an island colony of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).this study examined the effects on copulation-related and agonistic behaviors of repeated dmpa (depo-provera) treatment of adult females in a heterosexual island colony of stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). comparison of mean rates revealed a decrease in male approach to females and dominant male following of females after they were treated with dmpa. as treatment did not affect female genital present, female approach or follow of males, we conclude, consistent with earlier results, that dmp ...19902141692
self and social grooming in stump-tailed macaques: effects of kin presence or absence within the group.the relation between individual self and social-grooming scores, asaessingthe effects of having or lacking relatives within the group, was studied in a colony of stump-tailed macaques (macacaarctoides). as it has been shown by other authors, kinship favoured grooming interactions, so animals lacking relatives wen seldom mom as groomees. conversely, these subjects accounted for the major mounts of self-grooming, as if they were surmounting the social grooming deficit. this negative relationship b ...198924897669
sex differences in intra-group spacing behaviour in stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides). 19892807092
cholesterol ester content of the serum: alterations due to simple and complex carbohydrate diets in nonhuman primates (cebus albifrons, macaca arctoides, and macaca mulatta). 19715003646
a comparison of the karyotypes of six species of the genus macaca and a species of the genus cercocebus.karyotypes from 72-hour whole blood cultures were compared for six species of macaques (macaca arctoides, m. fascicularis, m. mulatta, m. nemestrina, m. nigra, and m. radiata) and one species of mangabey (cercocebus atys). g-bands, sequential c-bands, and late replication patterns were studied. results showed a variation in a single chromosome pair which differentiated c. atys from the macaques. heteromorphic variation in silver stained nucleolar organizing regions was seen between and within in ...19863804105
comparative vaginal spermicidal studies in the stumptailed macaque with alkyloxynol-741, nonoxynol-9 and chlorhexidine.alkyloxynol-741 ("agent 741") is used in the people's republic of china as a substitute for nonoxynol-9 in vaginal contraceptive formulations. however, no studies are available that compare the effectiveness of these agents as vaginal spermicides. for this reason, dissolvable polyvinylalcohol (pva) films were prepared containing various concentrations of alkyloxynol-741 and nonoxynol-9. films were also prepared containing chlorhexidine, a potentially new vaginal contraceptive agent. postcoital v ...19901964633
inhibin secretion after treatment with an lhrh agonist and subsequent ovarian hyperstimulation induced by fsh in the macaque (macaca arctoides).the effect of ovarian hyperstimulation with 'pure' fsh on serum concentrations of immunoreactive inhibin in macaques in which endogenous gonadotrophin secretion and ovarian activity had been suppressed by an lhrh agonist implant was studied. four stump-tailed macaques were treated with an lhrh agonist implant in the early follicular phase of the cycle. after a transient stimulatory phase oestradiol secretion was markedly suppressed, and the rises in progesterone and inhibin observed after ovulat ...19902119427
the effects of topical diazoxide on hair follicular growth and physiology of the stumptailed macaque.diazoxide, an anti-hypertensive agent, has diverse pharmacologic effects; hypertrichosis, hyperglycemia associated with suppression of insulin release, and elevation of serum levels of androgens. taking advantage of the hypertrichotic side effects of diazoxide, we examined the effect of topical application of the drug on hair regrowth in the bald frontal scalp of stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides); we also monitored systemic side effects. using 7 adult stumptails, we applied diazoxide (5% s ...19902085505
psorergatic mange (acari:psorergatidae) of the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides).psorergates (psorobia) sp were recovered from dermal cysts on the face, chest, and abdomen of three stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) in a breeding colony of research animals. the lesions were multiple and appeared as white, crusted structures measuring 2 to 10 mm in diameter. these lesions were not associated with pruritus or other clinical symptoms. the mites were embedded in the epidermis and associated with mild hyperkeratosis. a few mononuclear leukocytes were present in the dermal and ...19817253556
presence of adult or juvenile relatives increases livebirth chances in captive stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides). 19911895335
heterosexual experience and isosexual behavior in laboratory-housed male stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides).three feral-born male stump-tailed macaques were housed together for 9 years from prepubertal age. the animals were then transferred to another laboratory and housed individually. they were pair-tested with each other (isosexual tests) and with females (heterosexual tests) for the first time in their adult lives. the study revealed that these males preferred females as sexual partners. they preferred each other as groom partner. the heterosexual experience did not drastically alter sociosexual b ...19863524510
multivariate comparison of the forelimb between stump-tailed and rhesus macaques.rhesus macaques and stump-tailed macaques are sympatric in western yunnan (china), coexisting or occupying habitats that show little difference. this paper tests hypotheses based on theoretical expectation from the differing biomechanical demands of terrestrial and arboreal quadrupedalism in stump-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. individuals of these two macaque taxa were markedly separated by the first two principal components and discriminant analyses based on 18 variables of ...19911794770
periosteal reaction consistent with osteomyelitis in a stump-tailed macaque. 19854077667
social preferences in stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides): effects of companionship, kinship, and rearing.social preferences in the directionality of social behavioral patterns in a heterogeneous group of 26 stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) were examined to see if kin recognition occurred. four behavioral measures were analyzed: proximity, contact, grooming, and play. three independent variables were examined: early companionship, condition of early rearing, and kinship. the latter was divided into partrilineal, matrilineal, and shared kinship. partial correlational analysis showed that soci ...19853979662
malignant lymphoma in a colony of macaca arctoides.malignant lymphoma occurred in six macaca arctoides from a colony of 83 animals during a 30-month period. the cells of two neoplasms had t cell markers. concurrent disease processes included atypical mycobacterial disease in four macaques and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in one.19853883635
sexual behavior of group-housed stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides): temporal, demographic and sociosexual relationships.a detailed quantitative analysis of sexual behavior in a social group of captive stumptail macaques was conducted. the distribution of copulations both over days and among animals, and the relationships between copulation and various sociosexual patterns were investigated. copulations occurred erratically over days and were preferentially directed to a small minority of females. most patterns of sociosexual behavior were at their highest rates during actual copulatory episodes, others occurred i ...19846469150
blood variables in adult stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides) living in a captive group; annual variability.monthly blood samples were collected for more than two years from adult stumptail macaques living in a large captive group. the social organization, feeding pattern, and food composition were stable throughout the study period. no seasonal variability was observed for any of the 30 blood variables studied. it appeared that for each variable, within-animal variance was small relative to between-animal variance. a table of means and reference ranges is presented and discussed.19873625757
reinnervation of hair follicle end organs and meissner corpuscles in skin grafts of macaques.plugs of occipital hairy scalp and pieces of digital pads were transplanted to the frontal scalp of stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). both types of grafts grew well and retained their original appearance for several years. we traced the regrowth and reinnervation of hair follicles and meissner corpuscles in sequential biopsy specimens of these grafts. two weeks after transplantation, hair follicles in the grafts appeared to have lost all integrity but began to regrow after 4 weeks. the n ...19827035577
hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of the stumptailed macaque: a potential nonhuman primate model for pulmonary vascular disease.stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides) were evaluated as to their suitability as an animal model for pulmonary hypertension. animals used for this study were colony-bred. necropsy material from 63 animals revealed 32% with severe medial thickening of pulmonary arteries. twenty-nine stumptailed macaques underwent cardiac catheterization and m-mode echocardiography. hemodynamic measurement including pulmonary artery pressure response to 12% oxygen exposure identified three groups of animals with ...19873612762
vaginal spermicidal activity of gossypol in the macaca arctoides. 19827060775
direct measurement of loads at the temporomandibular joint in macaca arctoides.this paper describes a novel technique of directly measuring loads at the condyle in macaca arctoides and provides recordings on one animal while measuring loads at the tmj. this study is the first to actually measure loads directly at the articulating surfaces of the condyle. the data collected in this study confirm hylander's data that the tmj is a stress-bearing joint. with this pilot study, observations which can be made are: 1) the loads at the condyle are minimal during posterior chewing o ...19816944346
chemical castration with cyproterone acetate (androcur) and sexual behavior in the laboratory-housed male stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides). 19816459586
protein-losing enteropathy in six macaques.using intravenous administration of radioactive labeled chromic chloride, which binds to plasma proteins, protein-losing enteropathy was documented in 6 macaques (macaca mulatta and macaca arctoides) with progressive weight loss and hypoalbuminemia. four clinically normal macaques lost 0.5% +/- 0.1% of the label in feces over 4 days, compared with the diseased macaques, which lost from 1.0%--14.2% of the dose during the same period. lesions in the small intestine (lymphangiectasia, amyloidosis o ...19807451327
studies on the vasoocclusive crisis of sickle cell disease. iii. in vitro and in vivo effect of the pyrimido-pyrimidine derivative, ra-233: studies on its mechanism of action.red cell deformability was found to be impaired in ss- and sc-genotype and to a lesser extent sa-genotype red blood cells as compared with those of aa-genotype. ra-233 in vitro improved deformability according to a bell-shaped dose-response curve. ra-233 also prevented experimental vasoocclusive crisis in macaca arctoides. deoxygenation of ss-genotype red cells resulted in sickle shape transformation, atp depletion, potassium efflux, and attachment of hemoglobin molecules to the membrane. these ...19873480932
behavioral and physiological evidence of sexual climax in the female stump-tailed macaque (macaca arctoides).intense tonic/clonic uterine contractions and sudden increases in heart rate coincided with the behavioral homolog of a male ejaculatory response (minus seminal emission) in a normal female stump-tailed macaque engaged in homosexual mounting episodes. the behavioral patterns were also observed in four of ten females during 5 to 40 percent of heterosexual copulations. these observations demonstrate the existence of an orgasmic response in a nonhuman primate.19807384791
lactose intolerance in the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides): case report.a female stumptail macaque had signs of intermittant diarrhea and chronic weight loss over a 2-year period during which she was fed a commercial laboratory maintenance diet. intolerance of this individual to lactose, a ubiquitous constituent of most commercial primate diets, was diagnosed on the basis of lactose tolerance tests and favorable clinical response to dietary carbohydrate substitution with glucose. oral administration of varying doses of glucose to this animal consistently produced el ...19806772876
characteristics of the menstrual cycle in nonhuman primates. iii. timed mating in macaca arctoides.analysis of five years of reproductive data from macaca arctoides showed the mean menstrual cycle length was 29.9 +/- 4.4 days. using timed mating, a conception rate of 16.3% was observed. the highest conception rate occurred after matings on day 11 of the cycle. eight pregnancies went to term and the mean gestation length was 172.4 days. the sex ratio was 137.8 males per 100 females in fetuses obtained on day 100 post-conception.19807420409
[the structure and patterns of support in the encounters of the brown macaque (macaca arctoides)].aid and cooperation in agonistic encounters have been studied in two groups of stumptail macaques keeping in the open-air cages of nature type. the basic agonistic ranks are found and the cases of aid in encounters are classified. a quantitative analysis using the coefficient reflecting the individual rank, kin and frequency of different aids is carried out. the existence of mechanisms of aggression removal within group is revealed, the role of individual ranks and kin in keeping stability in gr ...19892611299
lens extraction with anterior chamber lens implantation in the macaque.three macaques (macaca arctoides) had anterior chamber implantations with the choyce mark viii lenses in 5 eyes. the eyes were monitored clinically and histologically for approximately 2 years. histologic sections verified that these lenses were well tolerated in the eyes of the macaques.1979111587
characteristics of the menstrual cycle in nonhuman primates. ii. ovulation and optimal mating times in macaques.an analysis of the results of 1,259 limited-duration matings was conducted on colonies of macaca arctoides and m. fascicularis. maximum conception occurred at a day of breeding/cycle length (db/cl) ratio of 0.40--0.41 with a range of db/cl ratios for successful matings from 0.39 to 0.44. these values are compared with published values for various endocrine parameters equated to cycle length.1979113545
characteristics of the menstrual cycle in nonhuman primates. i. similarities and dissimilarities between macaca fascicularis and macaca arctoides.comparative studies of reproductive characteristics were carried out on a colony of macaca fascicularis and m. arctoides. seasonal differences were not significant between species, and conceptions occurred throughout the year. the occurrence of short cycles ('luteal phase defect') was found in 2.9% of all m. fascicularis cycles and 1.5% of all m. arctoides cycles. long cycles (40-50 days) were found in 4.0% of all m. fascicularis cycles and 3.5% of all m. arctoides cycles. gestation lengths aver ...1979113537
breeding and pregnancy control of stumptailed macaques (macaca arctoides). 1979108869
heterosexual interactions in laboratory-housed stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides): observations during the menstrual cycle and after ovariectomy. 197899358
placenta extrachorialis in the stumptailed macaque (macaca arctoides).placenta extrachorialis was diagnosed in two of 56 placentas obtained from stumtailed macaques (macaca arctoides) after elective cesarean section. the condition was characterized by the presence of an annular ring of necrotic tissue and fibrin at the margin of the villous chorion. because these cases occurred in two of six known primiparous females, it was suggested that thte condition may account, at least in part, for the high incidence of pregnancy-related problems observed in primiparous stu ...1978416297
ultrastructure of the right ventricle after monocrotaline-induced cor pulmonale in the nonhuman primate (macaca arctoides). 1978413738
action of topical minoxidil in the bald stump-tailed macaque.the effect of topical minoxidil (5% and 2% solutions) on hair regrowth was studied in the frontal bald scalp of 18 adolescent and adult stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides). gross observation of the hairiness and folliculogram analysis of the skin biopsy specimens have shown that minoxidil induces the enlargement of vellus follicles to the size of middle to terminal follicles (regrowth of hair effect), minoxidil maintains the terminal follicles in the prebald scalp of periadolescent animals ...19873558911
galactorrhea in a male stump-tailed macaque (macaca arctoides).a male macaca arctoides imported as an adult in 1966, has demonstrated bilateral galactorrhea since 1973. the animal has not shown any clinical signs of gynecomastia, ill health, or reproductive failure. a sample of the secretion expressed from his nipples contained 2-5% lactose.1976988433
short-term line of normal baboon mammary epithelial cells.cells from the breast fluids of 27 baboons (papio anubis), 4 stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides), and 5 rhesus macaques (m. mulatta) were grown in primary culture. a short-term mammary epithelial cell line (7 passages) was derived from cells of the breast fluids of 1 baboon. these cells were characterized as normal, epithelial, and baboon, by karyology, growth in both soft agar and methyl cellulose, and morphology by light and electron microscopy. papanicolaou smears of breast fluid and mam ...1976824456
catecholamine-containing nerve terminals in piloarrector muscles of stump-tailed macaques (macaca arctoides) and the effects of local injection of 6-, and 5-hydroxydopamine.the fluorescence histochemical method of falck-hillarp (62) demonstrates dense plexuses of catecholamine-containing nerves in the piloarrector muscles of adult stump-tailed macaques. when these muscle fibers are viewed under the electron microscope, most of the axon terminal profiles between them contain numerous dense-cored vesicles (adrenergic); the rest of the terminals contain mainly agranular vesicles (cholinergic). intradermal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-ohda, 1 and 5 mg) or 5-hydro ...1976817620
[blood and bone marrow picture in macaca arctoides in experimental viral hemoblastosis]. 1976191808
effect of parturition and group composition on competitive drinking order in stumptail macaques (macaca arctoides).competitions for access to water were conducted weekly in a captive group of macaca arctoides. after giving birth, parturient females that had been low in order of access showed elevation. elevation was not due solely to increased motivation for water, since it depended on the presence of higher ranking animals. presence of higher ranking animals did not influence agonistic behavior involving parturient females as greatly as it influenced order of access to water. elevation of access order after ...1976817995
in vivo location and destruction of the locus coeruleus in the stumptail macaque (macaca arctoides). 1975810218
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